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Sample records for ucsf study finds

  1. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizer, Ian R.; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview 2nd edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1204 first-degree relatives recruited for the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates (h2) for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25–.49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, scales measuring antisocial behavior (ASP), depressive symptoms (DEP), and addictive behavior (MAC-R) led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the ASP, DEP, and MAC-R scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when utilized as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol dependence phenotype. PMID:20390702

  2. UCSF Center for HIV Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the UCSF Positive Health Program HIV/AIDS Clinic (Ward 86) at San Francisco General Hospital This series offers clinical practice recommendations for management of HIV-related conditions from the expert clinicians ...

  3. Enhancing UCSF Chimera through web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Conrad C; Meng, Elaine C; Morris, John H; Pettersen, Eric F; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2014-07-01

    Integrating access to web services with desktop applications allows for an expanded set of application features, including performing computationally intensive tasks and convenient searches of databases. We describe how we have enhanced UCSF Chimera (http://www.rbvi.ucsf.edu/chimera/), a program for the interactive visualization and analysis of molecular structures and related data, through the addition of several web services (http://www.rbvi.ucsf.edu/chimera/docs/webservices.html). By streamlining access to web services, including the entire job submission, monitoring and retrieval process, Chimera makes it simpler for users to focus on their science projects rather than data manipulation. Chimera uses Opal, a toolkit for wrapping scientific applications as web services, to provide scalable and transparent access to several popular software packages. We illustrate Chimera's use of web services with an example workflow that interleaves use of these services with interactive manipulation of molecular sequences and structures, and we provide an example Python program to demonstrate how easily Opal-based web services can be accessed from within an application. Web server availability: http://webservices.rbvi.ucsf.edu/opal2/dashboard?command=serviceList. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Tools for integrated sequence-structure analysis with UCSF Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Conrad C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparing related structures and viewing the structures in the context of sequence alignments are important tasks in protein structure-function research. While many programs exist for individual aspects of such work, there is a need for interactive visualization tools that: (a provide a deep integration of sequence and structure, far beyond mapping where a sequence region falls in the structure and vice versa; (b facilitate changing data of one type based on the other (for example, using only sequence-conserved residues to match structures, or adjusting a sequence alignment based on spatial fit; (c can be used with a researcher's own data, including arbitrary sequence alignments and annotations, closely or distantly related sets of proteins, etc.; and (d interoperate with each other and with a full complement of molecular graphics features. We describe enhancements to UCSF Chimera to achieve these goals. Results The molecular graphics program UCSF Chimera includes a suite of tools for interactive analyses of sequences and structures. Structures automatically associate with sequences in imported alignments, allowing many kinds of crosstalk. A novel method is provided to superimpose structures in the absence of a pre-existing sequence alignment. The method uses both sequence and secondary structure, and can match even structures with very low sequence identity. Another tool constructs structure-based sequence alignments from superpositions of two or more proteins. Chimera is designed to be extensible, and mechanisms for incorporating user-specific data without Chimera code development are also provided. Conclusion The tools described here apply to many problems involving comparison and analysis of protein structures and their sequences. Chimera includes complete documentation and is intended for use by a wide range of scientists, not just those in the computational disciplines. UCSF Chimera is free for non-commercial use and is

  5. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  6. Impact of UCSF criteria according to pre- and post-OLT tumor features: analysis of 479 patients listed for HCC with a short waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaens, Thomas; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Hadni-Bresson, Solange; Meyer, Carole; Gugenheim, Jean; Durand, Francois; Bernard, Pierre-Henri; Boillot, Olivier; Sulpice, Laurent; Calmus, Yvon; Hardwigsen, Jean; Ducerf, Christian; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Dharancy, Sebastien; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Cherqui, Daniel; Duvoux, Christophe

    2006-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) indication for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently based on the Milan criteria. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) recently proposed an expansion of the selection criteria according to tumors characteristics on the explanted liver. This study: 1) assessed the validity of these criteria in an independent large series and 2) tested for the usefulness of these criteria when applied to pre-OLT tumor evaluation. Between 1985 and 1998, 479 patients were listed for liver transplantation (LT) for HCC and 467 were transplanted. According to pre-OLT (imaging at date of listing) or post-OLT (explanted liver) tumor characteristics, patients were retrospectively classified according to both the Milan and UCSF criteria. The 5-yr survival statistics were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Pre-OLT UCSF criteria were analyzed according to an intention-to-treat principle. Based on the pre-OLT evaluation, 279 patients were Milan+, 44 patients were UCSF+ but Milan- (subgroup of patients that might benefit from the expansion), and 145 patients were UCSF- and Milan-. With a short median waiting time of 4 months, 5-yr survival was 60.1 +/- 3.0%, 45.6 +/- 7.8%, and 34.7 +/- 4.0%, respectively (P OLT evaluation, the UCSF criteria are associated with a 5-yr survival below 50%. Their applicability is therefore limited, despite similar survival rates compared to the Milan criteria, when the explanted liver is taken into account.

  7. UCSF partnership to enrich science teaching for sixth graders in San Francisco's schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, H J

    1999-04-01

    Increasing the diversity of students entering the health professions is a challenging goal for medical schools. One approach to this goal is to share the enthusiasm and energy of medical students with younger students, who may pursue medical education in the future. The MedTeach program, established in 1989 and coordinated by the Science & Health Education Partnership of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), does so by partnering volunteer medical students from UCSF with sixth-grade classes studying the human body. In 1997-98, around 350 sixth-graders in the San Francisco Schools benefitted from the program. Each team of medical student's visits its class ten to 12 times a year to present engaging, hands-on lessons on body systems and health. The medical students are also role models for the middle-school students. In addition, the diverse student population of San Francisco public schools provides a rich environment for the medical students to improve their communication and teaching skills.

  8. PyChimera: use UCSF Chimera modules in any Python 2.7 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerra Pedregal, Jaime; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2018-05-15

    UCSF Chimera is a powerful visualization tool remarkably present in the computational chemistry and structural biology communities. Built on a C++ core wrapped under a Python 2.7 environment, one could expect to easily import UCSF Chimera's arsenal of resources in custom scripts or software projects. Nonetheless, this is not readily possible if the script is not executed within UCSF Chimera due to the isolation of the platform. UCSF ChimeraX, successor to the original Chimera, partially solves the problem but yet major upgrades need to be undergone so that this updated version can offer all UCSF Chimera features. PyChimera has been developed to overcome these limitations and provide access to the UCSF Chimera codebase from any Python 2.7 interpreter, including interactive programming with tools like IPython and Jupyter Notebooks, making it easier to use with additional third-party software. PyChimera is LGPL-licensed and available at https://github.com/insilichem/pychimera. jaime.rodriguezguerra@uab.cat or jeandidier.marechal@uab.cat. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  10. University of California San Francisco (UCSF-2): Expression Analysis of Superior Cervical Ganglion from Backcrossed TH-MYCN Transgenic Mice | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at University of California San Francisco (UCSF-2) used genetic analysis of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to identify potential therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. Read the abstract Experimental Approaches Read the detailed Experimental Approaches

  11. Findings from three South African studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Findings from three South African studies. BA Robertson. Emeritus Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ... heterogeneous presentation including elements of anxiety, .... Washington: APA, 1994. 4.

  12. Characterisation and comparison of case study findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Dorland, Jens; Pel, Bonno

    2015-01-01

    This report gives an overview and a comparative analysis of the findings from the 12 first case study reports in TRANSIT about aspects of transformative social innovation (TSI). Each of the 12 reports, on which the report is based, includes an analysis of a transnational social innovation network...

  13. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND FINDING IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bajaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue fever (DF is a viral haemorrhagic fever causing severe morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the role of ultrasonography (USG in the assessment of patients with Dengue fever, and its complications and to prove ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis during an epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study was conducted in 2016 comprising of 178 patients who were serologically positive for dengue, radiological investigations were conducted in all cases. RESULTS Out of 178 patients Males (N=117 are more effected subjects in the study. female: Male ratio is 1:2. Hepatomegaly 74.1% which is most common findings in study, 113 (63.4% had GB wall thickening 98 had ascites (55%, 32 had pleural effusion (17.9%. most commonly seen in the age group of 20-39 years. Hepatomegaly was the most common finding noted in 67 patients (37.6%, followed by GB wall thickening in 65 patients (36.1%. Hepatomegaly was more common in 0-19 is 56 patients with 31.4% years age group Ascites in >40 years age group (16.8%. Hepatomegaly was seen in most of the patients whose platelet count was <40,000. (94.7%. GB wall thickening (88.5% common findings seen in patients whose platelet count was <40,000. In patients with platelet count of 40,000-80,000, Ascites is most common finding (87.5%, followed by Splenomegaly (60.7%. In patients whose platelet count was 80,000-150,000, Ascites (50% was more common than Splenomegaly (45.8%. In three patients with platelet count more than 150,000, no sonological abnormality was detected. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound findings of hepatic changes, GB wall oedema, splenomegaly, ascites and pleural effusion in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of Dengue fever during an epidemic are diagnostic. Contributing in the differential diagnosis with other causes of febrile disease.

  14. Control room habitability study - findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  15. Control room habitability study: findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. Participants in the study review the plant design as contained in the Updated Safety Analysis Report, Technical Specifications, Three Mile Island action item III.D.3.4 submittal on Control Room Habitability, NRC staff evaluation of the III.D.3.4 submittal, appropriate plant operating procedures, system drawings, and significant Licensee Event Reports on Loss of Cooling to the Control Room Envelope. A two-day visit is then made to the plant to determine if the as-built systems are built, operated, and surveillance performed as described in the documentation reviewed prior to the visit. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  16. Does Research Training During Residency Promote Scholarship and Influence Career Choice? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a 10-Year Cohort of the UCSF-PRIME Internal Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlwes, Jeffrey; O'Brien, Bridget; Stanley, Marion; Grant, Ross; Shunk, Rebecca; Connor, Denise; Cornett, Patricia; Hollander, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine, and the Carnegie Foundation report on medical education recommend creating individualized learning pathways during medical training so that learners can experience broader professional roles beyond patient care. Little data exist to support the success of these specialized pathways in graduate medical education. We present the 10-year experience of the Primary Care Medicine Education (PRIME) track, a clinical-outcomes research pathway for internal medicine residents at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). We hypothesized that participation in an individualized learning track, PRIME, would lead to a greater likelihood of publishing research from residency and accessing adequate career mentorship and would be influential on subsequent alumni careers. We performed a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residency alumni from UCSF who graduated in 2001 through 2010. We compared responses of PRIME and non-PRIME categorical alumni. We used Pearson's chi-square and Student's t test to compare PRIME and non-PRIME alumni on categorical and continuous variables. Sixty-six percent (211/319) of alumni responded to the survey. A higher percentage of PRIME alumni published residency research projects compared to non-PRIME alumni (64% vs. 40%; p = .002). The number of PRIME alumni identifying research as their primary career role was not significantly different from non-PRIME internal medicine residency graduates (35% of PRIME vs. 29% non-PRIME). Process measures that could explain these findings include adequate access to mentors (M 4.4 for PRIME vs. 3.6 for non-PRIME alumni, p medicine residency programs.

  17. Findings from three South African studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The draft Traditional Health Practitioners Bill of South Africa was unanimously ... Africa to mental health, and over recent years conducted three studies designed to fill some of the gaps. ..... health service to certain sectors of the population.

  18. Methods and findings of the SNR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.; Schaefer, H.; Spindler, H.

    1983-01-01

    A featfinding committee of the German Federal Parliament in July 1980 recommended to perform a ''risk-oriented study'' of the SNR-300, the German 300 MW fast breeder prototype reactor being under construction in Kalkar. The main aim of this study was to allow a comparative safety evaluation between the SNR-300 and a modern PWR, thus to prepare a basis for a political decision on the SNR-300. Methods and main results of the study are presented in this paper. In the first step of the risk analysis six groups of accidents have been identified which may initiate core destruction. These groups comprise all conceivable courses, potentially leading to core destruction. By reliability analyses, expected frequency of each group has been calculated. In the accident analysis potential failure modes of the reactor tank have been investigated. Core destruction may be accompanied by the release of significant amounts of mechanical energy. The primary coolant system of SNR-300 is designed to withstand mechanical energy releases up to 370 MJ. Design features make it possible to cool the molten core inside the reactor tank. (orig./RW) [de

  19. WA uranium find under detailed study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Results of detailed geological surveys of CRA's Kintyre prospect in Western Australia have confirmed the presence of uranium in significant quantities with a number of features that make it promising for mining. The deposit is set in the remote Rudall River area, about 1,200 kilometres northeast of Perth. So far, probable ore reserves of 15,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 and possible reserves of 15,000 tonnes have been identified and announced. Grades vary widely within a range of 1.5 to 4kg per tonne. The bulk of the ore body lies within 160 metres of the surface, which means it could be mined by open cut methods. The uranium mineralisation has been encountered in bands of pitchblende occurring as veins within the host rock. Current indications are that conventional acid/leach solvent extraction processes can be used to extract the uranium. The Kintyre deposit lies about 700 metres inside the northern boundary of Western Australia's Rudall River National Park. Exploration by CRA at the southern end of the park, in the vicinity of Mt. Cotton, has been halted temporarily. While the Kintyre geological results to date are most encouraging, studies are now being carried out to determine the commercial potential of the deposit

  20. ART drugs help reduce HIV transmission, Chinese study finds ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Development Research Centre Government of Canada ... ART drugs help reduce HIV transmission, Chinese study finds ... where only one person has HIV can reduce HIV transmission rates, at least in the short term, a Chinese study has found. ... Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia.

  1. Discovery and Use of Online Learning Resources: Case Study Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Miller Nelson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research and funding have focused on building Internet-based repositories that contain collections of high-quality learning resources, often called ‘learning objects.’ Yet little is known about how non-specialist users, in particular teachers, find, access, and use digital learning resources. To address this gap, this article describes a case study of mathematics and science teachers’ practices and desires surrounding the discovery, selection, and use of digital library resources for instructional purposes. Findings suggest that the teacher participants used a broad range of search strategies in order to find resources that they deemed were age-appropriate, current, and accurate. They intended to include these resources with little modifications into planned instructional activities. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for improving the design of educational digital library systems, including tools supporting resource reuse.

  2. Family studies to find rare high risk variants in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    genetic variants with bigger effect size may be involved in the disease. Since migraine has a tendency to cluster in families, a family approach might be the way to find these variants. This is also indicated by identification of migraine-associated loci in classical linkage-analyses in migraine families....... A single migraine study using a candidate-gene approach was performed in 2010 identifying a rare mutation in the TRESK potassium channel segregating in a large family with migraine with aura, but this finding has later become questioned. The technologies of next-generation sequencing (NGS) now provides...... an affordable tool to investigate the genetic variation in the entire exome or genome. The family-based study design using NGS is described in this paper. We also review family studies using NGS that have been successful in finding rare variants in other common complex diseases in order to argue the promising...

  3. Family studies to find rare high risk variants in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes

    2017-12-01

    Migraine has long been known as a common complex disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. The pathophysiology and the specific genetic susceptibility are poorly understood. Common variants only explain a small part of the heritability of migraine. It is thought that rare genetic variants with bigger effect size may be involved in the disease. Since migraine has a tendency to cluster in families, a family approach might be the way to find these variants. This is also indicated by identification of migraine-associated loci in classical linkage-analyses in migraine families. A single migraine study using a candidate-gene approach was performed in 2010 identifying a rare mutation in the TRESK potassium channel segregating in a large family with migraine with aura, but this finding has later become questioned. The technologies of next-generation sequencing (NGS) now provides an affordable tool to investigate the genetic variation in the entire exome or genome. The family-based study design using NGS is described in this paper. We also review family studies using NGS that have been successful in finding rare variants in other common complex diseases in order to argue the promising application of a family approach to migraine. PubMed was searched to find studies that looked for rare genetic variants in common complex diseases through a family-based design using NGS, excluding studies looking for de-novo mutations, or using a candidate-gene approach and studies on cancer. All issues from Nature Genetics and PLOS genetics 2014, 2015 and 2016 (UTAI June) were screened for relevant papers. Reference lists from included and other relevant papers were also searched. For the description of the family-based study design using NGS an in-house protocol was used. Thirty-two successful studies, which covered 16 different common complex diseases, were included in this paper. We also found a single migraine study. Twenty-three studies found one or a few family specific

  4. Variability Study between Pap Smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, S.; Bari, A.; Hayat, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. Results: The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46 percent) women, while 77(54 percent) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5 percent) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5 percent) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58 percent). In the remaining 95(66.4 percent) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46 percent), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). Conclusion: There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. (author)

  5. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  6. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  7. Morel-Lavallée Lesions of the Knee: MRI Findings Compared With Cadaveric Study Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalou, Evangelia E; Zibis, Aristeidis H; Raoulis, Vasileios A; Tsifountoudis, Ioannis P; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MRI findings and treatment decisions and outcome for Morel-Lavallée lesions (MLLs) of the knee and to investigate whether evidence exists to support an increased frequency of such lesions on the medial or lateral side by performing a cadaveric experiment. In a 4-year period, 24 MRI studies of 24 consecutive patients (16 male patients and eight female patients) with knee MLLs were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic characteristics, treatment decisions and outcome, and associated injuries were recorded. The location of the MLL was categorized as medial, lateral, or global. Lesions were categorized according to an established MRI classification. During the cadaveric experiment, the compartmental pressures of the medial or lateral aspect of the knee were monitored in 20 cadaveric knees. The chi-square test, t test, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. MLLs were located medially in 16 patients, laterally in two patients, and globally in six patients. The medial location was significantly more common than a lateral or global location (p < 0.05). MLLs were classified as type I in 14 patients, type II in eight patients, and type III in two patients. MRI type was correlated with the chronicity of injury (r 2 = 0.614; p = 0.0014). Fractures were the most common associated injuries, occurring in seven of 24 patients. In 17 patients, all of whom had conservatively treated type I or type II lesions, complete resolution of the MLL occurred. The maximum compartmental pressures were significantly higher on the lateral side than on the medial side (p < 0.0001). Knee MLLs have a predilection for the medial side, which may be attributed to the lower resistance in this location, and they have variable patterns on MRI, which correlate with chronicity. Conservative treatment of type I and II lesions seems effective.

  8. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  9. Study of breast implant rupture: MRI versus surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestito, A; Mangieri, F F; Ancona, A; Minervini, C; Perchinunno, V; Rinaldi, S

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the role of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the selective study breast implant integrity. We retrospectively analysed the signs of breast implant rupture observed at breast MR examinations of 157 implants and determined the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in diagnosing implant rupture by comparing MR data with findings at surgical explantation. The linguine and the salad-oil signs were statistically the most significant signs for diagnosing intracapsular rupture; the presence of siliconomas/seromas outside the capsule and/or in the axillary lymph nodes calls for immediate explantation. In agreement with previous reports, we found a close correlation between imaging signs and findings at explantation. Breast MR imaging can be considered the gold standard in the study of breast implants.

  10. Discovery and Use of Online Learning Resources: Case Study Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Miller Nelson; James Dorward; Mimi M. Recker

    2004-01-01

    Much recent research and funding have focused on building Internet-based repositories that contain collections of high-quality learning resources, often called learning objects. Yet little is known about how non-specialist users, in particular teachers, find, access, and use digital learning resources. To address this gap, this article describes a case study of mathematics and science teachers practices and desires surrounding the discovery, selection, and use of digital library resources for...

  11. Study findings on evaluation of integrated family planning programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs.

  12. A study on CT findings and electroencephalographic findings in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Masao; Nishimura, Masaaki; Kachi, Shozo; Sugimoto, Kimiyuki; Saito, Msahiko; Yamada, Shigeaki; Kameyama, Yoshio; Tanaka, Minoru; Hiraizumi, Yasuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K)

  13. Studies on CT findings and operation findings for acute appendicitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, Kenichi; Andoh, Shigemitsu; Karamatsu, Syouji; Urakami, Toshihiko; Tsuji, Hideki; Kobayashi, Tohru; Okahira, Kihiro

    1995-01-01

    Pediatric CT findings of acute appendicitis were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 29 patients (15 boys and 14 girls with an average age of 8.2 years), consisting of 17 with necrotic, 8 with phlegmonous inflammatory, and 4 with catarrhal appendicitis. CT findings were compared with the degree of inflammation. CT revealed abscess in 64.7%, 12.5%, and 0% for necrotic, phlegmonous inflammatory, and catarrhal types, respectively, and 41.4% for all types. An enlarged appendicitis was shown on CT in 86.2% (25/29). Fecalithes were shown on CT in 67.7% (19/29), which was associated with necrotic and phlegmonous inflammatory types, but not with catarrhal type. The other CT findings included thickened paramesocolon of the right lower abdomen, undefined wall of the inner side of the cecum. Inflammation was relatively slight in cases of catarrhal appendicitis, Nine patients less than 5 years of age had phlegmonous inflammatory or necrotic appendicitis. CT allowed definitive diagnosis of appendicitis in 2 of 3 patients with necrotic type. Ct was considered to be very useful in the diagnosis of appendicitis. (N.K.)

  14. Findings of an international study on burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Takano, M.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.

    1996-01-01

    Findings from a four year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses are presented in this paper. Approximately 20 participants from 11 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel have been completed and are summarized in this paper. Preliminary results from current work addressing burnup credit for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel will also be discussed as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks including Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels, subcritical benchmarks, international databases, and other activities

  15. Study finds declining construction leadtimes for nukes being built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study of 26 nuclear projects shows a decrease in the leadtime for nuclear plants under construction in contrast to the findings of other studies. The EPRI study plots construction leadtime against the year of construction permit issuance rather than the year of completion, and it eliminates management delays, physical plant differences, and management differences. The result is a two-part trendline reflecting the discontinuity of regulatory ratchet effects, which cause 50% of construction leadtime delay while labor material delivery problems account for 20% and deliberate delays 22% of leadtime delay. When allowance is made for deliberate delays, there is no growth in construction leadtime. There was no correlation of utility finances, the accuracy of load growth forecasts, or the state regulatory environment to the length of construction. 3 figures,

  16. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  17. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  18. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  19. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Li; Cong Xinli; Yu Guofang; Li Jichang; Ma Yuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer

  20. Sodium phenylbutyrate in Huntington's disease: a dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Penelope; Lovrecic, Luca; Krainc, Dimitri

    2007-10-15

    Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) is mediated in part by aberrant patterns of histone acetylation. We performed a dose-finding study in human HD of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that ameliorates the HD phenotype in animal models. We used a dose-escalation/de-escalation design, using prespecified toxicity criteria and standard clinical and laboratory safety measures. The maximum tolerated dose was 15 g/day. At higher doses, toxicity included vomiting, lightheadedness, confusion, and gait instability. We saw no significant laboratory or electrocardiographic abnormalities. Gene expression changes in blood suggested an inverse dose-response. In conclusion, SPB at 12 to 15 g/day appears to be safe and well-tolerated in human HD. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  1. Sensitivity of dose-finding studies to observation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Sarah; O'Quigley, John

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of Phase I designs is to estimate the MTD (maximum tolerated dose, in practice a dose with some given acceptable rate of toxicity) while, at the same time, minimizing the number of patients treated at doses too far removed from the MTD. Our purpose here is to investigate the sensitivity of conclusions from dose-finding designs to recording or observation errors. Certain toxicities may go undetected and, conversely, certain non-toxicities may be incorrectly recorded as dose-limiting toxicities. Recording inaccuracies would be expected to have an influence on final and within trial recommendations and, in this paper, we study in greater depth this question. We focus, in particular on three designs used currently; the standard '3+3' design, the grouped up-and-down design [M. Gezmu, N. Flournoy, Group up-and-down designs for dose finding. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2006; 136 (6): 1749-1764.] and the continual reassessment method (CRM, [J. O'Quigley, M. Pepe, L. Fisher, Continual reassessment method: a practical design for phase 1 clinical trials in cancer. Biometrics 1990; 46 (1): 33-48.]). A non-toxicity incorrectly recorded as a toxicity (error of first kind) has a greater influence in general than the converse (error of second kind). These results are illustrated via figures which suggest that the standard '3+3' design in particular is sensitive to errors of the second kind. Such errors can have a very important impact on drug development in that, if carried through to the Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies, we can significantly increase the probability of failure to detect efficacy as a result of having delivered an inadequate dose.

  2. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  3. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  4. The emotional sequelae of whistleblowing: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Luck, Lauretta; Hutchinson, Marie; Wilkes, Lesley; Andrew, Sharon; Jackson, Debra

    2011-10-01

    To highlight and illuminate the emotional sequelae of whistleblowing from whistleblowers and subjects of whistleblowing complaints. Whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on individuals' physical and emotional well-being. However, few empirical studies have been conducted using qualitative methods to provide an in-depth exploration of the emotional consequences for those involved in whistleblowing incidents. Qualitative narrative inquiry design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who had been involved in whistleblowing incidents. During interviews participants' accounts were digitally recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were then analysed by two researchers until consensus was reached. Findings revealed that participants' emotional health was considerably compromised as a result of the whistleblowing incident. Analysis of the data revealed the following dominant themes: 'I felt sad and depressed': overwhelming and persistent distress; 'I was having panic attacks and hyperventilating': acute anxiety; and, 'I had all this playing on my mind': nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive thoughts. While it has been previously acknowledged that whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on all aspects of an individual's life, this study notably highlights the intensity of emotional symptoms suffered by participants as well as the extended duration of time these symptoms were apparent. As professionals, nurses, as well as organisations, have a responsibility to identify those who may be suffering the emotional trauma of whistleblowing and ensure they have access to appropriate resources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Morphological findings in dynamic swallowing studies of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Schober, Ewald; Schima, Wolfgang; Eisenhuber, Edith; Stadler, Alfred; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Partik, Bernhard; Lechner, Gerhard [Department of Radiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Radiologic Tumor Diagnosis, Vienna (Austria); Ekberg, Olle [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of videofluoroscopy in the detection of structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with different symptoms of impaired deglutition. Dynamic radiographic recording of deglutition was performed in 3193 consecutive patients (1578 men, 1615 women; mean age 54 years) suffering from dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, globus sensation, and non-cardiac chest pain. We assessed different structural lesions from the oral cavity to the esophagus and classified them into eight categories. Their frequency and association with the different clinical symptoms were evaluated. Videofluoroscopy revealed 1040 structural abnormalities in 833 patients (26%) including mass lesions from the oral cavity to hyoid/larynx (n=66), pharyngeal diverticula (n=181), pharyngeal masses (n=78), other pharyngeal narrowings (n=71), webs (n=98), masses (n=39), and other narrowings (n=73) of the upper esophageal sphincter, esophageal diverticula (n=80), esophageal webs, rings and strictures (n=194), and intrinsic and extrinsic esophageal lesions (n=160). There was a considerable variance of findings for different symptoms. In a large proportion of symptomatic patients videofluoroscopy detects morphological abnormalities along pharynx and esophagus often combined with functional disorders. This fact underlines the role of videofluoroscopy as a diagnostic test for function as well as morphology. (orig.)

  6. Morphological findings in dynamic swallowing studies of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Schober, Ewald; Schima, Wolfgang; Eisenhuber, Edith; Stadler, Alfred; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Partik, Bernhard; Lechner, Gerhard; Ekberg, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of videofluoroscopy in the detection of structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with different symptoms of impaired deglutition. Dynamic radiographic recording of deglutition was performed in 3193 consecutive patients (1578 men, 1615 women; mean age 54 years) suffering from dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, globus sensation, and non-cardiac chest pain. We assessed different structural lesions from the oral cavity to the esophagus and classified them into eight categories. Their frequency and association with the different clinical symptoms were evaluated. Videofluoroscopy revealed 1040 structural abnormalities in 833 patients (26%) including mass lesions from the oral cavity to hyoid/larynx (n=66), pharyngeal diverticula (n=181), pharyngeal masses (n=78), other pharyngeal narrowings (n=71), webs (n=98), masses (n=39), and other narrowings (n=73) of the upper esophageal sphincter, esophageal diverticula (n=80), esophageal webs, rings and strictures (n=194), and intrinsic and extrinsic esophageal lesions (n=160). There was a considerable variance of findings for different symptoms. In a large proportion of symptomatic patients videofluoroscopy detects morphological abnormalities along pharynx and esophagus often combined with functional disorders. This fact underlines the role of videofluoroscopy as a diagnostic test for function as well as morphology. (orig.)

  7. A study of mammographic and thermographic findings in breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Sik; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Jeong Sook; Han, Chang Yul

    1989-01-01

    The ideal diagnostic methods in breast diseases consist of the physical examination and complementary radiologic examination. In radiologic examination mammography is the most popular screening methods and the older simple complementary method is thermography which is efficient under the conditions of elevated skin temperature in inflammatory and malignant lesions. From Jan. 1st 1987 through Jan. 30th, 1988, 110 pts. with complaints of mammary problems were examined by mammography and thermography at Paik Hospital, Inje University. The authors selected and analyzed 97 cases had been pathologically proved through the operation and the fine needle aspiration biopsy. The results were as follows: 1. The most prevalent age group was 5th decade (40%) in cancer, 4th decade (47%) in mammary dysplasia and followed by fibroadenoma (63%) in 4th decade. 2. The mammographic and thermographic findings were compared between the mammary dysplasia and the infiltrating ductal cancer. In mammary dysplasia abnormal hot emissions were appeared in 9/44 (17%) correlated with atypical hyperchromatic cytoplasm relates to pre-malignant group. 3. We hope and expect the early detection of breast cancer through the follow-up study in pre-malignant group of mammary dysplasia

  8. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  9. An Overview of the BIOMOVS II Study and its Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    . Section 2 provides information on the overall study objectives; the organisational structure of the study and its Working Groups are described in Section 3. Section 4 describes the objectives of the individual Working Groups and summarises their key scientific and technical findings. Section 5 examines the extent to which the main objectives of the study have been fulfilled, assesses progress in generic aspects of biosphere modelling, summarises overall conclusions and implications, and provides suggestions for further work. The primary objectives of BIOMOVS II were threefold: 1. to test the accuracy of the predictions of environmental assessment models for selected contaminants and exposure scenarios; 2. to explain differences in model predictions due to differences in model structure, modelling assumptions and/or differences in selected input data; 3. to recommend priorities for future research to improve the accuracy of model predictions. A secondary objective of the study was to act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information in order to improve the confidence with which the behaviour of trace substances in the biosphere could be assessed quantitatively. It was the aim of BIOMOVS II that this forum should include modelers and other scientists working in the fields of safety assessment, radioecology, geology, climatology, etc, as well as experimentalists performing laboratory studies in these areas. In developing these objectives, additional objectives consistent with the background to the project were established within the individual themes addressed within BIOMOVS II. Notably, these included methodological developments for radiological assessments. Two different approaches were employed within BIOMOVS II for fulfilling these objectives. One approach to model testing, Approach A, involved the formulation of test scenarios based on suitable data and a comparison of model predictions against these independent data sets. The other approach, Approach

  10. Pediatric Oculomotor Findings during Monocular Videonystagmography: A Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doettl, Steven M; Plyler, Patrick N; McCaslin, Devin L; Schay, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of a dizzy patient >4 yrs old is often aided by videonystagmography (VNG) testing to provide a global assessment of peripheral and central vestibular function. Although the value of a VNG evaluation is well-established, it remains unclear if the VNG test battery is as applicable to the pediatric population as it is for adults. Oculomotor testing specifically, as opposed to spontaneous, positional, and caloric testing, is dependent upon neurologic function. Thus, age and corresponding neuromaturation may have a significant effect on oculomotor findings. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the effect of age on various tests of oculomotor function during a monocular VNG examination. Specifically, this study systematically characterized the impact of age on saccade tracking, smooth pursuit tracking, and optokinetic (OPK) nystagmus. The present study used a prospective, repeated measures design. A total of 62 healthy participants were evaluated. Group 1 consisted of 29 4- to 6-yr-olds. Group 2 consisted of 33 21- to 44-yr-olds. Each participant completed a standard VNG oculomotor test battery including saccades, smooth pursuit, and OPK testing in randomized order using a commercially available system. The response metrics saccade latency, accuracy, and speed, smooth pursuit gain, OPK nystagmus gain, speed and asymmetry ratios were collected and analyzed. Significant differences were noted between groups for saccade latency, smooth pursuit gain, and OPK asymmetry ratios. Saccade latency was significantly longer for the pediatric participants compared to the adult participants. Smooth pursuit gain was significantly less for the pediatric participants compared to the adult participants. The pediatric participants also demonstrated increased OPK asymmetry ratios compared to the adult participants. Significant differences were noted between the pediatric and adult participants for saccade latency, smooth pursuit gain, and OPK

  11. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko; Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  12. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan); Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  13. A STUDY ON OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezeela K

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nephrotic syndrome occurs when the filtering units of the kidneys- the glomeruli are damaged. The annual incidence of nephrotic syndrome ranges from 2-7 per 100,000 children. Oral corticosteroids form the cornerstone for management of most children with nephrotic syndrome. Long-term steroid therapy in childhood is associated with a number of significant adverse effectsmajor ophthalmic adverse effects include decreased vision, recurrent hordeolum, posterior subcapsular cataract, pseudotumour cerebri, visual hallucinations. This study aims to analyse the ocular findings in children with nephrotic syndrome, and their treatment related ocular abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross sectional study, conducted at The Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College Thrissur of 1-year duration. Study participants include patients who attended outpatient department of Paediatrics, Govt. Medical College, Thrissur, with clinical and objective investigational evidence of nephrotic syndrome. 70 children who were included in the study were interviewed with a questionnaire; Detailed history was taken from the patients and their parents, regarding the onset of the disease, treatment details, year of starting steroids, history of hypertension, additional drugs, history of defective vision, headache, allergic diseases of eye, eyelid swellings and use of spectacles. Visual acuity was assessed with Snellen s’ chart. Best corrected visual acuity was noted. Acuity was also measured with spectacles if the child was wearing them. Anterior segment was examined under torchlight and later in slit lamp and in all cases fundus examination and retinoscopy were done after dilating pupils with homatropine. Intraocular pressure was measured with Goldman Applanation Tonometer. RESULTS Since the sample size is small, the exact sex distribution cannot be ascertained. History of headache was present in 45 children (64.3%. Visual acuity was assessed

  14. Preliminary study of image findings of femoroacetabular impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhe; Zhang Jing; Hong Nan; Cheng Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the image findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods: Image findings of 9 patients with surgically proved femoroacetabular impingement were retrospectively reviewed for characteristic image findings of FAI. All 9 patients underwent X-ray examinations and MRI of affected hip, and 1 patient underwent MR arthrography (MRA) additionally. Results: X-ray examinations of all 9 patients showed bump at femoral head-neck junction or overcoverage of the acetabular. MRI showed various degrees of injury of anterosuperior labrum in all 9 patients. The injuries were stage Ⅰ A in 2 cases, stage Ⅰ B in 3, stage Ⅱ A in 2, and stage Ⅱ B in 2. MRA of the case showed tears of anterosuperior labrum, with contrast media entering into the teared labrum. There were sclerosis and cystic degeneration of subchondral bone of femoral head in 2 cases, and these findings were confirmed as cartilage delamination by surgery. Conclusions: MRI can display the injures of labrum and articular cartilage, which is helpful to the early diagnosis of' FAI. (authors)

  15. Discovery and Use of Online Learning Resources: Case Study Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Mimi M.; Dorward, James; Nelson, Laurie Miller

    2004-01-01

    Much recent research and funding have focused on building Internet-based repositories that contain collections of high-quality learning resources, often called "learning objects." Yet little is known about how non-specialist users, in particular teachers, find, access, and use digital learning resources. To address this gap, this article…

  16. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  17. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  18. Medical findings and methodology of studies, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Beebe, G W; Ishida, Morihiro; Brill, A B

    1960-09-01

    A description of the population studied and the program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to study the late effects of radiation are presented. These include investigations of radiation dose, life span, medical surveys, tumor registries, autopsy program, leukemia survey, morbidity detection, in utero studies, genetic effects, effects on the growth and development of children, radiation cataracts, neoplasia, and fertility. 61 references, 18 figures, 5 tables. (DMC)

  19. Finding, Using and Creating Open-Access Religious Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online journals (e-journals) are fast becoming a familiar feature with Religious Studies scholars, but so far no e-journals in the field have appeared in South Africa, and contributions by South African scholars are still rare. This article examines the evolution of Religious Studies e-journals, focusing on the open access variety ...

  20. Clinical findings versus imaging studies in the diagnosis of infantile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is the most common surgical cause of vomiting in early infancy and can be diagnosed clinically or by imaging studies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of clinical examination compared with ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal contrast imaging ...

  1. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  2. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  3. Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

  4. Volunteering among Australian Adolescents: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-three young Australians were interviewed about volunteering as part of a larger three-stage study on youth spirituality and social concern. The results indicate that young people who were older, better educated and had access to networks and mentoring were more likely to be engaged in social-cause service than those without these resources.…

  5. Clinical findings versus imaging studies in the diagnosis of infantile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients, and increased muscle diameter of more than. 14mm in 54 (90%) patients with both longitudinal and transverse images. A barium study was performed in all patients and different signs were noted (Fig. 1). Distended stomach and delayed gastric emptying were found in 55 (91.66%) cases, elongated pyloric channel ...

  6. Cerebral imaging using 68Ga DTPA and the U.C.S.F. multiwire proportional chamber positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattner, R.S.; Lim, C.B.; Swann, S.J.; Kaufman, L.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Chu, D.; Huberty, J.P.; Price, D.C.; Wilson, C.B.

    1975-12-01

    A multiwire proportional chamber positron camera consisting of four 48 x 48 cm 2 detectors linked to a small digital computer has been designed, constructed, and characterized. Initial clinical application to brain imaging using 68 Ga DTPA in 10 patients with brain tumors is described. Tomographic image reconstruction is accomplished by an algorithm determining the intersection of the annihilation photon paths in planes of interest. Final image processing utilizes uniformity correction, simple thresholding, and smoothing. The positron brain images were compared to conventional scintillation brain scans and x-ray computerized axial tomograms (CAT) in each case. The positron studies have shown significant mitigation of confusing superficial activity resulting from craniotomy in comparison to conventional brain scans. Central necrosis of lesions observed in the positron images, but not in the conventional scans, has been confirmed in CAT. Modifications of the camera are being implemented to improve image quality, and these changes combined with the tomography inherent in the positron scans are anticipated to result in images superior in information content to conventional brain scans

  7. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assau...

  8. Intradermal Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: A Preclinical Dose-Finding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial...

  9. Stigma, abortion, and disclosure--findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury-Ward, Edna; Parry, Odette; Carnwell, Ros

    2012-12-01

    This study qualitatively explores perceptions of women who have experienced abortion care. It explores women's journey through abortion from confirmation of pregnancy to post-abortion. The study seeks to understand the implications of these perceptions for policy and practice. A qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured interviews with 17 women, aged between 22 and 57 years, who had undergone legal induced abortion in the UK when they were 16 years or older. Participants were not recruited under the age of 16 because of the ethical and legal complexities of interviewing minors. Additionally, 16 years was deemed to be the most appropriate age as this is the legal age of consent in the UK. Participants were recruited from 12 community contraception and sexual health clinics in two NHS trusts, one in England and one in Wales. Participant recruitment was set at a minimum of 12 and participants were recruited on a "first come first served basis" (i.e., the first 12 who contacted the researcher). The number of participants was raised to seventeen as this was the number deemed to be the most suitable for data saturation in this particular qualitative research. Women in this study understood abortion as highly taboo and a potentially personally stigmatizing event. These perceptions continued to affect disclosure to others, long after the abortion, and affected women's perceptions of the response of others, including society in general, significant others, and health professionals. Women's experiences of abortion may be influenced by perceived negative social attitudes. Health professionals and abortion service providers might combat the perceived isolation of women undergoing abortion by attending not only to clinical/technical aspects of the procedure but also to women's psychological/emotional sensitivities surrounding the event. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Studies of Expansive Learning: Foundations, Findings and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Engeström

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines studies based on the theory of expansive learning, formulated in 1987. In recent years the theory has been used in a wide variety of studies and interventions. The theory builds on foundational ideas put forward by Vygotsky, Leont’ev, Il’enkov, and Davydov, key figures in the Russian school of cultural-historical activity theory. Studies based on the theory are reviewed in six sections: expansive learning as transformation of the object, expansive learning as movement in the zone of proximal development, expansive learning as cycles of learning actions, expansive learning as boundary crossing and network building, expansive learning as distributed and discontinuous movement, and formative interventions.A separate section is devoted to critiques of expansive learning. It is concluded that the ultimate test of learning theories is how they help practitioners to generate learning that grasps pressing issues the humankind is facing. The theory of expansive learning currently expands its analyses both up and down, outward and inward. Moving up and outward, it tackles learning in fields or networks of interconnected activity systems with their partially shared and often contested objects. Moving down and inward, it tackles issues of subjectivity, experiencing, personal sense, emotion, embodiment, identity, and moral commitment.

  11. The Study of Electrocardiographic Findings in Patients with Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac manifestations that occur in a majority of patients with organophosphate (OP poisoning may range from innocuous electrocardiographic manifestations, such as sinus tachycardia, to life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis. In this study, we evaluated the various electrocardiographic manifestations in patients with OP poisoning. Methods: This retrospective-descriptive study was performed by reviewing the medical records from all patients poisoned with organophosphate admitted to Razi Educational Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from April 2008 to March 2011. Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study. Histories of all patients were collected and ECG analysis was conducted including the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals by a cardiologist. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS software version18. Results: Of the total 100 patients (75 were male with OP poisoning that referred to the Emergency Ward of Razi Hospital, 63 patients presented ECG abnormalities. The mean age of the patients was 35.78 ± 12.91 years. The causes of poisoning were occupational in 71 patients, suicidal in 26 patients, and accidental in 3 patients. Sinus tachycardia (31% was the most common ECG abnormality, followed by non-specific ST-T changes (24%. Overall, mortality rate was 5% and all of the deceased patients presented changes in ECG. Conclusion: OP poisoning is associated with significant ECG abnormalities, especially tachycardia and non-specific ST-T changes.

  12. Findings from case studies of state and local immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, G; Kuttner, H; Miller, W; Hogan, R; McPhillips, H; Johnson, K A; Alexander, E R

    2000-10-01

    As part of its examination of federal support for immunization services during the past decade, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Immunization Finance Policies and Practices (IFPP) commissioned eight case studies of the states of Alabama, Maine, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Texas, and Washington; and a two-county study of Los Angeles and San Diego in California. Specifically, the IOM Committee and these studies reviewed the use of Section 317 grants by the states. Section 317 is a discretionary grant program that supports vaccine purchase and other immunization-related program activities. These studies afforded the Committee an in-depth look at local policy choices, the performance of immunization programs, and federal and state spending for immunization during the past decade. The case-study reports were developed through interviews with state and local health department officials, including immunization program directors, Medicaid agency staff, budget analysts, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention public health advisors to the jurisdiction. Other sources included state and federal administrative records and secondary sources on background factors and state-level trends. The case studies were supplemented by site visits to Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Newark, and San Diego. The nature of immunization "infrastructure" supported by the Section 317 program is shifting from primarily service delivery to a broader set of roles that puts the public effort at the head of a broad immunization partnership among public health, health financing, and other entities in both the public and private sectors. The rate and intensity of transition vary across the case-study areas. In the emerging pattern, service delivery increasingly takes place in the private sector and is related to managed care. "Infrastructure" is moving beyond supporting a core state staff and local health department service delivery to include such activities as immunization

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  14. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  15. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  16. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  17. Intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a preclinical dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2015-05-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial vaccine doses induced antibodies at titers comparable to those after immunization with full human dose delivered intramuscularly. The results suggest that intradermal delivery of IPV may lead to dose-sparing effect and reduction of the vaccination cost. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Hypertension control in industrial employees: findings from SHIMSCO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khosravi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension prevention and control are among the most important public health priorities. We evaluated the impacts of a workplace intervention project "Stop Hypertension in Mobarakeh Steel Company" (SHIMSCO on controlling hypertension in industrial workers. Methods: The study was carried out in Mobarakeh Steel Company in Isfahan among 7286 male workers and employees. All individuals were evaluated for the presence of hypertension (HTN. According to examinations, 500 subjects with  systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or those using antihypertensive medications were confirmed to have HTN and thus included in this study. They were questioned for sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history and medication use. They received an educational program including healthy lifestyle and self-care recommendations of HTN management and control as well as training for accurate blood pressure measurement and home monitoring for two years. SBP, DBP, weight, height and routine lab tests were measured for all hypertensive subjects before and after the interventions. Paired t-test, generalized estimation equation (GEE and ordinary linear regression (OLR were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. Results: The comparison of SBP and DBP before and after the educational program showed significant reductions in both parameters (-7.97 ± 14.72 and -2.66 ± 9.96 mmHg, respectively. However, a greater decrease was detected in case of DBP. GEE showed SBP and DBP to decrease about -0.115 and -0.054 mmHg/month. OLR also revealed reductions of 4.88 and 2.57 mmHg respectively in SBP and DBP upon adding each antihypertensive drug. Conclusion: SHIMSCO, a 3-year interventional project in workplaces, was effective in reducing SBP and DBP among hypertensive employees and workers. We conclude that implementing simple educational programs in worksites can improve the management and control of

  19. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  20. Autonomous orientation predicts longevity: New findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Hemmy, Laura

    2018-03-10

    Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive, and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and it is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation. These were selected in line with an extensive theoretical literature based in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Essays were coded for the propensity for choice in action, susceptibility to pressure, self-reflection, integration of experiences, and parental support for autonomy. These coded variables were used to predict age of death. Using 176 codable essays provided by now-deceased participants, linear regression analyses revealed that choiceful behavior, self-reflection, and parent autonomy support predicted age of death. Participants who demonstrated these stable and beneficial motivational characteristics lived longer. Personality constructs reflecting a healthy form of self-regulation are associated with long-term health. Implications for health interventions are discussed. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Competitiveness of nuclear energy - Key findings from an OECD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    Economic competitiveness always has been a cornerstone in decision making for electricity generation options but the liberalization of energy markets has enhanced its importance. For private investors in de-regulated markets the economic attractiveness of a project is often 'the' driving factor. For plant owners and operators reducing costs is a key objective. The relative competitiveness of nuclear energy as compared with alternatives has been investigated in a recent OECD study which noted some evolution in the ranking of different options as compared with results published seven years ago. In particular the volatility of fossil fuel prices, notably natural gas for electricity generation, along with technical progress enhancing the reliability and availability factor of nuclear power plants have had a significant influence on comparative economic performance of base-load options. Furthermore, as governments implement progressively policies to address global climate change threat, the moves to internalize the costs of carbon emissions is increasing the competitiveness of low-carbon options such as renewable energy sources and nuclear power versus coal and to a lesser extent gas. (authors)

  2. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Entrenched obesity in childhood: findings from a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Datar, Ashlesha; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    Given the high levels of obesity among U.S. children, we examine whether obesity in childhood is a passing phenomenon or remains entrenched into adolescence. Data are from the prospective nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (analytic sample = 6600). Anthropometrics were measured six times during 1998-2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using CDC cut-points. Entrenched obesity was defined as obesity between ages 5-9 coupled with persistent obesity at ages 11 and 14. Almost 30% of children experienced obesity at some point between ages 5.6 and 14.1 years; 63% of children who ever had obesity between ages 5.6 and 9.1 and 72% of those who had obesity at kindergarten entry experienced entrenched obesity. Children with severe obesity in kindergarten or who had obesity at more than 1 year during early elementary were very likely to experience obesity through age 14, regardless of their sex, race, or socioeconomic backgrounds. Prevention should focus on early childhood, as obesity at school entry is not often a passing phenomenon. Even one timepoint of obesity measured during the early elementary school years may be an indicator of risk for long-term obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.

  5. An Exploratory Study on the Re-finding Behavior on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common for users to relocate information previously found on the web. However, their search behaviors in initial finding and the subsequent re-finding may differ due to the dynamic nature and contextual diversity of the web. This study used experiment, observation, interview, and questionnaires to investigate the characteristics of re-finding behavior and compare users’ performance in finding and re-finding. Though not significantly different, the study participants used more search tools, combined various strategies to obtain contextual clues of finding process, utilized more complex search tactics, and had more interactions with search engines used. Findings also show that participants spent less time in re-finding than in finding, yet the cognitive loading and difficulties increased in re-finding. Participants were satisfied with the results obtained in re-finding, but they also claimed that the search performance would be better if the system offered more functions to support recall of previous search results. Participants’ satisfaction with search performance also varied by task type. Based on the findings, this study recommends that re-finding efficiency may be improved by enhancing recall functionalities in browsers and by using personal information management tools. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  6. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  7. An exploration study to find important factors in market entrance: A case study of truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Khodamoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.

  8. Overview of osseous tissue findings from the lifespan carcinogenesis studies: From whole animals to molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Bruenger, F.B.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.

    1991-01-01

    This summary presents some of the findings from the 226 Ra and 239 Pu lifespan carcinogenesis studies in Beagle dogs and discusses these findings relative to the tissue, cellular and molecular biology of osseous tissues. This report attempts to integrate some of the dosimetric and pathological findings with current understanding of the factors that may influence carcinogenesis (and non-carcinogenic pathologies) at the various levels of biological organization. Emphasis is placed on the findings from the 226 Ra study, as this study has recently been completely reviewed and verified

  9. A study of low-density areas, clinical findings, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Iwao; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Oikawa, Tadato; Koide, Kohji; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1978-01-01

    55 out of 62 patients with cerebral infarction were investigated in terms of CT scan findings, angiographic findings, and clinical symptoms. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The low-density areas of the CT scan findings were classified into the following four types: large hemispheric or lobular --Type I; wedge-shaped --Type II; small --Type III; and lacunar low-density area. --Type IV. 2) Almost all patients with angiographically occlusive findings showed low-density areas of Type I; however, one patient with ICA occlusion revealed only a lacunar low-density area. 3) The patients with lacunar low-density areas showed an angiographically delayed filling of the angular artery and posterior parietal artery of the middle cerebral artery. 4) The relationship between the types of low-density areas and the clinical conscious disorders was not clear. On the other hand, the patients with Type I low-density areas almost all had motor disturbances, while patients with other types of low-density areas showed only 60 - 70% motor disturbances. 5) In patients with speech disorders, total aphasia cases were found in patients with large hemispheric low-density areas on the left side. Although, motor aphasia cases were seen in patients with various low-density areas on the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, dysarthria cases were found in the patients with several low-density areas on both sides. 6) The localization of lacunar low-density areas seemed to be near the caudate nucleus on the right side and in the putaminal regions on the left side. The mean and the standard deviation of CT numbers in the lacunar low-density areas showed higher values on the right side than on the left side. (author)

  10. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  11. Findings, theories and methods in the study of children's national identifications and national attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.; Oppenheimer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the relevant background findings against which the empirical studies reported in this special issue were designed. Particular attention is given to previous findings on the development of children’s national knowledge, national attitudes and national identifications. The

  12. An empirical study to find important factors on building national brand: An Iranian tourism case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hakimipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.

  13. The diagnostic efficacy of clinical findings and electrophysiological studies in carpal tunnel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukkoyuncu Pekel, Nilufer; Nar Senol, Pelin; Yildiz, Demet; Kilic, Ahmet Kasim; Kamaci Sener, Deniz; Seferoglu, Meral; Gunes, Aygul

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between clinical findings, neurological examination and electrophysiological studies in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and share our institutional experience in patients with CTS. Methods. Patients presenting with complaints of pain, paresthesia, and weakness in hands who diagnosed CTS between 2014 and 2015 were examined retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical and neurological examination findings and electrod...

  14. Intracranial incidental findings on brain MR images in a pediatric neurology practice: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surya N; Belay, Brook

    2008-01-15

    Previous studies have addressed the prevalence of incidental findings largely in healthy adult and pediatric populations. Our study aims to elucidate the prevalence of incidental findings in a pediatric neurology practice. We reviewed the charts of 1618 patients seen at a pediatric neurology practice at a tertiary care center from September 2003 to December 2005 for clinical data and incidental intracranial findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging reports. Incidental findings were divided into two categories: normal or abnormal variants. Clinical and demographic data were assessed for associations with incidental findings. From 1618 charts reviewed, only 666 patients (41% of all patients) had brain MRIs ordered. One-hundred and seventy-one (171) patients (25.7% of all patients; 95% CI: 22.6, 29.0) had incidental findings. Of these, 113 (17.0%; 95% CI: 14.1, 19.8) were classified as normal-variants and 58 (8.7%; 95% CI: 6.6, 10.9) were classified as abnormal. The nature of incidental findings was not related to age group, sex or clinical diagnosis (p=0.29, p=0.31 and p=0.69 respectively). Two patients (0.3%; 95% CI: approximately 0.0, 0.7) required neurosurgical referral. We report a high prevalence of and a low rate of referrals for incidental findings in comparison to previous studies. The present study may help guide management decisions and discussions with patients and families. Future studies should attempt to address issues of associations between primary or secondary diagnoses and intracranial incidental findings in a controlled, prospective fashion.

  15. Analysis and planning of dose-finding studies with active control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals the dose finding plays an important role. The contribution is focused on the evaluation and planning of dose finding studies with active control. It is of primary interest to find the lowest dose that yields the same efficacy as the active control. Besides the target dose confidence intervals are of importance to describe the quality of the target dose estimation. The calculation of case numbers and the determination of the dose steps to be studied are challenging under practical conditions. The contribution covers the demonstration of the statistical model the parameter estimation and the asymptotic properties based on maximum likelihood theory, the spline-based evaluation of nonlinear dose finding studies with active control and the planning of design and number of cases.

  16. The impact of ERP on supply chain management: exploratory findings from a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Bogerd, P.; Yücesan, E.; Wassenhove, van L.N.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents results from a Delphi study on the future impact of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems on supply chain management (SCM). The Delphi study was conducted with 23 Dutch supply chain executives of European multi-nationals. Findings from this exploratory study were

  17. Assessing the Probability that a Finding Is Genuine for Large-Scale Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Ling; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Zaykin, Dmitri V

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies routinely involve massive numbers of statistical tests accompanied by P-values. Whole genome sequencing technologies increased the potential number of tested variants to tens of millions. The more tests are performed, the smaller P-value is required to be deemed significant. However, a small P-value is not equivalent to small chances of a spurious finding and significance thresholds may fail to serve as efficient filters against false results. While the Bayesian approach can provide a direct assessment of the probability that a finding is spurious, its adoption in association studies has been slow, due in part to the ubiquity of P-values and the automated way they are, as a rule, produced by software packages. Attempts to design simple ways to convert an association P-value into the probability that a finding is spurious have been met with difficulties. The False Positive Report Probability (FPRP) method has gained increasing popularity. However, FPRP is not designed to estimate the probability for a particular finding, because it is defined for an entire region of hypothetical findings with P-values at least as small as the one observed for that finding. Here we propose a method that lets researchers extract probability that a finding is spurious directly from a P-value. Considering the counterpart of that probability, we term this method POFIG: the Probability that a Finding is Genuine. Our approach shares FPRP's simplicity, but gives a valid probability that a finding is spurious given a P-value. In addition to straightforward interpretation, POFIG has desirable statistical properties. The POFIG average across a set of tentative associations provides an estimated proportion of false discoveries in that set. POFIGs are easily combined across studies and are immune to multiple testing and selection bias. We illustrate an application of POFIG method via analysis of GWAS associations with Crohn's disease.

  18. A randomised controlled trial of benefit finding in caregivers: The Building Resources in Caregivers Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers may engage in benefit finding, that is, an increase in perceived positive growth, as a cognitive strategy for coping with stress. The Building Resources in Caregivers study will compare effects of a brief benefit finding writing intervention with a control intervention. Caregivers of people with mental and physical disabilities will be randomised into either a benefit-writing group or a neutral writing group. Caregivers will complete measures relating to themselves and care-recipients (e.g. sociodemographics and illness type and psychometric measures of benefit finding, distress and quality of life at three time points. Additionally, qualitative commentary on participation experiences will be gathered.

  19. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Ma Fernanda; Calbo, Jorge; Aranaz, Jesus; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  20. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Blanca [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: blumbreras@umh.es; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: gonzalez_isa@gva.es; Lorente, Ma Fernanda [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: MARFERLORENTE@telefonica.net; Calbo, Jorge [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: jocalma@hotmail.com; Aranaz, Jesus [Preventive Medicine Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: aranaz_jes@gva.es; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: ihernandez@umh.es

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  1. A study on the cholecystolcholagiographic and ultrasonographic findings of biliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyoung Ja; Bang, Dae Hong; Lee, Sang Chun; Kim, Jae Seop

    1983-01-01

    In the 88 cases of biliary disease, which was proven in Seoul Red Cross Hospital from Jan, 1980 to Dec. 1981, comparative studies were made with oral and IV cholecystocholangiographic findings and ultrasonographic findings. The results were: 1. In the 18 cases of GB stones, there are 17 cases (94.4%) of positive findings in cholecysto-cholangiography with detection of stone in 7 cases (38.9%), while in sonographic study, 16 cases (88.9%) are shown positive findings with detection of stone in 11 cases (61.1%). 2. In the 17 cases of acalculous cholecystitis, the diagnostic accuracy is 88.2% in cholecystocholangiography and 64.7% in sonography. 3. In the 7 cases of CBD stones, all cases are shown positive findings in cholecystocholangiography with detection of stone in only one case (14.3%), while 6 cases (85.7%) of positive findings are shown in sonography with detection of stone in all cases. 4. I.V. cholangiography is more accurate diagnostic procedure rather than oral GB study in the cases of poor or non-functioning GB. 5. Sonography is the choice of procedure in the diagnosis of stones, while in the cases of cholecystitis, cholecystocholangiography is more useful diagnostic procedure

  2. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  3. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  4. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  5. Audio Key Finding: Considerations in System Design and Case Studies on Chopin's 24 Preludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Chew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN, relative distance (RD, and average distance (AD. AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8% higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system—the modified spiral array (mSA, fundamental frequency identification (F0, and post-weight balancing (PWB—to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging. F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.

  6. Millennials, entrepreneurs and the Hungarian workplace of the future the preliminary findings of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Existing research into generational differences in Hungary was based primarily on adapting findings from studies undertaken in Western Countries. If we consider not only the comparative history and wealth but also the cultural differences between Hungary and the countries in which these studies took place, then the apparent adaptability is brought into question. This study aims to examine the nature of millennial students in Hungary by building up the characteristics from the grou...

  7. Findings of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial and the National Study of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, B C; Langham, J; Lindsay, K W; Molyneux, A J; Browne, J P; Copley, L; Shaw, D; Gholkar, A; Kirkpatrick, P J

    2007-08-01

    Concern has been expressed about the applicability of the findings of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) with respect to the relative effects on outcome of coiling and clipping. It has been suggested that the findings of the National Study of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage may have greater relevance for neurosurgical practice. The objective of this paper was to interpret the findings of these two studies in the context of differences in their study populations, design, execution and analysis. Because of differences in design and analysis, the findings of the two studies are not directly comparable. The ISAT analysed all randomized patients by intention-to-treat, including some who did not undergo a repair, and obtained the primary outcome for 99% of participants. The National Study only analysed participants who underwent clipping or coiling, according to the method of repair, and obtained the primary outcome for 91% of participants. Time to repair was also considered differently in the two studies. The comparison between coiling and clipping was susceptible to confounding in the National Study, but not in the ISAT. The two study populations differed to some extent, but inspection of these differences does not support the view that coiling was applied inappropriately in the National Study. Therefore, there are many reasons why the two studies estimated different sizes of effect. The possibility that there were real, systematic differences in practice between the ISAT and the National Study cannot be ruled out, but such explanations must be seen in the context of other explanations relating to chance, differences in design or analysis, or confounding.

  8. Heritability of the severity of diabetic retinopathy: the FIND-Eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Nedal H; Freedman, Barry I; Adler, Sharon G; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily Y; Davis, Mathew D; Satko, Scott G; Bowden, Donald W; Duggirala, Ravi; Elston, Robert C; Guo, Xiuxing; Hanson, Robert L; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G; Pahl, Madeleine V; Quade, Shannon R E; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Rotter, Jerome I; Saad, Mohammed F; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Zager, Philip G; Abboud, Hanna E

    2008-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Correlations between severity of DR and DN and computed heritability estimates for DR were determined in a large, multiethnic sample of diabetic families. The hypothesis was that (1) the severity of DR correlates with the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and (2) the severity of DR is under significant familial influence in members of multiplex diabetic families. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was designed to evaluate the genetic basis of DN in American Indians, European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. FIND enrolled probands with advanced DN, along with their diabetic siblings who were concordant and discordant for nephropathy. These diabetic family members were invited to participate in the FIND-Eye study to determine whether inherited factors underlie susceptibility to DR and its severity. FIND-Eye participants underwent eye examinations and had fundus photographs taken. The severity of DR was graded by using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Classification (ETDRS). Sib-sib correlations were calculated with the SAGE 5.0 program FCOR, to estimate heritability of retinopathy severity. This report summarizes the results for the first 2368 diabetic subjects from 767 families enrolled in FIND-Eye; nearly 50% were Mexican American, the largest single ethnicity within FIND. The overall prevalence of DR was high; 33.4% had proliferative DR; 7.5%, 22.8%, and 9.5% had severe, moderate, and mild nonproliferative DR, respectively; 26.6% had no DR. The severity of DR was significantly associated with severity of DN, both by phenotypic category and by increasing serum creatinine concentration (chi(2) = 658.14, df = 20; P FIND-Eye sample. These data confirm that the severity of DR parallels the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes

  9. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  10. Dental amalgam and cognitive function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S R; Snowdon, D A; Wekstein, M W; Henry, R G; Grant, F T; Donegan, S J; Wekstein, D R

    1995-11-01

    The authors determined the number and surface area of occlusal dental amalgams in a group of 129 Roman Catholic sisters who were 75 to 102 years of age. Findings from this study of women with relatively homogeneous adult lifestyles and environments suggest that existing amalgams are not associated with lower performance on eight different tests of cognitive function.

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  12. Engaging Students in Learning: Findings from a Study of Project-Led Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Flores, Maria Assunção; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. "Project-Led Engineering…

  13. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  14. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  15. Epidemiological studies on glyphosate - No new findings for the European risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of epidemiological studies on the health effects of glyphosate is currently being discussed in the media. In this context, BfR evaluated a so-called expert opinion on epidemiological studies prepared by non-government organisations and concludes that no new findings are being reported for the joint European assessment of the active substance glyphosate. The accusations brought forth in the so-called expert opinion of scientific deception by the assessment authorities are c...

  16. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  17. Using Case Studies in Business Education to Promote Networked Thinking: Findings of an Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Zenner, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Case studies are central to the way management is currently taught at universities. Among other benefits attributed to the case study method is that it promotes networked thinking by learners. Networked thinking takes account of interactions and repercussions, making it crucial to decision-making within the complex system of rules that shapes…

  18. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  19. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Selective extractions in uranium migration studies - Findings from a natural analogue study at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksi, J.; Saarinen, L.

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of chemical extractions in the study on uranium migration is considered in the light of the results compiled at Palmottu. Chemical extractions provide a method for evaluating the mass transfer of U and its retardation in geochemical cycling. The present detailed study provides more specific information on the in situ fixation of U on rock materials. The many observations made at Palmottu show the potential of the method to fill the gap in interpretations between the natural partitioning of U in rock and the distribution of artificial tracers determined by the short-term laboratory experiments. (orig.) (20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.)

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young; Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  3. Pulmonary actinomycosis: CT studies of diagnostic and post-treatment findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jung; Song, Sun Wha; Bo, Seal Hwang; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kim, Ki Jun; Kim, Horrim; Park, Seog Hee [College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To investigate the value of the computed tomography (CT) in the study of diagnostic and post-treatment findings of pulmonary actinomycosis. Clinical data and CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in 10 patients with histopathologically confirmed pulmonary actinomycosis. We analyzed the initial CT findings in search of patterns and distributions which suggest possible lung abnormalities and found the pleura, chest wall, and lymphadenopathy to be involved as part of the indicators of lung abnormalities. We analyzed follow-up CT findings for changes in the lungs after antibiotic therapy and recurrence after surgery. Of the 10 patients analyzed by CT for lung lesions, seven had been diagnosed with alcoholism and nine were male. The initial CTs (n = 10) indicated that all the pulmonary lesions were solitary without chest wall involvement. However, a transfissural extension was observed in 20% of the study population (n = 2). Furthermore, peripheral lung distribution and adjacent pleural thickening was observed in 70% of the study population (n = 7). Within the consolidation (n = 6) or mass (n = 4), a central low density with peripheral enhancement was seen in 70% of the study population (n = 7). A follow-up CT of the seven cases following antiobiotic therapy revealed that four cases showed minimal improvement or aggravation of their lung lesions, whereas three cases showed resolution or improvement. The improvement of the central low density was related to the improvement of consolidation or mass. Furthermore the presence of fibrosis was observed after the resolution of pulmonary lesions (n = 2). No relationship was found between the duration and response of antibiotic therapy. A follow-up CT (n = 4) subsequent to a lung resection revealed the onset of chest wall actinomycosis and a thickened pleura in one case. The results of this study highlight the value of the CT in pulmonary actinomycosis in order to diagnose and evaluate antibiotic responses, complications, or

  4. Efficient strategies to find diagnostic test accuracy studies in kidney journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Thomas E; Ladhani, Maleeka; Mitchell, Ruth; Craig, Jonathan C; Webster, Angela C

    2015-08-01

    Nephrologists looking for quick answers to diagnostic clinical questions in MEDLINE can use a range of published search strategies or Clinical Query limits to improve the precision of their searches. We aimed to evaluate existing search strategies for finding diagnostic test accuracy studies in nephrology journals. We assessed the accuracy of 14 search strategies for retrieving diagnostic test accuracy studies from three nephrology journals indexed in MEDLINE. Two investigators hand searched the same journals to create a reference set of diagnostic test accuracy studies to compare search strategy results against. We identified 103 diagnostic test accuracy studies, accounting for 2.1% of all studies published. The most specific search strategy was the Narrow Clinical Queries limit (sensitivity: 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.29; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99). Using the Narrow Clinical Queries limit, a searcher would need to screen three (95% CI 2-6) articles to find one diagnostic study. The most sensitive search strategy was van der Weijden 1999 Extended (sensitivity: 0.95; 95% CI 0.89-0.98; specificity 0.55, 95% CI 0.53-0.56) but required a searcher to screen 24 (95% CI 23-26) articles to find one diagnostic study. Bachmann 2002 was the best balanced search strategy, which was sensitive (0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), but also specific (0.74, 95% CI 0.73-0.75), with a number needed to screen of 15 (95% CI 14-17). Diagnostic studies are infrequently published in nephrology journals. The addition of a strategy for diagnostic studies to a subject search strategy in MEDLINE may reduce the records needed to screen while preserving adequate search sensitivity for routine clinical use. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  5. Moessbauer Study of Ceramic Finds from the Galeria de las Ofrendas, Chavin de Huantar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, L. G.; Gebhard, R.; Haeusler, W.; Kauffmann-Doig, F.; Riederer, J.; Sieben, G.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic finds from the Galeria de las Ofrendas at Chavin de Huantar and surface finds from the settlement of Chavin were characterised by combining the results of archaeological typology with archaeometric studies using neutron activation analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thin-section microscopy. Sherds from the pyramid Tello are included in the study as representative of local material. The analyses show that the vessels were made from different raw materials and that different firing procedures were used in their production. Sherds of certain styles largely exhibit similar types of Moessbauer patterns and in many instances also have similar element compositions. This supports the archaeological notion that the vessels were brought to Chavin from the provinces, perhaps on the occasion of a festivity.

  6. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  7. Young people’s views about consenting to data linkage: Findings from the PEARL qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Findings from this study question the validity of ‘informed consent’ as a cornerstone of good governance, and the extent to which potential research participants understand different types of consent and what they are consenting, or not consenting, to. Pragmatic, imaginative and flexible approaches are needed if research using data linkage is to successfully realise its potential for public good without undermining public trust in the research process.

  8. A study on correlation between CT findings and clinical course of meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hwang, Yong Seung

    1984-01-01

    63 cases of meningitis in children were reviewed to study correlated between brain CT findings and clinical course. We divided 63 cases into 3 groups according to clinical course, that is , Group I: Healed without significant sequelae. Group II: Discharged with sequelae such as neurologic deficit or complicated clinical course. Group III: Expired or considered to be expired after hopeless discharge. The CT findings were retrospectively analyzed and compared with each clinical group. We drawed several conclusions as follows: 1. The wrost prognostic CT findings is dirty basal cisternal enhancement. ( Group I only 5%, Group II 50%, Group III 45%). 2. Focal brain parenchymal lesion, especially multiple, such as granuloma and infarct shows unfavorable clinical outcome, that is , high rate of Group III and evident neurologic deficit, in contrast to only 7% of Group I. 3. In 7 case of which CT findings is only hydrocephalus, the prognosis is rather favorable, that is 57% were Group I, 43% were improved after V-P shunt (Group II) and no Group III. But hydrocephalus with dirty cisternal enhancement results in grave prognosis, that is, Group I only 8%, Group II 54%, Group III 38%. With regard to overall hydrocephalus, predilection for good or bad prognosis can't be mentioned. 4. No prognostic difference were noted between presence and absence of periventricular low density in hydrocephalus. 5. CSF pressure of hydrocephalus is mostly high (over 20 cm H 2 O), but normal pressure hydrocephalus were noted in 24%. CSF pressure of normal ventricle size is mostly under 18 cm H 2 O but high pressure were noted in 18 % of the normal sized ventricle (most of them shows intracranial space occupying lesion such as granuloma, accute infarct, subdural effusion, etc). 6. Most of diffuse brain swelling, diffuse brain atrophy and subdural effusion result in Group I , that is , favorable clinical outcome. 7. Normal CT findings are found in 29%, of which 61% belong to Group I and 31% to Group

  9. Granulomatous colitis: findings on double contrast barium enema and follow-up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jong Gi; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, Seung Cheol; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema and changes on follow-up studies. Serial double contrast barium enema of six patients with granulomatous colitis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy were reviewed. We analyzed the radiologic findings and their follow-up changes, including aphthous ulcers, lymphoid hyperplasia, deep ulcers, cobble stone appearance, geographic ulcers, asymmetric involvement of ulcers, skip lesions, sinus tract, fistula formation, pseudosacculation, focal stricture, and small bowel involvement. Pretreatment double contrast barium enema findings were aphthous ulcers in five patients, deep ulcer in six, cobble stone appearance in five, longitudinal geographic ulcers in two, fistulas in one, pseudosacculations in two, focal stricture in one, and pseudopolyps in six. Also, anal ulcers were observed in two patients, asymmetric involvement of ulcers in three, skip lesions in four, and small bowel involvement in five in five patients proved to have inactive disease after treatment, aphthous ulcers and deep ulcers disappeared. Geographic ulcers of two patients and anal ulcer of one patients decreased in size or depth. Pseudosacculation in one patient disappeared. Pseudopolyps decreased in two patients, increased in one, and decreased after increase in two. One patient whose disease remained active after treatment showed maintenance or increase of ulcers or fistula. And their pseudosacculation or focal stricture unchanged and pseudopolyps decreased. The major radiologic findings of chronic granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema are aphthous ulcer, deep ulcer, cobble stone appearance, discontinuity of the lesion and coexistence of ulcers and pseudopolyps. And, double contrast barium enema is good follow-up modality because its findings correlate with clinical course of the granulomatous colitis after treatment

  10. Effectiveness of strategies to increase the validity of findings from association studies: size vs. replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallischnigg Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of multiple comparisons to produce false positive findings in genetic association studies is abundantly clear. To address this issue, the concept of false positive report probability (FPRP measures "the probability of no true association between a genetic variant and disease given a statistically significant finding". This concept involves the notion of prior probability of an association between a genetic variant and a disease, making it difficult to achieve acceptable levels for the FPRP when the prior probability is low. Increasing the sample size is of limited efficiency to improve the situation. Methods To further clarify this problem, the concept of true report probability (TRP is introduced by analogy to the positive predictive value (PPV of diagnostic testing. The approach is extended to consider the effects of replication studies. The formula for the TRP after k replication studies is mathematically derived and shown to be only dependent on prior probability, alpha, power, and number of replication studies. Results Case-control association studies are used to illustrate the TRP concept for replication strategies. Based on power considerations, a relationship is derived between TRP after k replication studies and sample size of each individual study. That relationship enables study designers optimization of study plans. Further, it is demonstrated that replication is efficient in increasing the TRP even in the case of low prior probability of an association and without requiring very large sample sizes for each individual study. Conclusions True report probability is a comprehensive and straightforward concept for assessing the validity of positive statistical testing results in association studies. By its extension to replication strategies it can be demonstrated in a transparent manner that replication is highly effective in distinguishing spurious from true associations. Based on the generalized TRP

  11. Editorial summary: findings from a survey on the Danish study progress reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Madsen, Simon Ryberg

    The summary presents the key findings from the first comprehensive survey of what students expect of the Danish Study Progress Reform. The summarised report is based on a survey conducted among 4.354 university students, who were asked to assess how they expect to manage their time and prioritise...... their activities in light of the Study Progress Reform’s requirements for faster completion. The survey was distributed in April 2015 as part of a politically independent research project funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research/Humanities (FKK)....

  12. Chondromalacia as pathological finding in arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Granizo, Rafael; Correa-Muñoz, Diana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the arthroscopic findings of chondromalacia and its relation with the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A total of 161 patients (299 TMJs) who underwent arthroscopy were included in the study. The TMJs were evaluated objectively under arthroscopic vision, and 4 groups of patients were established according to the degree of involvement, degree I, II, III and IV. Statistical analyses were conducted using logistic regression models (P chondromalacia and 66 (41%) in 88 joints exhibited some degree of chondromalacia (44 patients unilaterally and 22 bilaterally). Of the 88 joints with chondromalacia, 14 (15.9%) had chondromalacia degree I, 12 (13.6%) chondromalacia degree II, 20 (22.7%) chondromalacia degree III and 42 (47.7%) chondromalacia degree IV. The chondromalacia was more significantly found in patients with ADDwR and discal perforation (P Chondromalacia degree IV was a significant finding in cases of ADDwoR (P = 0.000619). Chondromalacia of the TMJ is a common finding in patients with internal derangement even at the early stages. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein

  14. [Etiological study of low fertility in eastern Gaboon. I. Scheme and first findings (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languillat, G; Albert, M; Tursz, A; Blot, P

    1977-10-30

    The etiological study conducted in 1975 in Haut-Ogooué and Ogooué-Lolo included 1,548 patients male and female. In the 21 investigated areas the patients were asked questions and examined by a medical team which took swabs so that bacterial, parastic, immunological and genetical assays could be carried out. The object of this article is to review the feasibility of such a local inquiry and state the first findings. Abnormalities of the epididymis are more commonly verified in non-fertile men. Microfilaremia is related to the presence of hydroceles and epididymis lesions. It shows more often in men with less than 3 children. The authors do not refer to any of physiopathology to explain these findings which need to be ascertained in further inquiries.

  15. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein.

  16. Imaging findings of primary breast sarcoma: Results of a first multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienbeck, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.wienbeck@med.uni-goettingen.de [University of Göttingen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Robert- Koch-Str. 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Meyer, Hans Jonas [University Hospital Halle, Department of Radiology, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Herzog, Aimee [University of Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Nemat, Sogand [University of Saarland, Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Kirrberger Str. 100, 66424 Homburg (Germany); Teifke, Andrea [University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Heindel, Walter [University of Münster, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 33, 48149 Münster (Germany); Schäfer, Fritz [University of Kiel, Institute of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Kinner, Sonja [University of Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Müller-Schimpfle, Markus [Clinic Frankfurt Höchst, Department of Radiology, Gotenstr. 6, 65929 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Surov, Alexey [University Hospital Halle, Department of Radiology, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Liebigstr. 20, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate imaging findings in patients with primary breast sarcoma (PBS). Materials and methods: A retrospective search in the databases of 10 radiological departments in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was performed. Only histologically proven cases of PBS were included into the study. Mammography was available in 31 patients (33 lesions), ultrasound images in 24 patients (24 lesions), and for 10 patients (14 lesions) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast was performed. The breast findings were classified according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) 5th edition categories. Collected data were evaluated by means of descriptive statistics. Results: Forty-two female patients (mean age 62.0 years, range, 30–86 years) were included in the study. Clinically, all women had painless lumps. Irregular (53.3% [16/30]) or oval (30.0% [9/30]) mass with indistinct (73.3% [22/30]) or microlobulated (10% [3/30]) margins were common findings on mammograms. Ultrasound revealed typically an irregular (79.2% [19/24]), hypoechoic (62.5% [15/24]) mass, with indistinct margins (79.2% [19/24]), and posterior acoustic shadowing (79.2% [19/24]). MRI showed irregular masses (81.8% [9/11]) with irregular or spiculated margins, and a rapid initial signal increase with a delayed washout in kinetic analysis. Conclusion: Overall, PBS has no pathognomonic imaging features and can mimic those of invasive mammary carcinoma. Breast sarcoma should be taken into the differential diagnosis of breast findings described above.

  17. Using Virtual Social Networks for Case Finding in Clinical Studies: An Experiment from Adolescence, Brain, Cognition, and Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Farzami, Jalal; Shirvani, Mahbubeh-Sadat Ebrahimnegad; Shams, Amir Hossein; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the main usages of social networks in clinical studies is facilitating the process of sampling and case finding for scientists. The main focus of this study is on comparing two different methods of sampling through phone calls and using social network, for study purposes. Methods: One of the researchers started calling 214 families of children with diabetes during 90 days. After this period, phone calls stopped, and the team started communicating with families through teleg...

  18. Comparative Study of the CT Findings and Clinical Features in Pediatric and Adult Sialadenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Jo, Seong Shik; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Yong Man

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to compare the CT findings and clinical features of parotitis and submandibular sialadenitis in children and adults and to evaluate the statistical significance of these in different age groups and the usefulness of a CT scan. Ninety-seven adults and 36 pediatric patients with sialadenitis were included in this retrospective study. Regardless of the site of involvement, we evaluated the CT findings and clinical manifestations between the pediatric and adult groups, and between the pediatric and adult parotitis and submandibular sialadenitis groups. At last, all the patients were classified into seven age groups. Abscess formations were more prominent in the parotitis groups, and sialiths were more common in the submandibular sialadenitis group with the lowest incidence in the young children group (≤ 10 years). Cellulitis seen on a CT scan showed a higher incidence in the adult parotitis group, and this finding was closely connected with pain. A number of patients showed cervical lymphadenitis on a CT scan and this coincided with lymph node palpation. Tonsillitis associated sialadenitis was common in the pediatric group. The therapeutic durations were longer in the pediatric parotitis patient group and the adult submandibular sialadenitis group. CT scans were very helpful to evaluate for abscess, stone, lymphadenitis and estimating the associated clinical manifestations such as swelling, palpable lymph nodes, pain with operation and the therapeutic plan

  19. Comparative studies of MRI and operative findings in rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Seigo; Ichikawa, Norikazu; Itadera, Eichi; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hajime

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with operative findings in the evaluation of patients associated with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-four of 60 shoulders (58 patients) examined by MRI were confirmed as full-thickness tears and 6 as partial-thickness tears at the time of surgery. The oblique coronal, oblique sagittal, and axial planes of T2-weighted images with the 0.5 tesla MRI system were obtained preoperatively and compared with operative findings. MRI correctly identified 46 of 54 full-thickness rotator cuff tears and 5 of 6 partial-thickness tears. A comparison of MRI and operative findings in full-thickness cuff tears showed a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 83%, and a positive prospective value (PPV) of 99%. A comparison of partial-thickness tears showed a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 85%, and PPV of 39%. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between the MRI assessment and measurement at the time of surgery (r=0.90, P<0.01). MRI was useful in evaluating large and medium-sized rotator cuff tears, but less useful in distinguishing small full-thickness tears from partial-thickness tears. (author)

  20. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho

    1993-01-01

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases

  1. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases.

  2. The behaviours that dementia care home staff in South Africa find challenging: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Adele; Manthorpe, Jill; Clark, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are often the reasons for moving to a care home. Care staff, often with limited dementia training, may have to support residents with distressed behaviour on a daily basis. Evidence about the support of residents with distressed or challenging behaviour in the South African context is lacking. This exploratory study aimed to gain an understanding of what care home staff perceived to be distressed behaviour, their coping strategies and how they learned to work with residents with behavioural symptoms of dementia. Methods An exploratory study was conducted among 17 participants working in four care homes in the Western Cape province of South Africa in 2014. Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded. Data were analysed thematically. Findings Findings reflected the literature with regard to examples of behavioural symptoms of people with dementia that staff find challenging to manage. Overall, the majority of staff reported holding positive feelings about working with people with dementia. All preferred interpersonal approaches to manage distressed behaviour above medication although a small minority noted the use of medication in some cases. Dementia training was considered by most participants as an unmet need. Conclusion This exploratory study identified care home workers' desires for training about dementia and their preferences for interpersonal as opposed to pharmacological approaches to managing residents' distressed behaviour. The legacy of race and cultural perspectives in South Africa appears to still influence care practice and provision. Staff commitment, their interest in advancing their practice and their aspirations to offer more person-centred care were evident. Dementia training was identified as potentially helpful to care home staff who manage residents' distressed behaviour. Training should be developed in South Africa to promote good practice.

  3. Identifying the most successful dose (MSD) in dose-finding studies in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Sarah; O'Quigley, John

    2006-01-01

    For a dose finding study in cancer, the most successful dose (MSD), among a group of available doses, is that dose at which the overall success rate is the highest. This rate is the product of the rate of seeing non-toxicities together with the rate of tumor response. A successful dose finding trial in this context is one where we manage to identify the MSD in an efficient manner. In practice we may also need to consider algorithms for identifying the MSD which can incorporate certain restrictions, the most common restriction maintaining the estimated toxicity rate alone below some maximum rate. In this case the MSD may correspond to a different level than that for the unconstrained MSD and, in providing a final recommendation, it is important to underline that it is subject to the given constraint. We work with the approach described in O'Quigley et al. [Biometrics 2001; 57(4):1018-1029]. The focus of that work was dose finding in HIV where both information on toxicity and efficacy were almost immediately available. Recent cancer studies are beginning to fall under this same heading where, as before, toxicity can be quickly evaluated and, in addition, we can rely on biological markers or other measures of tumor response. Mindful of the particular context of cancer, our purpose here is to consider the methodology developed by O'Quigley et al. and its practical implementation. We also carry out a study on the doubly under-parameterized model, developed by O'Quigley et al. but not

  4. Military Advertising Awareness and Effectiveness: Findings from the 1991 Youth Attitude Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    that are necessary to maintain effective impact on the target audience. Fortunately, YATS results indicate that previous Service advertising strategies ...I AD-A274 260 i DEFENSEI MANPOWER DATA CENTER I I Military Advertising Awareness and Effectiveness Finding from the 19I9I ~Youth Attitude Tracking...Study Market Research & Analysis Branch Aft TICI This do,.l .,-r, has, b--n ,oppsov,,d ARPOW E L E C T E I I o, ~b!: ,.•:. :.,d ,: . ![•-JAN 03 1994 93

  5. Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology and the spectrum of cognitive function: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kathryn P; Snowdon, David A; Markesbery, William R

    2002-05-01

    The development of interventions designed to delay the onset of dementia highlights the need to determine the neuropathologic characteristics of individuals whose cognitive function ranges from intact to demented, including those with mild cognitive impairments. We used the Braak method of staging Alzheimer's disease pathology in 130 women ages 76-102 years who were participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. All participants had complete autopsy data and were free from neuropathologic conditions other than Alzheimer's disease lesions that could affect cognitive function. Findings showed a strong relationship between Braak stage and cognitive state. The presence of memory impairment was associated with more severe Alzheimer's disease pathology and higher incidence of conversion to dementia in the groups classified as having mild or global cognitive impairments. In addition to Braak stage, atrophy of the neocortex was significantly related to the presence of dementia. Our data indicate that Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology is one of the neuropathologic substrates of mild cognitive impairments. Additional studies are needed to help explain the variability in neuropathologic findings seen in individuals whose cognitive performance falls between intact function and dementia.

  6. Family physicians' perspectives on interprofessional teamwork: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Olga; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Kennett, Sandra L; Bell, Neil R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe family physicians' perspectives of their role in the primary care team and factors that facilitate and hinder teamwork. A qualitative study was conducted employing individual interviews with 19 academic/community-based family physicians who were part of interprofessional primary care teams in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Professional responsibilities and roles of physicians within the team and the facilitators and barriers to teamwork were investigated. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes. The study findings revealed that family physicians consistently perceived themselves as having the leadership role on in the primary care team. Facilitators of teamwork included: communication; trust and respect; defined roles/responsibilities of team members; co-location; task shifting to other health professionals; and appropriate payment mechanisms. Barriers to teamwork included: undefined roles/responsibilities; lack of space; frequent staff turnover; network boundaries; and a culture of power and control. The findings suggest that moving family physicians toward more integrative and interdependent functioning within the primary care team will require overcoming the culture of traditional professional roles, addressing facilitators and barriers to teamwork, and providing training in teamwork.

  7. Electronic Commerce and Market Focus: some findings from a study of Swedish small to medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Vrazalic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as return on investment (ROI to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC, these decisions are becoming less reliant on ROI measures. Instead different driving forces are taking precedence in the decision making process. This paper presents the findings of a study of 118 Swedish small to medium enterprises (SMEs that have adopted EC. The results of the study suggest that improvements to customer service, internal efficiency and organisational competitiveness have become equally important when making EC investment decisions. The study also examined whether major market focus (local, regional, national or international had an influence on the organisation’s decision to adopt EC. Findings indicate no associations between the market focus and the driving forces, however the existence of a fully developed plan for EC adoption and the size of the business were found to be highly associated with the development of new markets as an EC adoption criteria.

  8. A neurophysiological study of facial numbness in multiple sclerosis: Integration with clinical data and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Kokotis, Panagiotis; Papagianni, Aikaterini E; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    To integrate neurophysiological findings with clinical and imaging data in a consecutive series of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients developing facial numbness during the course of an MS attack. Nine consecutive patients with MS and recent-onset facial numbness were studied clinically, imaged with routine MRI, and assessed neurophysiologically with trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential (TSEP), blink reflex (BR), masseter reflex (MR), facial nerve conduction, facial muscle and masseter EMG studies. All patients had unilateral facial hypoesthesia on examination and lesions in the ipsilateral pontine tegmentum on MRI. All patients had abnormal TSEPs upon stimulation of the affected side, excepting one that was tested following remission of numbness. BR was the second most sensitive neurophysiological method with 6/9 examinations exhibiting an abnormal R1 component. The MR was abnormal in 3/6 patients, always on the affected side. Facial conduction and EMG studies were normal in all patients but one. Facial numbness was always related to abnormal TSEPs. A concomitant R1 abnormality on BR allowed localization of the responsible pontine lesion, which closely corresponded with MRI findings. We conclude that neurophysiological assessment of MS patients with facial numbness is a sensitive tool, which complements MRI, and can improve lesion localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on multi-dimensional organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing multi-dimensional organizational culture. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different business units and collects 283 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.799. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.821 and 1395.74, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing organizational culture including, diversity in culture, connection based culture, integrated culture and structure of culture. In terms of diversity in culture, sensitivity to quality data and cultural flexibility are the most influential sub-factors while connection based marketing and relational satisfaction are two important sub-factors associated with diversity in culture. The study discusses other issues.

  10. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  11. Laparoscopic finding of female infertility-a study of 186 cases at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, N.; Fatima, A.; Parveen, S.; Tariq, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the various causes of female infertility, diagnosed at laparoscopy. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2008 to December 2010. Patients and Methods: A series of 186 patients, having either primary or secondary infertility admitted through gynae outpatient department undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and meeting inclusion criteria were studied. The data was collected prospectively and analysed in the form of frequency and percentages by using SPSS version 10. Results: Amongst the cohort of 186 patients, 148 (79.6%) had primary and 38 (20.4%) had secondary infertility. Their ages ranged from 20 to 43 years. Mean age of study participants was 30.14 +- 4.04 years. Mean duration of infertility was 9.5 years. No laparoscopic abnormality was found in 51 (27.9%), while there were abnormal findings in 135 (72.6%) patients. Conclusion: Commonest etiological factor was tubal blockade in both types of infertility. Other factors were endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and fibroids. Laparoscopy is minimally invasive yet a reliable procedure for visualization of internal architecture of the female pelvis. (author)

  12. [Clinical, biochemical and hepatic histological findings in overweight and obese Peruvian adults: first national prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle A, Martín; Poggi M, Luis; Ferrari G, Natalia; Siu G, Hugo; Aguinaga, Melina; Luna C, Eduardo; Scavino L, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, descriptive study in the Clinica Anglo Americana, a prívate institution taking care of patients from a medium-high socioeconomic level in Lima. The goal of the study was to determine the frequency of histologic findings in liver biopsies performed by laparoscopy or percutaneously in patients with overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2) or obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m2), and to evaluate the correlation with antropometric variables such as BMI, waist circumference, history of diabetes or hyperlypidemia, and biochemical variables like glycemia, lipid profile, aminotransferases and AST/ALT ratio. Between the years 2001 and 2006 50 patients were biopsied, 29 with overweight and 21 with obesity. Eighteen had simple steatosis and 22 had Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (44%), so 40 patients (80%) had some form of fatty liver. Five patients (10%) had cirrhosis confirmed by biopsy, and in all of them the finding of cirrhosis was completely incidental. Sixty four percent of patients with NASH were obese, like the 5 cirrhotics in our series. Herein we illustrate that in a relatively small sample of patients with obesity and overweight like ours, we found all the forms of the liver steatosis spectrum, from simple steatosis to cirrhosis, with a high frequency of NASH.

  13. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Foy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.

  14. Study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jeong Hwa

    2006-01-01

    The study obtained the following conclusions by making a comparative study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings. I surveyed the value of abdominal ultrasound in 400 patients without clinical symptoms at C Health Clinic Center, Seoul. Compare with blood pressure was high (systolic/diastolic) in 7.5%/4.5% on persons who were diagnosed fatty liver. At the time of the diagnosis, Total cholesterol level was increased in fatty liver patients, HDL-cholesterol level was high in fatty liver patients. And Trigryceride level was increased in fatty liver persons, LDL-cholesterol was high in fatty liver persons. SGOT level was increased in 5.5% on patients who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on persons who were normal and SGPT level was high in 29.5% on people who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on patients who were diagnosed normal

  15. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  16. Study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeong Hwa [Cheju Halla College, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The study obtained the following conclusions by making a comparative study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings. I surveyed the value of abdominal ultrasound in 400 patients without clinical symptoms at C Health Clinic Center, Seoul. Compare with blood pressure was high (systolic/diastolic) in 7.5%/4.5% on persons who were diagnosed fatty liver. At the time of the diagnosis, Total cholesterol level was increased in fatty liver patients, HDL-cholesterol level was high in fatty liver patients. And Trigryceride level was increased in fatty liver persons, LDL-cholesterol was high in fatty liver persons. SGOT level was increased in 5.5% on patients who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on persons who were normal and SGPT level was high in 29.5% on people who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on patients who were diagnosed normal.

  17. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on authenticity of brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Building an appropriate brand always makes it possible to reach better market share in competitive market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing the authenticity of brand. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from chain stores in city of Tehran, Iran and collects 388 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.712. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.748 and 1718.212, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including brand identification, brand registration, brand position, perception image from the brand and trust to brand.

  18. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management plays an important role in modern management systems since many existing systems move towards learning organizations. Expert systems, on the other hand, are considered as the most popular techniques for adapting recent developments on knowledge management. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing adaptation of expert systems. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 25 questions, distributes it among 258 people who have recently graduated from computer science and they are familiar with implementation of expert systems. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.730 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.748 and 1377.397, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing expert systems including systems management, intelligence systems, system analysis and specialized analysis.

  19. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

  20. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1972-01-01

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

  1. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality.

  2. Cognitive function and apolipoprotein E in very old adults: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K P; Snowdon, D A; Saunders, A M; Roses, A D; Mortimer, J A; Nanayakkara, N

    2000-03-01

    The epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been associated with Alzheimer' s disease and with milder forms of cognitive impairment. We investigated the possibility that the absence of the epsilon4 allele may predict the maintenance of high cognitive function among very old individuals. Our data are from the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease in 678 Catholic sisters. All sisters participate in annual functional exams that include the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. High cognitive function was defined as intact scores on five of the CERAD tests. A total of 241 participants aged 75 to 98 met this criterion at the first exam. Findings showed that 62% of the 241 participants maintained intact scores on the five CERAD tests throughout their participation in the study. Life table analyses indicated that those without the APOE epsilon4 allele spent more time with intact cognitive function than those with the epsilon4 allele (p = .007). Cox regression analyses indicated that those without the epsilon4 allele had half the risk of losing their intact status during the study when compared with those with the epsilon4 allele (p < .01). Our findings suggest that the APOE epsilon4 allele may be included among the variables that predict high cognitive function in cognitively intact, very old adults. Although the presence or absence of the epsilon4 allele is known to be related to the risk of dementia, it also appears to be related to maintaining high levels of cognitive function in old age.

  3. Bone marrow abnormality associated with painful osteoarthritis of the knee. A cross-sectional study of magnetic resonance imaging findings with the radiographic stage and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Mitsuaki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kim, Song-Gon; Seto, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow abnormalities (BMAs) are frequently found in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some reports have suggested BMA was correlated with the X-ray stage of OA and also with knee pain, but the reports depended on two-dimensional images without considering the spatial expansion of BMAs. To determine whether three-dimensional expansion of a BMA with MRI in patient with medial-type OA of the knee is correlated with the radiographic stage of OA and clinical findings using a semi-quantitative method. Cross-sectional study. This study enrolled 238 patients with medial-type OA. Radiography and MRI of the knee were taken in all participants. X-rays were graded using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade (1-4). T2-weighted fat-suppressed MRI images were used to score the size of the BMA according to the whole-organ MRI score (WORMS). A new scoring system defined as the spatial BMA score (s-score), which specifically addressed the spatial expansion of BMAs, was examined to assess the size of the BMA. BMA frequency was examined in subdivisions of the articular surfaces of the knee according to the X-ray stages of the K/L grade and the correlation of the s-score to the clinical findings. BMA frequency in the medial femorotibial joint (MFTJ; 74%) was significantly higher than in the lateral femorotibial joint (LFTJ; 14%) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ; 14%; P<0.01). The s-score of the MFTJ was strongly correlated with the X-ray stage assessed by the K/L grade. The s-score of the MFTJ was also correlated with the clinical findings. The frequency and spatial expansion of BMAs in the MFTJ are strongly correlated with the X-ray stage of medial-type OA as well as the clinical findings. (author)

  4. The effects of ecstasy on neurotransmitter systems: a review on the findings of molecular imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegting, Yosta; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Ecstasy is a commonly used psychoactive drug with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the main content. Importantly, it has been suggested that use of MDMA may be neurotoxic particularly for serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) neurons. In the past decades, several molecular imaging studies examined directly in vivo the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on neurotransmitter systems. The objective of the present study is to review the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on neurotransmitter systems as assessed by molecular imaging studies in small animals, non-human primates and humans. A search in PubMed was performed. Eighty-eight articles were found on which inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria; all were focused on the 5-HT or dopamine (DA) system. Importantly, 9 out of 11 of the animal studies that examined the effects of MDMA on 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability showed a significant loss of binding potential. In human studies, this was the case for 14 out of 16 studies, particularly in heavy users. In abstinent users, significant recovery of SERT binding was found over time. Most imaging studies in humans that focused on the DA system did not find any significant effect of ecstasy/MDMA use. Preclinical and clinical molecular imaging studies on the effects of ecstasy/MDMA use/administration on neurotransmitter systems show quite consistent alterations of the 5-HT system. Particularly, in human studies, loss of SERT binding was observed in heavy ecstasy users, which might reflect 5-HT neurotoxicity, although alternative explanations (e.g. down-regulation of the SERT) cannot be excluded.

  5. Temporal bone trauma: correlative study between CT findings and clinical manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    1994-01-01

    To assess how accurately computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate the abnormal findings which are believed to cause the clinical signs and symptoms of hearing loss (HL), vertigo and facial paralysis (FP) in patients with temporal bone trauma. The authors studied CT scans of 39 ears in 35 patients with temporal bone trauma. CT scans were performed with 1-1.5 mm slice thickness and table incrementation. Both axial and coronal scans were obtained in 32 patients and in three patients only axial scans were obtained. We analyzed CT with special reference to the structural abnormalities of the external auditory canal, middle ear cavity, bony labyrinth, and facial nerve canal, and correlated these findings with the actual clinical signs and symptoms. As to hearing loss, we evaluated 32 ears in which pure tone audiometry or brainstem evoked response audiometry had been performed. With respect to the specific types of HL, CT accurately showed the abnormalities in 84% (16/19) in conductive HL, 100% (2/2) in sensorineural HL, and 25% (2/8) for mixed HL. When we categorized HL simply as conductive and sensorineural, assuming that mixed be the result of combined conductive and sensorineural HL, CT demonstrated the abnormalities in 89% (24/27) for conductive HL and 50% (5/10) for sensorineural HL. Concerning vertigo and FP, CT demonstrated abnormalities in 67%(4/6), and 29% (4/14), respectively. Except for conductive HL, CT seems to have a variable degree of limitation for the demonstration of the structural abnormalities resulting sensorineural HL, vertigo or facial paralysis. It is imperative to correlate the CT findings with the signs and symptoms in those clinical settings

  6. Temporal bone trauma: correlative study between CT findings and clinical manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To assess how accurately computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate the abnormal findings which are believed to cause the clinical signs and symptoms of hearing loss (HL), vertigo and facial paralysis (FP) in patients with temporal bone trauma. The authors studied CT scans of 39 ears in 35 patients with temporal bone trauma. CT scans were performed with 1-1.5 mm slice thickness and table incrementation. Both axial and coronal scans were obtained in 32 patients and in three patients only axial scans were obtained. We analyzed CT with special reference to the structural abnormalities of the external auditory canal, middle ear cavity, bony labyrinth, and facial nerve canal, and correlated these findings with the actual clinical signs and symptoms. As to hearing loss, we evaluated 32 ears in which pure tone audiometry or brainstem evoked response audiometry had been performed. With respect to the specific types of HL, CT accurately showed the abnormalities in 84% (16/19) in conductive HL, 100% (2/2) in sensorineural HL, and 25% (2/8) for mixed HL. When we categorized HL simply as conductive and sensorineural, assuming that mixed be the result of combined conductive and sensorineural HL, CT demonstrated the abnormalities in 89% (24/27) for conductive HL and 50% (5/10) for sensorineural HL. Concerning vertigo and FP, CT demonstrated abnormalities in 67%(4/6), and 29% (4/14), respectively. Except for conductive HL, CT seems to have a variable degree of limitation for the demonstration of the structural abnormalities resulting sensorineural HL, vertigo or facial paralysis. It is imperative to correlate the CT findings with the signs and symptoms in those clinical settings.

  7. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  8. Neurological Assessment and Nerve Conduction Study Findings in 22 Patients with Alkaptonuria from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawashdeh, Omar; Alsbou, Mohammad; Alzoubi, Hamed; Al-Shagahin, Hani

    2016-11-02

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease characterised by accumulative deposition of homogentisic acid in the connective tissue of the body. This results in early degeneration of tendons, cartilages, heart valves, and other tissues. The main objective of the study is to examine the possibility of the nervous system involvement in patients with alkaptonuria The sample consists of two groups; 22 patients with AKU and 20 controls. A neurological assessment has been carried out including detailed medical history, neurological examination, and a nerve conduction study of the nerves of the dominant hand. The prevalence of any abnormality was compared between the two groups using chi square test. The mean values of the nerve conduction study were compared between the two groups using student t-test. There was a higher prevalence of low back pain, hearing problems and tinnitus, numbness and neuropathic pain in alkaptonuria patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other conditions such as seizures, headache, and syncope. The values of the nerve conduction study did not show significant difference between the two groups. Neurologically related symptoms in alkaptonuria mostly represent complications of the connective tissue degeneration rather than direct involvement of the nervous system. This has been supported further by the normal findings of the neurophysiology study in patients with alkaptonuria.

  9. Neurological assessment and nerve conduction study findings in 22 patients with alkaptonuria from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alrawashdeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease characterised by accumulative deposition of homogentisic acid in the connective tissue of the body. This results in early degeneration of tendons, cartilages, heart valves, and other tissues. The main objective of the study is to examine the possibility of the nervous system involvement in patients with alkaptonuria The sample consists of two groups; 22 patients with AKU and 20 controls. A neurological assessment has been carried out including detailed medical history, neurological examination, and a nerve conduction study of the nerves of the dominant hand. The prevalence of any abnormality was compared between the two groups using chi square test. The mean values of the nerve conduction study were compared between the two groups using student t-test. There was a higher prevalence of low back pain, hearing problems and tinnitus, numbness and neuropathic pain in alkaptonuria patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other conditions such as seizures, headache, and syncope. The values of the nerve conduction study did not show significant difference between the two groups. Neurologically related symptoms in alkaptonuria mostly represent complications of the connective tissue degeneration rather than direct involvement of the nervous system. This has been supported further by the normal findings of the neurophysiology study in patients with alkaptonuria.

  10. Older Adults' Experiences of Sexual Difficulties: Qualitative Findings From the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Tetley, Josie; Lee, David; Nazroo, James

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that sexual activity is important to the quality of life of older adults, and that it can be influenced by physical, psychological, and social factors. However, older adults' experiences of sexual difficulties remain relatively unexplored. This article draws on qualitative data collected as part of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Participants answered a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q), which included an open comment box for further details, 1,084 (1/7) of which were completed. These data were analyzed using Template Analysis, and findings on the experiences of sexual difficulties are presented in this article. Sexual difficulties were contextualized within the couple relationship and could be detrimental to the relationship, particularly if the partner would not seek professional help. Participants reported that sexual difficulties could also have a negative impact on psychological well-being, described mainly as frustration, depression, and sadness. For some participants the supportive nature of their relationship buffered these impacts. Few had sought professional help; those who had reported helpful and unhelpful experiences. These findings add to the limited evidence base and have implications for health care in the context of global aging and a growing recognition of older adults' sexual rights.

  11. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625

  12. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of signalment, presentation and clinical findings in 369 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M W S; Stafford Johnson, M J; Celona, B

    2009-01-01

    To review the clinical and diagnostic findings and survival of dilated cardiomyopathy from a large population of dogs in England. A retrospective study of the case records of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy collected between January 1993 and May 2006. There were 369 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy of which all were pure-bred dogs except for four. The most commonly affected breeds were dobermanns and boxers. Over 95 per cent of dogs weighed more than 15 kg and 73 per cent were male. The median duration of signs before referral was three weeks with 65 per cent presenting in stage 3 heart failure. The most common signs were breathlessness (67 per cent) and coughing (64 per cent). The majority of dogs (89 per cent) had an arrhythmia at presentation and 74 per cent of dogs had radiographic signs of pulmonary oedema or pleural effusion. The median survival time was 19 weeks. Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs primarily in medium to large breed pure-bred dogs, and males are more frequently affected than females. The duration of clinical signs before referral is often short and the survival times are poor. Greater awareness of affected breeds, clinical signs and diagnostic findings may help in early recognition of this disease which often has a short clinical phase.

  13. Incidental finding of breast cancer during myocardial perfusion imaging - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglica, Deanna L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are many incidences in Nuclear Medicine where incidental findings of pathologies other than those under investigation are found. This is mainly due to the non-specific biodistribution of the radiopharmaceuticals throughout the body. Sestamibi is one such agent that can be used for multi-imaging purposes, such as cardiac, parathyroid and carcinoma imaging. A female patient with a known history of cardiac disease presented to our department for a myocardial perfusion stress rest study. Dipryridamole was used instead of an exercise test due to leg pain and poor patient mobility. 450MBq of 99mTc- Sestamibi was injected into the patient during stress and a further IOOOMBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi during rest approximately three hours later. Post stress/rest images illustrated not only a small inferolateral infarct, but also an abnormal focus of increased activity in the right breast in the lower outer quadrant. Knowing 99mTc-Sestamibi to have a high affinity to carcinoma cells, the abnormal focal uptake was correctly diagnosed as a breast cancer malignancy. Breast cancer was confirmed on mammography and the patient underwent breast surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This case highlights the importance of thoroughly checking all cardiac SPECT 99mTc-Sestamibi cine images for incidental findings of other pathologies.

  14. Pediatric solid organ transplantation and osteoporosis: a descriptive study on bone histomorphometric findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Inari S; Valta, Helena; Jalanko, Hannu; Salminen, Sari; Mäyränpää, Mervi K; Isaksson, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-08-01

    Organ transplantation may lead to secondary osteoporosis in children. This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 19 children (7.6-18.8 years, 11 male) who had undergone kidney (n = 6), liver (n = 9), or heart (n = 4) transplantation a median 4.6 years (range 0.6-16.3 years) earlier. All patients had received oral glucocorticoids at the time of the biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 21 % had sustained peripheral fractures and 58 % vertebral compression fractures. Nine children (47 %) had a lumbar spine BMD Z-score below -2.0. Histomorphometric analyses showed low trabecular bone volume (bone turnover at biopsy, and low turnover was found in 6 children (32 %), 1 of whom had adynamic bone disease. There was a great heterogeneity in the histological findings in different transplant groups, and the results were unpredictable using non-invasive methods. The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  15. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.mishra@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia B. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Patel, Kishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Methods and Materials: From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (<2 mm) were excluded, CPT still resulted in significantly improved LC: 100% versus 90% at 5 years and 98% versus 86% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.048). Enucleation rate was lower after CPT: 11% versus 22% at 5 years and 17% versus 37% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.01). Using Cox regression model, likelihood ratio test, treatment was the most important predictor of LC (P=.0002) and eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

  16. General Practitioners' Concerns About Online Patient Feedback: Findings From a Descriptive Exploratory Qualitative Study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma; Cain, Rebecca; Neailey, Kevin; Hooberman, Lucy

    2015-12-08

    The growth in the volume of online patient feedback, including online patient ratings and comments, suggests that patients are embracing the opportunity to review online their experience of receiving health care. Very little is known about health care professionals' attitudes toward online patient feedback and whether health care professionals are comfortable with the public nature of the feedback. The aim of the overall study was to explore and describe general practitioners' attitudes toward online patient feedback. This paper reports on the findings of one of the aims of the study, which was to explore and understand the concerns that general practitioners (GPs) in England have about online patient feedback. This could then be used to improve online patient feedback platforms and help to increase usage of online patient feedback by GPs and, by extension, their patients. A descriptive qualitative approach using face-to-face semistructured interviews was used in this study. A topic guide was developed following a literature review and discussions with key stakeholders. GPs (N=20) were recruited from Cambridgeshire, London, and Northwest England through probability and snowball sampling. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed in NVivo using the framework method, a form of thematic analysis. Most participants in this study had concerns about online patient feedback. They questioned the validity of online patient feedback because of data and user biases and lack of representativeness, the usability of online patient feedback due to the feedback being anonymous, the transparency of online patient feedback because of the risk of false allegations and breaching confidentiality, and the resulting impact of all those factors on them, their professional practice, and their relationship with their patients. The majority of GPs interviewed had reservations and concerns about online patient feedback and questioned its validity and usefulness among other things

  17. Antioxidants and reduced functional capacity in the elderly: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Gross, M D; Butler, S M

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of plasma antioxidants to reduced functional capacity in the elderly. A hallmark of reduced functional capacity in the elderly is dependence in self-care (i.e., requiring assistance with bathing, walking, dressing, standing, toileting, and feeding). This relationship was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 88 Catholic sisters (nuns). These 77- to 98-year-old women lived in the same building, ate food prepared in the same kitchen, and had all nursing services provided by the same staff. In 1993, ability to perform self-care was assessed, and blood was drawn to determine plasma carotenoids (lycopene, beta carotene, alpha carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein combined, and beta cryptoxanthin) and alpha tocopherol. Dependence in self-care had a strong negative association with lycopene, but was not clearly related to other carotenoids or alpha tocopherol. Results from age-adjusted least squares regression indicated that a 30 micrograms/dl decrease in lycopene was associated with 2.4 additional dependencies in self-care (95% confidence interval = 1.5, 3.3; p study to report an association between lycopene and functional status. This finding needs to be replicated in other human and animal studies before the association is accepted as real.

  18. Chronic Meningitis: A study on epidemiological and clinical findings, treatment results and prognosis of 97 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Ahmadinejad Z

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system’s disorders including chronic meningitis (CM have considerable mortality and irreversible complications, and diagnosis and treatment of CM is difficult. In this retrospective study we reviwed epidemiological and clinical findings, treatment results and prognostic factors of 97 patients with CM admitted in Imam Khomeini hospital for the last 10 years. Important etiological factors in this study included: Mycobacterium Tuberculousis (8.2% Brucellae SP (5.2%, malignancies (1% and unknown (85.5%; the sexual ratio was 2:1 (Male/Female and the most common clinical manifestations were: fever, headache, cranial and motor neuron involvement, seizure and ataxia. Treatment regimens used included antituberculosis agents with or witout corticosteroids, in which the prognosis was better in patients who had been treated with antituberculosis agents alone. The mortality rate was 22.7%, which was in accordance with other studies. We suggest using of antituberculosis treatment alone in comparison with antituberculosis and corticosteroid. Last but not least a double blind randomized clinical trial for a longer period is needed to further substantiate the results of this study.

  19. Comparative Study between Perfusion Changes and Positive Findings on Coronary Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Roberto Frack Costantini

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Functional assessment of coronary artery obstruction is used in cardiology practice to correlate anatomic obstructions with flow decrease. Among such assessments, the study of the coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR has become the most widely used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between FFR and findings of ischemia obtained by noninvasive methods including stress echocardiography and nuclear medicine and the presence of critical coronary artery obstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of cases treated with systematized and standardized procedures for coronary disease between March 2011 and August 2014. We included 96 patients with 107 critical coronary obstructions (> 50% in the coronary trunk and/or ≥ 70% in other segments estimated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS. All cases presented ischemia in one of the noninvasive studies. Results: All 96 patients presented ischemia (100% in one of the functional tests. On FFR study with adenosine 140 g/kg/min, 52% of the cases had values ≤ 0.80. On correlation analysis for FFR ≤ 0.80, the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curve in relation to the stenosis degree and length, and presence of ischemia, no significant values or strong correlation were observed. Conclusion: Coronary FFR using a cut-off value of 0.80 showed no correlation with noninvasive ischemia tests in patients with severe coronary artery obstructions on QCA and ICUS.

  20. Does gender discrimination impact regular mammography screening? Findings from the race differences in screening mammography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A

    2008-03-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.

  1. Associations among daily stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  3. Early studies reported extreme findings with large variability: a meta-epidemiologic study in the field of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Alahdab, Fares; Almasri, Jehad; Haydour, Qusay; Mohammed, Khaled; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Prokop, Larry J; Alfarkh, Wedad; Lakis, Sumaya; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the presence of extreme findings and fluctuation in effect size in endocrinology. We systematically identified all meta-analyses published in 2014 in the field of endocrinology. Within each meta-analysis, the effect size of the primary binary outcome was compared across studies according to their order of publication. We pooled studies using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I(2) and tau(2). Twelve percent of the included 100 meta-analyses reported the largest effect size in the very first published study. The largest effect size occurred in the first 2 earliest studies in 31% of meta-analyses. When the effect size was the largest in the first published study, it was three times larger than the final pooled effect (ratio of rates, 3.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 5.90). The largest heterogeneity measured by I(2) was observed in 18% of the included meta-analyses when combining the first 2 studies or 17% when combing the first 3 studies. In endocrinology, early studies reported extreme findings with large variability. This behavior of the evidence needs to be taken into account when used to formulate clinical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma by computed tomography. Study in comparison with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunetomi, Shigeyuki; Ohto, Masao; Iino, Yasuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-01-01

    The capability of CT in detecting small hepatocellular carcinoma less than 5 cm in size was studied in 48 patients. Changes in the density of the tumors were analyzed in comparison with the pathologic and angiographic findings. Iso-density was the main cause that made the tumors undetectable in either precontrast or post-contrast scan. By combination of precontrast and postcontrast scans, the majority of the tumors larger than 2 cm were detected. In precontrast scan, the density of the tumors was related to bleeding, necrosis and fatty degeneration in the cancer tissue, and fatty degeneration in the non-cancer tissue. In postcontrast scan, it was related to bleeding, necrosis, fatty degeneration and blood spaces in the cancer tissue. Thus, CT can demonstrate accurately the pathological changes of the tumors as images, and it may be useful not only in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma, but also in the assessment of the therapeutic effects.

  5. Issues around childhood disclosure of HIV status - findings from a qualitative study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Detels, R; Javanbakht, M; Panda, S

    2016-07-01

    Informing the children living with HIV (CLH) about their disease (disclosure) is important from the perspective of disease treatment and overall psychosocial development. There are no published studies that qualitatively explored HIV disclosure-related issues among CLH in India. Our aim was to provide insights into the perceptions of informal caregivers of CLH regarding childhood disclosure. Children were defined as those aged maturity or was of marriageable age. Disclosure of HIV status to children is an emotional issue, both for the caregiver and the child. Like most low-or middle-income countries, no standardized, age-appropriate disclosure guidelines exist in India. Our findings advocate adoption of a multi-faceted approach, including increased availability of social and familial support, for childhood HIV disclosure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cultural Orientation Trajectories and Substance Use: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2017-03-01

    Cultural adaptation may influence Latino youth substance use (SU) development, yet few longitudinal studies have examined cultural change over time and adolescent SU outcomes. Using longitudinal data collected annually across ages 10-16 from 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), the authors characterized cultural adaptation patterns for language use (English and Spanish use), values (American values and familism values), and identity (ethnic pride), and examined whether these cultural adaptation patterns were associated with differential SU risk. Youth with increasing bilingualism and high/stable family values had lower SU risk compared to youth who primarily spoke English and endorsed decreasing family values, respectively. Ethnic pride trajectories were not associated with SU. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural change related to Latino youth SU. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. The causes of homelessness in later life: findings from a 3-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Maureen; Byrne, Kathleen; Fu, Ruby; Lipmann, Bryan; Mirabelli, Frances; Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Ryan, Maureen; Shea, Robert; Watt, Hope; Warnes, Anthony M

    2005-05-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the causes of homelessness among newly homeless older people in selected urban areas of the United States, England, and Australia. Interviews were conducted in each country with > or =122 older people who had become homeless during the last 2 years. Information was also collected from the subjects' key workers about the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. Two-thirds of the subjects had never been homeless before. Antecedent causes were the accommodation was sold or needed repair, rent arrears, death of a close relative, relationship breakdown, and disputes with other tenants and neighbors. Contributory factors were physical and mental health problems, alcohol abuse, and gambling problems. Most subjects became homeless through a combination of personal problems and incapacities, welfare policy gaps, and service delivery deficiencies. Whereas there are nation-specific variations, across the three countries, the principal causes and their interactions are similar.

  8. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.75 and 1292.573, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived six factors including brand transparency, expected quality, brand promises, brand support and brand sustainability.

  9. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on enterprise resource planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP has become a necessary in many organizations and many business units have been trying to emerge into an integrated system. There are many advantages on having an efficient ERP but many corporations fail to reach a full operational ERP for many reasons. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing ERP implementation in one of the biggest Iranian automakers named Iran Khodro. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 46 questions, distributes it among some managers in this firm. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.788 and 1677.307, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived eight factors including intelligence information, customer comfort, structure oriented, resource management, process oriented, customer oriented, flexible structure and knowledge management.

  10. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on decision support systems

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    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSSs are computer-based information systems for providing necessary supports for business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs often serve the management, operations, and planning levels of all organizations and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily achieved in advance. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing DSSs. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 36 questions, distributes it among 213 employees who work for different offices in municipality of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.872. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.782 and 1014.521, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived three factors including system, analysis and transaction.

  11. Intraindividual change and variability in daily stress processes: Findings from two measurement-burst diary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little longitudinal information on aging-related changes in emotional responses to negative events. The present manuscript examined intraindividual change and variability in the within-person coupling of daily stress and negative affect (NA) using data from two-measurement burst daily diary studies. Three main findings emerged. First, average reactivity to daily stress increased longitudinally, and this increase was evident across most the adult lifespan. Second, individual differences in emotional reactivity to daily stress exhibited long-term temporal stability, but this stability was greatest in midlife and decreased in old age. And third, reactivity to daily stress varied reliably within-persons (across-time), with individual exhibiting higher levels of reactivity during times when reporting high levels of global subject stress in previous month. Taken together, the present results emphasize the importance of modeling dynamic psychosocial and aging processes that operate across different time scales for understanding age-related changes in daily stress processes. PMID:20025399

  12. Atypical Radiological Findings in Patients with Hydatid Cysts of the Lung, Study of 1024 Cases

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    Majid Mirsadraee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The objective of this study was to give a description of the most prominent atypical radiological presentations of lung hydatidosis. Materials and methods: All patients diagnosed with pulmonary hydatidosis by surgical exploration were included in this study. Standard chest roentgenogram and computed tomography CT were evaluated before surgery for lung cysts or unknown lesions. Radiological findings were divided into two categories: 1- Typical hydatid cysts that were previously presented by imaging as a hydatid cyst in the form of an intact cyst, water lily sign and crescent sign. 2- Atypical hydatid cysts that were not similar to typical previously mentioned hydatid cysts. Results: During a 26-year period, 1024 subjects with pulmonary hydatidosis were diagnosed and operated on. Chest X-rays (interpreted in 832 cases showed perforated cysts in 190 (23% and atypical findings such as mass, alveolar type infiltration, abscess and collapse in 113 (13% patients. Seventy-nine patients had a thoracic CT scan in which atypical cysts were detected in 32 subjects (40.5% such as: thick wall cavity in 9 patients (28%, solid masses in 7 (21%, abscesses in 6 (18%, consolidation in 3 (9%, fungus balls in 3 (9%, collapse (atelectasis in 2 (6% and round pneumonia in 2 (6%. Cavity was significantly more frequent in the right lung (90% and mass-like opacity was significantly more frequent in the lower lung field (100%. Conclusion: Hydatid cysts should be considered for most of localized radiological pictures of the lung without respect to localization, size and count of lesions.

  13. Radiological findings of dissecting aneurysm -a correlative study of CT with angiography-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Tae Yeong; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung

    1987-01-01

    This study comprised 16 patients with aortic dissecting aneurysm who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital from May 1984 to January 1987. CT findings in 16 cases of aortic dissecting aneurysm were correlated with angiographic findings retrospectively. The results were analysed. 1. Number of male was 11 and that of female was 5. Male patients in fifties were most common and 4 in number. 13 patients had hypertension or history of hypertension among 14 patients. There were one case of Marfan's syndrome, preeclampsia and Takayasu's arteritis respectively. 2. There were 5 cases of DeBakey type I, 1 case of type II and 9 cases of types III dissecting aneurysm. Type III was most common. 3. CT confirmed as superior vena cava which was not identified whether it was superior vena cava or unopacified false lumen by angiography in one case. Regarding distal extent, authors defined A whose extent was proximal to diaphragm and B beyond it for convenience sake. There was one false negative case in CT among 16 cases which was diagnosed as dissecting aneurysm type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type III surgically. One case was diagnosed as type IB by CT and as type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type I surgically. Extent was more accurate in CT than angiography. One case was diagnosed as type II by CT but misdiagnosed as right atrial tumor by angiography. 4. Diagnostic sensitivities of CT and angiography in this study were 94% (15/16) respectively. CT was more advantageous in hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemomediastinum, unopacified false lumen, aortic wall calcification and getting information about mediastinum. In angiography aortic regurgitation and tear site and involvement of abdominal vessels could be observed

  14. Ultrasonographic findings in patients examined in cataract detection-andtreatment campaigns: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns. METHODS: The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied. RESULTS: A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes. DISCUSSION: In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.

  15. A comparative study of computerized tomograms and neuropathological findings in cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohgi, Hideo; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Iio, Masahiro; Yamada, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The reliability of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases was studied by comparing CT images and neuropathological findings in 38 autopsied cases. Our special concern was directed toward several factors which caused false positive and false negative results in CT: the size and location of lesions, and the interval between the onset of the disease and the time of CT studies. Infarctions smaller than 5 mm should be interpreted as such with great care, because only 32.1% of them could be detected in CT, and 81.0% of small low density areas supposed to be small infarctions in CT films proved to be false positive in postmortem examination. 41.9% of middle-sized infarctions were detected in CT and 40.9% of middle-sized low density areas were false positive. Most of false positive low density areas appeared on the surface of the cerebrum where deep sulci join, or in the white matter anterior to the anterior horn or posterior to the posterior horn of the lateral ventricles. The possibility of false positive findings became far less, when the number of slices showing low density areas increased. All of the large infarctions were detected in CT. However, immediately after stroke they did not stand out as low density areas. In such cases, the decrease of cerebral sulci due to brain edema and signs of compression in the ventricular system could be the clues to make the diagnosis of large infarctions. The diagnosis of hemorrhagic infarctions was often difficult. Cerebral bleeding could be diagnosed easily by CT in its early period. However, old hematomas which rapidly resolved and became shrunken, could hardly be identified in CT. (author)

  16. Radiological findings of dissecting aneurysm -a correlative study of CT with angiography-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Tae Yeong; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    This study comprised 16 patients with aortic dissecting aneurysm who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital from May 1984 to January 1987. CT findings in 16 cases of aortic dissecting aneurysm were correlated with angiographic findings retrospectively. The results were analysed. 1. Number of male was 11 and that of female was 5. Male patients in fifties were most common and 4 in number. 13 patients had hypertension or history of hypertension among 14 patients. There were one case of Marfan's syndrome, preeclampsia and Takayasu's arteritis respectively. 2. There were 5 cases of DeBakey type I, 1 case of type II and 9 cases of types III dissecting aneurysm. Type III was most common. 3. CT confirmed as superior vena cava which was not identified whether it was superior vena cava or unopacified false lumen by angiography in one case. Regarding distal extent, authors defined A whose extent was proximal to diaphragm and B beyond it for convenience sake. There was one false negative case in CT among 16 cases which was diagnosed as dissecting aneurysm type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type III surgically. One case was diagnosed as type IB by CT and as type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type I surgically. Extent was more accurate in CT than angiography. One case was diagnosed as type II by CT but misdiagnosed as right atrial tumor by angiography. 4. Diagnostic sensitivities of CT and angiography in this study were 94% (15/16) respectively. CT was more advantageous in hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemomediastinum, unopacified false lumen, aortic wall calcification and getting information about mediastinum. In angiography aortic regurgitation and tear site and involvement of abdominal vessels could be observed.

  17. Child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis: a correlative study of CT findings and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Miao; Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei; Guo Yan; Ye Bingbing; Xiao Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT imaging in the diagnosis of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis. Methods: CT manifestations of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis were retrospectively analyzed. In total 7 males and 1 female, 2 to 11 years old, were enrolled in study. All cases had been confirmed by surgery and pathology. CT findings were correlatively studied with pathology. Results: Lesions located on the left side were noted in 7 cases, and a lesion located on right side was seen in the rest 1 cam The lesions were elliptical or lobulated on CT images. Three tumors originated from solitary muscle and multiple muscles were involved in other 5 cases. Tumors were well demarcated. Invasion to the adjacent structure was shown in 7 cases. All tumors were homogeneous in density in non-enhanced scan. Compared to the muscles in the same section, 5 tumors were iso -density and 3 tumors were hypo-density. Inside the lesions no hemorrhage, necrosis, cystic degeneration and calcification was revealed. After contrast medium was administrated, iso-dense and homogeneous enhancement as the adjacent muscles was seen in 1 tumor and apparent enhancement were demonstrated in 7 tumors. Seven tumors tended to grow along the longitudinal axis of muscles and infiltrated into fascial space. Atrophy resulting from compression was shown in the adjacent muscles in 6 cases. The major clinical manifestation was limp. Gluteal aggressive fibromatosis was confirmed by pathology in all cases. Conclusion: There are characteristics of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis in age of onset, gender of the patients, site of the lesion and CT findings as well. CT manifestations were consistent with pathology. CT imaging is helpful in initial diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as in assessing the expansion of the tumor and involvement of the adjacent structures. (authors)

  18. Cultural diversity in heart failure management: findings from the DISCOVER study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Macdonald, Peter; Moser, Debra K; Ang, Esther; Paull, Glenn; Choucair, Sam; Daly, John; Gholizadeh, Leila; Dracup, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Self-management is a critical dimension in managing chronic conditions, particularly in heart failure (HF). Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, relating to both illness and wellness, are strongly influenced by culture and ethnicity, impacting upon an individual's capacity to engage in self-care behaviours. Effective management of HF is largely dependent on facilitation of culturally informed, self-care behaviours to increase adherence to both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. The Understanding the cultural experiences of individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) in South East Health (DISCOVER) study is an exploratory, observational study investigating health patterns, information needs and the adjustment process for overseas-born people with HF living in Australia. An integrative literature review was augmented by qualitative data derived from key informant interviews, focus groups and individual interviews. A key finding of this study is that culture provides an important context to aid interpretations of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours, not only in illness but in health. While individual differences in attitudes and beliefs were observed among participants, common themes and issues were identified across cultural groups. Data from the DISCOVER study revealed the primacy of family and kinship ties. These relationships were important in making decisions about treatment choices and care plans. Participants also revealed the critical role of the 'family doctor' in assisting people and their families in brokering the health care system. In this study, heart disease was considered to be a significant condition but cancer was the condition that people both feared and dreaded the most, despite the high mortality rates of HF. This sample reported that religious and traditional beliefs became more important as people aged and considered their mortality. As HF is predominately a condition of ageing, the information derived from this study will

  19. The H2 robotic exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation after stroke: early findings from a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortole, Magdo; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Zhu, Fangshi; Moreno, Juan C; Francisco, Gerard E; Pons, Jose L; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2015-06-17

    Stroke significantly affects thousands of individuals annually, leading to considerable physical impairment and functional disability. Gait is one of the most important activities of daily living affected in stroke survivors. Recent technological developments in powered robotics exoskeletons can create powerful adjunctive tools for rehabilitation and potentially accelerate functional recovery. Here, we present the development and evaluation of a novel lower limb robotic exoskeleton, namely H2 (Technaid S.L., Spain), for gait rehabilitation in stroke survivors. H2 has six actuated joints and is designed to allow intensive overground gait training. An assistive gait control algorithm was developed to create a force field along a desired trajectory, only applying torque when patients deviate from the prescribed movement pattern. The device was evaluated in 3 hemiparetic stroke patients across 4 weeks of training per individual (approximately 12 sessions). The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Houston. The main objective of this initial pre-clinical study was to evaluate the safety and usability of the exoskeleton. A Likert scale was used to measure patient's perception about the easy of use of the device. Three stroke patients completed the study. The training was well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. Early findings demonstrate that H2 appears to be safe and easy to use in the participants of this study. The overground training environment employed as a means to enhance active patient engagement proved to be challenging and exciting for patients. These results are promising and encourage future rehabilitation training with a larger cohort of patients. The developed exoskeleton enables longitudinal overground training of walking in hemiparetic patients after stroke. The system is robust and safe when applied to assist a stroke patient performing an overground walking task. Such device opens the opportunity to study means

  20. Explaining Direct Care Resource Use of Nursing Home Residents: Findings from Time Studies in Four States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L; Mueller, Christine; Lewis, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explain variation in direct care resource use (RU) of nursing home residents based on the Resource Utilization Groups III (RUG-III) classification system and other resident- and unit-level explanatory variables. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data were collected on 5,314 nursing home residents in 156 nursing units in 105 facilities from four states (CO, IN, MN, MS) from 1998 to 2004. Study Design Nurses and other direct care staff recorded resident-specific and other time caring for all residents on sampled nursing units. Care time was linked to resident data from the Minimum Data Set assessment instrument. Major variables were: RUG-III group (34-group), other health and functional conditions, licensed and other professional minutes per day, unlicensed minutes per day, and direct care RU (wage-weighted minutes). Resident- and unit-level relationships were examined through hierarchical linear modeling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Time study data were recorded with hand-held computers, verified for accuracy by project staff at the data collection sites and then merged into resident and unit-level data sets. Principal Findings Resident care time and RU varied between and within nursing units. RUG-III group was related to RU; variables such as length of stay and unit percentage of high acuity residents also were significantly related. Case-mix indices (CMIs) constructed from study data displayed much less variation across RUG-III groups than CMIs from earlier time studies. Conclusions Results from earlier time studies may not be representative of care patterns of Medicaid and private pay residents. New RUG-III CMIs should be developed to better reflect the relative costs of caring for these residents. PMID:17362220

  1. A study on clinical findings about vertebral disease diagnosed with MRI

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    Kim, Ham-Gyum [Ansan College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    In order to analyze clinical characteristics like sex-and age-based onset frequency and onset region from vertebral disease cases, this study investigated total 1,291 cases of vertebral disease that were diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from January to December 2004 at B University Hospital in metropolitan area. For higher diagnostic accuracy in cases of spinal disorder diagnosed, this study analyzed findings from data reading conducted by veteran specialists in diagnostic radiology. But this study excluded uncertain lesion cases, the cases requiring differential diagnosis from other disorders and so on from subjects under analysis. This study employed superconductive 1.5 Tesla SIGNA MR/i for MRI test and basically received resulting images via FSE (fast spin echo). In particular, this study obtained T1 and T2 myelogram with regard to regional characteristics (such as cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebra) and imaging characteristics for sagittal and transverse section. As a result, this study came to the following conclusions: 1. In terms of general characteristics of subjects under analysis, male group comprised 53.5% and female 46.5% out of total 1,291 subjects. 2. The regional onset frequency of spinal disorders was converged primarily on lumbar vertebra (65.5%), which was followed by cervical vertebrae (27.3%) and thoracic vertebrae (7.0%) respectively. 3. Top 10 cases with high onset frequency of spinal disorders can be listed as follows: 1) posterior bulging disc 65.8% 2) narrowing of neural foramen 23.8% 3) herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) 22.4% 4) spinal stenosis 16.7% 5) osteochondrosis 6.4% 6) compression fracture 6.4% 7) facet joint arthropathy 6.2% 8) spondylolisthesis 6.0% 9) spinal cord tumor 3.5% 10) inter body fusion 2.6%.

  2. A study on clinical findings about vertebral disease diagnosed with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham-Gyum

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze clinical characteristics like sex-and age-based onset frequency and onset region from vertebral disease cases, this study investigated total 1,291 cases of vertebral disease that were diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from January to December 2004 at B University Hospital in metropolitan area. For higher diagnostic accuracy in cases of spinal disorder diagnosed, this study analyzed findings from data reading conducted by veteran specialists in diagnostic radiology. But this study excluded uncertain lesion cases, the cases requiring differential diagnosis from other disorders and so on from subjects under analysis. This study employed superconductive 1.5 Tesla SIGNA MR/i for MRI test and basically received resulting images via FSE (fast spin echo). In particular, this study obtained T1 and T2 myelogram with regard to regional characteristics (such as cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebra) and imaging characteristics for sagittal and transverse section. As a result, this study came to the following conclusions: 1. In terms of general characteristics of subjects under analysis, male group comprised 53.5% and female 46.5% out of total 1,291 subjects. 2. The regional onset frequency of spinal disorders was converged primarily on lumbar vertebra (65.5%), which was followed by cervical vertebrae (27.3%) and thoracic vertebrae (7.0%) respectively. 3. Top 10 cases with high onset frequency of spinal disorders can be listed as follows: 1) posterior bulging disc 65.8% 2) narrowing of neural foramen 23.8% 3) herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) 22.4% 4) spinal stenosis 16.7% 5) osteochondrosis 6.4% 6) compression fracture 6.4% 7) facet joint arthropathy 6.2% 8) spondylolisthesis 6.0% 9) spinal cord tumor 3.5% 10) inter body fusion 2.6%

  3. Application and Assessment of Extension of Time Claim: Findings of Case Studies Conducted in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mohd Danuri,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common phenomenon for construction projects to have applications for extension of time. Many problems are encountered in practice in the application and preparation of extension of time claims. A study was conducted to identify the main problems encountered in the application and assessment of extension of time claim in selected construction projects in Malaysia. Three (3 case studies have been used 10 investigate the extension of time issues. Findings from the study revealed that local contractors usually fail to comply with the contract procedural requirements to submit timely notification of delay and have difficulty in demonstrating their entitlement for extension of time. The main problem faced by contract administrators is that contractors tend to "inflate" their extension of time entitlement with the intention to maximise their claims. Adherence to the agreed procedure in preparing and evaluating of delay claims and the implementation of a set of agreed standardised delay analysis may help to minimize the frequency and impact of such problems.

  4. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  5. Predictors of Dental Care Use: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I.; Visotcky, Alexis (Dye); Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal trends and associated factors in dental service utilization by adolescents progressing to early adulthood in the United States. Data Source The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), III (2001-2002) and IV (2007-2008). Study Design This is a retrospective, observational study of adolescents' transition to early adulthood. We obtained descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to identify the effects of baseline and concurrent covariates on dental service utilization from adolescence to early adulthood over time. Principal Findings Dental service utilization within the prior 12 months peaked at age 16 (72%), gradually decreased until age 21 (57%), and thereafter remained flat. Whites and Asians had a 10-20 percentage points higher proportion of dental service utilization at most ages compared to Blacks and Hispanics. Dental service utilization at later follow-up visits was strongly associated with baseline utilization with OR= 10.7, 2.4 and 1.5 at the 1-year, 7-year and 13-year follow-ups respectively. These effects decreased when adjusted for current income, insurance and education. Compared to Whites, Blacks were consistently less likely to report any dental examination. Conclusion Dental service utilization was highest in adolescents. Gender, education, health insurance and income in young adulthood were significant predictors of reporting a dental examination. Blacks had lower odds of reporting a dental examination either as adolescents or as young adults. PMID:23850156

  6. A primary study on finding hot groundwater using infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.; Wu, Q.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U. S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120 m, 10 times more t an one ofh AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  7. Acorrelation study between histological results and thyroid ultrasound findings. The TI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moncó Fernández, Carlos; Serrano-Moreno, Clara; Donnay-Candil, Sergio; Carrero-Alvaro, Juan

    2018-04-01

    There are several classifications based on thyroid ultrasound for selecting suspected malignant thyroid nodules. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) classification proposed by Horvath in 2009 includes 6 categories. To assess the sensitivity of the TI-RADS classification for diagnosing thyroid nodules. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at our hospital (n=263) from September 2013 to December 2015. After thyroidectomy, histological results were correlated to the ultrasound findings reported. Of the 263 study patients, 75 (28.5%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer and 188 (71.5%) with benign disease. Correlation of histological results with preoperative ultrasound reports showed an initial sensitivity of 65%. After excluding 15 patients diagnosed with occult microcarcinoma, sensitivity increased to 81.6%. The ultrasound images from 11 false negatives cases were then reassessed by a radiologist who knew histological diagnosis and reclassified 10 of them as TI-RADS≥4. This procedure could have increased sensitivity up to 98.3%. Although the sensitivity initially found in our study using the TI-RADS scale was relatively low, the value markedly improved when patients with occult microcarcinoma were excluded. Thus, use of the TI-RADS scale would allow for an adequate selection of patients amenable to fine needle aspiration of the nodule. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Building midwifery educator capacity using international partnerships: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Florence; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-07-01

    Midwifery educators play a critical role in strengthening the midwifery workforce globally, including in low and lower-middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure that midwives are adequately prepared to deliver quality midwifery care. The most effective approach to building midwifery educator capacity is not always clear. The aim of this study was to determine how one capacity building approach in Papua New Guinea (PNG) used international partnerships to improve teaching and learning. A qualitative exploratory case study design was used to explore the perspectives of 26 midwifery educators working in midwifery education institutions in PNG. Seven themes were identified which provide insights into the factors that enable and constrain midwifery educator capacity building. The study provides insights into strategies which may aid institutions and individuals better plan and implement international midwifery partnerships to strengthen context-specific knowledge and skills in teaching. Further research is necessary to assess how these findings can be transferred to other contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fine-needle aspiration study of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma: Rare cytological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (CPTC is a variant of papillary carcinoma that has many mimickers in cytological grounds. Aim: To study the cytomorphologic features of CPTC and compare them to those of other cystic thyroid lesions using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. We also aimed to identify the cytomorphologic features that distinguish CPTC from other cystic thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three cases of CPTC were included in the study. The cytomorphologic features of these cases were analyzed. The FNA smears of other thyroid lesions with cystic changes (300 colloid goiters, 290 adenomatoid nodules, 11 follicular neoplasms, and 9 hurtle cell neoplasm were also studied. Results: The smears in CPTC revealed isolated follicular cells, small groups of cells with scalloped margins, cell swirls, small clusters with a cartwheel pattern, papillary clusters, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, sticky colloid, intracellular colloids, psammoma bodies, multinucleated giant cells, and foamy and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Small groups of cells with scalloped borders, cellular swirls, and small clusters with a cartwheel pattern were seen in CPTC, but not in other cystic lesions. Interestingly, mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were seen in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively, but not in other cystic lesions. Conclusion: Mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were observed in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively. Similar finding have not been previously reported in the literature.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration study of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma: Rare cytological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda; Hayati, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (CPTC) is a variant of papillary carcinoma that has many mimickers in cytological grounds. Aim: To study the cytomorphologic features of CPTC and compare them to those of other cystic thyroid lesions using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We also aimed to identify the cytomorphologic features that distinguish CPTC from other cystic thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three cases of CPTC were included in the study. The cytomorphologic features of these cases were analyzed. The FNA smears of other thyroid lesions with cystic changes (300 colloid goiters, 290 adenomatoid nodules, 11 follicular neoplasms, and 9 hurtle cell neoplasm) were also studied. Results: The smears in CPTC revealed isolated follicular cells, small groups of cells with scalloped margins, cell swirls, small clusters with a cartwheel pattern, papillary clusters, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, sticky colloid, intracellular colloids, psammoma bodies, multinucleated giant cells, and foamy and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Small groups of cells with scalloped borders, cellular swirls, and small clusters with a cartwheel pattern were seen in CPTC, but not in other cystic lesions. Interestingly, mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were seen in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively, but not in other cystic lesions. Conclusion: Mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were observed in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively. Similar finding have not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:27756982

  11. A preliminary study on the CT finding in SARS following hospital discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lieguang; Liu Jinxing; Chen Bihua; Jiang Songfeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT finding of chest in patient with SARS following hospital discharge. Methods: Thirty-six patients (11 men, 25 women; age range, 20-73 years; mean age, 39 years) with confirmed SARS underwent follow-up spiral CT. The scans were obtained on average 187 days (range from 152 days to 225 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients were assigned to group 1 (with heavy SARS, n=19) and group 2 (with common SARS, n=17) for analysis. The chest X-ray films of the 36 patients in fastigium of film were retrospectively reviewed. Results: 58.33% (21 of 36) cases are normal on the CT of thorax. In group 1 42.11% (8 of 19) cases and in group 2 76.47%(13 of 17) cases. In group 1: 31.58%(6 of 19) cases present diffuse ground-glass opacification, 21.05% (4 of 19) cases present multi-patch ground-glass opacification, 5.26% (1 of 19) cases present local ground-glass opacification in single lobar, 31.58% (6 of 19) cases present intralobular interstitial thickening and/or interlobular septal thickening, 5.26% (1 of 19) present subpleural lines, 5.26% (1 of 19) present honeycombing, 5.26% (1 of 19) cases present bullae; In group 2: 11.76% (2 of 17) cases present local ground-glass opacification, 11.76%(2 of 17) cases present intralobular interstitial thickening and/or interlobular septal thickening, 5.88%(1 of 17) cases present organized pneumonia. In group 1, 73.68% (14/19) cases in fastigium of film present large areas of lung consolidation and diffuse ground-glass opacification. Conclusion: Most of the healing SARS cases after certain time are normal on the CT finding of thorax. Part of them remain manifests such as ground-glass opacification, intralobular interstitial thickening and/or interlobular septal thickening, subpleural lines, honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis, organized pneumonia and bullae. They relate to severeness of the lesion of the lung in fastigium of film. Such finding can last for long time and probably fibrosis can be developed. (authors)

  12. Insulin resistance and bone strength: findings from the study of midlife in the United States.

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    Srikanthan, Preethi; Crandall, Carolyn J; Miller-Martinez, Dana; Seeman, Teresa E; Greendale, Gail A; Binkley, Neil; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2014-04-01

    Although several studies have noted increased fracture risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this association are not known. We hypothesize that insulin resistance (the key pathology in T2DM) negatively influences bone remodeling and leads to reduced bone strength. Data for this study came from 717 participants in the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS II). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting morning blood glucose and insulin levels. Projected 2D (areal) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the lumbar spine and left hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femoral neck axis length and width were measured from the hip DXA scans, and combined with BMD and body weight and height to create composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load in three different failure modes: compression, bending, and impact. We used multiple linear regressions to examine the relationship between HOMA-IR and bone strength, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, menopausal transition stage (in women), and study site. Greater HOMA-IR was associated with lower values of all three composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load, but was not associated with BMD in the femoral neck. Every doubling of HOMA-IR was associated with a 0.34 to 0.40 SD decrement in the strength indices (p<0.001). On their own, higher levels of fasting insulin (but not of glucose) were independently associated with lower bone strength. Our study confirms that greater insulin resistance is related to lower femoral neck strength relative to load. Further, we note that hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, underlies this relationship. Although cross-sectional associations do not prove causality, our findings do suggest that insulin resistance and in particular, hyperinsulinemia, may negatively affect bone strength relative to

  13. Improving the production of applied health research findings: insights from a qualitative study of operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Turner, Simon; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-09-08

    Knowledge produced through applied health research is often of a form not readily accessible to or actionable by policymakers and practitioners, which hinders its implementation. Our aim was to identify research activities that can support the production of knowledge tailored to inform policy and practice. To do this, we studied an operational research approach to improving the production of applied health research findings. A 2-year qualitative study was conducted of the operational research contribution to a multidisciplinary applied health research project that was successful in rapidly informing national policy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were conducted with all members of the project's research team and advisory group (patient and health professional representatives and academics). These were augmented by participant (> 150 h) and non-participant (> 15 h) observations focusing on the process and experience of attempting to support knowledge production. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo software. Operational research performed a knowledge mediation role shaped by a problem-focused approach and an intent to perform those tasks necessary to producing readily implementable knowledge but outwith the remit of other disciplinary strands of the project. Three characteristics of the role were found to support this: engaging and incorporating different perspectives to improve services by capturing a range of health professional and patient views alongside quantitative and qualitative research evidence; rendering data meaningful by creating and presenting evidence in forms that are accessible to and engage different audiences, enabling them to make sense of it for practical use; and maintaining perceived objectivity and rigour by establishing credibility, perceived neutrality and confidence in the robustness of the research in order to unite diverse professionals in thinking creatively about system-wide service improvement. Our study

  14. Metabolomic analysis in severe childhood pneumonia in the Gambia, West Africa: findings from a pilot study.

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    Evagelia C Laiakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children globally and improved diagnostics are needed to better identify cases and reduce case fatality. Metabolomics, a rapidly evolving field aimed at characterizing metabolites in biofluids, has the potential to improve diagnostics in a range of diseases. The objective of this pilot study is to apply metabolomic analysis to childhood pneumonia to explore its potential to improve pneumonia diagnosis in a high-burden setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven children with World Health Organization (WHO-defined severe pneumonia of non-homogeneous aetiology were selected in The Gambia, West Africa, along with community controls. Metabolomic analysis of matched plasma and urine samples was undertaken using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS. Biomarker extraction was done using SIMCA-P+ and Random Forests (RF. 'Unsupervised' (blinded data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while 'supervised' (unblinded analysis was by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS. Potential markers were extracted from S-plots constructed following analysis with OPLS, and markers were chosen based on their contribution to the variation and correlation within the data set. The dataset was additionally analyzed with the machine-learning algorithm RF in order to address issues of model overfitting and markers were selected based on their variable importance ranking. Unsupervised PCA analysis revealed good separation of pneumonia and control groups, with even clearer separation of the groups with PLS-DA and OPLS analysis. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 between groups were seen with the following metabolites: uric acid, hypoxanthine and glutamic acid were higher in plasma from cases, while L-tryptophan and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP were lower

  15. Ageism among physicians, nurses, and social workers: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Aya; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Doron, Israel; Alon, Sara; Leibovitz, Arthur; Golander, Hava; Haron, Yafa; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated ageism among healthcare professionals in various therapeutic settings in Israel. Using a qualitative approach, the current study aimed to examine similarities and differences across healthcare disciplines. Three focus groups were conducted with physicians, nurses, and social workers. Data from each focus group were analyzed separately, and then commonalities and differences across the groups were evaluated. Three main themes relating to older adults emerged from the data. The first theme pertains to perceived difficulties that healthcare professionals experience in working with older adults and their family members; the second focuses on invisibility and discriminatory communication patterns; and the third theme relates to provision of inappropriate care to older adults. Similarities and differences across the three disciplines were found. The differences related mainly to the examples provided for manifestations of ageism in the healthcare system. Provision of inadequate treatment to older adults due to their age appeared to be the most complex theme, and is discussed at length in the Discussion. Briefly, the complexity stems from the fact that although some behaviors can be clearly described as inappropriate and undesirable, other behaviors such as avoidance of invasive medical procedures for older patients raise ethical dilemmas. Potentially, avoidance of invasive medical treatment can be perceived as compassionate care rather than as undertreatment due to ageist perceptions. A related dilemma, i.e., longevity versus quality-of-life, is also discussed in light of the finding that the balance of these two aspects changes as patients grow old.

  16. Tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a 14-case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelandre, Gustavo Lemos; Djahjah, Maria Celia; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Bruno Vilhena; Valadao, Marcus; Linhares, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with histopathologically and immunohistochemically confirmed gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who had already been submitted to computed tomography scans before the treatment, were evaluated in the period between January 1999 and December 2006. The following tomographic variables were analyzed: lesion topography, size/dimensions, homogeneity, contour, margins, morphology, pattern and intravenous contrast-enhancement intensity, growth pattern, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of ulceration, fistula, calcifications, mesenteric fat infiltration, lymphadenomegaly and presence of distant metastasis. Results: Tumors were found in the body (57.1%) or in the gastric fundus (42.9%), with sizes ranging between 6.0 cm and 23.0 cm (mean, 11.5 cm). Predominantly extra luminal growth was observed in 57.1% of cases and intra/extra luminal in 35.7%. Subtle contrast-enhancement was observed in 50%, moderate in 50%, and heterogeneous in 64.3% of cases. Additionally, central hypodensity was observed in 64.3%, invasion of adjacent organs in 42.9%, and hepatic metastasis in 7.2% of cases. Conclusion: In the present study, the majority of tumors were found in the gastric body, with an average size of 11.5 cm, presenting with central hypodensity, heterogeneous contrast-enhancement and predominantly extraluminal growth. (author)

  17. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  18. Serial MRI and MRS studies with unusual findings in Rasmussen's encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkdogan-Soezueer, D.; Oezek, M.M.; Pamir, M.N.; Sav, A.; Dincer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Rasmussen's syndrome is characterized by intractable seizures and progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration secondary to unilateral cortical inflammation and tissue destruction. Diagnosis of Rasmussen's syndrome in the early phase depends mainly on the clinical features. Neuroimaging and histopathologic examinations may not be specific during this period. We report a case of Rasmussen's syndrome followed by serial MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies over a 3- to 16-month period. A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with focal motor seizures. An MRI study demonstrated prominent enlargement and T2 hyperintensity of the left mesial temporal lobe and perisylvian region. This early finding evolved to volume loss and later progressive atrophy of the ipsilateral hemisphere when epilepsia partialis continua occurred. Being aware of those early MRI features in a patient with increasing frequency of focal motor seizures should suggest Rasmussen's syndrome. In addition, we found prominently increased myoinositol concentration in atrophic cortex which might reflect increased gliosis in the late period of the disease. (orig.)

  19. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer - Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yongxu Huang

    Full Text Available ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99. Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.

  20. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer - Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joyce Yongxu; Wang, Renwei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR) for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99). Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.

  1. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer – Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renwei; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR) for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99). Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. PMID:28880901

  2. Population compliance with national dietary recommendations and its determinants: findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Nau, Anne; Lair, Marie-Lise; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2012-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors that may contribute to weaken dietary compliance. ORISCAV-LUX is a cross-sectional study that took place in Luxembourg (2007-8). A representative stratified random sample of 1352 adults aged 18-69 years participated in the nationwide cardiovascular health survey. A FFQ was used to estimate food intake. Radar charts were built to compare graphically the compliance of the participants with different key dietary guidelines on the same set of axes. The thirteen food- and nutrient-based recommendations were scored and summed to create a recommendation compliance index (range -0·5 to 14). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors contributing to poor dietary compliance. Several food- and nutrient-based guidelines were insufficiently respected compared with others. The greatest gaps occurred in the adherence to grain and dairy product consumption guidelines, as well as to total fat and notably to SFA recommendations. Age, country of birth, economic status, smoking status and subject's awareness of the importance of balanced meals emerged as independently associated with weak dietary compliance. Obese subjects conformed more to dietary recommendations compared with normal-weight subjects. The findings underscore the need for specific nutrition education messages along with targeted interventions. Efforts should be continued to increase population awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet.

  3. Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleusa C.; Feitosa, Fabiana G.; Ribeiro, Maria C.; Menge, Paulo; Lira, Izabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. Methods An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants. In 80 infants, the test was not performed because it was not available at that time. All infants had negative serology for HIV, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. A complete transthoracic two-dimensional, M-mode, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiographic (PHILIPS HD11XE or HD15) examination was performed on all infants. Results 14/103 (13.5%) echocardiograms were compatible with congenital heart disease: 5 with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 8 had a hemodynamically insignificant small apical muscular ventricular septal defect and one infant with dyspnea had a large membranous ventricular septal defect. The echocardiograms considered normal included 45 infants with a persistent foramen ovale and 16 with a minimum patent ductus arteriosus. Conclusions Preliminarily this study suggests that congenital Zika syndrome may be associated with an increase prevalence of congenital heart disease. However the types of defects noted were septal defects, a proportion of which would not be hemodynamically significant. PMID:28426680

  4. [Physiopathology of autobiographical memory in aging: episodic and semantic distinction, clinical findings and neuroimaging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Martinelli, Pénélope; Viard, Armelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    From an early age, autobiographical memory models our feeling of identity and continuity. It grows throughout lifetime with our experiences and is built up from general self-knowledge and specific memories. The study of autobiographical memory depicts the dynamic and reconstructive features of this type of long-term memory, combining both semantic and episodic aspects, its strength and fragility. In this article, we propose to illustrate the properties of autobiographical memory from the field of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging research through the analysis of the mechanisms of disturbance in normal and Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cognitive and neural bases of autobiographical memory are distinct in both cases. In normal aging, autobiographical memory retrieval is mainly dependent on frontal/executive function and on sense of reexperiencing specific context connected to hippocampal regions regardless of memory remoteness. In Alzheimer's disease, autobiographical memory deficit, characterized by a Ribot's temporal gradient, is connected to different regions according to memory remoteness. Our functional neuroimaging results suggest that patients at the early stage can compensate for their massive deficit of episodic recent memories correlated to hippocampal alteration with over general remote memories related to prefrontal regions. On the whole, the research findings allowed initiating new autobiographical memory studies by comparing normal and pathological aging and developing cognitive methods of memory rehabilitation in patients based on preserved personal semantic capacity. © Société de Biologie, 2010.

  5. Progression of regional neuropathology in Alzheimer disease and normal elderly: findings from the Nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D S; Gearing, M; Snowdon, D A; Mori, H; Markesbery, W R; Mirra, S S

    1999-01-01

    Although diffuse plaques in the neocortex may represent an early stage in the evolution of neuritic plaques, plaques in the striatum and cerebellum retain their predominantly diffuse nature in Alzheimer disease (AD), regardless of disease duration. We had the opportunity to explore the progression of these regional features by using autopsy brain specimens from 15 cognitively normal and five AD subjects, all Catholic sisters enrolled in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study on aging and AD. Neuropathologic changes were assessed in the temporal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum without knowledge of clinical status. We found diffuse plaques in the striatum in six (40%) and cerebellar plaques in none of the brains from the non-demented subjects. Striatal plaques were present in all five and cerebellar plaques in four of the five AD cases. In the 20 cases overall, the presence of striatal plaques generally paralleled the occurrence of neuritic plaques in neocortex and correlated with lower scores on several neuropsychologic tests assessing memory. Our findings suggest that striatal diffuse plaques occur relatively early in the progression of AD pathology and coincide with neocortical pathology and cognitive changes. Thus, it is unlikely that temporal factors alone account for regional differences in progression of AD neuropathology.

  6. A comparative study of symptoms in multiple lacunar state and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Youichi

    1993-01-01

    A multiple lacunar state is considered to cause gait disturbance, pseudobulbar palsy, or silent stroke. In the present study, these symptoms is multiple lacunar state and the incidences of abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated comparatively. Thirty-eight patients (23 males and 15 females; average age 73.6 y.o.) with ischemic cerebral lesions on T 2 weighted images of MRI were studied. In the group with gait disturbance only, the incidences of widening of the ventricular system and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) around the frontal horn were significantly high compared with the group with silent stroke (p<0.01, p<0.005; respectively), and hyperintensity area of the semioval center were demonstrated prominently in the regions perfused by anterior cerebral artery. In the group with pseudobulbar palsy only, the incidences of PVH around the posterior part of the lateral ventricle and hyperintensity area of the basal ganglion region were significantly high as compared with the group with silent stroke (p<0.01, p<0.05; respectively), and hyperintensity area of the semioval center were demonstrated prominently in the regions perfused by middle cerebral artery. (author)

  7. A comparative study of symptoms in multiple lacunar state and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Youichi (Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    A multiple lacunar state is considered to cause gait disturbance, pseudobulbar palsy, or silent stroke. In the present study, these symptoms is multiple lacunar state and the incidences of abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated comparatively. Thirty-eight patients (23 males and 15 females; average age 73.6 y.o.) with ischemic cerebral lesions on T[sub 2] weighted images of MRI were studied. In the group with gait disturbance only, the incidences of widening of the ventricular system and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) around the frontal horn were significantly high compared with the group with silent stroke (p<0.01, p<0.005; respectively), and hyperintensity area of the semioval center were demonstrated prominently in the regions perfused by anterior cerebral artery. In the group with pseudobulbar palsy only, the incidences of PVH around the posterior part of the lateral ventricle and hyperintensity area of the basal ganglion region were significantly high as compared with the group with silent stroke (p<0.01, p<0.05; respectively), and hyperintensity area of the semioval center were demonstrated prominently in the regions perfused by middle cerebral artery. (author).

  8. Serial MRI and MRS studies with unusual findings in Rasmussen's encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkdogan-Soezueer, D. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezek, M.M.; Pamir, M.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sav, A. [Department of Pathology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Dincer, A. [Radyomar MR Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-06-01

    Rasmussen's syndrome is characterized by intractable seizures and progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration secondary to unilateral cortical inflammation and tissue destruction. Diagnosis of Rasmussen's syndrome in the early phase depends mainly on the clinical features. Neuroimaging and histopathologic examinations may not be specific during this period. We report a case of Rasmussen's syndrome followed by serial MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies over a 3- to 16-month period. A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with focal motor seizures. An MRI study demonstrated prominent enlargement and T2 hyperintensity of the left mesial temporal lobe and perisylvian region. This early finding evolved to volume loss and later progressive atrophy of the ipsilateral hemisphere when epilepsia partialis continua occurred. Being aware of those early MRI features in a patient with increasing frequency of focal motor seizures should suggest Rasmussen's syndrome. In addition, we found prominently increased myoinositol concentration in atrophic cortex which might reflect increased gliosis in the late period of the disease. (orig.)

  9. Social contacts and Ecstasy offers: findings of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Legosz, Margot; Wells, Helene; Kemp, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use is relatively common among young adults in many developed countries. However, little is known about how young non-users are first introduced to Ecstasy, including the relative contribution of peer networks and individual risk factors. We assess the role of social contact with Ecstasy-using peers in regard to young adults' exposure to offers of Ecstasy, using data from the Natural History Study, a population-based study conducted in Australia. Population screening of young adults (19- to 23-year-olds) identified a sample of young Ecstasy users (N = 315) and a comparison group of Ecstasy-naïve participants (N = 199). Two outcomes are considered: being exposed to any Ecstasy offers and being exposed to > 3 offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users was defined as knowing > 10 Ecstasy users. Of the Ecstasy-naïve young adults, > 40% had ever received Ecstasy offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users independently predicted exposure to multiple (> 3) Ecstasy offers for Ecstasy-naïve young adults. These findings indicate that Ecstasy offers are widespread among users and non-users of Ecstasy. For non-users, exposure to Ecstasy offers occurs through social contact with drug-using peers independently of individual risk factors. The pervasiveness of Ecstasy offers suggests that universal education concerning Ecstasy use is required.

  10. Stressful life events as predictors of functioning: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M. E.; Skodol, A. E.; Stout, R. L.; Shea, M. T.; Yen, S.; Grilo, C. M.; Sanislow, C. A.; Bender, D. S.; McGlashan, T. H.; Zanarini, M. C.; Gunderson, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although much attention has been given to the effects of adverse childhood experiences on the development of personality disorders (PDs), we know far less about how recent life events influence the ongoing course of functioning. We examined the extent to which PD subjects differ in rates of life events and the extent to which life events impact psychosocial functioning. Method A total of 633 subjects were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), a multi-site study of four personality disorders – schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) – and a comparison group of major depressive disorders (MDD) without PD. Results Borderline personality disorder subjects reported significantly more total negative life events than other PDs or subjects with MDD. Negative events, especially interpersonal events, predicted decreased psychosocial functioning over time. Conclusion Our findings indicate higher rates of negative events in subjects with more severe PDs and suggest that negative life events adversely impact multiple areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:15521826

  11. A study of cerebral circulation, metabolism and MRI findings in patients with chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency (CCCI) is a recently proposed clinical entity characterized by symptoms such as dizziness, a feeling of heavy-headedness or vague numbness without any neurological signs or organic vascular lesions on CT. In order to elucidate its pathogenesis, ultrasonic quantitative blood flow measurement system, positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were employed to study three groups of subjects: 60 subjects with CCCI (group A), 44 subjects with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease but without neurological abnormalities (group B), and 40 normal healthy volunteers (group C). The results are summarized as follows: Mean common carotid blood flow decreased with age in all groups. Common carotid blood flow was lowest in group A and second lowest in group B in every decade of patient age. PET study revealed that CBF and CMRO 2 in all regions examined were significantly lower in group A than in group C. The incidence of MR signal abnormalities in the white matter increased with age. Group A had the highest incidence, and group C had the lowest. Reduction in mean common carotid blood flow and cerebral blood flow was associated with increasing incidence and severity of MR signal abnormalities. These findings indicate that CCCI is a pathologic condition closely related to diffuse cerebral low perfusion resulting from cerebral arteriosclerosis. The symptoms seen in this condition, which are apt to be taken lightly, may warn of impending ischemic stroke. (author)

  12. Presence and process of fear of birth during pregnancy-Findings from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Haines, Helen; Karlström, Annika; Nystedt, Astrid

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of fear of birth has been estimated between 8-30%, but there is considerable heterogeneity in research design, definitions, measurement tools used and populations. There are some inconclusive findings about the stability of childbirth fear. to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women presenting with scores ≥60 on FOBS-The Fear of Birth Scale, in mid and late pregnancy, and to study change in fear of birth and associated factors. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of a one-year cohort of 1212 pregnant women from a northern part of Sweden, recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up in late pregnancy. Fear of birth was assessed using FOBS-The fear of birth scale, with the cut off at ≥60. The prevalence of fear of birth was 22% in mid pregnancy and 19% in late pregnancy, a statistically significant decrease. Different patterns were found where some women presented with increased fear and some with decreased fear. The women who experienced more fear or less fear later in pregnancy could not be differentiated by background factors. More research is needed to explore factors important to reduce fear of childbirth and the optimal time to measure it. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Financial Capability Framework: Findings from YouthSave-Impact Study Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagotho, Njeri; Ssewamala, Fred M; Patak-Pietrafesa, Michele; Byansi, William

    2018-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), youths (23 years or younger)-who account for almost half the population-are particularly vulnerable to poverty and exclusion from financial markets and intermediaries. In addition, a significant factor in the financial instability of the region appears to be the economic functioning of its youths. In recent years, social work interventions throughout the region have focused on investing in the economic functioning of youths. This study looked at baseline data from one such intervention in Kenya (N = 3,965), using the financial capabilities framework to evaluate the factors related to youths' saving behaviors. Authors investigated the association between youths' financial literacy (that is, knowledge, socialization), financial access, and financial capabilities and savings behaviors. Results indicate that adolescents who rate themselves as financially literate and those living in close proximity to a bank are more likely to report higher capabilities. Furthermore, financial capabilities in turn partially mediate the relationship between financial literacy, access, and savings. Overall, the study's findings point to the positive effect of enhanced financial capabilities among youths and offer support for asset-based interventions targeting youths in SSA. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  14. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of prognostic findings in 367 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M W S; Stafford Johnson, M J; Strehlau, G; King, J N

    2010-08-01

    To review the association between clinical signs and diagnostic findings and the survival time of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and any influence of treatment prescribed. A retrospective observational study of 367 dogs with DCM. Survival times until death or euthanasia for cardiac reasons were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method plus univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Two-tailed P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In the multivariate model, left ventricular diameter (LVDs)-index (P=0.0067), presence of pulmonary oedema on radiography (P=0.043), presence of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) (P=0.0012), higher plasma creatinine (P=0.0002), lower plasma protein (P=0.029) and great Dane breed (P=0.0003) were negatively associated with survival. Most dogs were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (93%) or furosemide (86%), and many received digoxin (50%) and/or pimobendan (30%). Thirteen dogs were lost to follow-up. No conclusions could be made in this study on the association between use of drugs and survival. The LVDs-index was the single best variable for assessing the prognosis in this group of dogs with DCM. Other variables that were negatively associated with survival were presence of pulmonary oedema on radiography, presence of VPCs, higher plasma creatinine, lower plasma protein and great Dane breed.

  15. Reconceptualizing models of delirium education: findings of a Grounded Theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta; Corbett, Sally; Welfare, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Effectiveness of educational interventions targeted at improving delirium care is limited by implementation barriers. Studying factors which shape learning needs can overcome these knowledge transfer barriers. This in-depth qualitative study explores learning needs of hospital staff relating to care needs of the confused older patients. Fifteen research participants from across the healthcare spectrum working within an acute care setting were interviewed. Five focus groups were undertaken with patients, carers, and mental health specialists. A Grounded Theory methodology was adopted and data were analyzed thematically in parallel to collection until theoretical saturation was reached. Eight categories of practice gap emerged: ownership of the confused patient, negative attitudes, lack of understanding of how frightened the patient is in hospital, carer partnerships, person-centered care, communication, recognition of cognitive impairment and specific clinical needs (e.g. capacity assessments). Conceptually, the learning needs were found to be hierarchically related. Moreover, a vicious circle relating to the core learning needs of ownership, attitudes and patient's fear emerged. A patient with delirium may be frightened in an alien environment and then negatively labeled by staff who subsequently wish for their removal, thereby worsening the patient's fear. These findings reconceptualize delirium education approaches suggesting a need to focus interventions on core level practice gaps. This fresh perspective on education, away from disease-based delirium knowledge toward work-based patient, team and practice knowledge, could lead to more effective educational strategies to improve delirium care.

  16. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2003-06-01

    The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.

  17. Constructions of ‘the Polish’ in Northern England: Findings From a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gibson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union in 2004 gave rise to moral panics concerning the likelihood of mass migration from the new eastern European member states to established member states in the west. A great deal of social and political science research has examined the ongoing impact of the enlargement, but there remains a gap in the literature regarding the ways in which members of ‘receiving’ populations reacted to these changes. The present paper reports findings from a qualitative interview study of 14-16 year-olds conducted in northern England. It focuses on how migrants from one particular country – Poland – were constructed by participants. Drawing on previous analyses of immigration and racist discourse, the study points to some ways in which Polish migrants and migration were constructed, and how complaints against ‘the Polish’ were formulated. The analysis focusses on four key issues: employment and the economy; language and culture; threat and intimidation; and physical stereotyping. It is suggested that constructions of ‘the Polish’ draw on the tropes of both ‘old’ and ‘new’ racism, and that attention to the use of deixical ingroup referents (‘us’, ‘we’, ‘our’ in contrast to the explicit labelling of the outgroup (‘the Polish’ can be understood in terms of the requirement to present complaints concerning migrant groups via appeals to assumed universal standards of behaviour and civility.

  18. Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Di Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome.An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP, Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants. In 80 infants, the test was not performed because it was not available at that time. All infants had negative serology for HIV, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. A complete transthoracic two-dimensional, M-mode, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiographic (PHILIPS HD11XE or HD15 examination was performed on all infants.14/103 (13.5% echocardiograms were compatible with congenital heart disease: 5 with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 8 had a hemodynamically insignificant small apical muscular ventricular septal defect and one infant with dyspnea had a large membranous ventricular septal defect. The echocardiograms considered normal included 45 infants with a persistent foramen ovale and 16 with a minimum patent ductus arteriosus.Preliminarily this study suggests that congenital Zika syndrome may be associated with an increase prevalence of congenital heart disease. However the types of defects noted were septal defects, a proportion of which would not be hemodynamically significant.

  19. Salivary flow rate and oral findings in Prader-Willi syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeves, Ronnaug; Nordgarden, Hilde; Storhaug, Kari; Sandvik, Leiv; Espelid, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multisystemic genetic disorder. AIM. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic assessment of whole saliva secretion and oral manifestations associated with PWS. DESIGN. Fifty individuals (5-40 years) with PWS and an age- and sex-matched control group were included. Whole saliva was collected. All participants underwent an anamnestic interview. Radiological and dental clinical examinations were carried out to identify hypodontia, dental caries, enamel defects and gingival inflammation. RESULTS. Mean whole salivary flow rate was 0.12 ± 0.11 mL/min in the study group compared with 0.32 ± 0.20 mL/min in the control group (P 19 years was significantly lower in PWS (P = 0.04) compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries in the primary dentition or in the frequency of enamel defects in the permanent dentition between the two groups. Median Gingival Index was significantly higher in the Prader-Willi group compared with the controls (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS. Low salivary flow is a consistent finding in PWS. Nevertheless, despite dry mouth and dietary challenges, dental caries is not increased in Norwegian individuals with PWS. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Kepa, Agnieszka; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Arseneault, Louise

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults' feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 individuals born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Loneliness was measured when participants were aged 18. Regression analyses were used to test concurrent associations between loneliness and health and functioning in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine childhood factors associated with young adult loneliness. Lonelier young adults were more likely to experience mental health problems, to engage in physical health risk behaviours, and to use more negative strategies to cope with stress. They were less confident in their employment prospects and were more likely to be out of work. Lonelier young adults were, as children, more likely to have had mental health difficulties and to have experienced bullying and social isolation. Loneliness was evenly distributed across genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. Young adults' experience of loneliness co-occurs with a diverse range of problems, with potential implications for health in later life. The findings underscore the importance of early intervention to prevent lonely young adults from being trapped in loneliness as they age.

  1. Educational success and adult health: findings from the Chicago longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topitzes, James; Godes, Olga; Mersky, Joshua P; Ceglarek, Sudi; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that education is associated with health, yet we lack knowledge about the specific educational experiences influencing health trajectories. This study examines the role school factors play in the emergence of poor young adult health outcomes for a low-income, minority sample. The following research questions are addressed. First, what are the education-based predictors of daily tobacco smoking, frequent substance use, depression, and no health insurance coverage? Second, do later-occurring school factors explain the association between earlier school measures and the outcomes and, if so, what pathways account for this mediation effect? Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an investigation of a cohort of 1,539 individuals, born around 1980, who attended kindergarten programs in the Chicago Public Schools. Participants were followed prospectively from early childhood through age 24, and study measures were created from various data sources and multiple assessment waves. Findings from probit hierarchical regressions with controls for early sociodemographic covariates indicated that elementary school socioemotional classroom adjustment and high school completion were significantly and negatively associated with all four study outcomes. Participation in the Chicago Child Parent Center preschool program predicted lower rates of both daily tobacco smoking and no health insurance coverage (p frustration tolerance was inversely associated with daily tobacco smoking and frequent drug use (p < .05). Also, negatively linked to frequent drug use was a high school measure of students' expectation to attend college (p < .01). In nearly all cases, later-occurring school factors fully mediated significant associations between earlier ones and the outcomes. Patterns of mediation were explored along with implications of results.

  2. How Should Debriefing Be Undertaken in Web-Based Studies? Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet research may raise older ethical issues in new forms or pose new issues. It has been recommended that debriefing information online be kept very short, with further information including study results made available if requested by participants. There are no empirical studies that compare possible alternative methods of debriefing in online studies. Objective To undertake a randomized controlled trial evaluating how to implement the recommended approach by assessing the effects of two different approaches on accessing of additional information. Methods All 11,943 participants in the Effects of Study Design and Allocation (ESDA) study, which employed deception, were randomly assigned to one of two methods of debriefing: Group A received the debriefing information in the body of an email with links to protocol and results pages; Group B was presented with these links after clicking on an initial link in the body of the email to view the debriefing information on a website. Outcomes assessed were the proportions clicking on the links to the protocol and results summary and the time spent on these pages by those accessing them. Results The group who were presented with no debriefing information in the body of the email and went to a website for this information (Group B) were approximately twice as likely to subsequently access the protocol and the results summary. These differences between the two groups were highly statistically significant. Although these differences are clear, the overall proportions accessing such information were low, and there were no differences in mean time spent reading these pages. Only one quarter of Group B actually accessed debriefing information. Conclusions In circumstances where the uptake of fuller information on study design, methods, and findings is deemed important, debriefing information may be better provided via a link and not included in the body of an email. Doing so may, however, reduce the extent of

  3. Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: findings from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand mothers’ conceptions of childhood overweight. Design: Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4–6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results: Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called ‘Concept of overweight’, contained mothers’ views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, ‘Identification of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, ‘Causes of overweight’, showed mothers’ understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, ‘Management of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions: The study gives an understanding of the mothers’ conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings

  4. Case Studies on the Symbolism of Difference-Finding Problems in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a class on subtraction or difference-finding, problems such as "There are eight white flowers and five red flowers, how many more white flowers are there than red flowers?" used in the teaching of Japanese first grade children. Describes three instances of introductory teaching of "difference-finding" problems in the…

  5. What Does It Mean When a Study Finds No Effects? REL 2017-265

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftor, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This short brief for education decision makers discusses three main factors that may contribute to a finding of no effects: failure of theory, failure of implementation, and failure of research design. It provides readers with questions to ask themselves to better understand "no effects" findings, and describes other contextual factors…

  6. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study: Overview and early findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, S.; Hannigan, M. P.; Dutton, S. J.; Miller, S. L.; Milford, J. B.; Rabinovitch, N.; Kim, S.-Y.; Sheppard, L.

    Improved understanding of the sources of air pollution that are most harmful could aid in developing more effective measures for protecting human health. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study was designed to identify the sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) that are most responsible for the adverse health effects of short-term exposure to PM 2.5. Daily 24-h PM 2.5 sampling began in July 2002 at a residential monitoring site in Denver, Colorado, using both Teflon and quartz filter samplers. Sampling is planned to continue through 2008. Chemical speciation is being carried out for mass, inorganic ionic compounds (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), and carbonaceous components, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, temperature-resolved organic carbon fractions and a large array of organic compounds. In addition, water-soluble metals were measured daily for 12 months in 2003. A receptor-based source apportionment approach utilizing positive matrix factorization (PMF) will be used to identify PM 2.5 source contributions for each 24-h period. Based on a preliminary assessment using synthetic data, the proposed source apportionment should be able to identify many important sources on a daily basis, including secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, diesel vehicle exhaust, road dust, wood combustion and vegetative debris. Meat cooking, gasoline vehicle exhaust and natural gas combustion were more challenging for PMF to accurately identify due to high detection limits for certain organic molecular marker compounds. Measurements of these compounds are being improved and supplemented with additional organic molecular marker compounds. The health study will investigate associations between daily source contributions and an array of health endpoints, including daily mortality and hospitalizations and measures of asthma control in asthmatic children. Findings from the DASH study, in addition to being of interest to policymakers, by

  7. Comparative gait analysis of ankle arthrodesis and arthroplasty: initial findings of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael E; Wright, Elise S; Segal, Ava D; Orendurff, Michael S; Ledoux, William R; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about functional outcomes of ankle arthroplasty compared with arthrodesis. This study compared pre-surgical and post-surgical gait measures in both patient groups. Eighteen patients with end-stage ankle arthritis participated in an ongoing longitudinal study (pre-surgery, 12 months post-surgery) involving gait analysis, assessment of pain and physical function. Outcome measures included temporal-distance, kinematic and kinetic data, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) body pain score, and average daily step count. A mixed effects linear model was used to detect effects of surgical group (arthrodesis and arthroplasty, n = 9 each) with walking speed as a covariate (α = 0.05). Both groups were similar in demographics and anthropometrics. Followup time was the same for each group. There were no complications in either group. Pain decreased (p < 0.001) and gait function improved (gait velocity, p = 0.02; stride length, p = 0.035) in both groups. Neither group increased average daily step count. Joint range of motion (ROM) differences were observed between groups after surgery (increased hip ROM in arthrodesis, p = 0.001; increased ankle ROM in arthroplasty, p = 0.036). Peak plantar flexor moment increased in arthrodesis patients and decreased in arthroplasty patients (p = 0.042). Initial findings of this ongoing clinical study indicate pain reduction and improved gait function 12 months after surgery for both treatments. Arthroplasty appears to regain more natural ankle joint function, with increased ROM. Long-term follow up should may reveal more clinically meaningful differences.

  8. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698

  9. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interprofessional teamwork in comprehensive primary healthcare services: Findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara

    2018-05-01

    This article draws on data from a 5-year project that examined the effectiveness of Comprehensive primary healthcare (CPHC) in local communities. A hallmark of CPHC services is interprofessional teamwork. Drawing from this study, our article presents factors that enabled, or hindered, healthcare teams working interprofessionally in Australian primary healthcare (PHC) services. The article reports on the experiences of teams working in six Australian PHC services (four managed by state governments, one non-government sexual health organisation, and one Aboriginal community-controlled health service) during a time of significant health sector restructure. Findings are drawn from two key methods: an online survey of practitioners and managers (n = 154), and interviews with managers and practitioners (n = 60) from the six study sites. The majority of survey respondents worked with other health professionals in their service to provide interprofessional care to clients. Processes included formal team meetings, case conferencing, referring clients to other health professionals if needed, informal communication with other health professionals about clients, and team-based delivery of care. A range of interrelated factors affected interprofessional work at the services, from contextual, organisational, processual, and relational domains. Funding cuts and policy changes that saw a reorientation and re-medicalisation of South Australian services undermined interprofessional work, while a shared CPHC culture and commitment among some staff was helpful in resisting some of these effects. The co-location of services was a factor in PHC teams working interprofessionally and not only enabled some PHC teams to work more interprofessionally but also created barriers to interprofessional teamwork through disruption resulting from restructuring of services. Our study indicates the importance of decision makers taking into account the potential effects of policy and structural

  11. A Novel Information Retrieval Tool to Find Hospital Care Team Members: Development and Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Kyle; Monsen, Craig; Takhar, Sukhjit; Landman, Adam

    2018-04-16

    Hospital communication among members of a patient's care team is a central part of clinical workflow and consumes a large amount of a health care provider's time. Oftentimes the complexity of hospital care leads to difficulty in finding the appropriate contact, which can lead to inefficiencies and frustration. Squire is a Web-based information retrieval app created to improve the speed and efficiency in reaching the appropriate team member during the care of a hospitalized patient. The objective of the study was to design and develop Squire and to evaluate the usage, usability, and perceived effect of the app on finding the correct contact within a hospital. We used a mixed-methods design using a before-after survey methodology combined with one-on-one interviews to understand the perceived effect of Squire. The study took place at an academic medical center with internal medicine resident physicians. We surveyed residents on demographics, as well as time and efficiency of hospital communication before and after the use of Squire. After using Squire, participants were also asked to evaluate Squire's Net Promoter Score (NPS). A subset of voluntary participants participated in one-on-one interviews and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS). We performed descriptive statistics on participant characteristics, app usage data, and responses to surveys. Survey results were compared before and after Squire adoption using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a general linear model. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis with a qualitative description approach to review and categorize feedback from participants. There was a 67.9% (74/109) response rate to the pre-Squire survey and 89.9% (98/109) response rate to the post-Squire survey. At baseline, there was an average of 22.2 (95% CI 18.4-26.0) minutes/day spent searching for the right contact, and this decreased to 16.3 (95% CI 13.9-18.7) minutes/day after Squire was launched (P=.01). There were favorable

  12. Challenges and opportunities of international biomass market: Findings from a scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinimoe, J. (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)); Ojanen, V.; Koessi, T. (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    The markets of biomass are developing rapidly and becoming more international. Although biomass has potential to become a more important source of energy, the remarkable increase in biomass use for energy needs parallel and positive development in several sectors and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. To support the positive development of market and to make the most of the development it is needed to have understanding about the market dynamics. The objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020 and based on the scenario process to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. A heuristic semi structured approach was applied in the scenario processes. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The scenario analysis shows the key issues on the field: global economic growth including the growing need of energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of the technological development to solve the global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for the global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. (orig.)

  13. Can stories reduce abortion stigma? Findings from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Kate; Biggs, Antonia

    2018-03-01

    Women often hide or selectively disclose abortion experiences due to stigma. Secrecy can help women avoid stigma but may also result in isolation and a lack of social support and contribute to broader social silence. This study assesses whether a book-club intervention can support abortion disclosure among book club participants and improve participants' affective responses towards women who have abortions and abortion providers. A total of 109 women from 13 all-female book clubs located in 9 US states read and discussed a non-fiction book that included stories about pregnancy and abortion, participated in a book club discussion and completed baseline, immediate post-intervention and endline surveys. In 10 out of the 13 book club discussions, at least one member disclosed having had a previous abortion. Overall, 15 of the 19 women who privately reported having a previous abortion self-disclosed one or more abortions during the book club discussion. Following the book club intervention, women reported having more positive feelings toward women who have abortions and abortion providers. Greater improvement and longer lasting effects were seen in groups where there was also an in-person disclosure of abortion experience. Findings suggest that exposure to the stories of women who have had abortions can reduce abortion stigma.

  14. Do more educated workers migrate more? Findings from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of migration between capital regions and non-capital regions and the level of human capital in Korea using the method of multinomial logistic regression. This paper aims to show whether the high level of human capital of migrants who move to capital regions statistically differs from the other migrants. For analysis, this paper uses the 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 panel data from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS. The analysis is divided into two parts of migration based on the region of origin: the migration of individuals who live in non-capital regions and the migration of individuals who live in capital region. In this paper, we consider personal characteristics such as educational attainment and occupations as an indicator of human capital of individual, gender, age, and marriage status as explanatory variables. Our empirical finding is that the educational attainment of individual representing a level of human capital significantly affects the migration behavior moving from non-capital regions to capital regions. According to analysis of migration from Gyeonggi and Incheon to Seoul, the migration within capital regions, individuals who engage in occupation with high skilled and non-manual are more likely to move to Seoul capital regions where favorable conditions for workers in terms of higher wage and better job opportunities can provide. Those results can be understood in the context of human capital theory to maximize personal socioeconomic utilities by migrating to capital regions.

  15. Worth it? Findings from a study of how academics assess students’ Web 2.0 activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Gray

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Educational commentators have offered many pedagogical rationales for using Web 2.0 to support learning in higher education, and academics are being encouraged to find ways for their students to use social web technologies. Questions arise as to the value of these activities compared to more conventional assignments, and whether implementing such changes to student assessment is worth the effort. We conducted a survey of academics’ assessment of students’ Web 2.0 activities in Australian universities and found that this form of assessment is being conducted by a small number of academics, in a range of fields of study, but mainly in Humanities and Social Sciences, with varying kinds of intended and actual learning outcomes. Blogging and wiki-writing predominate, low and medium-stakes assessment are most common, and different methods of marking and feedback are in use. Qualitative feedback from the survey and follow-up interviews gave further insights into benefits and challenges of Web 2.0 assessment in relation to pedagogy, policy and practice. It appears that academics’ conservative approaches to conducting assessment and their novice approaches to utilising social web technologies are factors which seriously limit realising the potential of Web 2.0 for medium or high-stakes assessment.

  16. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.

  17. From struggles to resource gains in interprofessional service networks: Key findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Kira, Mari

    2017-07-01

    In interprofessional service networks, employees cross professional boundaries to collaborate with colleagues and clients with expertise and values different from their own. It can be a struggle to adopt shared work practices and deal with "multivoicedness." At the same time, networks allow members to engage in meaningful service provision, gain a broader understanding of the service provided, and obtain social support. Intertwined network struggles and resource gains have received limited attention in the interprofessional care literature to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the learning potential of the co-existing struggles and resource gains. This article reports findings from two interprofessional networks. Interviews were conducted with 19 employees and thematically analysed. Three types of struggles and six types of resource gains of networking were identified. The struggles relate, first, to the assumptions of networking following similar practices to those in a home organisation; second, to the challenges of dealing with the multivoicedness of networking; and, third, to the experienced gap between the networking ideals and the reality of cooperation. At the same time, the network members experience gains in emotional resources (e.g., stronger sense of meaningfulness at work), cognitive resources (e.g., understanding the customer needs from alternative perspectives), and social resources (e.g., being able to rely on other professionals' competence). Learning potential emerged from the dynamics between coexisting struggles and resource gains.

  18. A study on operative findings and pathogenic factors in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kurihara, K; Nagano, T

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of operative findings obtained in 44 cases of ulnar nerve neuropathy at the elbow in an attempt to help elucidate the pathogenetic factors for the condition. Distinction must be made between Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum or a ligament-like thickening at the same site and the tendinous arch of M. flexor carpi ulnaris. These 2 sites constitute the entrapment points for the condition. A thick tendinous arch, Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum of M. anconeus epitrochlearis deters the ulnar nerve from being mobile, thereby contributing to the development of neuropathy with trauma acting as a precipitating factor. Dislocation of the ulnar nerve cannot be considered a factor of major etiologic significance. An important part is played by the tendinous arch in the pathogenesis of neuropathy, regardless of whether it is in association with ganglion, osteochondromatosis or osteoarthritis. In surgery for ulnar neuropathy decompression of the nerve is of primary necessity. Division of the tendinous arch is mandatory. Medial epicondylectomy may be added as required.

  19. 'Ecological embeddedness' and Its Public Health Implications: Findings From an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marina; Townsend, Mardie

    2015-06-01

    Western culture over the last two centuries has become significantly ecologically 'dis-embedded', with nature increasingly reduced to resources for human use. The consequence is global environmental degradation, including accelerating climate change. Much recent research supports associations between nature contact and human health and well-being, and between feelings of nature-connectedness and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The oft-cited Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986) emphasises human-environment inextricability; however public health discourse and response has not fully engaged with this recognition. This qualitative study explored the attitudes, motivations, and experiences-including formative influences-of six individuals whose behaviour was congruent with recognition of human-nature interconnectedness; such individuals may be understood as ecologically embedded. Key aspects of participants' experience, identified through grounded theory thematic analysis, were (i) connecting with nature (especially in childhood); (ii) seeing the threat and taking it personally; (iii) the nature of reality; (iv) dedicated beyond the ego-oriented self; and (v) sustaining the eco-centric self. The findings highlight the necessity for cross-sectoral advocacy at all levels of government policy development focused on recognition of human-environment connectedness, especially bridging health, planning and education policies affecting children. Only thus will both population health and ecological health on which population health depends be possible.

  20. Early detection of COPD: a case finding study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevoorde, Jan; Verbanck, Sylvia; Gijssels, Lieve; Schuermans, Daniel; Devroey, Dirk; De Backer, Joan; Kartounian, Jan; Vincken, Walter

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a population of general practice patients at risk for developing COPD. A further aim was to evaluate the presence of respiratory symptoms as a predictor for the diagnosis of COPD. This study was conducted by eight general practitioners (GP) in six semi-rural general practices. During two consecutive months all patients attending their GP were included if they met the following criteria: current smokers between 40 and 70 yr of age, and a smoking history of at least 15 pack-years. A questionnaire regarding smoking history, respiratory symptoms, exposure to dust or chemical fumes, and history of respiratory diseases was completed for all patients. Subjects without known COPD were invited for spirometric testing. Off the 146 general practice patients included, 17.1% already had an established COPD diagnosis. Screening by spirometry revealed a 46.6% prevalence of COPD. Underdiagnosis of COPD was more frequent in the younger age categories (40-49 Yr; 50-59 Yr). Objective wheezing was the only sign that was significantly more frequent in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients (Pfatigue than newly detected patients. Almost half of a general practice population of current smokers between 40 and 70 years of age, with a smoking history of at least 15 pack-years, was diagnosed with COPD, and roughly two thirds of these were newly detected as a result of the case finding programme.

  1. Young people’s views about consenting to data linkage: findings from the PEARL qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Audrey

    2016-03-01

    with different scenarios, and were sometimes inconsistent. Conclusions Findings from this study question the validity of ‘informed consent’ as a cornerstone of good governance, and the extent to which potential research participants understand different types of consent and what they are consenting, or not consenting, to. Pragmatic, imaginative and flexible approaches are needed if research using data linkage is to successfully realise its potential for public good without undermining public trust in the research process.

  2. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy RK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  3. Young people's views about consenting to data linkage: findings from the PEARL qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Brown, Lindsey; Campbell, Rona; Boyd, Andy; Macleod, John

    2016-03-21

    Electronic administrative data exist in several domains which, if linked, are potentially useful for research. However, benefits from data linkage should be considered alongside risks such as the threat to privacy. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a birth cohort study. The Project to Enhance ALSPAC through Record Linkage (PEARL) was established to enrich the ALSPAC resource through linkage between ALSPAC participants and routine sources of health and social data. Qualitative research was incorporated in the PEARL study to examine participants' views about data linkage and inform approaches to information sharing. This paper focusses on issues of consent. Digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 55 participants aged 17-19 years. Terms and processes relating to consent, anonymization and data linkage were explained to interviewees. Scenarios were used to prompt consideration of linking different sources of data, and whether consent should be requested. Interview recordings were fully transcribed. Thematic analysis was undertaken using the Framework approach. Participant views on data linkage appeared to be most influenced by: considerations around the social sensitivity of the research question, and; the possibility of tangible health benefits in the public interest. Some participants appeared unsure about the effectiveness of anonymization, or did not always view effective anonymization as making consent unnecessary. This was related to notions of ownership of personal information and etiquette around asking permission for secondary use. Despite different consent procedures being explained, participants tended to equate consent with 'opt-in' consent through which participants are 'asked' if their data can be used for a specific study. Participants raising similar concerns came to differing conclusions about whether consent was needed. Views changed when presented with different scenarios, and were sometimes inconsistent. Findings

  4. Inadequate Progress for Women in Academic Medicine: Findings from the National Faculty Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Christine M.; Kaplan, Samantha A.; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women have entered academic medicine in significant numbers for 4 decades and now comprise 20% of full-time faculty. Despite this, women have not reached senior positions in parity with men. We sought to explore the gender climate in academic medicine as perceived by representatives to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) and Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI). Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with GWIMS and GDI representatives and other senior leaders at 24 randomly selected medical schools of the 1995 National Faculty Study. All were in the continental United States, balanced for public/private status and AAMC geographic region. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and organized into content areas before an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Themes that were expressed by multiple informants were studied for patterns of association. Results: Five themes were identified: (1) a perceived wide spectrum in gender climate; (2) lack of parity in rank and leadership by gender; (3) lack of retention of women in academic medicine (the “leaky pipeline”); (4) lack of gender equity in compensation; and (5) a disproportionate burden of family responsibilities and work-life balance on women's career progression. Conclusions: Key informants described improvements in the climate of academic medicine for women as modest. Medical schools were noted to vary by department in the gender experience of women, often with no institutional oversight. Our findings speak to the need for systematic review by medical schools and by accrediting organizations to achieve gender equity in academic medicine. PMID:25658907

  5. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Becoming Spatially Embedded: Findings from a Study on Rural Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Norway

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    Mai Camilla Munkejord

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a nuanced understanding of (immigrant entrepreneurship as a socio-economic and spatially embedded practice by analysing data from a qualitative study in Finnmark, in northernmost Norway. Research Design & Methods: The article is based on a qualitative fieldwork including business visits and in-depth interviews. The transcripts from the interviews were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory approach (CGT. Findings: The article contributes to the entrepreneurship literature in general and to the immigrant entrepreneurship literature in particular by investigating mutual connections between immigrant entrepreneurs, place and community. The article firstly reveals that immigrants may be able to successfully create and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities literally from day one in the rural community in which they settle. Implications & Recommendations: This study notes that immigrant entrepreneurs may contribute to building the periphery. Hence, developing our knowledge of how to increase the feeling of local belonging of immigrants may be important for many rural regions. This is because, rural immigrants not only represent a much needed inflow of younger people in a typically decreasing and ageing population, but also entail cultural variation and job creation, thus contributing to place development. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this article is to investigate mutual connections between immigrant entrepreneurs, place and community, hence revealing how immigrants, when being supported by the rural community, may be able to successfully create and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities in rural communities, and, through entrepreneurship processes, may even contribute to (rebuild the rural areas.

  7. The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-11-06

    Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010. Participants were Canadian adults from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (n = 4121). A multiple group (based on gender) latent growth curve analysis was conducted to examine the overall trajectory of problem gambling severity. Two models were tested; the first examined the influence of past-year religious service attendance, and the second examined an overall measure of personal religiosity on the trajectory of problem gambling. The Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) was used as a continuous measure. The Rohrbaugh-Jessor Religiosity Scale (RJRS) was used to assess past-year frequency of religious service attendance and personal religiosity. Religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Atheist/Agnostic, Other, Prefer not to say) was also included in the models. At baseline, higher frequency of past-year religious service attendance (males: β= -0.54, females: β= -0.68, p religious service attendance was greater among females (χ 2 diff (44)  = 336.8, p religious affiliation. No measures of religiosity or religious affiliation were associated with the overall decline in problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that religiosity may act as a static protective factor against problem gambling severity but may play a less significant role in predicting change in problem gambling severity over time.

  8. Hearing Impairment and Incident Dementia: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hilary R; Cadar, Dorina; Herbert, Annie; Orrell, Martin; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether hearing loss is associated with incident physician-diagnosed dementia in a representative sample. Retrospective cohort study. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Adults aged 50 and older. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported (n = 7,865) and objective hearing measures (n = 6,902) and dementia were examined using multinomial-logistic regression. The longitudinal association between self-reported hearing at Wave 2 (2004/05) and cumulative physician-diagnosed dementia up to Wave 7 (2014/15) was modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjustment for potential confounders, in cross-sectional analysis, participants who had self-reported or objective moderate and poor hearing were more likely to have a dementia diagnosis than those with normal hearing (self-reported: odds ratio OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.4 moderate hearing; OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7-3.9 poor hearing, objective: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8 moderate hearing; OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.9-9.9 poor hearing). Longitudinally, the hazard of developing dementia was 1.4 (95% CI = 1.0-1.9) times as high in individuals who reported moderate hearing and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.0) times as high in those who reported poor hearing. Older adults with hearing loss are at greater risk of dementia than those with normal hearing. These findings are consistent with the rationale that correction of hearing loss could help delay the onset of dementia, or that hearing loss itself could serve as a risk indicator for cognitive decline. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Inadequate progress for women in academic medicine: findings from the National Faculty Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Gunn, Christine M; Kaplan, Samantha A; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M

    2015-03-01

    Women have entered academic medicine in significant numbers for 4 decades and now comprise 20% of full-time faculty. Despite this, women have not reached senior positions in parity with men. We sought to explore the gender climate in academic medicine as perceived by representatives to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) and Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI). We conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with GWIMS and GDI representatives and other senior leaders at 24 randomly selected medical schools of the 1995 National Faculty Study. All were in the continental United States, balanced for public/private status and AAMC geographic region. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and organized into content areas before an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Themes that were expressed by multiple informants were studied for patterns of association. Five themes were identified: (1) a perceived wide spectrum in gender climate; (2) lack of parity in rank and leadership by gender; (3) lack of retention of women in academic medicine (the "leaky pipeline"); (4) lack of gender equity in compensation; and (5) a disproportionate burden of family responsibilities and work-life balance on women's career progression. Key informants described improvements in the climate of academic medicine for women as modest. Medical schools were noted to vary by department in the gender experience of women, often with no institutional oversight. Our findings speak to the need for systematic review by medical schools and by accrediting organizations to achieve gender equity in academic medicine.

  10. Cochleo-vestibular clinical findings among drug resistant Tuberculosis Patients on therapy-a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramma Lebogang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background To investigate the Cochleo-vestibular clinical and audiometric findings in Multi and Extreme Drug Resistance(MDR and XDR tuberculosis(TB patients on treatment and make recommendations. Methods A cross-sectional study of adult MDR and XDR-TB patients was conducted in a general hospital in Cape-Town-South-Africa. Ethical approval was secured and all consenting patients administered with pretested and validated questionnaire under the guidance of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health(ICF Checklist-version-2.1a. Audiometric evaluation included: Otoscopy, Diagnostic Audiometry and Tympanometry. The data analyses were done with SPSS version 16, Chi-square and StatCalc-7. Results Fifty-three adults, ages 18-60 (mean-33 years comprising 26 males and 27 females participated in the study. Hospital stay duration varied from 1-18 months (mean-6 months and all were on anti-Koch's second line drugs (regimen 2. MDR TB group were 45(85% and XDR 8(15%. Vertigo was the most common vestibular symptoms, 24(45% whereas, tinnitus 23(42% and hearing loss 13(25% were most frequent auditory complaints. Bilateral sensorineural hearing losses of varying degrees were confirmed in 23(47%. There was no association between gender and age with hearing loss [χ2 (P = 0.16, ά = 0.05 and (p = 0.13, ά = 0.05]. Furthermore, MDR and XTR TB groups [20/42 Vs 3/8; Z = 0.46 and P = 0.64], showed no difference in pattern of the hearing losses. Conclusions A multi-disciplinary close surveillance of MDR and XDR TB patients on therapy is imperative. Finally, researches into therapeutic trials on antidotes and potent safer substitutes for aminoglycosides in the management are recommended.

  11. Characteristics of emerging adulthood and e-cigarette use: Findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Forster, Myriam; Neiberger, Adam; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-11-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) are more likely to use e-cigarettes compared to other age groups, but little is known about their risk and protective factors. A next step to understanding e-cigarette use among emerging adults may involve examining how transition-to-adulthood themes are associated with e-cigarette use. It may also be important to know which specific transitions, and how the accumulated number of role transitions experienced in emerging adulthood, are associated with e-cigarette use. Emerging adults completed surveys indicating their identification with transition-to-adulthood themes, role transitions in the past year, and e-cigarette use. Logistic regression models examined the associations between transition-to-adulthood themes and e-cigarette use. Separate logistic regression models explored the association between individual role transitions, as well as the accumulated number of role transitions experienced, and e-cigarette use, controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity. Among the participants (n = 555), 21% were male, the average age was 22, 45% reported lifetime, and 12% reported past-month, e-cigarette use. Participants who felt emerging adulthood was a time of experimentation/possibility were more likely to report e-cigarette use. Several role transitions were found to be associated with e-cigarette use such as loss of a job, dating someone new, and experiencing a breakup. The relationship between the accumulated number of role transitions and e-cigarette use was curvilinear. Findings from this pilot study can be a point of departure for future studies looking to understand the risk and protective factors of e-cigarettes among emerging adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The BioFIND study: Characteristics of a clinically typical Parkinson's disease biomarker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Xie, Tao; Tuite, Paul; Henchcliffe, Claire; Hogarth, Penelope; Amara, Amy W.; Frank, Samuel; Rudolph, Alice; Casaceli, Cynthia; Andrews, Howard; Gwinn, Katrina; Sutherland, Margaret; Kopil, Catherine; Vincent, Lona; Frasier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Identifying PD‐specific biomarkers in biofluids will greatly aid in diagnosis, monitoring progression, and therapeutic interventions. PD biomarkers have been limited by poor discriminatory power, partly driven by heterogeneity of the disease, variability of collection protocols, and focus on de novo, unmedicated patients. Thus, a platform for biomarker discovery and validation in well‐characterized, clinically typical, moderate to advanced PD cohorts is critically needed. Methods BioFIND (Fox Investigation for New Discovery of Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease) is a cross‐sectional, multicenter biomarker study that established a repository of clinical data, blood, DNA, RNA, CSF, saliva, and urine samples from 118 moderate to advanced PD and 88 healthy control subjects. Inclusion criteria were designed to maximize diagnostic specificity by selecting participants with clinically typical PD symptoms, and clinical data and biospecimen collection utilized standardized procedures to minimize variability across sites. Results We present the study methodology and data on the cohort's clinical characteristics. Motor scores and biospecimen samples including plasma are available for practically defined off and on states and thus enable testing the effects of PD medications on biomarkers. Other biospecimens are available from off state PD assessments and from controls. Conclusion Our cohort provides a valuable resource for biomarker discovery and validation in PD. Clinical data and biospecimens, available through The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, can serve as a platform for discovering biomarkers in clinically typical PD and comparisons across PD's broad and heterogeneous spectrum. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:27113479

  13. Formaldehyde exposure and lower respiratory infections in infants: findings from the PARIS cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Dassonville, Claire; Nicolis, Ioannis; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants' dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors. During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 μg/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI.

  14. Effects of psychosocial work characteristics on hair cortisol - findings from a post-trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Barrech, Amira; Gündel, Harald; Lang, Jessica; Quinete, Natalia Soares; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged work stress, as indicated by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, jeopardizes health. Cortisol represents a candidate mechanism connecting stress to ill health. However, previous findings appear inconclusive, and recommendations were made to assess work stress at multiple time points and also to investigate ERI (sub-)components. This study therefore examines the effects of two single time points, as well as the mean and change scores between time points of ERI and its components on hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a long-term cortisol measurement. Participants were 66 male factory workers (age: 40.68 ± 6.74 years; HCC: 9.00 ± 7.11 pg/mg), who were followed up after a stress management intervention (2006-2008). In 2008 (T1) and 2015 (T2), participants completed a 23-item ERI questionnaire, assessing effort, the three reward components (esteem, job security, job promotion) and over-commitment. In 2015, participants also provided a 3-cm hair segment close to the scalp for HCC analysis, as well as information on relevant confounders (i.e. medication intake, age, work characteristics, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, number of stressful life events). Linear regressions revealed hardly any cross-sectional or longitudinal effect of ERI and its components on HCC. Only the change scores between T1 and T2 of job security were negatively associated with lower HCC in unadjusted (β = -.320; p = .009) and adjusted (β = -.288; p = .044) models. In this study, only a decrease of perceived job security over time was significantly associated with higher HCC, and other predictors were not related to this outcome. Especially after correction for multiple testing, this study revealed just a weak association of different psychosocial work measurements with HCC. Lay summary This study showed that an increase in perceived job insecurity is correlated with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The higher levels of cortisol might

  15. "Disruptive Technologies", "Pedagogical Innovation": What's New? Findings from an In-Depth Study of Students' Use and Perception of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conole, Grainne; de Laat, Maarten; Dillon, Teresa; Darby, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the findings from a study of students' use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings suggest that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that…

  16. Craniopagus twins: a comparative study of radiological findings and surgery (with a review of literatures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyun; Luo Baining; Wu Xinjian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the understanding of craniopagus twins through a case report and literature review. Method: A pair of female craniopagus twins was examined with CT and MRI and angiography. The radiological findings were compared with operation. Results: The operation result was in consistent with imaging findings. Conclusion: Modern radiological modalities can evaluate complex deformity, which play an important role in the orthopedic procedures. (authors)

  17. Study of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for finding exact analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Koppelaar, H

    2015-07-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) are obtained via the enhanced (G'/G)-expansion method. The method is subsequently applied to find exact solutions of the Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation and the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers (PIB) equation. The efficiency of this method for finding these exact solutions is demonstrated. The method is effective and applicable for many other NPDEs in mathematical physics.

  18. Study of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for finding exact analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M. Ali; Koppelaar, H.

    2015-01-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) are obtained via the enhanced (G′/G)-expansion method. The method is subsequently applied to find exact solutions of the Drinfel'd–Sokolov–Wilson (DSW) equation and the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers (PIB) equation. The efficiency of this method for finding these exact solutions is demonstrated. The method is effective and applicable for many other NPDEs in mathematical physics. PMID:26587256

  19. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  20. A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kimeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Records for 591 dogs were included in this study. The data was obtained from the national screening office, Kenya Veterinary Board, for the period between the years 1998 and 2014. Monthly screening records were assessed and information relating to year of evaluation, breed, sex, age, and hip score captured. Descriptive statistics of hip scores was computed based on year, sex, age, and breed. Results: A total of 591 records from the year 1998 to 2014 were retrieved at the National Screening Centre, the Kenya Veterinary Board. Each record was examined and data pertaining to year of screening, the breed, sex, age of the dogs, and the total hip score were recorded. The highest number of dogs screened for hip dysplasia (HD was in the year 2009 and the lowest in the year 1998. More females than males were screened for HD and the mean age of all the dogs was 22.9±12.7 months. The most common breeds of dogs screened during the study period were German Shepherd (67.0%, Rottweiler (15.6%, and Labrador Retriever (12.2%. The mean hip score for the 591 dogs was 15.1±10.9 and the median 12.0. The mean hip scores per breed were; German Shepherd (16.3±12.1; Golden Retriever (16.0; Hungarian Vizla (15.0; Labrador Retriever (3.0±6.7; Great Dane (13.3±3.2; Rottweiler (12.2±8.2; Doberman (10.3±4.2; Rhodesian Ridgeback (9.6±3.8; and Boxer (9.3±0.6. Based on the hip score, moderate to severe HD was diagnosed in 16.6% of the dogs, mild HD in 32.7%, Borderline HD in 37.7%, fair HD in 6.9%, and good HD in 6.1%. Conclusion: Canine HD is a common occurrence in Kenya with most dogs suffering mild to border line HD. In addition, German Shepherd and Golden Retriever appear to be the most affected breeds. It is therefore recommended that stringent measures be imposed to dog breeding programs to avoid transmission of this undesirable trait

  1. Ending Intimate Partner Violence after pregnancy: Findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Valladares, Eliette; Öhman, Ann; Högberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV. Methods A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied. Results Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a

  2. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Jennifer C.; Simmons, Eunice A.; Convery, Ian; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.

  3. A study on findings from simple chest radiographs without any clinical symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, the analysis on findings from simple chest radiography (CXR) test with total 1,669 subjects without any special clinical symptom came to the following conclusions: In terms of the general characteristics of subjects hereof, male and female group accounted for 55.2% and 44.8% respectively out of all 1,669 people. Pulmonary disease cases amounted to 249 persons (14.9%) out of all subjects. In the analysis on prevalence rate by age distribution, it was noted that the older age led to the more number of diseases, which was demonstrated by age 34 or younger (6.1%), age 35 {approx} 39 (9.7%), age 40 {approx} 49 (13.3%), and age 50 or older (30.8%). In regard of pulmonary disease alone, the region of onset was represented primarily by right upper lobe, which was followed by both upper lobe and left upper lobe, respectively. In terms of disease types, it was found that most cases were represented by pulmonary nodule (55.0%), which was followed by cardiomegaly (24.5%), CP angle blunting (4.8%), scoliosis (4.6%) tortuous aorta (2.8%), bronchial luminal dilatation(2.4%), and pleural thickening (2.0%). However, dextrocardia, cystic dilation of bronchus, cavitary lesion, and lung collapse accounted for relatively low rate (0.4% respectively). In terms of disease types by sex, it was found that male group accounted for higher percentage of having cardiomegaly, tortuous aorta and scoliosis than the former. In terms of disease types by age distribution, it was noted that age 34 or younger group accounted for higher percentage of scoliosis than any other age groups, while age 40 {approx} 49 group, age 35 {approx} 39 group, and age 50 or older group represented the case of CP angle blunting, pulmonary nodule, and cardiomegaly/tortuous aorta, respectively.

  4. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Olive, Lisa S; Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA) among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies. Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls) from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run), percent fat (DEXA), eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test) and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire) were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire) were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates. Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, pgirls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4%) but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, pphysical education (7.7 vs 8.4, pboys but not girls. Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting the gap in PA between boys and girls can be reduced. Strategies aiming to increase PA should be multicomponent and take into consideration that pathways to increasing PA are likely to differ among boys and girls.

  5. A study on findings from simple chest radiographs without any clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the analysis on findings from simple chest radiography (CXR) test with total 1,669 subjects without any special clinical symptom came to the following conclusions: In terms of the general characteristics of subjects hereof, male and female group accounted for 55.2% and 44.8% respectively out of all 1,669 people. Pulmonary disease cases amounted to 249 persons (14.9%) out of all subjects. In the analysis on prevalence rate by age distribution, it was noted that the older age led to the more number of diseases, which was demonstrated by age 34 or younger (6.1%), age 35 ∼ 39 (9.7%), age 40 ∼ 49 (13.3%), and age 50 or older (30.8%). In regard of pulmonary disease alone, the region of onset was represented primarily by right upper lobe, which was followed by both upper lobe and left upper lobe, respectively. In terms of disease types, it was found that most cases were represented by pulmonary nodule (55.0%), which was followed by cardiomegaly (24.5%), CP angle blunting (4.8%), scoliosis (4.6%) tortuous aorta (2.8%), bronchial luminal dilatation(2.4%), and pleural thickening (2.0%). However, dextrocardia, cystic dilation of bronchus, cavitary lesion, and lung collapse accounted for relatively low rate (0.4% respectively). In terms of disease types by sex, it was found that male group accounted for higher percentage of having cardiomegaly, tortuous aorta and scoliosis than the former. In terms of disease types by age distribution, it was noted that age 34 or younger group accounted for higher percentage of scoliosis than any other age groups, while age 40 ∼ 49 group, age 35 ∼ 39 group, and age 50 or older group represented the case of CP angle blunting, pulmonary nodule, and cardiomegaly/tortuous aorta, respectively

  6. Australians' views on personal genomic testing: focus group findings from the Genioz study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hickerton, Chriselle; Savard, Jacqueline; Terrill, Bronwyn; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Gray, Kathleen; Middleton, Anna; Wilson, Brenda; Newson, Ainsley J

    2018-04-30

    Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years. Three researchers coded transcripts independently and generated themes. Awareness of personal genomic testing was low, but most could deduce what "personal genomics" might entail. Very few had heard of the term "direct-to-consumer" testing, which has implications for organisations developing information to support individuals in their decision-making. Participants' understanding of genetics was varied and drawn from several sources. There were diverse perceptions of the relative influence of genetics and environment on health, mental health, behavior, talent, or personality. Views about having a personal genomic test were mixed, with greater interest in health-related tests if they believed there was a reason for doing so. However, many expressed scepticisms about the types of tests available, and how the information might be used; concerns were also raised about privacy and the potential for discrimination. These exploratory findings inform subsequent stages of the Genioz study, thereby contributing to strategies of supporting Australians to understand and make meaningful and well-considered decisions about the benefits, harms, and implications of personal genomic tests.

  7. Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; Grulich, Andrew E; Simpson, Judy M

    2014-11-01

    Background It is important to have current and reliable estimates of the frequency and correlates of condom use among Australian adults. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years, from all states and territories, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews. The overall participation rate among eligible people was 66.2%. Although most respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of those who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in that year. Condom use in the last year was associated with youth, speaking a language other than English at home, bisexual identity, greater education, residence in major cities, lower income and having multiple sexual partners in the last year. One-quarter of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse and one-sixth of these were put on after genital contact. Condom use during most recent vaginal sex was associated with youth, lower income, having sex with a non-regular partner and not using another form of contraception. Condom use appears to have increased between 2001-02 and 2012-13. Consistent with other research, this study showed that condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception. There may be a need to highlight among people with multiple sexual partners the fact that non-barrier methods of contraception do not offer protection against sexually transmissible infections. The finding that many condoms were applied after genital contact suggests a need to promote both use and correct use of condoms.

  8. Benefit finding for Chinese family caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongxia; Wilson, Susan; Lin, Beilei; Li, Yingshuang; Zhang, Zhenxiang

    2018-04-01

    To identify whether benefit finding is a mediator or moderator in the relationship between caregiver burden and psychological well-being (anxiety and depression) in Chinese family caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Family caregivers not only bear a heavy burden, a high level of anxiety and depression, but also experience benefit finding (positive effects result from stressful events). However, the relationships among benefit finding, caregiver burden and psychological well-being in Chinese family caregivers are not well known. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. Caregivers (n = 145) of stroke survivors were recruited from two communities in Zhengzhou, China. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with structured questionnaires, examining caregiver burden, benefit finding and psychological well-being of caregivers. A hierarchical regression analysis explored whether caregiver burden and benefit finding were associated with anxiety and depression of caregivers. The moderator role of benefit finding was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between caregiver burden and benefit finding. A mediational model was used to test benefit finding as a mediator between caregiver burden and psychological well-being of caregivers using process in spss 21.0. Caregiver burden and benefit finding were significantly associated with both anxiety and depression of caregivers. Benefit finding did not portray a moderating role, but portrayed the mediator role in the relationship between caregiver burden, anxiety and depression in caregivers. This study provides the preliminary evidence to nurses that intervention focus on benefit finding may help improve the psychological well-being of caregivers. This study offers nurses rational for assessing caregiver's negative emotions and benefit finding. By targeting benefit finding, the nurse may guide caregivers in benefit identification and implement interventions to reduce anxiety

  9. Urogenital schistosomiasis in Cabo Delgado, northern Mozambique: baseline findings from the SCORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna E; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Aurelio, Herminio O; Dhanani, Neerav; Ferro, Josefo; Nala, Rassul; Deol, Arminder; Fenwick, Alan

    2018-01-10

    The results presented here are part of a five-year cluster-randomised intervention trial that was implemented to understand how best to gain and sustain control of schistosomiasis through different preventive chemotherapy strategies. This paper presents baseline data that were collected in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, before treatment. A cross-sectional study of 19,039 individuals was sampled from 144 villages from May to September 2011. In each village prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium were investigated in 100 children first-year students (aged 5-8 years), 100 school children aged 9-12 years (from classes 2 to 7) and 50 adults (20-55 years). Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection were evaluated microscopically by two filtrations, each of 10 ml, from a single urine specimen. Given that individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis influence control efforts, community knowledge and environmental risk factors were collected using a face-to-face interview. Data were entered onto mobile phones using EpiCollect. Data summary was made using descriptive statistics. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 60.4% with an arithmetic mean intensity of infection of 55.8 eggs/10 ml of urine. Heavy infections were detected in 17.7%, of which 235 individuals (6.97%) had an egg count of 1000 eggs/10 ml or more. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females across all ages (62% vs 58%; P Cabo Delgado. In addition, poor community knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it increases the significant public health challenge for the national control program. This was the first study in Mozambique that examined infection levels among adults, where results showed that S. haematobium infection was also extremely high. Given

  10. Radiologic findings of cystic fibrosis in a Korean child at follow up study: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Il Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Jeon, Seok Chol; Choi, Yo Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Ahn, You Hern

    2003-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease involving recessive transmission. The fundamental abnormality consists of the production of abnormal secretion from a variety of exocrine glands such as salivary and sweat glands and those of the pancreas, colon, and tracheobronchial trees. Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal genetically transmitted disease among whites, but is uncommon in Asians, including Koreans. Although a case involving a Korean was reported in 1988, the focus was diagnosis rather than the radiological findings. In the case of cystic fibrosis we now describe, the focus is inverted: we emphasise the reported in 1988, focusing on radiologic findings

  11. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan M Telford

    Full Text Available A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies.Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run, percent fat (DEXA, eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates.Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, p<0.001, 95%CI [1844, 2626]. Lower PA among girls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4% but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, p<0.001, CI [0.5,0.9], 44% lower eye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, p<0.001, CI [5.1,9.0], higher percent body fat (28% vs 23%, p<0.001, CI [3.5,5.7] and 9% lower perceived competence in physical education (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.001, CI [0.2,0.9]. Participation in extracurricular sport at either age 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls.Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting

  12. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  13. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g. – cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users. The data were analysed and themes identified. Results There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Conclusion Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient

  14. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Giordano, James; France, Nicholas

    2007-04-26

    There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g.--cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc) is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient-physician relationship. There may be pressure to imbue cultural diversity issues

  15. Word finding deficitsin aphasia: diagnosis and treatment. Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jong-Hagelstein (Marjolein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAphasia Imagine finding yourself all of a sudden alone in a Chinese city and not speaking or understanding Chinese. How do you ask for the way or read the signs, buy food and other necessities, watch tv or listen to the news, let alone have a social conversation with someone? This

  16. Beyond Interdisciplinary Teaming: Findings and Implications of the NASSP National Middle Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Petzko, Vicki N.; Valentine, Jerry W.; Clark, Donald C.; Nori, John R.; Lucas, Stephen E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports trends and implications of interdisciplinary teaming practices in middle schools, based on findings from a national survey. Noting that nearly 80 percent of schools currently implement teaming, challenges principals and teachers to move beyond simple formation of teams to the creation of an infrastructure that supports high-performing…

  17. The Impact of Computerization on Archival Finding Aids: A RAMP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Christopher

    This report is based on a questionnaire sent to 32 selected National Archives and on interviews with archivists from eight countries. Geared to the needs of developing countries, the report covers: (1) the impact of computerization on finding aids; (2) advantages and problems of computerization, including enhanced archival control, integration of…

  18. Internet Consumer Catalog Shopping: Findings from an Exploratory Study and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph M.; Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents findings from an exploratory, empirical investigation of perceptions of Internet catalog shopping compared to more traditional print catalog shopping. Two factors that might influence perceptions, personality, and important other people are examined, and directions for further research are suggested. (Author/LRW)

  19. Using virtual social networks for case finding in clinical studies: An experiment from adolescence, brain, cognition, and diabetes study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Pourabbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the main usages of social networks in clinical studies is facilitating the process of sampling and case finding for scientists. The main focus of this study is on comparing two different methods of sampling through phone calls and using social network, for study purposes. Methods: One of the researchers started calling 214 families of children with diabetes during 90 days. After this period, phone calls stopped, and the team started communicating with families through telegram, a virtual social network for 30 days. The number of children who participated in the study was evaluated. Results: Although the telegram method was 60 days shorter than the phone call method, researchers found that the number of participants from telegram (17.6% did not have any significant differences compared with the ones being phone called (12.9%. Conclusions: Using social networks can be suggested as a beneficial method for local researchers who look for easier sampling methods, winning their samples' trust, following up with the procedure, and an easy-access database.

  20. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofuji, A.; Takiguchi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Kuramochi, A.; Tsuchida, T.; Arai, E.; Shimizu, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back) showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology

  1. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  2. An experimental study on image findings of MRI and their pathomorphological basis in limb gunshot wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Luqing; Gu Ming; Ke Zhenwu; Guo Qiaonan; Ma Zongli; Pan Chuanjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the MRI findings of limb gunshot wound and investigate their pathomorphological basis through animal models. Methods: Sixteen mongrel dogs were divided into four groups randomly. The hind legs of dogs shot with handgun were undergone 0.5 T MRI scans at 5 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after wounded, respectively. The gross changes, HE staining light microscopic findings and MRI findings of wounds were observed. Results: Permanent tract was a zone of tissue defect. In the tract, blood of 5 h group's and pus of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h groups showed T 1 WI hypointense signal and T 2 WI hyperintense signal. In contusion zone, the main pathological change was homogeneous coagulating necrosis of muscle fibers. MRI images showed irregular line, dot, or block T 1 WI isointense signal, T 2 WI hypointense signal, and no enhanced after Gd-DTPA injected in all groups. In concussion zone, the main pathological changes of 5 h group were edema, degeneration, and lysis of cells and lots of erythrocytes in the tissue interspace. Besides these, a large quantity of leucocytes and pus cells appeared, the lysis of degenerated cells near the contusion zone and the edema of such area, with passage of time, were more obviously in groups 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. In MRI, concussion zone showed slightly hypointense T 1 WI signal, hyperintense T 2 WI, signal and T 2 WI signal got higher and the adjacent contusion zone got clearer with time pass. Concussion zone could be enhanced obviously. Conclusion: MRI can reflect the lesion of tissue in limb gunshot wound accurately during seventy-two hours after wound. The T 2 WI and contrast-enhanced T 1 WI are valuable. The special tissue-defect area, coagulating necrosis of cells, and large range injury of blood vessels and cells are the important pathomorphological basis which cause the MRI findings of gunshot wound different from normal trauma. (author)

  3. Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem

    There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This ......). This project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....

  4. Intraarticular findings in the chronically painful shoulder. A study of 32 posttraumatic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suder, P.A.; Hougaard, K.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1994-01-01

    the head activities. Symptoms of a "dead arm" and instability were also present. Patients with previous dislocations, traumas or radiographic signs of degenerative shoulder lesions were excluded. The patients had a decreased active range of motion and positive signs of apprehension and impingement......, arthroscopic labral resection and open subacromial decompression. In conclusion, patients with chronic posttraumatic shoulder pain have intraarticular injuries, especially tears of the glenoid labrum. History, clinical findings, radiography and sonography are seldom diagnostic. MRI is valuable, particularly...

  5. CT studies of mesentery and related vascular findings in strangulating intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhua; Cao Qingxuan; Yang Shifeng; Li Jianhai; Lu Shenglin; Zhang Qiang; Wu Tian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance of mesentery and related vascular (MRV) findings in strangulating obstruction (SO) and evaluate the value of CT examination for diagnosing SO. Methods: Thirty patients with SO were included in the investigation. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation in 26 cases and 4 cases by clinic. The cause of SO included adhesion in 9 cases, volvulus in 8 cases, intussusception in 6 cases, infarction of mesenteric vesseles in 4 cases, and internal hernia in 3 cases, respectively. All patients was examined with CT and 20 of them with enhanced CT. Results: Eleven items of CT findings were revealed in these patients. The findings could be divided into 3 types: (1) direct signs: including embolism of mesenteric vasculature in 2 cases and mesenteric edema and related vascular enlargement in 19 cases. (2)indirect signs: including bowel wall edema and thickenning in 24 cases, abnormal enhancement of the wall in 6 cases, massive fluid in the bowel in 13 cases, abnormal form of loops in 10 cases, and hemorrhage of bowel wall and mesentery in 1 case each. (3) complicated signs: including intramural gas in 3 cases, intrahepatic portal veins gas in 1 case, gas in mesentery in 1 case, and ascites and pneumoperitoneum in 11 cases. Conclusion: The CT findings of mesenteric edema, ischemia and infarction are reliable and characteristic signs for diagnosing SO. The diagnosis of SO can be correctly made before operation if these signs are recognized, at the same time, CT may demonstrate some complications which can not be revealed by traditional X-ray examinations. (authors)

  6. The relevance of context in understanding health literacy skills: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Verna B; Sixsmith, Jane; Barry, Margaret M

    2017-10-01

    Conceptualizing health literacy as a relational concept, which involves how individuals interact with complex health and social systems, requires a greater understanding of the context of people's health experiences. To describe individuals' experiences of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information; explore the barriers and facilitators to using these skills; and to describe the experience of information exchange in health consultations. A longitudinal qualitative methodology with thematic analysis of interviews was used. Health literacy levels were assessed using the HLS-EU-47-Item Questionnaire. Findings are presented from the first round of data collection. Twenty-six participants purposefully selected from a CVD risk reduction programme at three separate time points. Four key themes identified: using health literacy capacities for managing health; psychological and structural factors that impact on these capacities; and the relationship quality with the health-care provider (HCP). Although limited health literacy was prevalent across the sample (65%), all individuals were very proactive in attempting to utilize health literacy skills. Findings emphasize the importance of contextual factors such as the quality of communication with the health-care provider, perceptions of control, attitudes to family medical history, navigating structural barriers and being supported in managing treatment and medication side-effects. Findings are relevant for health-care providers in order to enhance the patient-provider relationship and to ensure optimum health outcomes for all individuals regardless of health literacy levels. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  8. MRI findings and correlative study of MRI and visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Fei; Li Jing; Wang Zhenchang; Liu Shoubin; Zhang Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effective MRI sequences and describe the correlation between MRI and visual evoked potential (VEP) in diagnosing optic neuritis. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four eyes with visual impairment of 98 patients with diagnoses of optic neuritis, papillitis, multiple sclerosis and Devic's disease underwent MRI and VEP examination. The MRI findings were analyzed and correlated with VEP results and clinical presentation by using X 2 test, wilco xon test and Kappa test. Results Out of the 154 sick eyes, 56 eyes presented thickened optic nerves, 76 eyes had normal diameter of the optic nerve, and 22 eyes had thin optic nerves. A total of 132 optic nerves showed abnormally high signal in STIR sequences, including involvement of intraocular segment in 7, intraorbital segment in 1.35, intracanalicular segment in 109, intracranial segment in 97, optic chiasm in 56, and optic tract in 23. A total of 54 patients underwent postcontrast MRI. Seventy-four optic nerves of 87 eyes showed enhancement. Among the 196 eyes of 98 patients, 132 eyes presented visual impairment and simultaneous abnormal MR signal of the optic nerve, and 26 eyes had both normal vision and normal MR signal of optic nerve. The consistency of MRI findings and vision status was 80. 61% (Kappa 0.453,P 1 -weighted MR sequence combined with fat- suppression are helpful in diagnosis of optic neuritis. VEP is helpful in diagnosing optic neuritis and in finding subclinical visual problem. The MRI combined with VEP could improve the diagnostic accuracy of optic neuritis. (authors)

  9. Pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening of transplanted kidney: comparative study of resistive index and ultrasonographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Ki Il

    1992-01-01

    Diagnostic ability of duplex Doppler ultrasonography relying on resistive index is limited when clinical symptoms and signs of rejection are subtle or renal dysfunction is caused by other conditions such as urinary tract infection. To investigate the significance in the changes of renal pelvis, a combined analysis of resistive index and ultrasonographic findings in cases of renal pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening was undertaken. A mean resistive index was calculated from Doppler measurements of the main, segmental and interlobar arteries. The cause of mucosal thickening was retrospectively analysed using the clinical and laboratory findings. Twenty three cases of renal pelvis dilatation and 17 cases of mucosal thickening were found in a total of 159 renal transplantation cases. In 14 of the 23 cases with renal pelvis dilatation, renal function was normal and their mean resistive index was 0.64 ± 0.04. Pelvis and ureter dilatation caused by ureteral stenosis or compression was demonstrated in 6 cases and their mean resistive index (0.72 ± 0.05) was increased. Mucosal thickening of renal pelvis was found in 7 of 32 cases with acute injection and in 2 of 13 cases with chronic rejection, but their mean resistive index was not different from that of the cases without pelvic mucosal changes. Three cases of acute rejection associated with urinary tract infection and 2 cases of chronic rejection in whom resistive indices were indeterminate, but mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis was prominent at ultrasonography. In renal transplant patients having indeterminate resistive index and mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis, ultrasonographic features must be correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings for an accurate diagnosis and treatment of renal dysfunction

  10. Prevalence of incidental or unexpected findings on low-dose CT performed during routine SPECT/CT nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin Kwok-Ho; Sutherland, Tom; Shafik-Eid, Raymond; Taubman, Kim; Schlicht, Stephen; Ramaseshan, Ganeshan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) is often combined with ‘simultaneous’ low-dose CT (LDCT) to provide complementary anatomical and functional correlation. As a consequence, numerous incidental and unexpected findings may be detected on LDCT. Recognition of these findings and appropriate determination of their relevance can add to the utility of SPECT/CT. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and categorise the relevance of incidental and unexpected findings on LDCT scans performed as part of routine SPECT/CT studies. All available LDCT scans performed as part of SPECT/CT studies at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne in the year 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Two qualified radiologists independently reviewed the studies and any previous available imaging and categorised any detected incidental findings. A total of 2447 LDCT studies were reviewed. The relevance of the findings was classified according to a modified version of a scale used in the Colonography Reporting and Data System: E1 = normal or normal variant (28.0%); E2 = clinically unimportant (63.5%); E3 = likely unimportant or incompletely characterised (6.2%); E4 = potentially important (2.5%). Imaging specialists need to be cognisant of incidental and unexpected findings present on LDCT studies performed as part of SPECT/CT. Appropriate categorisation of findings and communication of potentially important findings to referring clinicians should form part of routine practice. The overall prevalence of potentially significant incidental and unexpected findings in our series was 8.7% (E3, 6.2%; E4, 2.5%) and was comparable to rates in other published imaging series.

  11. Tobacco smoking in Mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Nehme, Jessica; Otgontuya, Dugee; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Enkhtuya, Palam

    2014-02-28

    In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a national NCDs knowledge, attitudes and practices survey focusing, among other things, on NCD risk factors was implemented in Mongolia in late 2010 to complement the previous WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance Survey (STEPS) findings from 2009. This publication explores the smoking-related findings of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS). A nationally representative sample size was calculated using methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPS surveys. As a result, 3450 people from across Mongolia were selected using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method from permanent residents aged between 15 and 64 years. The KAP survey questionnaire was interviewer-administered on a door-to-door basis. In Mongolia at 2010, 46.3% of males and 6.8% of females were smokers. This practice was especially dominant among males and urban dwellers (MOR 2.2), and more so among the middle-aged (45-54) (MOR 2.1) while still displaying a high prevalence among Mongolian youth (15.5%). The probability of smoking was independent of the level of education. Although the level of awareness of the health hazards related to tobacco smoking was generally very high in the population, this was influenced by the level of education as more people with a primary and secondary level of education believed that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day was required to harm one's health (MOR 5.8 for primary education and 2.5 for secondary). Finally, this knowledge did not necessarily translate into a

  12. Comparison study between the MR images and pathomorphologic findings of the pulmonary hilar lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Kunihiro; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sone, Shusuke; Imai, Yutaka; Kawai, Takashi; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Ito, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    The MR images of the resected human lungs were correlated with pathomorphologic findings of the specimens to facilitate interpretation of the pulmonary hilum, specifically hilar lymph nodes. Normal hilar lymph nodes were demonstrated as low signal intensity structures on T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images. The walls of the pulmonary vessels and bronchi were shown as linear structures of relatively low intensity, with fatty tissue of high intensity surrounding these structures. Among these low signal intensity hilar lymph nodes were shown resulting from anthracosis, which were similar to those by fibrotic foci. (author)

  13. Ecological Assessment of Substance-abuse Experiences (EASE): findings from a new instrument development pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C; Miller, Keith; Spera, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    A newly developed instrument that assesses a client's orientation to addiction or recovery communities using social context referents was pilot tested with a sample of 103 adults seeking treatment for substance abuse at outpatient and residential treatment facilities on the East Coast. Preliminary findings show promising subscale reliabilities, and suggest that drug- and recovery-related social identities are related to drug-use severity and drug-use concern; and drug-related attitudinal congruence between the treatment-seeker and family and treatment-seeker and other significant persons are related to intention to make behavioral changes in reducing substance abuse.

  14. Dandy Walker Syndrome with Unusual Associated Findings in a Fetal Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha U Arakeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dandy Walker Syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation characterized by hypoplasia or absence of cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus. It is frequently associated with other congenital anomalies. Associated central nervous system anomalies such as agenesis of corpus callosum and vermis are associated with poor prognosis. Association of DWS with congenital absence of spleen is life threatening condition and has been reported very rarely. Autopsy findings of DWS with association of congenital absence of corpus callosum, vermis and spleen are reported in a stillborn fetus of 28 weeks gestation and review of relevant literature was done

  15. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  16. Finding new genes for non-syndromic hearing loss through an in silico prioritization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Accetturo

    Full Text Available At present, 51 genes are already known to be responsible for Non-Syndromic hereditary Hearing Loss (NSHL, but the knowledge of 121 NSHL-linked chromosomal regions brings to the hypothesis that a number of disease genes have still to be uncovered. To help scientists to find new NSHL genes, we built a gene-scoring system, integrating Gene Ontology, NCBI Gene and Map Viewer databases, which prioritizes the candidate genes according to their probability to cause NSHL. We defined a set of candidates and measured their functional similarity with respect to the disease gene set, computing a score ( S S M avg that relies on the assumption that functionally related genes might contribute to the same (disease phenotype. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, comparing the pair-wise distribution on the disease gene set with the distribution on the remaining human genes, provided a statistical assessment of this assumption. We found at a p-value 0.99. The twenty top-scored genes were finally examined to evaluate their possible involvement in NSHL. We found that half of them are known to be expressed in human inner ear or cochlea and are mainly involved in remodeling and organization of actin formation and maintenance of the cilia and the endocochlear potential. These findings strongly indicate that our metric was able to suggest excellent NSHL candidates to be screened in patients and controls for causative mutations.

  17. MRI findings of pancreatic lymphoma and autoimmune pancreatitis: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.co [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Ushijima, Yasuhiro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki; Kakihara, Daisuke; Irie, Hiroyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Nakamura, Masafumi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To clarify whether there are differences in MRI findings between pancreatic lymphomas and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Materials and methods: MRI of 8 patients with pancreatic lymphomas and 21 patients with AIP were retrospectively reviewed. For multifocal pancreatic lymphomas (n = 2) and AIP (n = 4), the largest 2 lesions were evaluated. Ten pancreatic lymphomas and 25 AIP were compared on three bases: the signal intensity on T2-weighted images, internal homogeneity, and presence or absence of capsule-like rim. In 8 lymphomas and 19 AIP, the enhancement pattern on dynamic MRI was compared, as well. Results: On T2-weighted images, pancreatic lymphomas comprised 5, 5 and 4 lesions with low (iso), slightly high, and moderately high intensity, respectively, while the numbers for AIP were 14, 10, and 1 (P < 0.01). Nine of 10 (90%) lymphomas appeared homogenous, and 11 of 25 (44%) AIP were homogenous (P < 0.05). A capsule-like rim was present in 9 of 25 (36%) AIP, but was not seen in lymphomas (P < 0.05). On dynamic MRI, 18 of 19 (94.7%) AIP showed persistent (n = 5) or delayed enhancement (n = 13), and 6 of 8 (75%) lymphomas showed low intensity without delayed enhancement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: MRI findings for pancreatic lymphomas and AIP were significantly different, which may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of these two diseases.

  18. Six ways of experiencing information literacy in nursing: the findings of a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy plays a vital role in evidence-based practice in nursing. However there is currently little evidence to show how being information literate is actually experienced by nurses and therefore information literacy educational interventions are not genuinely evidence-based. Are they promoting the appropriate knowledge and skills to help nurses find and use the research evidence they need? To investigate how being information literate is experienced by nurses. To use the insights obtained to develop a description of the parameters of information literacy in nursing, including those of its role and value in evidence-based practice. Phenomenography. 41 UK nurses of varying experience, specialism and background. Open-ended interviews. 7 contexts in which information literacy is experienced, were mapped out and 6 representative ways of being an information literate nurse, in increasing levels of depth and sophistication, were described. These findings may form the basis of future evidence-based information literacy education programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Krokstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. Methods Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995–97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20–69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. Results All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62 to 6.15 (3.56-10.63 as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. Conclusions This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and

  1. CFSC (Community and Family Study Center) study finds birth rates falling everywhere - family planning (family planning) is a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The findings of the Community and Family Study Center study, based on estimated crude birthrates and total fertility rates for 1968 and 1975, indicate that there has been a significant reduction in fertility levels of both developed and developing countries. Despite regional variations, the estimates show an average proportional decline of 8.5% in total fertility rates between 1968 and 1975. Of the 148 nations studied, 113 were in developing regions and 35 in the developed regions. Information on important social and economic development factors, such as life expectancy, literacy, percent of labor force in agriculture, per capita income, and family planning program strength were gathered for each country. Analyses of these data are reported in "The Public Interest" (to be published) "Population Reference Bulletin," October 1978, and a paper presented at the 1978 Population Association of America Meetings in Atlanta, Georgia. The recent change in fertility affected 81% of the world's population, primarily the peoples of Asia, Latin America, and North America. The total fertility rate in the world in 1968 was 4635 and declined to 4068 in 1975. More substantial declines occurred in Asia and Latin America, where the number of fewer births 1000 women would bear under a given fertility schedule declined by 845 births and 617 births, respectively. As more research is conducted to investigate the underlying causes of this decline, it is likely to confirm the important role that family planning programs have had in developing nations. Although major improvements in the socioeconomic well-being of the developing areas continue as an essential goal, the need to maintain the organized provision of family planning services should not be understated.

  2. Puzzling Findings in Studying the Outcome of “Real World” Adolescent Mental Health Services: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, Frederike; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Daniëlle E. M. C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use and costs of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (MHS) urge us to assess the effectiveness of these services. The aim of this paper is to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with and without MHS use in a naturalistic setting. Method and Findings Participants are 2230 (pre)adolescents that enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Response rate was 76%, mean age at baseline 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls. We used data from the first three assessment waves, covering a six year period. Multiple linear regression analysis, propensity score matching, and data validation were used to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents with and without MHS use. The association between MHS and follow-up problem score (β 0.20, SE 0.03, p-value<0.001) was not confounded by baseline severity, markers of adolescent vulnerability or resilience nor stressful life events. The propensity score matching strategy revealed that follow-up problem scores of non-MHS-users decreased while the problem scores of MHS users remained high. When taking into account future MHS (non)use, it appeared that problem scores decreased with limited MHS use, albeit not as much as without any MHS use, and that problem scores with continuous MHS use remained high. Data validation showed that using a different outcome measure, multiple assessment waves and multiple imputation of missing values did not alter the results. A limitation of the study is that, although we know what type of MHS participants used, and during which period, we lack information on the duration of the treatment. Conclusions The benefits of MHS are questionable. Replication studies should reveal whether a critical examination of everyday care is necessary or an artefact is responsible for these results. PMID:23028584

  3. Head circumference, education and risk of dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, James A; Snowdon, David A; Markesbery, William R

    2003-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of dementia associated with having a smaller brain, lower education or both of these characteristics, 294 Catholic sisters were assessed annually for dementia. Sixty participants died and their brains were evaluated to determine fulfillment of neuropathological criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lower educational attainment and the interaction of smaller head circumference with lower education were associated with the presence of dementia, controlling for age and the presence of one or more apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 alleles. By contrast, neither low educational attainment nor head circumference was significantly associated with fulfillment of neuropathological criteria for AD. Individuals having both low education and small head circumference were four times as likely to be demented as the rest of the sample. The findings suggest that higher education and larger head size, alone or in combination, may reduce the risk of expressing dementia in late life.

  4. Competence evaluation process for nursing students abroad: Findings from an international Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Mette Bro

    2017-01-01

    , with between five and 88 items included. Through content analysis, 196 items emerged, classified into 12 different core competence categories, the majority were categorised as ‘Technical skills’ (=60), ‘Self-learning and critical thinking’ (=27) and ‘Nursing care process’ (=25) competences. Little emphasiswas......) were approached. Methods: Tools as instruments for evaluating competences developed in clinical training by international nursing students, and written procedures aimed at guiding the evaluation process, were scrutinised through a content analysis method. Findings: All clinical competence evaluation...... procedures and instruments used in the nursing programmes involvedwere provided in English. A final evaluation of the competenceswas expected by all nursing programmes at the end of the clinical placement, while only four provided an intermediate evaluation. Great variability emerged in the tools...

  5. Why Do Some Find it Hard to Disagree? An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F.; Taing, Sreyneth A.; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people's level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that activity across a network of brain areas [comprising posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus] was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low) had no effect on behavior or brain activity. PMID:26858629

  6. Why do some find it hard to disagree? An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Dominguez D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people’s level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that activity across a network of brain areas (comprising posterior medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low had no effect on behavior or brain activity.

  7. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a Danish database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data...... had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......, laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  8. Case study: Findings and lessons learned from investigating a uranium intake and the corresponding dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeslaar, Frik; Niekerk, Santie van; Steenkamp, Harry; Visagie, Abrie

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To discuss the findings of an investigation into uranium intake and to discuss the lessons learned from the subsequent bioassay monitoring and dose calculations. Method: An investigation was held to determine direct and root causes after elevated air concentration levels were reported during the execution of an ad-hoc task. A programme of bioassay monitoring (urine sampling and lung counts) was implemented for the involved staff and committed effective doses were calculated. Major findings of the investigation: a) Inadequate pre-task assessment led to hazards not being identified and subsequently proper control measures were not implemented; b) Inadequate localised control of contamination led to contamination of worker's clothes and faces and contamination of rest of area; c) Workers were complacent which led to a lapse in safety awareness and subsequently they removed their face masks during the task. Problems experienced with bioassay monitoring and dose calculations: a) Some bioassay samples were not taken or were given incorrectly; b) Calculating doses were difficult due to lack of information regarding date of intake; whether there were other possible intakes; and the physiochemical nature of the uranium; c) Weak correlation between predicted and actual bioassay data; d) Period between starting bioassay monitoring and the actual event was too long. Conclusions: a) Shortcomings in the control of contamination with protective clothing and during the execution of ad-hoc tasks; b) Identifying hazards and assessing it is extremely dependant on the skill and capabilities if the Radiation Protection Officers; c) Instructions to workers regarding sampling of urine and arrangements around the sampling should be very specific with only one person responsible for managing the process; d) Be aware of the psychological impact on the affected workers; e) 2 nd Independent dose calculation important for verifying doses; f) Detection capabilities and

  9. A comparative study between magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic methodology for bone and soft tissue tumors has made great strides recently through the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report a comparative assessment of the histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors with MRI from 212 cases. The accuracy of a qualitative diagnosis was observed in a solitary bone cyst, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, lipoma, hemangioma, neurinoma, and in a synovial cyst. However, the qualitative diagnosis of a malignant tumor was difficult because of the variety of the intratumoral histological changes. An enhanced-image using Gd-DTPA was useful for differentiation of the viable region in the internal area of a tumor, discrimination of the reactive zone of an edema or assessing vascularity, and for discrimination between a cyst and a solid tumor. Based on comparison with findings from the excised specimen, it was found that histological changes such as calcification, fibrosis, hemorrhaging and necrosis, and the presence or absence of a tumor capsule had been reflected accurately on MR images. However, infiltration of the tumor into the bone cortex and into the articular cartilage were found frequently to be false-positive on MRI. Although problems remained to be solved regarding the evaluation of the presence or absence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissue, the depiction of periosteal reaction, and regarding differentiation from inflammatory disease, MRI was a very useful information source for operative planning because it could evaluate the relationship between the tumor and adjacent blood vessels or nerves, the effect of preoperative therapy, and effectively discriminate between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  10. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  11. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. Objectives This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checkl...

  12. Male and Female Pathways to Psychopathology: Findings from a Preventive Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vuijk (Patricia)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extent the knowledge on the pathways to male and female psychopathology from childhood into early adolescence. In Chapter 1, the background of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) study was presented. The GBG study is a randomized controlled

  13. Incidence of Dysphagia and Serial Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Findings After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yusun; Kim, Won-Seok; Kang, Sung Shik; Choi, Jin Man; Yeom, Jin S; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To prospectively assess the incidence of dysphagia and to present the serial changes of each finding in the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The reported incidence of dysphagia after ACDF has varied widely, and the serial changes of dysphagia using VFSS have not been clearly determined yet. Data of 47 patients preoperatively and at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively were used for the analyses. The Bazaz dysphagia score and VFSS were checked preoperatively and at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. The presence of aspiration or penetration, amount of vallecular and pyriform sinus residues, functional dysphagia scale, temporal parameters of oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time, and pharyngeal delay time (PDT) were evaluated from the VFSS data. Incidences of dysphagia measured by the Bazaz dysphagia score were 83.0% at 1 week and 59.6% at 1 month after ACDF. Although the incidence of aspiration was 4.3% and the incidence of penetration was 36.2% at 1 week and 25.5% at 1 month after surgery, none of the patients had aspiration pneumonia. The number of patients with vallecular and pyriform sinus residues significantly increased after ACDF. Further, there were no statistically significant changes at all time points in terms of oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time, and pharyngeal delay time. Dysphagia is common until 1 month after ACDF. Although the incidence of aspiration or penetration in VFSS after ACDF was high, no patient had aspiration pneumonia, which may be because of the intact neurological swallowing mechanism. The typical pattern of dysphagia after ACDF included vallecular and pyriform sinuses filled with postswallow residue, which may result from soft tissue edema and weak constriction of pharyngeal muscles after ACDF.

  14. French PWR nuclear power plants: Probabilistic studies of accident sequences and related findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Moroni, J.M.; Berger, J.P.; Meslin, T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the major studies performed in France by EDF in the framework of probabilistic studies. It describes the part played by these studies especially as regards: the assessment of the allowed outage time in the event of a safety component unavailability, the risk assessment in the event of a total loss of system (heat sink, electric power supplies, etc.). The specific features of the French 'living' PSA, now still in progress, are also presented. (orig./HSCH)

  15. CT presentations of colorectal cancer with chronic schistosomiasis: A comparative study with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei976@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Wang, Pei-Jun, E-mail: peijunwang_tongji@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Shen, Xing, E-mail: shenxing1997@163.com [Department of Radiology, Traditional Chinese Hospital, No. 189, Chaoyangxi Road, Kun Shan 215300, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Guo-liang, E-mail: glwang1960@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zhao, Xiao-hu, E-mail: tiger1968@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Seema, S.F., E-mail: saaaamaaaa@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zheng, Shao-qiang, E-mail: shaoqiangzh@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Li, Ming-hua, E-mail: minghuali@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To clarify pathological basis of computed tomography (CT) presentations of colorectal cancer (CRC) with schistosomiasis for the purpose of improving the accuracy of CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the condition. Materials and methods: 130 patients (87 male and 43 female; age range 49-86 years, mean 71.1) were selected whose diagnoses were pathologically confirmed as CRC with schistosomiasis. All the patients underwent abdominal plain CT and contrast enhanced scanning. The location, morphology, size, calcification features and enhancement modalities (patterns) were evaluated and compared with the pathological findings by two radiologists in a blind way. Results: CT showed that in 130 patients, the tumors occurred in the large intestine, among which 109 (83.9%) were solitary and 21 (16.1%) were multifocal. The intestinal wall was irregularly thickened in 123 patients, with soft tissue masses in 7 patients. Linear, spotty and small patchy calcifications were seen in 104 (80.0%) patients, with unclear margins in 96 patients. The tumors were markedly unevenly enhanced in 92 patients. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in 114 patients and in 104 patients, calcified Shistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) ova inside the tumors, 15 patients were mucinous adenocarcinoma, and one patient was that of adenosquamous carcinoma. Conclusion: Irregular thickening of the intestinal wall, soft tissue masses, multiple S. japonicum ova calcifications inside the tumor with obscured margins and multiple intestinal masses in some patients are important CT features of CRC with schistosomiasis.

  16. A study of 60 patients with percutaneous trigger finger releases: clinical and ultrasonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabi, D; Cecen, G S; Bekler, H I; Saglam, F; Tanju, N

    2014-09-01

    We present the clinical results and ultrasonographic findings of 61 trigger digits treated with percutaneous A1 pulley release. An endoscopic carpal tunnel knife was used for the release in the outpatient department. The mean follow-up period was 3.5 months. A total of 55 digits (90%) had complete relief of their triggering postoperatively. Six digits (10%) had Grade 2 triggering clinically in the early postoperative period.The complications included six cases of insufficient release (10%), scar sensitivity in one patient, short-term hypoaesthesia in three digits (5%), and flexor tendon laceration noted on postoperative ultrasonography in eight digits (13%). No neurovascular damage was noted on the postoperative ultrasonography. Ultrasonograpy provides information about tendon laceration and changes in thickness of the pulleys and confirm A1 pulley release after surgery, but it does not alter clinical decision-making. We believe that pre- and postoperative ultrasonograpy does not need to be included as a routine examination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. A comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Kitai, Akiko; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Yukio

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with children palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissurem, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. (author)

  18. Genomewide Linkage Scan for Diabetic Renal Failure and Albuminuria: The FIND Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igo, Robert P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Hanson, Robert L.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Divers, Jasmin; Abboud, Hanna; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Horvath, Amanda; Elston, Robert C.; Bowden, Donald W.; Guo, Xiuqing; Ipp, Eli; Kao, W.H. Linda; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Meoni, Lucy A.; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G.; Pahl, Madeline V.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Smith, Michael W.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zager, Philip G.; Sedor, John R.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The multicenter FIND consortium aims to identify genes for DN and its associated quantitative traits, e.g. the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Herein, the results of whole-genome linkage analysis and a sparse association scan for ACR and a dichotomous DN phenotype are reported in diabetic individuals. Methods A genomewide scan comprising more than 5,500 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (average spacing of 0.6 cM) was performed on 1,235 nuclear and extended pedigrees (3,972 diabetic participants) ascertained for DN from African-American (AA), American-Indian (AI), European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) populations. Results Strong evidence for linkage to DN was detected on chromosome 6p (p = 8.0 × 10−5, LOD = 3.09) in EA families as well as suggestive evidence for linkage to chromosome 7p in AI families. Regions on chromosomes 3p in AA, 7q in EA, 16q in AA and 22q in MA displayed suggestive evidence of linkage for urine ACR. The linkage peak on chromosome 22q overlaps the MYH9/APOL1 gene region, previously implicated in AA diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies. Conclusion These results strengthen the evidence for previously identified genomic regions and implicate several novel loci potentially involved in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:21454968

  19. Comparative study on mammographic findings between conventional mammography and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Calle, Aurelio; Saldarriaga Jaramillo, Ximena; Zapata Walliser, Luz Estela; Mejia Restrepo, Jorge Hernando; Arango Martinez, Adriana; Velez Arango, Jorge Mario

    2007-01-01

    We performed conventional-film mammograms in 180 patients between 35 and 6 years and additionally, we added 2 digital CR technique images to each patient, either craneocaudal (90 patients) or oblique (90 patients). All images were interpreted independently by four radiologists for a total of 720 evaluations, who compared film versus digital images through a 5 mega pixel monitor (soft-copy), using a score scale using the following parameters: mass visualization, detection of micro-calcifications, architectural distortion, visibility of the skin line, and image sharpness and noise. Additionally the tissue density was classified as well as the BIRADS score. The data was processed with the Teleform program and analyzed by de SPSSS program. Results: 52.6% of the micro-calcifications were equally visualized with both systems, in 13.5% of the cases they were better visualized with digital mammography. Similarly, in 50% of the cases, the skin line was better visualized with the digital CR modality. Conclusion: the sharpness of the image was also better seen with the digital CR technique in 48.2%. On the contrary, more noise was seen in digital CR images (63%). digital mammography is a diagnostic alternative that can improve mammographic findings detection and finally become a useful tool in breast cancer diagnosis

  20. Iliopsoas injury: an MRI study of patterns and prevalence correlated with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Kimmie L.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael; Sundaram, Murali

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to retrospectively determine the prevalence and patterns of iliopsoas injuries based on consecutive MRI examinations, correlated with clinical findings. From 4,862 consecutive MRI examinations of the hips and pelvis, 32 patients with 33 iliopsoas injuries were identified and graded as muscle strain, partial tendon tear, and complete tendon tears. These patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, and cause of symptoms. The prevalence of iliopsoas tendon and myotendinous injuries was 0.66% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). There were 18 females and 14 males whose ages ranged from 7 to 95 years (mean, 54 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was hip pain and the most frequent clinical diagnosis, an occult fracture. The most common injuries in patients under 65 years (16 patients) were muscle strains and partial tendon tears, most often due to an athletic injury. The most common injury in patients 65 years and older (16 patients) was a complete tear (8 patients, all females), 2 of which were spontaneous in origin. Each grade of iliopsoas injury occurred with similar frequency. The more advanced the age of the patient, the more severe the injury. Non-athletic injuries predominated in patients 65 years and older; athletic injuries were the most common cause of iliopsoas injury in patients under 65 years. (orig.)

  1. Study of the clinical features and radiological findings for thoracic communicating arachnoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masashi; Hanakita, Junya; Suwa, Hideyuki

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed retrospectively, the usefulness of the radiological examinations for 15 cases of communicating arachnoid cysts in thoracic lesions experienced by our department over the last 12 years. Severn men and eight women (age range 32-71 years, mean age 53.8 years) were analyzed. Their symptoms on admission were sensory disturbance of the legs (13 cases), leg weakness (4 cases), back pain (4 cases), and truncal abnormal sensations (2 cases), etc. We performed myelography in 12 patients, and an additional 5 patients were diagnosed by this examination. CT-myelography showed deformity of the spinal cord, deviation of the spinal cord and enlargement of the subarachnoid space in all 12 patients. The axial view in 1.0 T weighted MRI showed the same findings as CT-myelography. However, the cine 1.0 T weighted MRI seemed to be insufficient to detect any spinal arachnoid cysts. As the results of their operations, 13 patients improved, 2 patients remained unchanged, and no cases become worse. The clinical and radiological diagnosis for communicating arachnoid cysts is not easy. Neurological examinations and radiological examinations with detailed readings are essential to obtain a correct diagnosis, when considering the possibility of the disease. (author)

  2. 4 cases of 'ataxic hemiparesis'. A comparative study of computed tomography and electrophysiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Eiko; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Yamane, Kiyomi; Takemiya, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1984-10-01

    Ataxic hemiparesis is described as a syndrome in which pyramidal and cerebellar signs occur ipsilaterally. Fisher who suggested the designation ''ataxic hemiparesis'' for this syndrome confirmed by pathological study that causative lesion was in the basis pontis at the level of the junction of the upper one third and lower two thirds on the opposite side of the neurological deficit and he also reported that CT might fail to show the lesion. We observed 4 patients with ataxic hemiparesis and examined them in auditory brainstem response (ABR), somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), and blink reflex as electrophysiological study. Their CT and electrophysiological findings were compared with each others to define the responsible lesion more clearly. Essentially, these abnormal electrophysiological findings were recognized only in the case of pontine hemorrhage, and these findings recovered to normal as clinical and CT findings were improved. In the other cases, the electrophysiological findings were not prominent and CT revealed the lesions in deep frontal region, internal capsule and cerebellar hemispheres respectively. These results might show that many cases of extra-pontine lesions could develop the syndrome of ataxic hemiparesis. However, the relation between responsible lesions for ataxic hemiparesis and electrophysiological findings are still uncertain. Further evidences including clinicopathological studies will be required to clarify this relation and to get the more accurate anatomical interpretation of ataxic hemiparesis from lesions besides the pontine region. (author).

  3. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  4. Rethinking the Quest for School Improvement: Some Findings from the DESSI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, A. Michael; Miles, Matthew B.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the Study of Dissemination Efforts Supporting School Improvement (DESSI) field study indicated a need for reorganization of the conceptual paradigms used to account for school improvement. Current paradigms do not account for the rational and conflict theories of social change. (DF)

  5. Public Experience with Psychoactive Substances: A Nationwide Study Among Adults and Youth. Part 1, Main Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Herbert I.; Atkinson, Ronald B.

    This is a study of beliefs, attitudes, and behavior with regard to a wide range of legal and illegal drugs. Included are data about coffee, tea, tobacco, and illicit drugs such as marihuana and heroin. The report covers the current situation and highlights trends from two prior studies on drug abuse conducted for the National Commission on…

  6. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  7. Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

  8. Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John

    2018-06-01

    To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. Qualitative focus group study [six groups: oral methadone (two groups); buprenorphine tablets (two groups); injectable opioid agonist treatment (one group); and former opioid agonist treatment (one group)]. Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, UK). Forty people with experience of opioid agonist treatment for heroin dependence (26 males, 14 females; aged 33-66 years). Data collection was facilitated by a topic guide that explored willingness to enrol in clinical pharmacological trials. Groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data were analysed inductively via Iterative Categorization. Participants' willingness to join pharmacological trials of medications for opioid dependence was affected by factors relating to study burden, study drug, study design, study population and study relationships. Participants worried that the trial drug might be worse than, or interfere with, their current treatment. They also misunderstood aspects of trial design despite the researchers' explanations. Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants, dispelling misconceptions about trials and increasing trust in the research process and research establishment. A checklist of issues to consider when designing pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use is proposed. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  10. Finding a Civic Voice: Latino Immigrant Youths' Experiences in High School Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Obenchain, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Socialization into the dominant civic and political discourse lies at the heart of social studies. As they become proficient in the discourse of home and school, Latino immigrant youth demonstrate the potential to uniquely benefit from this socialization. This qualitative study explores ten Latino immigrant young adults' perceptions of how their…

  11. The Planning of Teaching in the Context of Lesson Study: Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulou, Eurydice-Maria; Darra, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of the teachers participating in the planning of teaching in the context of the Lesson Study. The present work, which is part of a wider research effort, followed a mixed methodological planning for reasons of triangulation. The survey was conducted from…

  12. Learning and Teaching Technology in English Teacher Education: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Donna L.; Hallman, Heidi L.; Caughlan, Samantha; Renzi, Laura; Rush, Leslie S.; Meineke, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of a large-scale nationwide study that surveyed English teacher educators about English teacher preparation programs throughout the United States. One aspect of the study focused on how technology is integrated within the context of English teacher education programs, asking the question, "As an area of…

  13. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R; Kirkham, Jamie J

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. © Saini et al 2014.

  14. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Eye-tracking computer systems for inpatients with tetraplegia: findings from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, J J; Watkins, F; Park, C; Landymore, H

    2014-12-02

    Study design:A longitudinal, prospective, self-controlled cohort study.Objectives:To determine (1) the preliminary benefits of using eye-tracking computer systems (ETCSs) among inpatients with tetraplegia and (2) the feasibility of carrying out a well-powered randomized controlled trial.Setting:Specialist Spinal Cord Injuries Centre, United Kingdom; 6 months during 2013-2014.Methods:Individuals with tetraplegia who were admitted to the center and enrolled in this study were trained and allowed to use the ETCS (Tobii Eyegaze C15 System) twice a week for a duration of 10 weeks. Standardized training modules were developed and offered to all study participants. Study feasibility indicators as well as the Appraisals of Disability: Primary and Secondary Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment questionnaire scores were taken before and after study enrollment.Results:A total of 31 inpatients with tetraplegia were screened. Although 14 patients (45%) met the study eligibility criteria, 6 patients (19%) consented to be enrolled in the study. Three participants did not complete the planned training schedule because of medical, technical and logistic reasons. Although half of the participants agreed that the ETCS under study was easy to use, no substantial improvements were seen in terms of psychological outcomes, appraisals of disability or independence.Conclusions:The conduct of a controlled trial evaluating the benefits of using ETCSs among newly injured patients with tetraplegia comes with considerable feasibility challenges. Until substantial technical improvements of ETCSs have been implemented, future research should initially focus on those individuals with tetraplegia who are living in the community and who have expressed a need to enhance their computer access and communication skills.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.219.

  16. Neuroradiological findings and clinical features of fourth-ventricular meningioma: A study of 10 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.-Y.; Yin, B.; Li, Y.-X.; Wu, J.-S.; Chen, H.; Wang, X.-Q.; Geng Daoyng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To present the neuroradiological and clinical findings of fourth-ventricular meningiomas to increase awareness of this entity. Materials and methods: The computed tomography (CT; n = 5), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 9) features and clinical presentations of 10 patients with pathologically documented fourth-ventricular meningiomas were retrospectively analysed. Results: All tumours appeared as well-demarcated masses in the fourth ventricle at CT and MRI. The tumour shape was round in eight cases (80%) and irregular in two cases (20%). The CT images of five cases showed predominantly isoattenuation in three cases and high attenuation in two cases, with a mean attenuation value of 52 HU. In addition, calcifications were seen in three cases. At MRI, nine masses were isointense (n = 6) or hypointense (n = 3) to grey matter on T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense (n = 4), isointense (n = 3), hypointense (n = 1), and of mixed signal intensity (n = 1) on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Signal voids were visible in two cases. Enhancement after injection of contrast material was marked homogeneous (n = 5) or heterogeneous (n = 5) on CT or T1-weighted images. Three tumours had mild peritumoural oedema. Three tumours were associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. The pathological subtype of the 10 meningiomas was fibromatous (n = 5), atypical (n = 2), and one each of transitional, psammomatous, and clear-cell type. Conclusion: Although fourth-ventricular meningioma is quite rare, it should be considered in differential diagnosis of neoplasms within the fourth ventricle. The relatively typical radiological appearance, combined the age and sex of patients, can suggest the diagnosis of fourth-ventricular meningioma.

  17. Symptoms and Impacts in Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Qualitative Study Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Erin L; Moise, Pierre; Krupnick, Robert N; Downing, Jared; Meyer, Margaret; Naidoo, Shevani; Holmstrom, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    We developed a conceptual model to define key concepts associated with patients' experiences with the signs, symptoms, and impacts of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0-CRPC). A targeted review of peer-reviewed literature, and other publicly available information, identified and categorized symptoms and impacts related to early-stage prostate cancer. Semi-structured interviews with five clinical experts helped determine the most relevant and important concepts for patients with M0-CRPC. Qualitative interviews with 17 patients with M0-CRPC identified the most frequently experienced symptoms and impacts, and their degree of interference with patients' lives. The findings from these three lines of evidence were summarized in a conceptual model. Literature searches identified mainly urinary, intestinal, and sexual symptoms. Experts noted the symptoms most frequently mentioned by patients include erectile dysfunction, loss of sexual desire or interest, incontinence/leaking, urgency, and hot flashes. Patient interviews confirmed the high frequency of erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, urinary urgency, and incontinence. The most frequently mentioned impacts expressed by patients were the need to monitor/plan for urinary frequency, interference with/restriction of daily activities, and frustration or anxiety over diagnosis, symptoms, or treatment. Symptoms and impacts most frequently experienced by patients were typically not those with the greatest effects on their lives; rather, those with the greatest consequences were related to treatment. The leading concerns associated with M0-CRPC were related to voiding and sexual dysfunction. The most relevant symptoms and impacts expressed by patients may be a consequence of therapy rather than of the disease.

  18. Neuroradiological findings and clinical features of fourth-ventricular meningioma: A study of 10 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.-Y.; Yin, B.; Li, Y.-X. [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wu, J.-S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, H. [Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, X.-Q., E-mail: wangxq10@126.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Geng Daoyng, E-mail: fdhsgdy@126.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To present the neuroradiological and clinical findings of fourth-ventricular meningiomas to increase awareness of this entity. Materials and methods: The computed tomography (CT; n = 5), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 9) features and clinical presentations of 10 patients with pathologically documented fourth-ventricular meningiomas were retrospectively analysed. Results: All tumours appeared as well-demarcated masses in the fourth ventricle at CT and MRI. The tumour shape was round in eight cases (80%) and irregular in two cases (20%). The CT images of five cases showed predominantly isoattenuation in three cases and high attenuation in two cases, with a mean attenuation value of 52 HU. In addition, calcifications were seen in three cases. At MRI, nine masses were isointense (n = 6) or hypointense (n = 3) to grey matter on T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense (n = 4), isointense (n = 3), hypointense (n = 1), and of mixed signal intensity (n = 1) on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Signal voids were visible in two cases. Enhancement after injection of contrast material was marked homogeneous (n = 5) or heterogeneous (n = 5) on CT or T1-weighted images. Three tumours had mild peritumoural oedema. Three tumours were associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. The pathological subtype of the 10 meningiomas was fibromatous (n = 5), atypical (n = 2), and one each of transitional, psammomatous, and clear-cell type. Conclusion: Although fourth-ventricular meningioma is quite rare, it should be considered in differential diagnosis of neoplasms within the fourth ventricle. The relatively typical radiological appearance, combined the age and sex of patients, can suggest the diagnosis of fourth-ventricular meningioma.

  19. Counterintuitive findings from a qualitative study of mental health in English women's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Laura S

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and - as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women's issues in prison - provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women's needs and consistent and appropriate support.

  20. A study of pathology and clinical findings in cervical lymph node biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Takeshi; Yoshida, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Takuma; Kishida, Satoru

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the pathology, age groups, blood test, CT image, isotope findings and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) diagnosis in 92 cervical lymph node biopsies. There were 31 cases of benign causes and 61 cases of malignant cases. 18 patients had been treated for malignant disease previously. Of these 18, 17 had had a recurrence of a previous malignant disease. Eleven of the 15 cases that showed an enhancement in the CT examination were malignant. Sensitivity and specificity for malignant etiology in the gallium isotope examination were 91.4% and 37.5%. The hot spot for scintigraphy with 67 Ga was helpful for diagnosis of malignancy. In a total of 8 cases of malignant lymphoma and metastatic lymphoepithelial carcinoma, 5 cases were diagnosed as Class I or II by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. However, there was a hot spot for scintigraphy with 67 Ga in these 5 cases. Therefore, we concluded that the indications of operation in cervical lymph node biopsy are the following: elderly patients with lymphadenopathy that have shown no spontaneous regression for a long time, patients who have been treated for malignant disease previously except for class IV or V, patients who were found to have an enhancement in their CT besides a hot spot for scintigraphy, and suspicion of malignant lymphoma, a hot spot for scintigraphy but in Class I or II. We also investigated 9 cases, 4 men and 5 women aged 13-34 years, with necrotizing lymphadenitis that were correctly diagnosed by biopsy. Antibiotics were not effective in all cases. These patients were improving by taking prednisone after their biopsy. We considered a biopsy necessary in cases where it is difficult to distinguish malignant lymphoma from the effects of prednisone. (author)

  1. Practical Implications of Metacognitively Oriented Psychotherapy in Psychosis : Findings From a Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne J. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Gaag, Mark; Wunderink, Lex; Arends, Johan; Lysaker, Paul H.; Pijnenborg, Marieke

    In preparation for a multicenter randomized controlled trial, a pilot study was conducted investigating the feasibility and acceptance of a shortened version (12 vs. 40 sessions) of an individual metacognitive psychotherapy (Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy [MERIT]). Twelve participants

  2. Where to find weather and climatic data for forest research studies and management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines

    1977-01-01

    Forest-range research or operational study designs should include the possible effects of weather and climate. This document describes the meteorological observational networks, the data available from them, and where the information is stored.

  3. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  4. Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Associated with Nocturnal Dip in Blood Pressure: Findings from the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesús D; Lee, Joseph H; Petitto, Michele; Yépez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Jin, Zhezhen; Chávez, Carlos A; Pirela, Rosa V; Calmón, Gustavo E; Lee, Winston; Johnson, Matthew P; Mena, Luis J; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Allikmets, Rando; Maestre, Gladys E; De Moraes, C Gustavo

    2018-01-05

    To determine which nocturnal blood pressure (BP) parameters (low levels or extreme dipper status) are associated with an increased risk of glaucomatous damage in Hispanics. Observational cross-sectional study. A subset (n = 93) of the participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS) who met the study eligibility criteria were included. These participants, who were at least 40 years of age, had measurements for optical tomography coherence, visual field (VF) tests, 24-hour BP, office BP, and intraocular pressure 20% compared with daytime BP) were significant risk factors for glaucomatous damage (odds ratio, 19.78 and 5.55, respectively). In this population, the link between nocturnal BP and GON is determined by extreme dipping effects rather than low nocturnal BP levels alone. Further studies considering extreme decreases in nocturnal BP in individuals at high risk of glaucoma are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NIH mouse study finds gut microorganisms may determine cancer treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intact gut commensal microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms living in the intestine, is required for optimal response to cancer therapy, according to a mouse study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)

  6. HEPATIC STEATOSIS ASSESSMENT: a comparative study between surgeon evaluation and forward histopathologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. A. MARTINS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver transplantation is one of the last viable resources for patients with end-stage liver disease. Many strategies are been used to improve the number of available organs and overcome waiting list delay. However, hepatic steatosis is one of the mainly concerns when organs are consider to transplantation due to it is importance as a risk factor for primary dysfunction. Surgeons play an important role to decide each organ will be accept or decline and its righteous allocation. Objective Retrospectively evaluate the surgeon assessment of steatosis degree and its confrontation with further histopathologic findings. Methods We analyzed 117 patients underwent deceased liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease in University Hospital Walter Cantideo, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. A matrix table was organized to estimate the categorical data observed. We clustered the subjects into mild (0%–30% and moderate (30%-60% steatosis degree under the clinical criteria of organ suitability for transplantation. We categorized the organs as suitable organ for transplant and as non-suitable organ for transplant. Evaluations between the two first assessments, before perfusion (pre-perfusion vs biopsy findings and after perfusion vs biopsy findings observations were analyzed and also a comparison between pre-perfusion and after perfusion data was performed. Results On the first assessment, we obtained a 93% of agreement (n = 109 between the two evaluations. On the second assessment, we had an 8% (n = 9 of mistaken allocation. Comparing the observation before (pre-perfusion and after (after perfusion, we obtained a strong agreement between the surgeons. Conclusions Although our experienced surgeon team, we have wrongly evaluated feasible organs for transplantation. Nonetheless, our faulty percentage is low comparing to worldwide percentage. Contexto O transplante ortotópico de fígado é considerado um dos últimos recursos terapêuticos viáveis para os

  7. Configurations of gambling change and harm : qualitative findings from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Eva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Binde, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling. Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linka...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANGIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Malay; Dhavale, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in psychiatric and primary care practice and a frequent reason for extensive diagnostic work-up. Despite extensive investigations no recognizable medical cause to account for these symptoms is detected in many patients with chest pain. Studies of patients with non-cardiac chest pain have revealed that many continue to report symptoms and disability despite medical reassurances. The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric m...

  9. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  10. Reporting on the case study of synthetic meat:summary of findings and policy considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsdottir, Kristrun; Strand, Roger; Stephens, Neil; O'Riordan, Kate; Fotopoulou, Aristea; Giampietro, Mario; Kovacic, Zora; Lemkow Zetterling, Louis; Di Masso Tarditti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The in-vitro meat (IVM) research field remains small with perhaps 50 or so scientists active globally. These scientists are in the Netherlands, the US, the UK, Sweden, Israel and Norway, with some interest expressed in Denmark and by a group of bioreactor engineers in Portugal.The aim of the Epinet case study was to explore and interact with these epistemic communities / networks that have been developing, implementing, supporting and promoting IVM technologies. The study team consisted of ex...

  11. Propositional density and cognitive function in later life: findings from the Precursors Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M; Meoni, Lucy A; Klag, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    We used longitudinal data from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study to test the hypothesis that written propositional density measured early in life is lower for people who develop dementia categorized as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association was reported in 1996 for the Nun Study, and the Precursors Study offered an unprecedented chance to reexamine it among respondents with different gender, education, and occupation profiles. Eighteen individuals classified as AD patients (average age at diagnosis: 74) were assigned 2 sex-and-age matched controls, and propositional density in medical school admission essays (average age at writing: 22) was assessed via Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 linguistic analysis software. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the matched case-control study were calculated using conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression. Mean propositional density is lower for cases than for controls (4.70 vs. 4.99 propositions per 10 words, 1-sided p = .01). Higher propositional density substantially lowers the odds of AD (OR = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.90, 1-sided p = .02). Propositional density scores in writing samples from early adulthood appear to predict AD in later life for men as well as women. Studies of cognition across the life course might beneficially incorporate propositional density as a potential marker of cognitive reserve.

  12. Comparison between the Findings from the TROI Experiments and the Sensitivity Studies by Using the TEXAS-V Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. K.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Hong, S. H.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2006-01-01

    Since a steam explosion may breach the integrity of a reactor vessel and containment, it is one of the most important severe accident issues. So, a lot of experimental and analytical researches on steam explosions have been performed. Although many findings from the steam explosion researches have been obtained, there still exist unsolved issues such as the explosivity of the real core material(corium) and the conversion ratio from the thermal energy to the mechanical energy. TROI experiments were carried out to provide the experimental data for these issues. The TROI experiments were performed with a prototypic material such as ZrO 2 melt and a mixture of ZrO 2 and UO 2 melt (corium). Several steam explosion codes including TEXAS-V had been developed by considering the findings in the past steam explosion experiments. However, some unique findings on steam explosions have been obtained from a series of TROI experiments. These findings should be considered in the application to a reactor safety analysis by using a computational code. In this paper, several findings from TROI experiments are discussed and the sensitivity studies on the TROI experimental parameters were conducted by using TEXAS-V code and TROI-13 test. The comparison between the TROI experimental findings and the results of the sensitivity study might allow us to know which parameter is important and which model is uncertain for steam explosions

  13. Unexpected findings after surgery for suspected appendicitis rarely change treatment in pediatric patients; Results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ramon R; van Amstel, Paul; van der Lee, Johanna H; van der Voorn, Patick; Bakx, Roel; Heij, Hugo A

    2017-08-01

    To determine if non-operative treatment is safe in children with acute appendicitis, we evaluated the incidence of unexpected findings after an appendectomy in children, and the influence they have on subsequent treatment. A historical cohort study (January 2004-December 2014) was performed including children, aged 0-17 years, who underwent an appendectomy for the suspicion of acute appendicitis. Patients were divided based upon histopathological examination. Unexpected findings were reviewed, as well as the subsequent treatment plan. In total 484 patients were included in this study. In the overall group, unexpected findings were noted in 10 (2.1%) patients of which two patients intra-operatively with a non-inflamed appendix (Ileitis terminalis N=1 and ovarian torsion N=1) and in 8 patients on histopathological examination. The latter group consisted of 4 patients with concomitant simple appendicitis (parasitic infection N=3 and Walthard cell rest N=1), two with concomitant complex appendicitis (carcinoid N=1 and parasitic infection N=1) and two patients with a non-inflamed appendix (endometriosis N=1 and parasitic infection N=1). Treatment was changed in 4 patients (appendicitis, as the occurrence of unexpected findings was low, with extremely few necessary changes of the treatment plan because of serious findings. Prognosis study. Level 2 (retrospective cohort study). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An overview of the fire risk scoping study objectives, approach, findings and follow-on efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.; Lambright, J.A.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Fire Risk Scoping Study was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The study was initiated as a result of previous USNRC-sponsored fire research efforts that had identified certain fire risk issues which had not been addressed in previously completed commercial nuclear power plant fire risk analyses. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  15. A retrospective study of clinical and mutational findings in 45 Danish families with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann Svendsen, Mathias; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael; Vestergaard Grejsen, Dorthe; Bygum, Anette

    2014-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias form a complex, nosologic group of diseases with defects in at least 2 ectodermal structures. A retrospective study of patients with ectodermal dysplasia seen at our department over a period of 19 years (1994-2013) was performed. The study population consisted of 67 patients covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large ectodermal dysplasia cohort focusing on clinical manifestations in combination with mutational analysis. We recommend a nationwide study to estimate the prevalence of the ectodermal dysplasia and to ensure relevant molecular genetic testing which may form the basis of a national ectodermal dysplasia database.

  16. Healthcare managers' decision making: findings of a small scale exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Jackie; Bath, Peter A; Booth, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Managers who work in publicly funded healthcare organizations are an understudied group. Some of the influences on their decisions may be unique to healthcare. This study considers how to integrate research knowledge effectively into healthcare managers' decision making, and how to manage and integrate information that will include community data. This first phase in a two-phase mixed methods research study used a qualitative, multiple case studies design. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were undertaken using the critical incident technique. Interview transcripts were analysed using the NatCen Framework. One theme represented ;information and decisions'. Cases were determined to involve complex multi-level, multi-situational decisions with participants in practical rather than ceremonial work roles. Most considered organizational knowledge in the first two decision phases and external knowledge, including research, in the third phase. All participants engaged in satisficing to some degree.

  17. Knee dislocations: a magnetic resonance imaging study correlated with clinical and operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Kimmie L. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, HB6, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parker, Richard D. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopaedics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Our objectives were to determine retrospectively the prevalence, patients' demographics, mechanism of injury, combination of torn ligaments, associated intra-articular and extra-articular injuries, fractures, bone bruises, femoral-tibial alignment and neurovascular complications of knee dislocations as evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. From 17,698 consecutive knee examinations by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over a 6-year period, 20 patients with knee dislocations were identified. The medical records of these patients were subsequently reviewed for relevant clinical history, management and operative findings. The prevalence of knee dislocations was 0.11% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.06-0.16]. There were 16 male patients and four female patients, with ages ranging from 15 years to 76 years (mean 31 years). Fifteen patients had low-velocity injuries (75%), of which 11 were amateur sports related and four were from falls. Four patients (20%) had suffered high-velocity trauma (motor vehicle accidents). One patient had no history available. Anatomic alignment was present at imaging in 16 patients (80%). Eighteen patients had three-ligament tears, two had four-ligament tears. The four-ligament tears occurred with low-velocity injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were torn in every patient; the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) was torn in 50%, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 60%. Intra-articular injuries included meniscal tears (five in four patients), fractures (eight in seven patients), bone bruises (15 patients), and patellar retinaculum tears (eight partial, two complete). The most common extra-articular injury was a complete biceps femoris tendon tear (five, 25%). There were two popliteal tendon tears and one iliotibial band tear. One patient had received a vascular injury following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and had been treated prior to undergoing MRI. Bone bruises

  18. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  19. Access to CD4 Testing for Rural HIV Patients: Findings from a Cohort Study in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vogt

    Full Text Available CD4 cell count measurement remains an important diagnostic tool for HIV care in developing countries. Insufficient laboratory capacity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently mentioned but data on the impact at an individual patient level are lacking. Urban-rural discrepancies in CD4 testing have not been quantified to date. Such evidence is crucial for public health planning and to justify new yet more expensive diagnostic procedures that could circumvent access constraints in rural areas.To compare CD4 testing among rural and urban HIV patients during the first year of treatment.Records from 2,145 HIV positive adult patients from a Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders HIV project in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe, during 2011 and 2012 were used for a retrospective cohort analysis. Covariate-adjusted risk ratios were calculated to estimate the effects of area of residence on CD4 testing at treatment initiation, six and 12 months among rural and urban patients.While the proportion of HIV patients returning for medical consultations at six and 12 months decreased at a similar rate in both patient groups, CD4 testing during consultations dropped to 21% and 8% for urban, and 2% and 1% for rural patients at six and 12 months, respectively. Risk ratios for missing CD4 testing were 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9, 9.2 (95% CI 5.5-15.3, and 7.6 (95% 3.7-17.1 comparing rural versus urban patients at treatment initiation, six and 12 months, respectively.CD4 testing was low overall, and particularly poor in rural patients. Difficulties with specimen transportation were probably a major factor underlying this difference and requires new diagnostic approaches. Our findings point to severe health system constraints in providing CD4 testing overall that need to be addressed if effective monitoring of HIV patients is to be achieved, whether by alternative CD4 diagnostics or newly-recommended routine viral load testing.

  20. Building Strong Geoscience Departments: Case Studies and Findings from Six Years of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Lee, S.; Ormand, C. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Richardson, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Begun in 2005, the Building Strong Geoscience Departments project sought to help geoscience departments respond to changes in geosciences research, academic pressures, and the changing face of the geosciences workforce by working as a team, planning strategically, and learning from the experiences of other geoscience departments. Key strategies included becoming more central to their institution's mission and goals; articulating the department's learning goals for students; designing coordinated curricula, co-curricular activities, and assessments to meet these goals; and recruiting students effectively. A series of topical workshops identified effective practices in use in the U.S. and Canada. These practices were documented on the project website and disseminated through a national workshop for teams of faculty, through activities at the AGU Heads and Chairs workshops, and in a visiting workshop program bringing leaders to campuses. The program has now involved over 450 participants from 185 departments. To understand the impact of the program, we engaged in ongoing discussion with five departments of various sizes and institutional types, and facing a variety of immediate challenges. In aggregate they made use of the full spectrum of project offerings. These departments all reported that the project brought an important new perspective to their ability to work as a department: they have a better understanding of how their departments' issues relate to the national scene, have more strategies for making the case for the entire department to college administrators, and are better poised to make use of campus resources including the external review process. These results were consistent with findings from end-of-workshop surveys. Further they developed the ability to work together as a team to address departmental challenges through collective problem solving. As a result of their workshop participation, two of the departments who considered their department to be

  1. FDG-PET/CT findings in systemic mastocytosis: a French multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djelbani-Ahmed, S. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (France); Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Bobigny (France); Chandesris, M.O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Haematology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Mekinian, A.; Fain, O. [Saint Antoine Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), AP-HP, Paris (France); Canioni, D. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Brouzes, C. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Laboratory of Haematology, Paris (France); Hanssens, K. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Aix-Marseille University, INSERM U1068, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (Signaling, Hematopoiesis and Mechanism of Oncogenesis), Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille (France); Pop, G.; Eder, V. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (France); Durieu, I.; Durupt, S. [Universite de Lyon, Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupe Hopitalier Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Grosbois, B.; Besnard, S. [Rennes University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Rennes (France); Tournilhac, O. [Clermont-Ferrand University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Beyne-Rauzy, O. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Toulouse (France); Agape, P. [Saint-Denis University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Haematology, Saint-Denis de la Reunion (France); Delmer, A. [Reims University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Reims (France); Ranta, D. [Brabois University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Jeandel, P.Y. [Nice University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Nice (France); Georgin-Lavialle, S. [Tenon Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Paris (France); Frenzel, L.; Hermine, O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Haematology, Paris (FR); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (FR); Damaj, G. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Caen University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Caen (FR); Lortholary, O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (FR); Pasteur Institute, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Paris (FR); Soussan, M. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (FR); Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Bobigny (FR)

    2015-12-15

    Mastocytosis is a clonal haematological disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and the activation of mast cells. The value of FDG-PET/CT (FDG-PET) in mastocytosis has yet to be determined. We retrospectively identified patients with an established diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM), according to the WHO criteria, who underwent PET using the French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. Semi-quantitative and visual analysis of FDG-PET was performed and compared to the clinico-biological data. Our cohort included 19 adult patients, median age 65 years [range 58-74], including three with smouldering SM (SSM), three with aggressive SM (ASM), 10 with an associated clonal haematological non-mast-cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), and three with mast cell sarcoma (MCS). FDG-PET was performed at the time of the SM diagnosis (15/19), to evaluate lymph node (LN) activity (3/19) or the efficacy of therapy (1/19). FDG uptake was observed in the bone marrow (BM) (9/19, 47 %), LN (6/19, 32 %), spleen (12/19, 63 %), or liver (1/19, 5 %). No significant FDG uptake was observed in the SSM and ASM patients. A pathological FDG uptake was observed in the BM of 6/10 patients with SM-AHNMD, appearing as diffuse and homogeneous, and in the LN of 5/10 patients. All 3 MCS patients showed intense and multifocal BM pathological uptake, mimicking metastasis. No correlation was found between the FDG-PET findings and serum tryptase levels, BM mast cell infiltration percentage, and CD30 and CD2 expression by mast cells. FDG uptake does not appear to be a sensitive marker of mast cell activation or proliferation because no significant FDG uptake was observed in most common forms of mastocytosis (notably purely aggressive SM). However, pathological FDG uptake was observed in the SM-AHNMD and in MCS cases, suggesting a role of FDG-PET in their early identification and as a tool of therapeutic assessment in this subgroup of patients. (orig.)

  2. FDG-PET/CT findings in systemic mastocytosis: a French multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djelbani-Ahmed, S.; Chandesris, M.O.; Mekinian, A.; Fain, O.; Canioni, D.; Brouzes, C.; Hanssens, K.; Pop, G.; Eder, V.; Durieu, I.; Durupt, S.; Grosbois, B.; Besnard, S.; Tournilhac, O.; Beyne-Rauzy, O.; Agape, P.; Delmer, A.; Ranta, D.; Jeandel, P.Y.; Georgin-Lavialle, S.; Frenzel, L.; Hermine, O.; Damaj, G.; Lortholary, O.; Soussan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal haematological disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and the activation of mast cells. The value of FDG-PET/CT (FDG-PET) in mastocytosis has yet to be determined. We retrospectively identified patients with an established diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM), according to the WHO criteria, who underwent PET using the French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. Semi-quantitative and visual analysis of FDG-PET was performed and compared to the clinico-biological data. Our cohort included 19 adult patients, median age 65 years [range 58-74], including three with smouldering SM (SSM), three with aggressive SM (ASM), 10 with an associated clonal haematological non-mast-cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), and three with mast cell sarcoma (MCS). FDG-PET was performed at the time of the SM diagnosis (15/19), to evaluate lymph node (LN) activity (3/19) or the efficacy of therapy (1/19). FDG uptake was observed in the bone marrow (BM) (9/19, 47 %), LN (6/19, 32 %), spleen (12/19, 63 %), or liver (1/19, 5 %). No significant FDG uptake was observed in the SSM and ASM patients. A pathological FDG uptake was observed in the BM of 6/10 patients with SM-AHNMD, appearing as diffuse and homogeneous, and in the LN of 5/10 patients. All 3 MCS patients showed intense and multifocal BM pathological uptake, mimicking metastasis. No correlation was found between the FDG-PET findings and serum tryptase levels, BM mast cell infiltration percentage, and CD30 and CD2 expression by mast cells. FDG uptake does not appear to be a sensitive marker of mast cell activation or proliferation because no significant FDG uptake was observed in most common forms of mastocytosis (notably purely aggressive SM). However, pathological FDG uptake was observed in the SM-AHNMD and in MCS cases, suggesting a role of FDG-PET in their early identification and as a tool of therapeutic assessment in this subgroup of patients. (orig.)

  3. Emotional intelligence among nursing students: Findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štiglic, Gregor; Cilar, Leona; Novak, Žiga; Vrbnjak, Dominika; Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Pajnkihar, Majda

    2018-07-01

    Emotional intelligence in nursing is of global interest. International studies identify that emotional intelligence influences nurses' work and relationships with patients. It is associated with compassion and care. Nursing students scored higher on measures of emotional intelligence compared to students of other study programmes. The level of emotional intelligence increases with age and tends to be higher in women. This study aims to measure the differences in emotional intelligence between nursing students with previous caring experience and those without; to examine the effects of gender on emotional intelligence scores; and to test whether nursing students score higher than engineering colleagues on emotional intelligence measures. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. The study included 113 nursing and 104 engineering students at the beginning of their first year of study at a university in Slovenia. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Shapiro-Wilk's test of normality was used to test the sample distribution, while the differences in mean values were tested using Student t-test of independent samples. Emotional intelligence was higher in nursing students (n = 113) than engineering students (n = 104) in both measures [TEIQue t = 3.972; p emotional intelligence scores than male students on both measures, the difference was not statistically significant [TEIQue t = -0.839; p = 0.403; SSEIT t = -1.159; p = 0.249]. EI scores in nursing students with previous caring experience were not higher compared to students without such experience for any measure [TEIQue t = -1.633; p = 0.105; SSEIT t = -0.595; p = 0.553]. Emotional intelligence was higher in nursing than engineering students, and slightly higher in women than men. It was not associated with previous caring experience. Copyright

  4. THE STUDY OF CLINICAL VARIATIONS AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN POLYMORPHOUS LIGHT ERUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banoth Mohan Lal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epstein. S in 1942 described PMLE under the name of Prurigo aestivalis. He first hypothesised that PMLE represents a form of delayed-type hypersensitivity response to an endogenous, cutaneous UV-induced antigen, because of the hours or days delay between sun exposure and manifestation of symptoms, and the histological appearance of lesional skin. Firm evidence; however, has been lacking and the responsible allergen has not been identified. PMLE a specific entity encompassing six clinical manifestations: Small erythematous papulovesicles, eczematous lesions, large papules, oedematous plaques, prurigo nodules and erythema multiforme-like lesions. The histological features of PMLE are characteristic, but not pathognomonic and vary with the different clinical presentation. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand the clinical and histopathological features of polymorphic light lesions. The study is intended to help the practising physicians and dermatologists to diagnose the pathology on time and intervene before it develops into complications. METHODS Material for the present study consisted of 100 cases of clinically diagnosed untreated cases of polymorphous light eruption, who were attending the skin and STD and Leprosy Department, Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, during January 2014 to Dec 2014 were selected for this study. The patients were selected randomly irrespective of age, sex, socioeconomic status. RESULTS Histopathology showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis in majority of our cases (93.33% and clinicohistopathological correlation was observed in most cases; hence apart from clinical examination, histopathological examination plays an important role in diagnosing PMLE. CONCLUSION 56 percent of the patients complained pruritus followed by burning. The study was similar to other studies in comparison.

  5. Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchin, Alexander Y; Tuzhikov, Alexander I

    2017-03-01

    A number of widely debated research articles claiming possible technology-related health concerns have influenced the public opinion on genetically modified food safety. We performed a statistical reanalysis and review of experimental data presented in some of these studies and found that quite often in contradiction with the authors' conclusions the data actually provides weak evidence of harm that cannot be differentiated from chance. In our opinion the problem of statistically unaccounted multiple comparisons has led to some of the most cited anti-genetically modified organism health claims in history. We hope this analysis puts the original results of these studies into proper context.

  6. Male mental health problems, psychopathy, and personality traits: key findings from the first 14 years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, R; Farrington, D P; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Lynam, D

    2001-12-01

    This paper reviews key findings on juvenile mental health problems in boys, psychopathy, and personality traits, obtained in the first 14 years of studies using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. This is a study of 3 samples, each of about 500 boys initially randomly drawn from boys in the 1st, 4th, and 7th grades of public schools in Pittsburgh. The boys have been followed regularly, initially each half year, and later at yearly intervals. Currently, the oldest boys are about 25 years old, whereas the youngest boys are about 19. Findings are presented on the prevalence and interrelation of disruptive behaviors, ADHD, and depressed mood. Results concerning risk factors for these outcomes are reviewed. Psychological factors such as psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality are described. The paper closes with findings on service delivery of boys with mental health problems.

  7. Finding Boundaries Inside Prison Walls: Case Study of a Terminally Ill Inmate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2004-01-01

    The number of terminally ill prison inmates rises each year. Mental health professionals are uniquely prepared to provide therapy during the end-of-life process with their assessment, training, empathy, and communication skills. This case study examines the six-month therapy of one terminally ill inmate, using a client-centered approach. Drawing…

  8. Program Experiences of Adults with Autism, Their Families, and Providers: Findings from a Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer Miller, Kaitlin H.; Mathew, Mary; Nonnemacher, Stacy L.; Shea, Lindsay L.

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder are aging into adulthood. In the United States, Medicaid is the primary payer for services for adults with autism spectrum disorder, yet there are few funded programs that provide dedicated supports to this population. This study examined the experiences of adults with autism spectrum…

  9. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  10. Gamification for low-literates: Findings on motivation, user experience, and study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Dylan; Pfab, Isabel; Cremers, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Neerincx, Mark; Miesenberger, Klaus; Fels, Deborah; Archambault, Dominique; Penaz, Petr; Zagler, Wolfgang

    This study investigated the effects of the gamification elements of scaffolding, score and hints on the user enjoyment and motivation of people of low literacy. In a four-condition within-subjects experiment, participants performed mental spatial ability tests with the aforementioned elements.

  11. Institutional Deprivation, Specific Cognitive Functions, and Scholastic Achievement: English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas metaanalyses of cross-sectional adoption studies have indicated that there is an impact of early deprivation on adoptee's cognitive ability, these effects generally diminish markedly after upbringing in adoptive homes. Outcomes in terms of scholastic attainment were not quite so positive in a cross-sectional metaanalysis, but the Swedish…

  12. Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…

  13. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  14. Successful Career Progression: Exploratory Findings from a Study of Selected Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Daniel P.; Betsinger, Alicia M.; King, Christopher T.

    A study examined the career progression of individuals in the following occupations: registered nurse; physical therapist; medical laboratory technologist; paramedic; ranked corrections officer; dental hygienist; electronic technician; pipefitter/plumber; social worker; and auto body shop manager. Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews in…

  15. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  16. Gamification for low-literates: findings on motivation, user experience, and study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.G.M.; Pfab, I.; Cremers, A.H.M.; Dijk, B. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the gamification elements of scaffolding, score and hints on the user enjoyment and motivation of people of low literacy. In a four-condition within-subjects experiment, participants per-formed mental spatial ability tests with the aforementioned elements.

  17. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the ag...

  18. Finding Commonalities: Social Information Processing and Domain Theory in the Study of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposal integrating social information processing (SIP) and domain theory to study children's aggression is evaluated from a domain theory perspective. Basic tenets of domain theory rendering it compatible with SIP are discussed as well as points of divergence. Focus is directed to the proposition that…

  19. Finding focus: a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the

  20. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  1. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence: The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; De Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  2. Auditing for Score Inflation Using Self-Monitoring Assessments: Findings from Three Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Ng, Hui Leng; Yu, Carol; Braslow, David; Langi, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Test-based accountability often produces score inflation. Most studies have evaluated inflation by comparing trends on a high-stakes test and a lower stakes audit test. However, Koretz and Beguin (2010) noted weaknesses of audit tests and suggested self-monitoring assessments (SMAs), which incorporate audit items into high-stakes tests. This…

  3. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  4. Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. DETERMINANTS OF POSTNATAL DEPRESSION IN RURAL GHANA: FINDINGS FROM THE DON POPULATION BASED COHORT STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weobong, Benedict; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Soremekun, Seyi; Danso, Samuel; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Prince, Martin; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundRisk factors for postnatal depression (PND), one of the most pervasive complications of child bearing, are poorly understood in Africa. A recent systematic review of 31 studies found that the strongest predictors are social and economic disadvantage and gender-based factors; only six of

  6. Professional Development of Teacher Educators: What Do They Do? Findings from an Explorative International Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Klink, Marcel; Kools, Quinta; Avissar, Gilada; White, Simone; Sakata, Tetsuhito

    2017-01-01

    The attention being devoted to teacher educators as professionals and their professional development is unquestionably increasing. Whilst much of that attention is being directed at teacher educators in different countries, international comparisons have been quite rare to date. The research question addressed in this study was: "Do…

  7. Factors associated with home hazards: Findings from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad H; Tan, Maw P; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Clemson, Lindy

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months. Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards. This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Barriers to participation in mental health research: findings from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Anna; Howard, Louise; Morgan, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate why people with a first episode of psychosis choose or decline to participate in mental health research, using a qualitative study design. Participants were recruited via referrals from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. A total of 26 individuals with a first-episode of psychosis (nine of whom declined participation in the GAP study and 17 who participated) were individually interviewed and asked about their attitudes towards mental health research participation. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was used to determine dominant themes and sub-themes on what constituted barriers and facilitators to participation. Reasons for research participation identified included a desire to help others, curiosity, and positive experiences with clinicians. Decisions to participate or not were also influenced by practical issues, including the timing of the approach, researchers' communication skills and whether individuals had concerns that it may be potentially harmful to their health. Other barriers to participation included patients' conceptualizations of mental health problems and the influence of other inpatients. Information on barriers and facilitators to recruitment in mental health research could inform recruitment strategies, thereby maximizing recruitment rates and minimizing the risk of selection biases.

  9. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  10. Finding One's Place: A Case Study of a Music Atelierista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to document one teacher's journey as he negotiated the role of music atelierista (music studio teacher) in a school inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach (REA). Through the collection of qualitative data over a one-year time period and subsequent analysis, the author identified and described the…

  11. What can public endorsement for a smoking ban policy mean? Preliminary findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Agnieszka; Lignowska, Izabella; Makowska, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is to describe attitudes which underlie Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places. The qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews was conducted. The 30 IDI-s (in depth interviews) being a part of a larger research project entitled 'Lay meanings of health and life orientation of Polish society versus prevention and health promotion attitudes' were realized between 2007-2009. People belonging to all key socio-demographic categories identified by variables such as sex, age, education, and place of domicile were interviewed. The resulting material was subjected to content analysis. In the study the structural concept of 'attitude' was adopted. In order to identify the attitudes towards smoking bans in public places statements related to all three components of attitudes were analysed, but the typology of attitudes was constructed mainly on the basis of the emotional-evaluative component. The study identified as many as four attitudes behind the declared support for a smoking ban in public places. Those attitudes were labelled 'supportive', 'accepting', 'conditionally accepting', and 'ambivalent'. They differ as regards degree of acceptance for the ban, conviction about harmfulness of passive smoking, setting great store by other regulators of smoking like cultural norms or healthy consciousness, and propensity to observe and execute the smoking ban. The 'supportive' attitude can be characterized not only by total support for the smoking ban in public places but also by insistence on the need for its extension. The 'accepting' attitude means approval for the smoking ban, and the 'conditionally accepting' attitude is distinguished from the others by the stress put on the right of smokers to have an access to places where smoking is permitted. The 'ambivalent' attitude can be typified by underlining other than legal ways of influencing smoking in public places. The study suggests that the attitudes

  12. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  13. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Highlights of the Russian health studies program and updated research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountos, Barrett N.

    2017-01-01

    Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices. Research sponsored by DOE's Russian Health Studies Program is conducted under the authority of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER), a bi-national committee representing Federal agencies in the United States and the Russian Federation. Signed in 1994, the JCCRER Agreement established the legal basis for the collaborative research between USA and Russian scientists to determine the risks associated with working at or living near Russian former nuclear weapons production sites. The products of the Program are peer-reviewed publications on cancer risk estimates from worker and community exposure to ionizing radiation following the production of nuclear weapons in Russia. The scientific return on investment has been substantial. Through 31 December 2015, JCCRER researchers have published 299 peer-reviewed publications. To date, the research has focused on the Mayak Production Association (Mayak) in Ozersk, Russia, which is the site of the first Soviet nuclear weapons production facility, and people in surrounding communities along the Techa River. There are five current projects in the Russian Health Studies Program: two radiation epidemiology studies; two historical dose reconstruction

  15. Serum zinc, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A; Markesbery, W R

    1995-11-13

    Zinc appears to have a role in binding amyloid precursor protein in vitro, but it is not known whether zinc plays a role in senile plaque formation in vivo in humans. Serum zinc concentrations were available from 12 sisters who died in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Fasting serum zinc concentrations, determined approximately 1 year before death, showed moderate to strong negative correlations with senile plaque counts in seven brain regions. In all brain regions combined, the age-adjusted negative correlations with serum zinc were statistically significant for total senile plaques and diffuse plaques, and suggestive for neuritic plaques. Thus serum zinc in the normal range may be associated with low senile plaque counts in the elderly.

  16. Language decline across the life span: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, S; Greiner, L H; Marquis, J G; Prenovost, K; Mitzner, T L

    2001-06-01

    The present study examines language samples from the Nun Study. Measures of grammatical complexity and idea density were obtained from autobiographies written over a 60-year span. Participants who had met criteria for dementia were contrasted with those who did not. Grammatical complexity initially averaged 4.78 (on a 0-to-7-point scale) for participants who did not meet criteria for dementia and declined .04 units per year; grammatical complexity for participants who met criteria for dementia initially averaged 3.86 and declined .03 units per year. Idea density averaged 5.35 propositions per 10 words initially for participants who did not meet criteria for dementia and declined an average of .03 units per year, whereas idea density averaged 4.34 propositions per 10 words initially for participants who met criteria for dementia and declined .02 units per year. Adult experiences, in general, did not moderate these declines.

  17. Creativity in Medical Learning: A direction-finding study of junior hospital doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Talbot

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In a questionnaire study of creativity, the author has assessed the teaching and clinical practice of medical teachers, as observed by their students. The study has taken some preliminary steps to assess the place of creativity in postgraduate medical learning in the United Kingdom. Junior doctors were asked to compare their ‘best’ teacher with their ‘worst’ utilising a semantic differential scale and questions derived from Torrance’s definitions of creativity. The response rate was 81 (56.25% of 144 junior hospital doctors, in whose view, ‘best’ teachers showed greater creative behaviour as evidenced by significantly higher creativity scores on the majority of parameters (p<0.0001.

  18. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  19. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  20. What Counts in After School? Findings from the Massachusetts Afterschool Research Study (MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M. Miller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Massachusetts Afterschool Research Study (MARS. Conducted during 2003-2005, MARS took an in-depth look at program structure and quality in 78 varied programs across Massachusetts, using data sources that included interviews with program directors, afterschool program site observations, school district student data, attendance data, and surveys with afterschool program staff, day school teachers, and afterschool program youth. The MARS study offers many useful insights into what afterschool programs look like, approaches to providing high quality experiences for youth, and the connections between high quality and improved outcomes for the young people attending these programs. The results may be useful to programs, policy makers, and others in the field by deepening our understanding of how youth participation leads to a variety of youth outcomes.

  1. Lifestyle Risk Factors Increase the Risk of Hospitalization for Sciatica: Findings of Four Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. South African novice driver behaviour: findings from a naturalistic driving study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available experienced drivers in similar circumstances;  Informing the development of approaches that could improve driver training methods and systems in South Africa. 4. METHODOLOGY 4.1. Naturalistic Driving Studies NDS is a fairly new methodology... important that novice drivers should be able to not only obey the law, but should be able to recognise hazards associated with stop streets. Scan behaviour especially to the left and the right is considered important to cross and clear the intersection...

  3. Histopathology findings in patients presenting with menorrhagia: A study of 100 hysterectomy specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawke, Nilima G.; Sawke, Gopal Krishna; Jain, Hanisha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Menorrhagia, by definition, is heavy cyclical blood loss in excess of 80 ml/month of menstrual period lasting longer than 7 days. There are many possible causes of heavy menstrual bleeding which include hormonal imbalance, fibroids, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, nonhormonal intrauterine device, adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and rarely uterine, ovarian, or cervical cancer. Treatment depends on the causes of the menorrhagia. Hysterectomy is one of the several surgical procedures as definitive treatment. Objective: To determine the histopathologic spectrum of lesions associated with menorrhagia in different age groups. Study Design: This prospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. During the study period, 100 hysterectomy specimens were taken which were performed for the treatment of menorrhagia. Patients with menorrhagia in the age group of 30-50 years were selected after detailed history and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Result: In our study, it was observed that maximum number of cases were in the age group of 41-50 years (n = 35) followed by the age group of 31-40 (n = 30). Out of 100 cases, 31% cases (n = 31) showed adenomyosis followed by leiomyomas 25% (n = 25), endometrial hyperplasia 23% (n = 23), and endometrial polyp 4% (n = 4). 11% cases (n = 11) showed dual pathology consisting of both adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia and 6% cases (n = 6) of leiomyoma with adenomyosis. Conclusion: Uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma are the most common benign conditions found in hysterectomy specimens with peak incidence at 31-50 years. Patients having menorrhagia above 40 years should be screened for any endometrial pathology. Histopathology is mandatory for confirming diagnosis and the key to effective therapy and optimal outcome. PMID:26903755

  4. Histopathology findings in patients presenting with menorrhagia: A study of 100 hysterectomy specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima G Sawke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menorrhagia, by definition, is heavy cyclical blood loss in excess of 80 ml/month of menstrual period lasting longer than 7 days. There are many possible causes of heavy menstrual bleeding which include hormonal imbalance, fibroids, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, nonhormonal intrauterine device, adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and rarely uterine, ovarian, or cervical cancer. Treatment depends on the causes of the menorrhagia. Hysterectomy is one of the several surgical procedures as definitive treatment. Objective: To determine the histopathologic spectrum of lesions associated with menorrhagia in different age groups. Study Design: This prospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, People′s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. During the study period, 100 hysterectomy specimens were taken which were performed for the treatment of menorrhagia. Patients with menorrhagia in the age group of 30-50 years were selected after detailed history and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Result: In our study, it was observed that maximum number of cases were in the age group of 41-50 years (n = 35 followed by the age group of 31-40 (n = 30. Out of 100 cases, 31% cases (n = 31 showed adenomyosis followed by leiomyomas 25% (n = 25, endometrial hyperplasia 23% (n = 23, and endometrial polyp 4% (n = 4. 11% cases (n = 11 showed dual pathology consisting of both adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia and 6% cases (n = 6 of leiomyoma with adenomyosis. Conclusion: Uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma are the most common benign conditions found in hysterectomy specimens with peak incidence at 31-50 years. Patients having menorrhagia above 40 years should be screened for any endometrial pathology. Histopathology is mandatory for confirming diagnosis and the key to effective therapy and optimal outcome.

  5. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group, The

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  6. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity.Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment.Design: Cohort study.Subje...

  7. Hypertension: adherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh – findings from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Lindeboom, Wietze; Koehlmoos, Tracey Lynn Perez; Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Niessen, Louis; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Poor adherence has been identified as the main cause of failure to control hypertension. Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is a significant cardiovascular risk factor, which often remains unrecognized. There are no previous studies that examined adherence with antihypertensive medication or the characteristics of the non-adherent patients in Bangladesh.Objective: This paper aims to describe hypertension and factors affecting adherence to treatment among hypertensive per...

  8. Cost as a barrier to accessing dental care: findings from a Canadian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandy; Cooney, Peter; Lawrence, Herenia; Ravaghi, Vahid; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Canadians who report cost barriers to dental care. An analysis of data collected from the 2007/09 Canadian Health Measures Survey was undertaken from a sample of 5,586 Canadian participants aged 6-79. Cost barriers to dental care were operationalized through two questions: "In the past 12 months, have you avoided going to a dental professional because of the cost of dental care?" and "In the past 12 months, have you avoided having all the dental treatment that was recommended because of the cost?" Logistic regressions were conducted to identify relationships between covariates and positive responses to these questions. Approximately 17.3 percent of respondents had avoided a dental professional because of cost within the previous year, and 16.5 percent had declined recommended dental treatment because of cost. Adjusted estimates demonstrate that respondents with lower incomes and without dental insurance were over four times more likely to avoid a dental professional because of cost and approximately two and a half times more likely to decline recommended dental treatment because of cost. Nearly one out of five Canadians surveyed reported cost barriers to dental care. This study provides valuable baseline information for future studies to assess whether financial barriers to dental care are getting better or worse for Canadians. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia among elderly in Brazil: findings from the SABE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, T da Silva; Duarte, Y A de Oliveira; Santos, J L Ferreira; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in older residents in São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. São Paulo, Brazil. 1,149 older individuals from the second wave of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE) study from 2006. The definition of sarcopenia was based on the consensus of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), which include three components: low muscle mass, assessed by a skeletal muscle mass index of ≤8.90 kg/m2 for men and ≤6.37 kg/m2 for women; low muscle strength, assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required presence of low muscle mass plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, medical conditions and nutritional status were considered as independent variables to determine the associated factors using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 16.1% in women and 14.4% in men. Advanced age with a dose response effect, cognitive impairment, lower income, smoking, undernutrition and risk for undernutrition (psarcopenia. The EWGSOP algorithm is useful to define sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the Brazilian elderly population is high and several associated factors show that this syndrome is affected by multiple domains. No differences were observed by gender in any age groups.

  10. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. Objectives: This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checklist was designed and validated for assessing nurses’ compliance with nursing process. A total of 300 nurses from various clinical settings of Tehran university of medical sciences were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including frequencies, Pearson correlation coefficient and independent samples t-tests. Results: The compliance rate of nursing process indicators was 79.71 ± 0.87. Mean compliance scores did not significantly differ by education level and gender. However, overall compliance scores were correlated with nurses’ age (r = 0.26, P = 0.001) and work experience (r = 0.273, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Nursing process indicators can be used to audit nursing care. Such audits can be used as quality assurance tools. PMID:26576448

  11. Comparison of Nursing Home Hearing Handicap Index with Audiological Findings: A Presbycusis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nilforoush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing evaluation usually includes hearing threshold assessment, middle ear function, and word recognition tests that lead to an accurate result of peripheral and central auditory system. However, they have some limitations because they cannot fully encompass all aspects of hearing loss problems. Using self-assessment approach, via a questionnaire or telephone survey, is one of the easiest methods to study hearing loss in population. In this research, 60 nursing home residents (27 females and 33 males ranging from 55 to 85 years with a mean age of were studied via completing self-assessment questionnaire by the elderly cases (NHHI self-version and the other one was filled by the nursing home personnel (NHHI staff-version. The effects of the hearing loss level on the self- and staff-version scores indicated that there is a significant relationship between self- and staff-version with hearing loss levels ( in male and female. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of NHHI questionnaire for evaluating hearing handicap of aged people and it may be a useful adjunct in setting up treatment and determining proper care.

  12. Does Late-onset Anorexia Nervosa Exist? Findings From a Comparative Study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shian Ming; Kwok, Kah Foo Victor; Zainal, Kelly A; Lee, Huei Yen

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of cases of older onset anorexia nervosa (AN) has increased in recent years. However, the literature on late-onset AN has been inconclusive. The goal of this study was to compare late-onset with early-onset cases of AN. Cases of AN presenting to an eating disorders treatment service were identified and the associated medical records were studied retrospectively. Of the 577 cases of AN that were studied, 7.1% were late-onset. Unlike the early-onset cases of AN, the late-onset cases reported less teasing and more relationship problems as a trigger for the illness. They were also less likely to join the eating disorders treatment program. Otherwise, the late-onset AN cases were largely similar to the early-onset cases. Although differences exist between early-onset and late-onset cases of AN, these are few. Until stronger evidence emerges over time, there currently seems to be minimal justification to accord late-onset AN a unique position in psychiatric nosology.

  13. Stigmatization experienced by rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-12-01

    Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.

  14. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-09-01

    Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checklist was designed and validated for assessing nurses' compliance with nursing process. A total of 300 nurses from various clinical settings of Tehran university of medical sciences were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including frequencies, Pearson correlation coefficient and independent samples t-tests. The compliance rate of nursing process indicators was 79.71 ± 0.87. Mean compliance scores did not significantly differ by education level and gender. However, overall compliance scores were correlated with nurses' age (r = 0.26, P = 0.001) and work experience (r = 0.273, P = 0.001). Nursing process indicators can be used to audit nursing care. Such audits can be used as quality assurance tools.

  15. Finding p-Hub Median Locations: An Empirical Study on Problems and Solution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub location problems have been studied by many researchers for almost 30 years, and, accordingly, various solution methods have been proposed. In this paper, we implement and evaluate several widely used methods for solving five standard hub location problems. To assess the scalability and solution qualities of these methods, three well-known datasets are used as case studies: Turkish Postal System, Australia Post, and Civil Aeronautics Board. Classical problems in small networks can be solved efficiently using CPLEX because of their low complexity. Genetic algorithms perform well for solving three types of single allocation problems, since the problem formulations can be neatly encoded with chromosomes of reasonable size. Lagrangian relaxation is the only technique that solves reliable multiple allocation problems in large networks. We believe that our work helps other researchers to get an overview on the best solution techniques for the problems investigated in our study and also stipulates further interest on cross-comparing solution techniques for more expressive problem formulations.

  16. Investigating the origin of the asteroids and early findings on Vesta historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford J

    2017-01-01

    This book assesses the origin of asteroids by analyzing the discovery of Vesta in 1807. Wilhelm Olbers, who discovered Vesta, suggested that the asteroids were the result of a primordial planet’s explosion. Cunningham studies that idea in detail through the writings of Sir David Brewster in Scotland, the era's most prolific writer about the asteroids. He also examines the link between meteorites and asteroids, revealing a synergy between Ernst Chladni, Romantic symbolism, and the music of the spheres. Vesta was a lightning rod for controversy throughout the nineteenth century with observers arguing over its size and color, and the astounding notion that it was self-luminous. It was also a major force for change, as new methods in the field of celestial mechanics were developed to study the orbital perturbations it is subject to. A large selection of private correspondence and scientific papers complete the first comprehensive historical study of Vesta ever published. With a synoptic look at the four astero...

  17. Prevalence and predictors of alcohol use during pregnancy: findings from international multicentre cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Kearney, Patricia M; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Greene, Richard A; North, Robyn A; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M E; Baker, Philip N; Dekker, Gus A; Walker, James J; Taylor, Rennae; Kenny, Louise C

    2015-07-06

    To compare the prevalence and predictors of alcohol use in multiple cohorts. Cross-cohort comparison of retrospective and prospective studies. Population-based studies in Ireland, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. 17,244 women of predominantly Caucasian origin from two Irish retrospective studies (Growing up in Ireland (GUI) and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Ireland (PRAMS Ireland)), and one multicentre prospective international cohort, Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Prevalence of alcohol use pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy across cohorts. Sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in each cohort. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Ireland ranged from 20% in GUI to 80% in SCOPE, and from 40% to 80% in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. Levels of exposure also varied substantially among drinkers in each cohort ranging from 70% consuming more than 1-2 units/week in the first trimester in SCOPE Ireland, to 46% and 15% in the retrospective studies. Smoking during pregnancy was the most consistent predictor of gestational alcohol use in all three cohorts, and smokers were 17% more likely to drink during pregnancy in SCOPE, relative risk (RR)=1.17 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.22), 50% more likely to drink during pregnancy in GUI, RR=1.50 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.65), and 42% more likely to drink in PRAMS, RR=1.42 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.70). Our data suggest that alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent and socially pervasive in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia. New policy and interventions are required to reduce alcohol prevalence both prior to and during pregnancy. Further research on biological markers and conventions for measuring alcohol use in pregnancy is required to improve the validity and reliability of prevalence estimates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Healthy Start vitamins—a missed opportunity: findings of a multimethod study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Green, Josephine M; McLeish, Jenny; McCormick, Felicia; Williams, Victoria; Renfrew, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and provide a real-life view of the operation of the Healthy Start vitamins scheme. Setting The study took place in primary care and community settings that served rural, urban and ethnically diverse populations, in two sentinel sites: London, and Yorkshire and the Humber. An online consultation and stakeholder workshops elicited views from across England. Participants 669 health and social care practitioners including health visitors, midwives, public health practitioners, general practitioners, paediatricians and support staff participated in focus group discussions (n=49) and an online consultation (n=620). 56 participants representing health and social care practitioners, policymakers, service commissioners, and voluntary and independent sectors took part in stakeholder workshops. Methods Three-phase multimethod study comprising focus group discussions, an online consultation and stakeholder workshops. Qualitative data were analysed thematically and quantitative data from the online survey were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Study participants were concerned about the low uptake of Healthy Start vitamin supplements and the consequences of this for health outcomes for women and young children. They experienced Healthy Start vitamin distribution as logistically complex, requiring the time, resources and creative thinking of a range of local and regional practitioners from senior strategists to administrative support workers. In the light of this, many participants argued that moving to universal provision of vitamin supplements would be more cost-effective than the current system. Conclusions There is consistency of views of health practitioners that the current targeted system of providing free vitamin supplements for low-income childbearing women and young children via the Healthy Start programme is not fulfilling its potential to address vitamin deficiencies. There is wide professional and voluntary sector support for

  19. Occupational burnout among radiation therapists in Australia: Findings from a mixed methods study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Wright, C.; Knight, K.; Baird, M.; Akroyd, D.; Adams, R.D.; Schneider, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence demonstrates that health care professionals in the palliative care context are more burned out than other health professionals. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) occupational burnout levels among radiation therapists in Australia, (2) association between demographic factors on burnout and (3) radiation therapists' perceptions of burnout. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey including the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to Radiation Therapists in Australia. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver 20 and open ended comments were analysed thematically using Nvivo 10. Results: A total of 200 radiation therapists participated in the survey. RTs had a high mean (±SD) burnout score for emotional exhaustion (38.5 ± 8.2), depersonalisation (17.5 ± 4.7) and personal achievement (30.5.3 ± 4.3) compared to RTs and health workers in other studies. High levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low levels of personal achievement were present in 93% (186/200), 87% (174/200) and 61% (122/200) of participants respectively. RTs identified high workload and staff shortages, interpersonal conflict and technology as key sources of stress in the RT work environment. Conclusion: Australian RTs' level of burnout on all three stages of burnout exceed previously reported burnout levels for similar cohorts both locally and internationally. It is important that future interventions aimed at minimising or preventing stressors are identified and implemented in the radiation therapy work environment. - Highlights: • The burnout rate is higher among Australian RTs compared to studies in other countries. • Dealing with patients and their emotions were not a contributing factor to RTs' stress. • Challenging interpersonal relationships between staff was identified as one of the key stressors. • It is important that future interventions aimed at minimising or preventing stressors are recognised.

  20. Ethnic identity, perceptions of disadvantage, and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that rates of psychosis are elevated in the Black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK. One important, but relatively less researched explanation of these high rates may be social adversity associated with acculturation processes. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group subjected to social disadvantage may exert adverse effects on individuals from BME groups. Using data from a large epidemiological case-control study of first-episode psychosis, we aimed to investigate whether strong ethnic identification is a factor contributing to the excess of psychosis in BME groups compared with the White British, after adjustment for perceptions of disadvantage. All cases with a first episode of psychosis presenting to specialist mental health services within tightly defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK, and geographically matched community controls were included in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one\\'s own ethnic group. Analysis was performed on data from 139 cases and 234 controls. There was evidence that, as levels of ethnic identification increased, the odds of psychosis increased in the BME but not in the White British group, independent of potential confounders. However, the association between strong ethnic identity and psychosis in BME individuals was attenuated and non-significant when controlled for perceived disadvantage. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage.

  1. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL: Findings from a content validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs, however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring. Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM, were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements.

  2. Maternal perception of fetal activity and late stillbirth risk: findings from the Auckland Stillbirth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Tomasina; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; Ekeroma, Alec; Zuccollo, Jane; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2011-12-01

      Maternal perception of decreased fetal movements has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth. Little is known about other aspects of perceived fetal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal perception of fetal activity and late stillbirth (≥28 wk gestation) risk.   Participants were women with a singleton, late stillbirth without congenital abnormality, born between July 2006 and June 2009 in Auckland, New Zealand. Two control women with ongoing pregnancies were randomly selected at the same gestation at which the stillbirth occurred. Detailed demographic and fetal movement data were collected by way of interview in the first few weeks after the stillbirth, or at the equivalent gestation for control women.   A total of 155/215 (72%) women who experienced a stillbirth and 310/429 (72%) control group women consented to participate in the study. Maternal perception of increased strength and frequency of fetal movements, fetal hiccups, and frequent vigorous fetal activity were all associated with a reduced risk of late stillbirth. In contrast, perception of decreased strength of fetal movement was associated with a more than twofold increased risk of late stillbirth (aOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.29-4.35). A single episode of vigorous fetal activity was associated with an almost sevenfold increase in late stillbirth risk (aOR: 6.81; 95% CI: 3.01-15.41) compared with no unusually vigorous activity.   Our study suggests that maternal perception of increasing fetal activity throughout the last 3 months of pregnancy is a sign of fetal well-being, whereas perception of reduced fetal movements is associated with increased risk of late stillbirth. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Achieving organizational change: findings from a case study of health promoting hospitals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Powell, Michael; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2014-06-01

    The Taiwanese Network of Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) has been in place since 2006 and developing rapidly. The criticism of inadequate evaluation of the HPH approach taken elsewhere also holds true for the Taiwan HPH Network. Organizational change is a key to sustainable and effective health promotion, and it is also an important aspect in the European HPH movement. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate changes in organizational capacity for the implementation of HPH in Taiwan. All 55 HPH coordinators were invited to participate in the study, and 52 of them completed the questionnaires. The survey covered seven dimensions of HPH organizational capacity, and a total score of each dimension was calculated and converted to a figure on a scale of 10. This study has shown that HPH made a positive impact on HP hospitals in Taiwan regarding organizational change in capacity building for HPH. Leadership, organization culture and mission and strategy received the top three highest mean scores (8.19 ± 1.25, 8.08 ± 1.39, 7.99 ± 1.42), while staff participation received the lowest score (7.62 ± 1.26). The high level of organizational change was associated with the high satisfaction levels of organizational support from the viewpoint of the HPH coordinators. Based on a cluster analysis, a majority of the HP hospitals in Taiwan seemed to have adopted the addition model in putting the HPH initiative into practice; a few hospitals appeared to have accepted HPH initiative well through the integration model. These results presented evidence that HPH contributed to organizational capacity building of hospitals for health promotion.

  4. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Virta, Lauri; Luukkonen, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2010-06-23

    Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007) were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16%) compared to those on full sick leave (1%) had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. This is the first follow up study of the newly adopted partial sickness benefit in

  5. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkonen Ritva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Methods Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007 were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Results Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16% compared to those on full sick leave (1% had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. Conclusions This is the first follow

  6. Oral and written language in late adulthood: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Kemper, Susan

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Nun Study, a longitudinal investigation of aging and Alzheimer's disease, oral and written autobiographies from 118 older women were analyzed to examine the relationship between spoken and written language. The written language samples were more complex than the oral samples, both conceptually and grammatically. The relationship between the linguistic measures and participant characteristics was also examined. The results suggest that the grammatical and conceptual characteristics of oral and written language are affected by participant differences in education, cognitive status, and physical function and that written language samples have greater power than oral language samples to differentiate between high- and low-ability older adults.

  7. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    , carried out in mobile units by three trained and calibrated dental hygienists. The data were processed with descriptive statistics and mono- and bivariate analyses. Results. The mean age was 54.1 years and 60% were women. The mean number of natural teeth was 26.6; the mean DMFT/DMFS values were 18...... rate was more common among females than males (17.7% vs 10.4%) and this was reflected by the reported frequency of dry mouth. Conclusion. This extensive cross-sectional study provides a platform for obtaining future knowledge of the impact of health- and lifestyle-related factors on oral diseases...

  8. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  9. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  10. Chondromalacia patellae: an in vitro study. Comparison of MR criteria with histologic and macroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leersum, M. van; Schweitzer, M.E.; Gannon, F.; Finkel, G.; Vinitski, S.; Mitchell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To develop MR criteria for grades of chondromalacia patellae and to assess the accuracy of these grades. Design. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted double-echo, fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, fat-suppressed T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences were performed at 1.5 T for the evaluation of chondromalacia. A total of 1000 MR, 200 histologic, and 200 surface locations were graded for chondromalacia and statistically compared. Results. Compared with gross inspection as well as with histology the most accurate sequences were fat-suppressed T2-weighted conventional spin echo and fat suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, although the T1-weighted and proton density images also correlated well. The most accurate MR criteria applied to the severe grades of chondromalacia, with less accurate results for lesser grades. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that fat-suppressed routine T2-weighted and fast spin echo T2-weighted sequences seem to be more accurate than proton density, T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences in grading chondromalacia. Good histologic and macroscopic correlation was seen in more severe grades of chondromalacia, but problems remain for the early grades in all sequences studied. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Chondromalacia patellae: an in vitro study. Comparison of MR criteria with histologic and macroscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leersum, M; Schweitzer, M E; Gannon, F; Finkel, G; Vinitski, S; Mitchell, D G

    1996-11-01

    To develop MR criteria for grades of chondromalacia patellae and to assess the accuracy of these grades. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted double-echo, fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, fat-suppressed T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences were performed at 1.5 T for the evaluation of chondromalacia. A total of 1000 MR, 200 histologic, and 200 surface locations were graded for chondromalacia and statistically compared. Compared with gross inspection as well as with histology the most accurate sequences were fat-suppressed T2-weighted conventional spin echo and fat suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, although the T1-weighted and proton density images also correlated well. The most accurate MR criteria applied to the severe grades of chondromalacia, with less accurate results for lesser grades. This study demonstrates that fat-suppressed routine T2-weighted and fast spin echo T2-weighted sequences seem to be more accurate than proton density, T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences in grading chondromalacia. Good histologic and macroscopic correlation was seen in more severe grades of chondromalacia, but problems remain for the early grades in all sequences studied.

  12. Association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: findings from the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Patrícia Miranda; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna Miguez Nery; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Alexandre; Chor, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    "Pardos" and blacks in Brazil and blacks in the USA are at greater risk of developing arterial hypertension than whites, and the causes of this inequality are still little understood. Psychosocial and contextual factors, including racial discrimination, are indicated as conditions associated with this inequality. The aim of this study was to identify the association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension. The study evaluated 14,012 workers from the ELSA-Brazil baseline population. Perceived discrimination was measured by the Lifetime Major Events Scale, adapted to Portuguese. Classification by race/color followed the categories proposed by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Hypertension was defined by standard criteria. The association between the compound variable - race/racial discrimination - and hypertension was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance and stratified by the categories of body mass index (BMI) and sex. Choosing white women as the reference group, in the BMI 25kg/m2 and men in any BMI category, no effect of racial discrimination was identified. Despite the differences in point estimates of prevalence of hypertension between "pardo" women who reported and those who did not report discrimination, our results are insufficient to assert that an association exists between racial discrimination and hypertension.

  13. Dose-finding study of carbamylated monomeric allergoid tablets in grass-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, Ralph; Rohdenburg, Christina; Eichel, Andrea; Zadoyan, Gregor; Kasche, Elena-Manja; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Lehmacher, Walter; Schmalz, Petra; Compalati, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    To determine the optimal effective and safe dose of sublingual immunotherapy tablets containing carbamylated monomeric allergoids in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter, Phase II study, four different daily doses were applied preseasonally for 12 weeks. Of 158 randomized adults, 155 subjects (safety population) received 300 units of allergy (UA)/day (n = 36), 600 UA/day (n = 43), 1000 UA/day (n = 39), or 2000 UA/day (n = 37). After treatment, 54.3, 47.6, 59.0 and 51.4% of patients, respectively, ceased to react to the highest allergen concentration in a conjunctival provocation test. Furthermore, the response threshold improved in 70.4, 62.9, 76.7 and 66.7% of patients, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred. This study found 1000 UA/day to be the optimal effective and safe dose.

  14. Transitions to mild cognitive impairments, dementia, and death: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Mendiondo, Marta S; Kryscio, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The potential of early interventions for dementia has increased interest in cognitive impairments less severe than dementia. However, predictors of the trajectory from intact cognition to dementia have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether known risk factors for dementia increased the risk of mild cognitive impairments or progression from mild cognitive impairments to dementia. A polytomous logistic regression model was used, with parameters governing transitions within transient states (intact cognition, mild cognitive impairments, global impairment) estimated separately from parameters governing the transition from transient to absorbing state (dementia or death). Analyses were based on seven annual examinations (1991-2002) of 470 Nun Study participants aged > or = 75 years at baseline and living in the United States. Odds of developing dementia increased with age primarily for those with low educational levels. In these women, presence of an apolipoprotein E gene *E4 allele increased the odds more than fourfold by age 95 years. Age, education, and the apolipoprotein E gene were all significantly associated with mild cognitive impairments. Only age, however, was associated with progression to dementia. Thus, risk factors for dementia may operate primarily by predisposing individuals to develop mild cognitive impairments; subsequent progression to dementia then depends on only time and competing mortality.

  15. Delayed recall, hippocampal volume and Alzheimer neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, J A; Gosche, K M; Riley, K P; Markesbery, W R; Snowdon, D A

    2004-02-10

    To examine the associations of hippocampal volume and the severity of neurofibrillary lesions determined at autopsy with delayed verbal recall performance evaluated an average of 1 year prior to death. Hippocampal volumes were computed using postmortem brain MRI from the first 56 scanned participants of the Nun Study. Quantitative neuropathologic studies included lesion counts, Braak staging, and determination of whether neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) were met. Multiple regression was used to assess the association of hippocampal volume and neuropathologic lesions with the number of words (out of 10) recalled on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Delayed Word Recall Test administered an average of 1 year prior to death. When entered separately, hippocampal volume, Braak stage, and the mean neurofibrillary tangle counts in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus and the subiculum were strongly associated with the number of words recalled after a delay, adjusting for age and education. When hippocampal volume was entered together with each neuropathologic index, only hippocampal volume retained a significant association with the delayed recall measure. The association between hippocampal volume and the number of words recalled was present in both demented and nondemented individuals as well as in those with and without substantial AD neurofibrillary pathology. The association of neurofibrillary tangles with delayed verbal recall may reflect associated hippocampal atrophy.

  16. Tea Consumption Reduces the Incidence of Neurocognitive Disorders: Findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Chong, M-S; Lim, W-S; Gao, Q; Nyunt, M S; Lee, T-S; Collinson, S L; Tsoi, T; Kua, E-H; Ng, T-P

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between tea consumption habits and incident neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and explore potential effect modification by gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Population-based longitudinal study. The Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). 957 community-living Chinese elderly who were cognitively intact at baseline. We collected tea consumption information at baseline from 2003 to 2005 and ascertained incident cases of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) from 2006 to 2010. Odds ratio (OR) of association were calculated in logistic regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 72 incident NCD cases were identified from the cohort. Tea intake was associated with lower risk of incident NCD, independent of other risk factors. Reduced NCD risk was observed for both green tea (OR=0.43) and black/oolong tea (OR=0.53) and appeared to be influenced by the changing of tea consumption habit at follow-up. Using consistent non-tea consumers as the reference, only consistent tea consumers had reduced risk of NCD (OR=0.39). Stratified analyses indicated that tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of NCD among females (OR=0.32) and APOE ε4 carriers (OR=0.14) but not males and non APOE ε4 carriers. Regular tea consumption was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive disorders among Chinese elderly. Gender and genetic factors could possibly modulate this association.

  17. Chondromalacia patellae: an in vitro study. Comparison of MR criteria with histologic and macroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leersum, M. van [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gannon, F. [Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Finkel, G. [Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vinitski, S. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mitchell, D.G. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Objective. To develop MR criteria for grades of chondromalacia patellae and to assess the accuracy of these grades. Design. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted double-echo, fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, fat-suppressed T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences were performed at 1.5 T for the evaluation of chondromalacia. A total of 1000 MR, 200 histologic, and 200 surface locations were graded for chondromalacia and statistically compared. Results. Compared with gross inspection as well as with histology the most accurate sequences were fat-suppressed T2-weighted conventional spin echo and fat suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo, although the T1-weighted and proton density images also correlated well. The most accurate MR criteria applied to the severe grades of chondromalacia, with less accurate results for lesser grades. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that fat-suppressed routine T2-weighted and fast spin echo T2-weighted sequences seem to be more accurate than proton density, T1-weighted, and gradient echo sequences in grading chondromalacia. Good histologic and macroscopic correlation was seen in more severe grades of chondromalacia, but problems remain for the early grades in all sequences studied. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Collaborative peer review process as an informal interprofessional learning tool: Findings from an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae Yung; Bulk, Laura Yvonne; Giannone, Zarina; Liva, Sarah; Chakraborty, Bubli; Brown, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on formal interprofessional education programes, less attention has been focused on informal interprofessional learning opportunities. To provide such an opportunity, a collaborative peer review process (CPRP) was created as part of a peer-reviewed journal. Replacing the traditional peer review process wherein two or more reviewers review the manuscript separately, the CPRP brings together students from different professions to collaboratively review a manuscript. The aim of this study was to assess whether the CPRP can be used as an informal interprofessional learning tool using an exploratory qualitative approach. Eight students from Counselling Psychology, Occupational and Physical Therapy, Nursing, and Rehabilitation Sciences were invited to participate in interprofessional focus groups. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Two key themes emerged, revealing that the CPRP created new opportunities for interprofessional learning and gave practice in negotiating feedback. The results reveal that the CPRP has the potential to be a valuable interprofessional learning tool that can also enhance reviewing and constructive feedback skills.

  19. Phase I dose-finding study of cabazitaxel administered weekly in patients with advanced solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumoleau, Pierre; Trigo, Jose Manuel; Isambert, Nicolas; Sémiond, Dorothée; Gupta, Sunil; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cabazitaxel is approved in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. This study evaluated a weekly cabazitaxel dosing regimen. Primary objectives were to report dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were secondary objectives. Cabazitaxel was administered weekly (1-hour intravenous infusion at 1.5–12 mg/m2 doses) for the first 4 weeks of a 5-week cycle in patients with solid tumours. Monitoring of DLTs was used to determine the MTD and the recommended weekly dose. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. Two of six patients experienced DLTs at 12 mg/m 2 , which was declared the MTD. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. Eight patients developed neutropenia (three ≥ Grade 3); one occurrence of febrile neutropenia was reported. There were two partial responses (in breast cancer) and 13 patients had stable disease (median duration of 3.3 months). Increases in C max and AUC 0–t were dose proportional for the 6–12 mg/m 2 doses. The MTD of weekly cabazitaxel was 12 mg/m 2 and the recommended weekly dose was 10 mg/m 2 . The observed safety profile and antitumour activity of cabazitaxel were consistent with those observed with other taxanes in similar dosing regimens. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01755390

  20. Multiple physical healthcare needs among outpatients with schizophrenia: findings from a health examination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Koskela, Tuomas H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Despite the abundant literature on physical comorbidity, the full range of the concurrent somatic healthcare needs among individuals with schizophrenia has rarely been studied. This observational study aimed to assess the distressing somatic symptoms and needs for physical health interventions in outpatients with schizophrenia, and factors predicting those needs. A structured, comprehensive health examination was carried out, including a visit to a nurse and a general practitioner on 275 outpatients with schizophrenia. The required interventions were classified by type of disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, functional limitations, factors related to psychiatric disorder, and healthcare use on the need for interventions. In total, 44.9% of the patients (mean age 44.9 years) reported somatic symptoms affecting daily life; 87.6% needed specific interventions for a disease or condition, most commonly for cardiovascular, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological, and gastrointestinal conditions, and for altered glucose homeostasis. Smoking and obesity predicted significantly a need of any intervention, but the predictors varied in each disease category. Strikingly, use of general practitioner services during the previous year did not reduce the need for interventions. Health examinations for outpatients with schizophrenia revealed numerous physical healthcare needs. The health examinations for patients with schizophrenia should contain a medical history taking and a physical examination, in addition to basic measurements and laboratory tests. Prevention and treatment of obesity and smoking should be given priority in order to diminish somatic comorbidities in schizophrenia.

  1. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  2. Music training and child development: a review of recent findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Damasio, Antonio; Ilari, Beatriz; Elliott Sachs, Matthew; Damasio, Hanna

    2018-03-06

    Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development. The target group of children was compared with two groups of children, one involved in sports and another not enrolled in any systematic afterschool training. Two years after training, we observed that children in the music group had better performance than comparison groups in musically relevant auditory skills and showed related brain changes. For nonmusical skills, children with music training, compared with children without music or with sports training, showed stronger neural activation during a cognitive inhibition task in regions involved in response inhibition despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No such differences were found between music and sports groups. We conclude that music training induces brain and behavioral changes in children, and those changes are not attributable to pre-existing biological traits. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Defining interdisciplinary competencies for audiological rehabilitation: findings from a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lina; Le Bot, Gaëlle; Van Petegem, Wim; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to derive a consensus on an interdisciplinary competency framework regarding a holistic approach for audiological rehabilitation (AR), which includes disciplines from medicine, engineering, social sciences and humanities. We employed a modified Delphi method. In the first round survey, experts were asked to rate an initial list of 28 generic interdisciplinary competencies and to propose specific knowledge areas for AR. In the second round, experts were asked to reconsider their answers in light of the group answers of the first round. An international panel of 27 experts from different disciplines in AR completed the first round. Twenty-two of them completed the second round. We developed a competency framework consisting of 21 generic interdisciplinary competencies grouped in five domains and nine specific competencies (knowledge areas) in three clusters. Suggestions for the implementation of the generic competencies in interdisciplinary programmes were identified. This study reveals insights into the interdisciplinary competencies that are unique for AR. The framework will be useful for educators in developing interdisciplinary programmes as well as for professionals in considering their lifelong training needs in AR.

  4. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet to be clarif......Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet......, it is clear that large patient cohorts and open-access repositories will be essential to further advance the field. To that end, the large multicenter Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study was established. The goal of the TIC Genetics study is to undertake a comprehensive gene...... discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA...

  5. Organisational readiness and Lean Thinking implementation: findings from three emergency department case studies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth H

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and contrasts the implementation of Lean Thinking – a quality methodology that emphasises waste reduction and performing at higher levels of productivity with the same or less resources – into New Zealand's healthcare system. As the field is relatively new, three literature-based exemplar cases were developed to provide an analysis framework to analyse the three New Zealand research sites, which had activities, teamwork, leadership and sustainability as its core themes. Each research site's case was developed from primary data gathered through interviews, augmented by secondary data from project reports, District Health Board websites and media stories. The results highlight the benefits of a supportive quality-focussed organisational culture, executive management involvement and cross-functional teams as enablers. Further, work intensification and workplace resistance were also evident in varying levels within the sites. The study, while reiterating the problems of introducing quality methods from other domains into healthcare, presents the New Zealand context and reinforces that organisational preparedness as a significant factor which contributes to implementation success. This study goes beyond investigations of the use of Lean tools, changing improvement metrics and descriptive statistics to identify the contexts and variables which surround quality and process improvement implementations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Diabetes among non-obese Filipino Americans: Findings from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M

    2017-04-20

    Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.

  7. Otoneurologic Findings in a Fishermen Population of the State of Santa Catarina: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the national and world economy. Aim To evaluate the vestibular behavior in a population of fishermen. Methods In a retrospective and cross-sectional study, 13 fishermen (mean 45.0, between 33 and 62 years of age, were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular exam through the vector electronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms were hearing loss (76.9%, tinnitus (61.7%, dizziness (46.1%, and headache (46.1%. The most evident clinical symptoms were fatigue (46.1%, depression (23.0%, anxiety (15.3%, insomnia (7.7%, and agitation during sleep (7.7%. There were alterations in the vestibular exam in 5 fishermen (38.5% discovered in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system. There was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome. Conclusion The otoneurologic complaints were frequent in the population studied to verify the importance of allowing labyrinth exams and the need for adopting preventive measures relating to noise exposure as well as carbon monoxide exposure, because they can cause and/or enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  8. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly reduces original waste volumes but concentrates the metals that are present, such as toxic metals (most notably cadmium, lead, and antimony) and nuisance metals (e.g., zinc). Anion species also become predominant in flyash produced by INEEL incineration, where chloride and sulfate are at concentrations that can approach 15-20 wt% each. In addition, treatment of the WERF flyash is further complicated by a significant fraction of ignitables composed of carbon soot and various hydrocarbon species that have been measured in some cases at 30% net by Loss-on-Ignition tests. Bottom ash produced at the WERF site is generally much less toxic, if not nontoxic, as compared to the flyash. Due to the complex composition of the flyash material, stabilization attempts at the INEEL have been only partly successful, causing the effectiveness and viability of treatment methods to be revisited. Breakthroughs in flyash stabilization came in 1998 when more complete characterization data gave us further insight into the chemical and physical nature of the flyash. These breakthroughs were also facilitated by the use of a computer model for electrolytes that allowed us to simulate stabilization options prior to started laboratory studies. This paper summarizes efforts at the INEEL, spanning the past three years, that have focused on stabilizing flyash. A brief history of INEEL treatability studies is given, showing that the degree of effective flyash stabilization was proportional to the amount of meaningful characterization data that was available. Various binders have been used in these treatability studies, including Portland cement type I/II, Portland cement type V, JGC Super Cement (blast furnace slag cement), a Fluid Tech

  9. Association between Inflammation and Cardiac Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Gupta

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and myocardial contractile dysfunction are independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The association between inflammatory biomarkers and cardiac geometry has not yet been studied in a large cohort of CKD patients with a wide range of kidney function.Plasma levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen and serum albumin were measured in 3,939 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study participants. Echocardiography was performed according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and interpreted at a centralized core laboratory.LVH, systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction were present in 52.3%, 11.8% and 76.3% of the study subjects, respectively. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetic status, current smoking status, systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin- creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate, hs-CRP (OR 1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], p<0.001, IL-1RA (1.23 [1.13, 1.34], p<0.0001, IL-6 (1.25 [1.14, 1.36], p<0.001 and TNF-α (1.14 [1.04, 1.25], p = 0.004 were associated with LVH. The odds for systolic dysfunction were greater for subjects with elevated levels of hs-CRP (1.32 [1.18, 1.48], p<0.001 and IL-6 (1.34 [1.21, 1.49], p<0.001. Only hs-CRP was associated with diastolic dysfunction (1.14 [1.04, 1.26], p = 0.005.In patients with CKD, elevated plasma levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 are associated with LVH and systolic dysfunction.

  10. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaeffli Leila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR exercise intervention. Methods An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. Results 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41 of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85% stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60% showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to

  11. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  12. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  13. The reciprocal relationship between coping mechanisms and lung cancer diagnosis: findings of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oancea C

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristian Oancea,1 Cristian Suciu,2 Bogdan Timar,3 Ion Papava,4 Marius Raica,2 Ovidiu Burlacu5 1Department of Pulmonology, 2Department of Microscopic Morphology/Histology, 3Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, 4Department of Neurosciences, 5Department of Surgical Semiology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania Background/purpose: Lung cancer is a major stress factor for the affected individual, leading to psychological distress in over 50% of the diagnosed patients. Since coping styles describe different patterns in approaching serious problems, our study aimed at ascertaining if the diagnosis of lung cancer has an impact on the patient’s coping styles and if there is a difference in psychical response among patients with different coping styles, as assessed by variance of anxiety and depression scores after diagnosis. Patients and methods: In this prospective study, a cohort of 50 patients were evaluated using the COPE scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD-7, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9, both prior to and 1 month after learning about their lung cancer diagnosis. The baseline and the final parameters were compared and stratified with respect to coping styles.Results: We observed that 1 month after learning the diagnosis, the patients had a significantly higher GAD-7 score (median score 12 vs 4 points; p<0.001. At the same time, the PHQ-9 score was significantly higher at the 1 month follow-up time-point (median score 16 vs 7; p=0.002. The increases in the anxiety scores were significant in patients with initial social support (13 vs 3; p=0.014 and avoidance coping style (14 vs 6; p=0.003. Regarding the depression scores, after the diagnosis, the only significant increase was observed in patients with initial avoidance coping style (18 vs 5; p=0.014.Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that patients who receive the diagnosis for cancer show a significant

  14. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  15. Association of adaptive and maladaptive narcissism with personal burnout: findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON Känel, Roland; Herr, Raphael Manfred; VAN Vianen, Annelies Elizabeth Maria; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-06-08

    Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism. In linear regression analysis, when mutually adjusting for the maladaptive and adaptive narcissism scales, higher adaptive narcissism was associated with lower burnout scores (ß=-0.04, pnarcissism was associated with higher burnout scores (ß=0.04, pnarcissism was associated with increased levels of burnout symptoms, adaptive narcissism was associated with fewer burnout symptoms.

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography study of human pulmonary perfusion: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carratu, L; Sofia, M [Naples Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia; Salvatore, M; Muto, P; Ariemma, G [Istituto Nazionale per la Prevenzione, Lo Studio e La Cura dei Tumori Fondazione Pascale, Naples (Italy); Lopez-Majano, V [Cook County Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA). Nuclear Medicine Div.

    1984-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-albumin macroaggregates to study human pulmonary perfusion in healthy subjects and patients with respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung neoplasms. The reconstructed SPECT data was displayed in coronal, transverse, sagittal plane sections and compared to conventional perfusion scans. The SPECT data gave more complicated anatomical information about the extent of damage and morphology of the pulmonary vascular bed. In healthy subjects and COPD patients, qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion could be obtained from serial SPECT scans with respect to distribution and relative concentration of the injected radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, SPECT of pulmonary perfusion has been useful in detecting the extent of damage to the pulmonary circulation. This is useful for the preoperative evaluation and staging of lung cancer.

  17. Finding the best fit for direct and indirect causation: a typological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levshina Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contrast between direct and indirect causation is the most widely discussed semantic distinction in the literature on causative constructions. This distinction has been claimed to correlate with a number of formal parameters, such as formal distance, productivity and length, which are linked to different functional and diachronic explanations based on the principles of iconicity and economy. The present study tests these claims on a typologically representative sample of languages from 46 diverse families, examining four formal variables and their association with (indirectness of causation. According to the data, formal length displays the most pervasive association with the semantic distinction in question, which supports the economy-based explanation. In addition, the relative prominence of the other formal parameters depends on the type of causatives and their stage of grammaticalization.

  18. Trends in mortality in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S M; Snowdon, D A

    1996-07-01

    During this century, Catholic sisters have remained constant in many life-style characteristics such as smoking and reproduction (Catholic sisters are nonsmoking and nulliparous). It is therefore of interest to compare trends in the health of elderly Catholic sisters to those in the general population. In this study, mortality rates at ages 50 to 84 years in a population of 2,573 Catholic sisters were compared to those in the general population during the years 1965 to 1989. The Catholic sisters had a mortality advantage that increased dramatically over calendar time, and from early to more recent birth cohorts. This coincided with increases in smoking by U.S. women, while during the same time period the Catholic sisters had very low rates of mortality from smoking-related diseases. The Catholic sisters had high rates of mortality from cancers of the breast and reproductive organs, suggesting an effect of nulliparity manifested in older women.

  19. Tingling/numbness in the hands of computer users: neurophysiological findings from the NUDATA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, E.; Brandt, L. P.; Ellemann, K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether tingling/numbness of the hands and fingers among computer users is associated with elevated vibration threshold as a sign of early nerve compression. METHODS: Within the Danish NUDATA study, vibratory sensory testing with monitoring of the digital vibration...... once a week or daily within the last 3 months. Participants with more than slight muscular pain or disorders of the neck and upper extremities, excessive alcohol consumption, previous injuries of the upper extremities, or concurrent medical diseases were excluded. The two groups had a similar amount...... of work with mouse, keyboard, and computer. RESULTS: Seven of the 20 cases (35%) had elevated vibration thresholds, compared with 3 of the 20 controls (15%); this difference was not statistically significant (chi2=2.13, P=0.14). Compared with controls, cases had increased perception threshold for all...

  20. Incentives and control in primary health care: findings from English pay-for-performance case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen; Checkland, Kath

    2008-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate mechanisms and perceptions of control following the implementation of a new "pay-for-performance" contract (the new General Medical Services, or GMS, contract) in general practice. This article was based on an in-depth qualitative case study approach in two general practices in England. A distinction is emerging amongst ostensibly equal partners between those general practitioners conducting and those subject to surveillance. Attitudes towards the contract were largely positive, although discontent was higher in the practice which employed a more intensive surveillance regime and greater amongst nurses than doctors. The sample was small and opportunistic. Further research is required to examine the longer-term effects as new contractual arrangements evolve. Increased surveillance and feedback mechanisms associated with new pay-for-performance schemes have the potential to constrain and shape clinical practice. The paper highlights the emergence of new tensions within and between existing professional groupings.

  1. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalon