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Sample records for ubatuba southeastern brazil

  1. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 from Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil

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    K Roumbedakis

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  2. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  3. Diel feeding chronology of the skate raja Agassizii (Müller & Henle (Pisces, Elasmobranchii on the continental shelf off Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil

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    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and diel feeding pattern of the skate Raja agassizii were investigated through analysis of stomach contents. A total of 280 stomachs were collected by a series of hauls during a daily cycle in three periods, 8-10 January 1987, 22-24 July and 2-4 December 1988, from the inner continental shelf of the coastal ecosystem of Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil (25º35'S; 45º00'W. According to the results of the stomach fullness and of the number of fresh prey, it is suggested that this species presents continuity in the feeding activity during a day. The stomach contents were mainly composed of crustaceans. Nematodes, polychaetes and fishes also occurred. No changes were observed in dietary composition between day and night.

  4. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  5. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta varia

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish in Palmas bay, Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Maria Luiza Chisté Flaquer da Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and abundance of the fish fauna of Palmas bay on Anchieta Island in southeastern Brazil. Specimens were caught in the summer and winter of 1992, using an otter trawl at three locations in the bay. The specimens were caught in both the nighttime and daytime. Data on the water temperature and salinity were recorded for the characterization of the predominant water mass in the region, and sediment samples were taken for granulometric analysis. A total of 7 656 specimens (79 species, with a total weight of approximately 300 kg, were recorded. The most abundant species were Eucinostomus argenteus, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus, Haemulon steindachneri, Eucinostomus gula and Diapterus rhombeus, which together accounted for more than 73% of the sample. In general, the ecological indices showed no differences in the composition of species for the abiotic variables analyzed. The multivariate analysis showed that the variations in the distribution of the fish fauna were mainly associated with intra-annual differences in temperature and salinity, resulting from the presence of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the area during the summer. The analysis also showed an association with the type of bottom and a lesser association with respect to the night/day periods.Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição e a abundância da fauna de peixes provenientes da enseada Palmas em Ubatuba, costa sudeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram obtidos no verão e no inverno de 1992, utilizando-se uma rede de arrasto de fundo em três locais da enseada. Os arrastos foram realizados no período noturno e no período diurno. Foram obtidos dados de temperatura e salinidade da água para caracterização da massa de água predominante na região e amostras do sedimento para análise granulométrica. Foram capturadas 79 espécies de Actinopterygii, representadas por 7 656 indivíduos com peso total aproximado de

  7. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  8. Seasonal variation of 222Rn in seawater samples from Ubatuba embayments, SP, Brazil, for the assessment of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Patricia da Costa

    2005-01-01

    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 24 vertical profiles established from March/03 to July/05 varied from 345 ±±24 to 18,700 ± 4,900 dpm/m 2 . The highest inventories of excess 222 Rn were observed both in Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, during summer campaigns (rainy season). The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 62 ± 4 to 3,385 +- 880 dpm/m 2 d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.1 x 10 -1 to 1.9 cm/d. Taking into account all SGD fluxes obtained, the percentual variability was 89% (seasonal variation in 3 years period, n = 24 measurements). Although, if we consider each year of study separately, the respective percentual variabilities estimated are 72% in 2003 (n = 10 measurements), 127% in 2004 (n = 6 measurements) and 97% in 2005 (n = 8 measurements). (author)

  9. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-01-01

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  10. Foraging behavior of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Apinae; Meliponini in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    AO. Fidalgo

    Full Text Available This study describes how the foraging activity of Melipona rufiventris is influenced by the environment and/or by the state of a colony. Two colonies were studied in Ubatuba, SP (44° 48’ W and 23° 22’ S from July/2000 to June/2001. These colonies were classified as strong (Colony 1 and intermediate (Colony 2 according to their general conditions: population and brood comb size and number of food pots. The bees were active from dawn to dusk. The number of pollen loads presented a positive correlation with relative humidity (r s = 0.401; p <0.01 and was highest between 70 and 90%. However, it was negatively correlated with temperature (r s = -0.228; p <0.01 showing a peak between 18 and 23 °C. The number of nectar loads presented a positive correlation with temperature (r s = 0.244; p <0.01 and light intensity (r s = 0.414; p <0.01; it was greater between 50 and 90% of relative humidity and 20 and 30 °C of temperature. They collected more nectar than pollen throughout the day, and were more active between 6 and 9 hours. Workers from Colony 1 (strong collected nectar in greater amounts and earlier than those from Colony 2 (intermediate. The number of pollen, nectar and resin loads varied considerably between the study days. Peaks of pollen collection occurred earlier in months with longer days and in a hotter and more humid climate. The foraging behavior of M. rufiventris is probably affected by the state of the colony and by environmental conditions, notably temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and length of the day.

  11. Application of {sup 222} Rn as a tracer of groundwater discharge at the coastal zone of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Aplicacao de {sup 222} Rn como tracador da descarga de aguas subterraneas na regiao costeira de Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

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    Oliveira, Joselene de; Farias, Luciana A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiometria Ambiental]. E-mail: jolivei@net.ipen.br; Burnett, William C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Saraiva, Elisabete de S.B. e; Furtado, Valdenir V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Quimica e Geologica

    2002-07-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and recycled seawater can provide chemical constituents to coastal zone, representing an important material flux pathway from land to sea in some areas. Geochemical tracers, like {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra, are advantageous for regional-scale assessment of SGD, because their signals represent values integrated through the water column that removes small-scale variations. These radionuclides are usually enriched in groundwater compared to seawater, can be measured at very low concentrations and are conservative. This work reports preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26{sup '}S and 23 deg 46{sup '}S and longitudes between 45 deg02{sup '}W and 45 deg 11{sup '}W. The main aims of this research were to set up an analytical method to assess {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra activities in seawater samples and to apply the excess {sup 222} Rn inventories obtained to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements made during 2001/2002 included {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in seawater, {sup 222} Rn in sediment, seawater and sediment physical properties. (author)

  12. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1996-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Floral preferences and climate influence in nectar and pollen foraging by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil.

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    Fidalgo, Adriana de O; Kleinert, Astrid de M P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the environment effects on the amount and quality of resources collected by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier in the Atlantic Forest at Ubatuba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (44º48'W, 23º22'S). Bees carrying pollen and/or nectar were captured at nest entrances during 5 min every hour, from sunrise to sunset, once a month. Pollen loads were counted and saved for acetolysis. Nectar was collected, the volume was determined and the total dissolved solids were determined by refractometer. Air temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were also registered. The number of pollen loads reached its maximum value between 70% and 90% of relative humidity and 18ºC and 23ºC; for nectar loads this range was broader, 50-90% and 20-30ºC. The number of pollen loads increased as relative humidity rose (rs = 0.401; P < 0.01) and high temperatures had a strong negative influence on the number of pollen loads collected (rs = -0.228; P < 0.01). The number of nectar loads positively correlated with temperature (rs = 0.244; P < 0.01) and light intensity (rs = 0.414; P < 0.01). The percentage of total dissolved solids (TDS) on nectar loads positively correlated with temperature and light intensity (rs = 0.361; P < 0.01 and rs = 0.245; P < 0.01), negatively correlated with relative humidity (rs = -0.629; P < 0.01), and it increased along the day. Most nectar loads had TDS between 11% and 30%, with an average of 24.7%. The volume measures did not show any pattern. Important pollen sources were Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae, Solanaceae and Myrtaceae; nectar sources were Sapindaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae and Solanaceae.

  15. Variações ontogênicas e sazonais na dieta de Etropus crossotus Jordan e Gilbert, 1882 (Paralichthydae na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Ontogenetic and seasons changes in the diet of Etropus crossotus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Paralichthydae at Ubatuba-Enseada Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as variações ontogênicas e sazonais na dieta de Etropus crossotus coletados na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Redes de arrasto com porta foram utilizadas para as coletas mensais, e 60 exemplares foram coletados entre outubro de 2003 e setembro de 2004. Maior similaridade entre os Índices de Importância Alimentar foi observada entre a primavera e o outono. Crustáceos decápodes representaram 50% dos itens alimentares durante a primavera e outono, e crustáceos anfípodes foram os itens mais representativos no inverno. Maior similaridade entre os IAifoi observada entre as classes 1, 2 e 4, pela alta representatividade de Decapoda, e entre as classes 5, 6 e 7, em função da representatividade de Decapoda e Amphipoda. Os resultados obtidos foram similares a outros estudos realizados na região costeira Sul do Brasil.Ontogenetic and seasonal changes in the diet of Etropus crossotussampled at Ubatuba-Enseada Bay in Santa Catarina State, Brazil were investigated. A trawl net was used for the surveys, and 60 fish were collected monthly during October (2003 and September (2004. The highest similarity of the Alimentary Importance Index (AII wasobserved between spring and autumn. Crustacea Decapoda represented 50% of the feeding items during spring and fall, and Crustacea Amphipoda were the most representative item in winter. The highest AII similarity was observed among length classes 1, 2 and 4, whichwas related to Decapoda representation, and among length classes 5, 6 and 7, because of Decapoda and Amphipoda importance. Results were similar to other studies in the southern coast of Brazil.

  16. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  17. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  18. A new species of Dorstenia (Moraceae from southeastern Brazil

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    Alessandra Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorstenia stellaris is a new species from southeastern Brazil. This species is endemic to the region and differs from the others by its star shaped coenanthium and cordiform leaves. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia stellaris is found in moist and shady places, in small populations within the type locality, thus we recommend its inclusion in the endangered (EN status of conservation.

  19. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  20. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  1. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

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    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  2. Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

    2012-11-01

    Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

  3. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

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    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  4. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  5. Hospital morbidity among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Tavares, Felipe Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Studies on hospital morbidity among Brazilian indigenous peoples are relatively recent, show limited coverage, and lack data sources capable of generating specific indicators according to ethnic group. The current study describes hospital morbidity in the indigenous population living in 83 Guarani villages in Southern and Southeastern Brazil (N=6,483), based on primary data obtained from a hospital admissions surveillance system implemented in 2007-2008, specifically for a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Guarani children. During the study period there were 666 hospitalizations in a total of 497 individuals, the majority under 5 years of age (71.9%). Respiratory illnesses were the main causes of hospitalization (64.6%), especially in children (<5 years: 77.6%; <1 year: 83.4%) and exceeded the proportions of hospital admissions from these causes in other indigenous groups. The overall hospitalization rate (per 100 person-years) was 8.8, or 71.4 under 1 year and 21.0 from 1 to 4 years of age. The ARI hospitalization rate (5.3) was 6.5 and 2.0 times higher than for diarrhea and other causes, respectively, while in children under 5 years of age (ARI=23.7) these differences were 7.4 and 5.4 times, respectively. The standardized Guarani hospitalization rate exceeded the standardized rates for the South and Southeast of Brazil by 40% and 210%, respectively. Hospitalization for primary care sensitive conditions and the high ARI rates indicate the need for studies to understand the epidemiology of ARI and investments to upgrade primary health care for the Guarani.

  6. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

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    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  7. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

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    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  8. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

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    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  9. The process of implantation of the 'Programa Luz para Todos' in Ubatuba, Sao Paulo; O processo de implantacao do Programa Luz para Todos em Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Yoshino, Shinji [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], Emails: fselles@uol.com.br, shinji.yoshino@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Tina Bimestre Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE-USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: tina@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The municipality of Ubatuba is covered by a rain forest Mata Atlantica preserved in most of the territory. There are many communities that demand electricity in this area, including traditional communities like culture named 'caicara' and the remnants of slaves from Brazil colony named 'quilombos'. They are all very poor and are involved by the interest of environmental agencies. The process of rural electrification in Ubatuba, through the 'Programa Luz para Todos' found difficult to overcome issues of regularization of habitations particularly environmental issues. This work shows that solutions were found through negotiation between the parts, intermediated by an officer known as 'Agente Luz para Todos'. It shows also that without the participation of this agent would have been very difficult exceed some of the barriers. (author)

  10. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  11. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  12. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815) in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, R L; Paschoal, A M O; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  14. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

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    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  15. Two new species of Portanini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Aphrodinae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Márcio; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2016-11-23

    Two new species, Portanus restingalis and Paraportanus marica, are described and illustrated from Restinga de Maricá, a sandy coastal plain in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Comparative notes on the two new species are given. Portanus youngi and Paraportanus eburatus are newly recorded from Brazil and Guyana, respectively. A checklist of all known species of Portanini with their geographic distribution is provided.

  16. A NEW SPECIES OF BEAMERANA YOUNG, 1952 (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: TYPHLOCYBINAE FROM SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Neotropical leafhopper genus Beamerana Young, 1952 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae is described and illustrated based on the specimens from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Beamerana boomerang sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the fore wing venation and the male genitalia. A key to the species of Beamerana is provided. The genus is recorded for Brazil for the first time.

  17. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also ...

  18. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

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    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  19. Influência da brisa terra-mar no período de saturação da umidade do ar no interior de dois seringais de cultivo em Ubatuba(SP Influence of the land-sea breese on the saturation period of the relative humidity inside two adult rubber tree plantations in Ubatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Macedo Pezzopane

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em Ubatuba(SP, a influência da brisa terra-mar no número de horas com umidade relativa igual ou superior a 90% (NHUR > 90% no interior de dois seringais [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Müell Arg.] adultos: um próximo à praia (800 m e outro distante 5.000 m. Para o período estudado, os resultados demonstraram uma redução significativa do NHUR > 90%, 50% em média, no seringal próximo à praia. A diferença ficou mais evidente, 71,4% em média, quando se analisaram apenas os dias não chuvosos, a fim de desconsiderar a saturação atmosférica devida à chuva. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que a advecção condicionada pela brisa terra-mar é fator aerodinâmico de mesoescala que interfere no início e no final da saturação da umidade atmosférica, reduzindo a duração do período de molhamento das folhas.It was studied the influence of the land-sea breese on the duration of relative humidity equal to or higher than 90% (NHUR > 90% inside two adult rubber tree plantations [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Müell Arg.]: one located near the shore (800 m and other approximately 5,000 m away. It was found a significant reduction of NHUR > 90% in the plantation near the shore. This reduction was even more evident in clear nights, without rainfall effect. It is assumed that the advection of land-sea breese interferes at the starting and final moments of the humidity saturation, decreasing the leaf wettness duration period.

  20. Variação sazonal do fitoplâncton da região do Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long, 45º07'W, Ubatuba, Brasil Seasonal variation or phytoplankton in the region of Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long. 45º 07'W, Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a variação sazonal do fitoplâncton e clorofila-a foram desenvolvidos na região de Ubatuba, extremo norte do Estado de São Paulo (Lat. 23º30'S, Long. 45º07'W, através de coletas mensais, durante o período de junho de 1974 a setembro de 1975. Foram também avaliados a temperatura da água, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e transparência. Paralelamente, foram obtidos dados pluviométricos da região, referentes ao período considerado. As amostras destinadas aos referidos estudos foram coletadas verticalmente, em três níveis de profundidade: superfície, profundidade de extinção do disco de Secchi e 60 centímetros acima do fundo. Qualitativamente, as diatomáceas apresentaram-se como o grupo mais diversificado e, em segundo lugar, os dinoflagelados. Quantitativamente, a população fitoplanctônica apresentou-se constituída fundamentalmente por fitoflagelados, seguidos por diatomáceas e dinoflagelados. Cianofíceas e silicoflagelados também estiveram presentes, porém em quantidades muito menores. Excluindo-se os fitoflagelados, as espécies mais representativas da população fitoplanctônica da região foram as diatomáceas Nitzchia closterium, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Navicula sp. e o dinoflagelado Gymnodinium sp. O número máximo de células observado, de um modo geral, ocorreu durante o verão, evidenciado tanto pelas contagens (máximo de 1.028.000 células/litro, como pelas determinações de clorofila-a (máximo de 6,86 µg/1; nesta época, houve um máximo de precipitação pluviométrica e modificação na estabilidade térmica da coluna d'água. Os estudos de fracionamento demonstraram que a fração menor que 20 µm (nanofitoplâncton é a predominante no fitoplâncton total.Seasonal changes in phytoplankton populations in the chlorophyll-a concentration and on some environmental factors were studied monthly from June 1974 to September 1975 at Ubatuba, northern coast of São Paulo. Water

  1. Mixed rain forest in southeastern Brazil: tree species regeneration and floristic relationships in a remaining stretch of forest near the city of Itaberá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Maciel; Ivanauskas, Natália Macedo; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Polisel, Rodrigo Trassi; Santos, Rochelle Lima Ramos dos; Miranda Neto, Aurino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, richness, and diversity of the upper and lower strata of a stretch of mixed rain forest near the city of Itaberá, in southeastern Brazil. We also investigated the differences between this conservation area and other stretches of mixed rain forest in southern and southeastern Brazil, as well as other nearby forest formations, in terms of their floristic relationships. For our survey of the upper stratum (diameter at breast height ...

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Massara

    Full Text Available AbstractWe examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  3. Molecular detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in insectivorous and frugivorous bats in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Bruna; Langoni, Helio; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Augusto, Livia Carla Ramos; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2017-12-27

    Bats are considered to play a significant role in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis, worldwide. We investigated the occurrence of H. capsulatum in lung samples from 89 bats, from urban areas in Southeastern Brazil, using nested PCR based on ribosomal DNA. Fungal DNA was detected in 31/89 samples (34.8%), of which 13/31 were Molossids (41.9%), 4/31 Eumops spp. (12.9%), 2/31 Artibeus lituratus (6.5%), and 12/31 others (38.7%). This is the first report of natural infection by H. capsulatum in A. lituratus in Southeastern Brazil, which reinforces the importance of these synanthropic animals in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.

  5. The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, has a large distribution, occurring from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it is found from the Amazon in the north, to Santa Catarina in the south. In the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, there are only two records of I. cenchoa in the literature. In the present study, a search for I. cenchoa from Minas Gerais was conducted in the main Brazilian herpetological collections, revealing a total of 13 localities with records of this species.

  6. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  7. Proceedings of the 7. Symposium on geology from southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents papers on the following subjects: regional geology of the proterozoic and fanerozoic, metallic and non metallic resources, tectoni-sedimentary evolution of the eastern margin Brazil basins and petroleum geology applied to the Santos, Campos and Espirito Santo basins, engineering and environmental geologies, ornamental rocks/building materials/mineral waters/industrial ores

  8. Erratum: Vascular epiphyte vegetation in rocky savannas of southeastern Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, R. J. V.; Kolbek, Jiří; Becker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 351-352 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : epiphytes * Brazil * rocky savannas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2009

  9. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  10. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Le?o-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorph...

  11. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  12. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  13. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  14. CUSTOMIZATION IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: SURVEY RESULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis Graeml

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the advantage of using kanban, postponement, modularization, just-in-time, production sequencing, milk-run and cross-docking by companies that intend to increase their flexibility, agility and reliability in order to support web-based businesses. It presents the results of a survey carried out with more than 600 manufacturing companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the changes that are taking place in operations, in order to make companies better suited to provide customized products, which are made to meet the individual requirements of each customer.

  15. CUSTOMIZATION IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: SURVEY RESULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis Graeml

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the advantage of using kanban, postponement, modularization, just-in-time, production sequencing, milk-run and cross-docking by companies that intend to increase their flexibility, agility and reliability in order to support web-based businesses. It presents the results of a survey carried out with more than 600 manufacturing companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the changes that are taking place in operations, in order to make companies better suited to provide customized products, which are made to meet the individual requirements of each customer.

  16. Didelphis albiventris naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; Fornazari, Felipe; Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Langoni, Helio; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2017-10-01

    Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis. One opossum was positive for Hepatozoon spp. in microscopy analysis and PCR, while another animal was positive only in PCR. The obtained sequences were 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Six species of ticks and two species of fleas were detected on D. albiventris. This is the first report of H. canis in synantropic D. albiventris. In Brazil, H. canis transmission among dog populations is not well established, which highlights the importance of investigating the role that opossums might play in the epidemiology of this protozoan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil

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    SIMONE M. COSTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  18. Density of the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and its role as nest predator at Anchieta Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S.; Alvarez, Ariane D.; Gialetti, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Mammals has been pointed out to be the main nest predators in islands, but recent studies has shown that tree snakes are also important nest predator in tropical forests. Here we present information on the density tegu lizards Tupinambis merianae and its role as nest predator at Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, in southeastern Brazil. The mean density of tegu lizards wets estimated to be 83 individuals/km2, which is 1.83 times lower than other well-known population (Fernando de Noronha Archipelago)....

  19. The process of implantation of the 'Programa Luz para Todos' in Ubatuba, Sao Paulo; O processo de implantacao do Programa Luz para Todos em Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Yoshino, Shinji [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], Emails: fselles@uol.com.br, shinji.yoshino@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Tina Bimestre Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE-USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: tina@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The municipality of Ubatuba is covered by a rain forest Mata Atlantica preserved in most of the territory. There are many communities that demand electricity in this area, including traditional communities like culture named 'caicara' and the remnants of slaves from Brazil colony named 'quilombos'. They are all very poor and are involved by the interest of environmental agencies. The process of rural electrification in Ubatuba, through the 'Programa Luz para Todos' found difficult to overcome issues of regularization of habitations particularly environmental issues. This work shows that solutions were found through negotiation between the parts, intermediated by an officer known as 'Agente Luz para Todos'. It shows also that without the participation of this agent would have been very difficult exceed some of the barriers. (author)

  20. Ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance off southeastern and southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins de Freitas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the distribution of fish eggs and larvae along the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. Plankton samples were collected at 85 stations using a Bongo net, and water salinity and temperature were profiled with a CTD. Results showed that fish eggs and larvae, and zooplankton biovolume were distributed in coastal waters with mean temperature of 23ºC and salinity between 33 and 34. The largest egg abundance occurred along Iguape (24º'S with a partial overlap with zooplankton biovolume and fish larvae were most abundant near shore close to Santos (24ºS. These protected coastal waters presented a surface layer with lower salinity and higher temperatures, while the bottom layer had cooler water. Ichthyoplankton abundance was low off Cabo Frio (22º'S, while a maximum in fish eggs occurred around Cabo Santa Marta Grande (28ºS.A abundância de ovos e larvas de peixes serve como um indicador do tamanho do estoque desovante, e a variabilidade nestes parâmetros está associada a flutuações no recrutamento de recursos pesqueiros. No sul e sudeste do Brasil a distribuição do ictioplâncton é influenciada pela dinâmica da Confluência Subtropical, pelo aporte de água doce e pela ação do vento na camada superficial do oceano. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a distribuição de ovos e larvas de peixes ao longo da área compreendida entre Cabo Frio (22º'S e o Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (28ºS, entre 15/11 e 05/12/95. Em 85 estações foram coletadas amostras de plâncton com uma rede Bongo de 60cm de diâmetro e 330m m de malha, dotada de fluxômetro e arrastada obliquamente. Salinidade e temperatura foram obtidas em cada estação com um CTD. O maior número de ovos e larvas de peixes e biovolume de zooplâncton foram encontrados em áreas distintas na região costeira, em temperaturas entre 23 e 24ºC e salinidades entre 33 e 34. As larvas foram mais abundantes na costa de Santos; os

  1. DEVISING STRATEGIES FOR RECLAMATION OF DERELICT SITES DUE TO MINING OF RESIDUAL SOIL (“SAIBRO” AT UBATUBA, NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: THE VIEWS AND ROLES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Ferreira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Between the late 60's and early 90's intensive exploitation of residual soil for civil construction took place in the municipality of Ubatuba, North Coast of São Paulo State. Tropical climatic conditions associated with a hilly landscape bordered by the Atlantic Ocean gave rise to thick (10-30m weathering profiles derived from Precambrian granitic-gneissic rocks. Exploitation of large volumes of this material required only very simple technology, which on the other hand has caused highly adverse environmental impacts, such asdeforestation, soil erosion, land instability hazards, scenic eterioration, pollution and disturbance of local water flow regime. This paper deals with the devising of strategies thus identifying stakeholders and describing their roles both on the dereliction and reclamation processes related with residual soil exploitation. The evaluation approach focused on the analysis of the regulatory framework and its practical implications and issues in terms of licensing for mining operations, commercialization of construction materials, and the relations of such mining activities with regional and urban planning. A survey of stakeholderviewpoints was successfully achieved through a two-day workshop. The attendance included decision-makers, officials and representatives of governmental and regulatory bodies (Federal, State and Municipal, environmental research institutions, private miners (entrepreneurs and consultants, public attorney, and NGOs. The outcomes have ndicated that State and local authorities properly managed to stop illegal exploitation of residual soil in the early 90´s. However no land reclamation was undertaken until present. One of the main problems would be related with the procedures for mining and environmental licensing that were considered to be too complex and long (usually involving up to seven decisional instances and 2,5 years in average. Other key issues and needs identified included: aorganization of a

  2. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Gisele R; Hatano, Fabio; Vrcibradic, Davor; VAN Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-01-01

    Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba). We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic) using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  3. Longitudinal anthropometric assessment of infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers, Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto, Maria Arlene; Carneiro, Mariângela; Antunes, Carlos Maurício F; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Pinto, Jorge Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth parameters in infants who were born to HIV-1-infected mothers. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal evaluation of the z-scores for the weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) data collected from a cohort. A total of 97 non-infected and 33 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 2003 was studied. The average follow-up period for the infected and non-infected ch...

  4. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE R. WINCK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  5. Growth and reproduction of the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla R G; Taddei, Fabiano G; Cobo, Valter J

    2015-01-01

    Goniopsis cruentata is a common semi-terrestrial crab in Brazilian mangroves and an important fishery resource for traditional communities in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge about the species, this study evaluated the carapace width and weight growth curves, the relative growth of weight versus carapace width, and the temporal variation of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices for the species. A total of 524 crabs were collected in a mangrove area of Ubatuba municipality, state of São Paulo. The growth-curves parameters and longevity (tmax) were estimated for males (CW∞=50.6 mm, WE=56.4 g, k=2.24, t0=0.003631502 year-1, tmax=1.3 years) and females (CW∞=50.7 mm, WE∞=58.8 g, k=2.50, t0=0.003247209 year-1, tmax=1.2 years). The age at onset of sexual maturity was 0.23 years for both genders. The weight-growth model was isometric for the immature developmental stages and allometric negative for adults. The species exhibited a continuous reproduction, with breeding peaks in spring and summer months. The weight dynamics of gonads and hepatopancreas were not clearly related. The growth and reproductive patterns indicated that Goniopsis cruentata has a life-history that prioritizes reproduction instead of survival. The species exhibited some of the highest growth rates and lowest longevity estimates reported for brachyuran species in Brazil.

  6. Growth and reproduction of the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R.G. Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Goniopsis cruentata is a common semi-terrestrial crab in Brazilian mangroves and an important fishery resource for traditional communities in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge about the species, this study evaluated the carapace width and weight growth curves, the relative growth of weight versus carapace width, and the temporal variation of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices for the species. A total of 524 crabs were collected in a mangrove area of Ubatuba municipality, state of São Paulo. The growth-curves parameters and longevity (tmax were estimated for males (CW∞=50.6 mm, WE=56.4 g, k=2.24, t0=0.003631502 year-1, tmax=1.3 years and females (CW∞=50.7 mm, WE∞=58.8 g, k=2.50, t0=0.003247209 year-1, tmax=1.2 years. The age at onset of sexual maturity was 0.23 years for both genders. The weight-growth model was isometric for the immature developmental stages and allometric negative for adults. The species exhibited a continuous reproduction, with breeding peaks in spring and summer months. The weight dynamics of gonads and hepatopancreas were not clearly related. The growth and reproductive patterns indicated that Goniopsis cruentata has a life-history that prioritizes reproduction instead of survival. The species exhibited some of the highest growth rates and lowest longevity estimates reported for brachyuran species in Brazil.

  7. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  8. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  9. Quality of mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil: monitoration Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus growth after post-harvest processing Tratamento térmico de mexilhões Perna perna como forma de assegurar a qualidade: avaliação do crescimento de Bacillus cereus e de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira Salán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the quality of Perna perna mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, the growth and elimination of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus artificially inoculated in mussels were studied. The inoculation was carried out in "in natura" and pre-cooked mussels for 30 min, and after that the mussels were kept for 10 hours at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and under refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C. Six thermal treatments were evaluated: three using steam (5, 10 and 15 minutes and three in boiling water (5, 10 and 15 minutes, in order to find the best time/temperature binomial to provide pathogenic control. Yield and physical-chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. All thermal treatments were efficient to eliminate microorganisms in 2 logarithmic cycles. However, the boiling water treatments presented better results than the steam treatments. The physical-chemical and sensory analyses did not show statistical differences among the thermal treatments studied. The best performances were reached in the shortest times of heat exposure. Overall, the treatments in boiling water presented better results than the steam treatments.Buscando a qualidade do mexilhão Perna perna cultivado e comercializado no município de Ubatuba, SP, foram estudados o crescimento e o controle de Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus inoculados artificialmente em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos, mantidos por 10 horas à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1 °C e sob refrigeração (7 ± 1 °C. Foram estabelecidos seis tipos de tratamentos térmicos, sendo três sob vapor (5, 10 e 15 minutos e três por imersão em água (5, 10 e 15 minutos, buscando estabelecer o binômio que proporcionasse a diminuição da contagem microbiana. Posteriormente, foram avaliados o rendimento, os aspectos físico-químicos e sensoriais. Todos os tratamentos térmicos foram eficientes, pois reduziram a contagem microbiana em pelo menos 2 ciclos logar

  10. Seasonal variations of 222Rn and SGD fluxes to Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.; Costa, P.; Braga, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate submarine groundwater discharge in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from (3.3±1.1) x 10 3 to (19±5) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 . The estimated total fluxes required to support the inventories varied from (0.6±0.2) x 10 3 to (3.4±0.9) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 x d -1 . Considering these results, the submarine groundwater discharge advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.06 to 1.9 cm x d -1 . During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest 222 Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the relative variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the relative variation was 21%. (author)

  11. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Humic Acids in Coastal Spodosols from Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Martin-Neto, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study on humic acids (HAs) of podzol horizons from the southeastern region of Brazil investigated the accumulation and degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) in warm-climate podzols. Humic acids from sandy coastal Spodosols (Histic Alaquod and Arenic Alorthod) from Cardoso Island in Sao Paulo

  12. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  13. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  14. Floristic and ecological characterization of habitat types on an inselberg in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Luiza F. A. de Paula

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inselbergs are granitic or gneissic rock outcrops, distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. They are considered terrestrial islands because of their strong spatial and ecological isolation, thus harboring a set of distinct plant communities that differ from the surrounding matrix. In Brazil, inselbergs scattered in the Atlantic Forest contain unusually high levels of plant species richness and endemism. This study aimed to inventory species of vascular plants and to describe the main habitat types found on an inselberg located in the state of Minas Gerais, in southeastern Brazil. A total of 89 species of vascular plants were recorded (belonging to 37 families, of which six were new to science. The richest family was Bromeliaceae (10 spp., followed by Cyperaceae (seven spp., Orchidaceae and Poaceae (six spp. each. Life forms were distributed in different proportions between habitats, which suggested distinct microenvironments on the inselberg. In general, habitats under similar environmental stress shared common species and life-form proportions. We argue that floristic inventories are still necessary for the development of conservation strategies and management of the unique vegetation on inselbergs in Brazil.

  15. Brittle reactivation of mylonitic fabric and the origin of the Cenozoic Rio Santana Graben, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo-Pascutti, Ambrosina; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Terra, Emanuele La; Almeida, Julio C. H.

    2010-03-01

    In the Ribeira belt, southeastern Brazil, the Precambrian mylonitic fabric mainly formed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny (640-480 Ma) and was reactivated as fault zones in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The reactivation process led to the development of the System of Continental Rifts of southeastern Brazil, from the Paleogene to the Quaternary. We investigated the brittle reactivation of a mylonitic zone, which is part of a major mylonitic belt, Arcádia-Areal. We used geological and geomorphological mapping, resistivity survey, controlled source audiomagnetotelluric survey, and luminescence dating. Our results indicate that this shear zone was reactivated and formed a 15 km long and 2 km wide sedimentary-filled trough, the Rio Santana Graben. It is located on the northwest border of a major structure, the Guanabara Graben, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The Rio Santana Graben forms an almost entirely fault-bounded, NE-elongated depression that was accommodated entirely within the Arcádia-Areal shear zone. The graben consists of two main depocenters separated by a relay ramp. The graben formed by means of multistage activity of several faults during at least two main periods. The first period formed silicified fault breccia and occurred during alkaline magmatism in the Paleogene. The second formed fault breccia and gouge in shallow conditions and occurred at least until the Quaternary. The NE-trending and NW-dipping Precambrian fabric was reactivated as dip-slip and strike-slip faults. These faults triggered clastic-sediment deposition at least 300 m thick. The upper part of the graben consists of Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediment fill, which yielded maximum luminescence deposition ages from 49 to 13 ka in the center of the trough. An organic layer at the top of the Quaternary alluvial deposits yielded 14C ages at ˜6000 years BP. The lower part of the graben may be composed of Paleogene to Neogene sedimentary deposits, which occur in other

  16. Organotin pollution from pleasure craft at Paraty, a tourist area of Southeastern Brazil: amelioration or interference?

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    Camila de Leon Lousada Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organotin compounds, such as TBT, are endocrine disruptors and harm marine ecosystems. Even after the global ban on organotins, increasing imposex levels have been detected in Stramonita haemastoma analyzed in 2004 and 2011 in some locations at Paraty, a tourist area in southeastern Brazil. The results of this study indicate that particulate and dissolved organic carbon and xenoestrogens might be interfering in this syndrome's development, leading to underestimation of imposex evaluation. Chemical analysis of three mangrove swamp sediments in the area showed the presence of TBT (16.0 - 205.7 ng Sn g-1, DBT (10.1 - 16.4 ng Sn g-1 and MBT (10.1 - 10.2 ng Sn g-1 even at the reference sites. The concentrations of butyltins and the increased incidence of imposexat some stations indicate recent inputs of TBT in the study area due to its illegal use on small vessels.

  17. Microprobe monazite constraints for and early (ca. 790 Ma) Braziliano orogeny: The Embu Terrane, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, Silvio R.F

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the Mantiqueira Orogenetic System, Southeastern Brazil, comprises discrete episodes of tectonic collage and docking of remnants of Rodinia break-up in the borders of the Sao Francisco Craton. This system is related to the closure of the Adamastor ocean and assemblage of the western Gondwana super-continent during Neoproterozoic times (ca. 610-530 Ma, Brito Neves et al., 1999; Campos Neto, 2000). This report presents monazite microprobe dating results for metassediments from the Embu Complex, an important lithological unit from the Ribeira Belt, currently included in the Juiz de Fora terrane, a unit added to the Sao Francisco Craton at ca. 600-580 Ma. (Campos Neto, 2000). The age results unravel a main metamorphic episode and related orogeny at ca. 790 Ma and bring new insights concerning the agglutination of Gondwana in this region during the Neoproterozoic (au)

  18. New species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Fábio F; Melo, Bruno F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-02-15

    A new species of Parotocinclus is described from tributaries of rio São João, an Atlantic coastal river of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the possession of a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin base, a fully developed adipose fin, complete exposure of the ventral surface of the pectoral girdle, and a distinctive pigmentation pattern of the caudal fin. The caudal fin has a hyaline background with a large black blotch covering its anterior portion, tapering irregularly through distal portions of the ventral lobe with a hyaline rounded area, and a small patch of dark pigmentation on distal portions of the dorsal lobe.

  19. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  20. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  1. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  2. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  3. Genotoxicity Biomonitoring Along a Coastal Zone Under Influence of Offshore Petroleum Exploration (Southeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; da Conceição, Moisés Basilio; Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Weber, Laura Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Offshore oil exploration creates threats to coastal ecosystems, including increasing urbanization and associated effluent releases. Genotoxicity biomarkers in mussels were determined across a gradient of coastal zone influences of offshore petroleum exploration in southeastern Brazil. Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, beaches and islands were seasonally monitored for genotoxicity evaluation using the brown mussel Perna perna. The greatest DNA damage (5.2% ± 1.9% tail DNA and 1.5‰  ± 0.8‰ MN) were observed in urban estuaries, while Santana Archipelago showed levels of genotoxicity near zero and is considered a reference site. Mussels from urban and pristine beaches showed intermediate damage levels, but were also influenced by urbanization. Thus, mussel genotoxicity biomarkers greatly indicated the proposed oil exploration and urbanization scenarios that consequently are genetically affecting coastal organisms.

  4. A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Moraes, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rodrigo Barbosa; Fouquet, Antoine; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2014-08-04

    The genus Adelophryne is composed of diminutive frogs occurring in northern Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. Herein we describe a new species of Adelophryne found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forests in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, two phalanges in the finger IV, and a glandular ridge line that runs from the posterior part of eye to the insertion of the forelimb. This species is sensitive to edge effect and conversion of native forest into coffee and Eucalyptus plantations and may be listed as Endangered (EN) under B1ab(iii) criteria of the IUCN Red List.

  5. Notes on the lesser white-lined bat, Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae, from southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.

  6. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.Philopotamidae es una familia grande de tricópteros la cual está actualmente compuesta por 20 géneros y cerca de 1 000 especies descritas en todo el mundo. El género Alterosa posee 22 especies descritas y están distribuidas en el sur y sureste de Brasil. Los adultos del género son muy similares en su estructura general, pero se diferencian por su amplia variación presente en la morfología de la genitalia masculina. Los ejemplares fueron recolectados en trampas luminosas Pennsylvania y conservados en etanol al 80%. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. es descrita e ilustrada basada en ejemplares machos recolectados en el estado de Río de Janeiro, sureste de Brasil. La nueva especie es similar a A. jordaensis Blahnik, 2005, pero puede ser diferenciada por la presencia de dos espinas en los apéndices intermediarios y por la forma del tergo X.

  7. A new species of Masteria (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae from southeastern Brazil

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    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.

  8. Defense behavior and tail loss in the endemic lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (Squamata, Tropiduridae from southeastern Brazil

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    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Defense behavior of the endemic tropidurid lizard Eurolophosaurus nanuzae was studied in an area of rocky outcrops at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Tail loss aspects of this species were also studied in lizards from three populations (Diamantina, Serra do Cipó, and Serro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lizards relied primarily on crypsis to avoid detection by predators. Secondary defense strategies involved a complex set of behaviors. Mean maximum distance of flight was 1.68 ± 1.70 m. When captured,individuals attempted to flee, lifted the tail, produced distress calls, discharged the cloacal contents, waived their tails, and bit. Frequency of tail autotomy was 13.2% (n = 53 in Diamantina, 11.9% (n = 42 in Serra do Cipó, and 4.1% (n = 49 in Serro. Tail autotomy frequency did not differ among the three populations (X2 = 3.3, DF =2, p = 0.19. Tail autotomy did not vary between the years of the study (X2 = 1.32, p = 0.35 and did not differ between males and females among the studied populations.

  9. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

  10. Potentially inappropriate medication use among institutionalized elderly individuals in southeastern Brazil

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    Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the elderly population in Brazil has grown rapidly, as has concern for the health of this population. Institutionalization in nursing homes has appeared as an alternative form of health care for frail elderly that live alone. The present study evaluated the pharmacotherapy and inappropriate drug prescriptions for institutionalized elderly patients living in long-term institutions in southeastern Brazil. This research was conducted at five institutions with a total sample of 151 individuals aged at least 60 years. Databases were used to identify drug interactions, defined daily dose and inappropriate prescriptions. The prevalence of drug intake among the elderly was 95.36%, and there were an average of 3.31 ± 1.80 drug prescriptions per individual. Based on Beers criteria, the prevalence of inappropriate prescriptions was 25.83%. In addition, 70.2% of prescriptions were prescribed at a higher dosage than the defined daily dose (ATC/WHO. Potential drug interactions were identified for 54.11% of prescriptions; 81.42% of these were of moderate severity. The main inappropriate drugs were prescribed for cardiovascular and nervous system problems. Institutionalized elderly individuals presented a high consumption and misuse of medications, requiring professional intervention to monitor prescriptions and improve the quality of service for this population.

  11. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  12. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, M; Esbérard, C E L; Vieira, T B; Mendes, P; Pimenta, V T; Brito, D; Ditchfield, A D

    2009-11-01

    In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m(2)/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species) and Caraís lagoon (10 species). Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60). The greater similarity (J = 0.714) was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  13. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Oprea

    Full Text Available In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m²/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species and Caraís lagoon (10 species. Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60. The greater similarity (J = 0.714 was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  14. A new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil and comments on additional species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras DA Conceição; Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho

    2016-12-14

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil were studied. A new species, Anacroneuria ruschii n. sp. is described. Brief remarks on A. debilis (Pictet) and Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson & Bianchi) are also presented.

  15. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aliny P; Souza, Tayse D; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil.

  16. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  17. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n2p113 This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  18. The Southern Divide: Testing morphological differences among bifacial points from southern and southeastern Brazil using geometric morphometrics

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    Mercedes Okumura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifacial points have been used to characterize the “Umbu” tradition in southern and southeastern Brazil. This archaeological tradition has been related to sites dated from the late Pleistocene-early Holocene boundary to near historical times. Such a huge temporal range and vast territory have suggested the existence of greater diversity within this tradition that has been ignored thus far due to the lack of systematic regional studies of such points. Through geometric morphometric analysis, this article aims to test the hypothesis that there are substantial differences in the Holocene bifacial points associated with the Umbu tradition in southeastern Brazil. Five landmarks were digitized in standardized photographs from 658 points from the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that points made by groups from southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state present a very distinct morphology (size and shape in comparison to  those made by the southern groups (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. This would indicate a regional identity shared only by some groups from São Paulo (at least regarding the projectile points. It is possible that Umbu tradition presents a more restricted range, both in chronological and spatial terms, than the one proposed so far.

  19. Carbon isotopes and charcoal in soils, vegetation changes and climate inferences in the southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M; Aravena, R; Boulet, R; Bendassolli, J.A

    2001-01-01

    The use of carbon isotopes in studies of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics have been applied to infer information about vegetation and climate changes during the late Quaternary (Schwartz et al., 1986; Pessenda et al., 1996). This approach had also been used in different areas in Brazil to document vegetation changes during the Holocene (Desjardins et al., 1996; Gouveia et al., 1997; Pessenda et al., 1998a, b, 2001) and late Pleistocene/Holocene (Freitas et al., 2001). The application of carbon isotopes is based on the different 13 C composition of C 3 and C 4 plants and its preservation in SOM. 13 C values of C 3 plant species range from approximately -32% o to -20% o PDB, with a mean of -27% o . In contrast, δ 13 C of C 4 species range from -17% o to -9% o with mean of -13% o . Thus, C 3 and C 4 plant species have distinct δ 13 C values and differ from each other by approximately 14% o (Boutton, 1991). The study of charcoal fragments found in sediments and soils also supplies information about climatic conditions. Charcoal distribution in the soil profiles can provide information about the occurrence of paleofires (Pessenda et al., 1996), possibly associated with drier climate periods and/or human disturbance. In this paper we report δ 13 C data of soil and 14 C dates on charcoal from five soil profiles collected under natural vegetation in the Parana and Sao Paulo states, southeastern Brazil. Carbon isotopes are used to evaluate vegetation changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Charcoal distribution in the soil and its dating are used to infer linkage between forest fires and climate changes and to establish the chronology (au)

  20. Professional profile of pediatric intensivists in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Jandra Corrêa de; Barbosa, Arnaldo Prata; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2011-12-01

    This study described the sociodemographic profile and professional qualifications of pediatric intensive care physicians in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), southeastern Brazil. This investigation was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study that was conducted in neonatal, pediatric and mixed intensive care units in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Physicians working in the participating intensive care units voluntarily completed a semistructured and anonymous questionnaire. Questionnaires that were not returned within 30 days were considered lost, and questionnaires with less than 75% questions completed were excluded. The differences in neonatal and pediatric intensive care physicians' medical training were compared using the Chi-squared test with a 5% significance level. A total of 410 physicians were included in this study: 84% female, 48% between 30 and 39 years old and 45% with monthly incomes between US $1,700 to 2,700. Forty percent of these physicians worked exclusively in this specialty, and 72% worked in more than one intensive care unit. Only 50% of the participants had received specific training (either medical residency or specialization) in neonatology, and only 33% were board-certified specialists in this area. Only 27% of the physicians had received specific training in pediatric intensive care medicine, and only 17% were board-certified specialists (p professional activity; 49% were dissatisfied due to working conditions, 23% due to low incomes and 18% due to training-related issues. These results suggested that the medical qualifications of neonatal and pediatric intensive care physicians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are inadequate, especially in pediatric intensive care medicine. A high level of dissatisfaction was reported, which may jeopardize the quality of medical assistance that is provided by these professionals.

  1. Judicialization of access to medicines in Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Brandão, Cristina Mariano Ruas; Faleiros, Daniel Resende; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the profile of claimants and medicines demanded in lawsuits. Descriptive study that examined 827 lawsuits with 1,777 demands of access to medicines in the period between July 2005 and June 2006 in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. There were examined the type of health care provided to claimants and their attorneyship. The medicines were described based on the following: drug registration at the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa); wheter they were essential medicines; supply in the Brazilian Health System programs; and evidence of drug efficacy. More than 70% of the claimants were provided care in the private health system and 60.3% hired private lawyers. The most common diagnosis of claimants was rheumatoid arthritis (23.1%) and the immunosuppressant agents were the most frequent demand medicines (mainly adalimumab and etanercept). Approximately 5% of the medicines demanded were not registered at Anvisa, 19.6% were included in the Brazilian List of Essential Medicine, 24.3% were included in the High-Cost Drug Program and 53.9% showed consistent evidence of efficacy. Among the medicines that were not available in Brazilian Health System, 79.0% had therapeutic alternatives in drug programs. The phenomenon of judicialization of health in Brazil can point out failures in the public health system as some medicines demanded are included in its lists. However, it is a barrier for rational drug use and application of the National Drug Policy guidelines, especially when there are demanded medicines with no evidence of efficacy and that are not included in Brazilian Health System standards.

  2. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LML Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation, located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera and Dermestidae (Coleoptera - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera. The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae, Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae, Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae, Piophila casei (Piophilidae; Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae, Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae.

  3. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  4. [Accidents reported at the Workers' Reference Center in Ribeirão Preto, southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Mondadori, Rosângela Murari; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2010-06-01

    This is a quantitative, descriptive study that aims to investigate work-related injuries involving exposure to biomaterial among health workers in health care units in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Data was obtained from Work-Related Injury Report forms filled at the Worker's Health Reference Center in Ribeirão Preto in 2005. A total of 1,665 work-related injuries (91.7%) were reported and 151 (8.3%) were diagnosed as occupational diseases. Of the 1,665 injuries reported, 480 (28.82%) affected workers working at health care units and 153 (31.87%) were associated to biological material exposure. The situational diagnosis of occupational accidents is relevant for the development of preventive strategies by worker's health services. The results of the present study provide major indicators that allow the organization of actions following the National Network for Workers' Comprehensive Health Care (RENAST) guidelines and effectively contribute for workers health promotion.

  5. High school students' opinions of gynecological consultations in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra de Morais; Taquette, Stella Regina; Pérez, Maurício de Andrade

    2013-02-01

    To analyze sociocultural differences and perceptions of gynecological consultations for high school girls. A transversal study with 418 high school girls from three schools of different profiles in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil in 2010. A structured questionnaire encompassing socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior and evaluation of gynecological consultations was completed. Yates' Chi-square test and the Student's t-test were utilized adopting a value of p students of private and federal public schools presented similar profiles but both were different from the state school girls. The latter had lower socioeconomic status, and their parents had lower levels of education, the predominance of afro-descendants was observed, as were a larger number of sexual partners, pregnancy and cases of sexual violence. The average age of menarche and sexarche among the students were similar, but the first gynecological consultation was significantly later among the state school students. The majority showed some knowledge of contraception and STDs, although only a minority received guidance from the consultations. Students expressed the desire that the professionals dedicate more time, patience and availability to them during consultations. The provision of gynecological services for teenagers is not satisfactory, according to the teenagers' evaluations. Users of the private health system have gynecological consultations earlier than those who only have access to the public system. It is necessary to create mechanisms that facilitate access and adhesion to a routine of gynecological prevention for this age group.

  6. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

  7. The Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic passive margin Lajeado Group and Apiaí Gabbro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.C. Campanha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lajeado Group in the Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil, corresponds to an open-sea carbonate platform, comprised of seven overlapping siliciclastic and carbonatic formations, intruded in its upper portion by the Apiaí Gabbro. These rocks have a Neoproterozoic tectonometamorphic overprint related to arc magmatism and the Brasiliano collisional orogeny. Geochronological constraints are given by new U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS data for Lajeado Group detrital zircons and for magmatic zircons from the Apiaí Gabbro. The youngest detrital zircons in the Lajeado Group are 1400–1200 Ma, and constrain its maximum age of deposition to be <1200 Ma, whereas the 877 ± 8 Ma age for magmatic zircons in the Apiaí Gabbro give the minimum age. Detritus source areas are mainly Paleoproterozoic (2200–1800 Ma with some Archean and Mesoproterozoic contribution (1500–1200 Ma, with distal or tectonic stable cratonic character. The Lajeado Group should be a Stenian–Tonian carbonate platform passive margin of a continent at this time, namely the Columbia/Nuna or the Rodinia. The Apiaí Gabbro displays similar age to other intrusive basic rocks in the Lajeado and Itaiacoca groups and represents tholeiitic MORB-like magmatism that we relate to the initial break-up of a Mesoproterozoic continent and the formation of the Brasiliano oceans.

  8. Technological level and epidemiological aspects of sheep husbandry in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%, technical assistance (31.9%, use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9% the separation of animals by age group (3.7% and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%. The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%, keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%, contagious ecthyma (13.6%, pneumonia (10.3%, diarrhea (9.3% and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%. Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb.

  9. Breeding biology of Tyrannus melancholicus (Aves: Tyrannidae in a restinga reserve of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Daros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Existing knowledge of the breeding success and life history characteristics of most Neotropical bird species is scarce. Here, we help fill this gap by analyzing aspects of the breeding biology of the Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot, 1819, which is a good model for this kind of study as it is a common species occurring in various environments, including urban areas, but little is known about its life history. We provide results concerning the breeding period, clutch size, incubation and nestling periods, description of nests, eggs and nestlings, and the plants used for nest sites by this species. Fifty-four nests were monitored over two seasons (2012-2014 in a protected area in southeastern Brazil. Nesting began at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. The frequency of active nests varied according to variations in rainfall for each breeding season analyzed. The means and standard deviations of the incubation period (14.2 ± 1.9 days, nestling period (15.1 ± 0.8 days and clutch size (2.5 ± 0.7 eggs were similar to values reported for other Neotropical passerines. Twenty-one plant species used as nest trees and for the construction of the nests were identified. The results show that T. melancholicus is not highly selective when choosing plant species used for nest construction.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration by agroforestry systems in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto; Jacovine, Laércio Antônio Gonçalves; Nolasco de Olivera Neto, Sílvio; Fraisse, Clyde William; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; de Castro Neto, Fernando; Ferreira, Lino Roberto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Lemes, Pedro Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems can increase carbon sequestration, offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce the carbon footprint generated by animal production. The objective of this study was to estimate GHG emissions, the tree and grass aboveground biomass production and carbon storage in different agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems in southeastern Brazil. The number of trees required to offset these emissions were also estimated. The GHG emissions were calculated based on pre-farm (e.g. agrochemical production, storage, and transportation), and on-farm activities (e.g. fertilization and machinery operation). Aboveground tree grass biomass and carbon storage in all systems was estimated with allometric equations. GHG emissions from the agroforestry systems ranged from 2.81 to 7.98 t CO 2 e ha -1 . Carbon storage in the aboveground trees and grass biomass were 54.6, 11.4, 25.7 and 5.9 t C ha -1 , and 3.3, 3.6, 3.8 and 3.3 t C ha -1 for systems 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The number of trees necessary to offset the emissions ranged from 17 to 44 trees ha -1 , which was lower than the total planted in the systems. Agroforestry systems sequester CO 2 from the atmosphere and can help the GHG emission-reduction policy of the Brazilian government.

  11. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine V. Portfors

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  12. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  13. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  14. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  15. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months, 40 heifers aged 16.6±2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0±0.2 ticks/animal, with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9±0.3 flies/animal and D. hominis (1.5±0.2 larvae/animal on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals.

  16. Habitat preferences of common native fishes in a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    Full Text Available We determined in this study the habitat preferences of seven native fish species in a regulated river in Southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that fishes differ in habitat preference and that they use stretches of the river differing in hydraulic characteristics and substrate type. We surveyed fishes in four 1-km long river stretches encompassing different habitat traits, where we also measured water depth, velocity, and substrate type. We investigated preference patterns of four Siluriformes (Loricariichthys castaneus, Hoplosternum littorale, Pimelodus maculatus, and Trachelyopterus striatulus and three Characiformes (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Oligosarcus hepsetus, and Hoplias malabaricus, representing approximately 70% of the total number of fishes and 64% of the total biomass. We classified fishes into four habitat guilds: (1 a slow-flowing water guild that occupied mud-sand substrate, composed of two Siluriformes in either shallow ( 8 m, L. castaneus waters; (2 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in deep backwaters with clay-mud substrate, composed of the Characiformes A. aff. bimaculatus and O. hepsetus; (3 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in sandy and shallow substrate, composed of T. striatulus; and (4 a fast-flowing guild that occurs primarily along shorelines with shallow mud bottoms, composed of H. malabaricus and P. maculatus. Our hypothesis was confirmed, as different habitat preferences by fishes appear to occur in this regulated river.

  17. Severe Weather Events over Southeastern Brazil during the 2016 Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Rehbein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Brazil is the most populated and economically developed region of this country. Its climate consists of two distinct seasons: the dry season, extending from April to September, the precipitation is significantly reduced in comparison to that of the wet season, which extends from October to March. However, during nine days of the 2016 dry season, successive convective systems were associated with atypical precipitation events, tornadoes and at least one microburst over the southern part of this region. These events led to flooding, damages to buildings, shortages of electricity and water in several places, many injuries, and two documented deaths. The present study investigates the synoptic and dynamical features related to these anomalous events. The convective systems were embedded in an unstable environment with intense low-level jet flow and strong wind shear and were supported by a sequence of extratropical cyclones occurring over the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. These features were intensified by the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO in its phase 8 and by intense negative values of the Pacific South America (PSA 2 mode.

  18. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

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    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  19. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  20. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  1. Assessing Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Groundwater in Southeastern Brazil using Regional Hydroclimate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Fernandes, M.; Silva, G. C., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aquifers can be key players in regional water resources. Precipitation infiltration is the most relevant process in recharging the aquifers. In that regard, understanding precipitation changes and impacts on the hydrological cycle helps in the assessment of groundwater availability from the aquifers. Regional modeling systems can provide precipitation, near-surface air temperature, together with soil moisture at different ground levels from coupled land-surface schemes. More accurate those variables are better the evaluation of the precipitation impact on the groundwater. Downscaling of global reanalysis very often employs regional modeling systems, in order to give more detailed information for impact assessment studies at regional scales. In particular, the regional modeling system, Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), might improve the accuracy of hydrometeorological variables in regions with spatial and temporal scarcity of in-situ observations. SRDAS combines assimilation of precipitation estimates from gauge-corrected satellite-based products with spectral nudging technique. The SRDAS hourly outputs provide monthly means of atmospheric and land-surface variables, including precipitation, used in the calculations of the hydrological budget terms. Results show the impact of changes in precipitation on groundwater in the aquifer located near the southeastern coastline of Brazil, through the assessment of the water-cycle terms, using a hydrological model during dry and rainy periods found in the 15-year numerical integration of SRDAS.

  2. Natural history of Holoaden luederwaldti (Amphibia: Strabomantidae: Holoadeninae in southeastern of Brazil

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    Itamar A. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the rediscovery of Holoaden luederwaldti Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 and provides information on the distribution, sexual dimorphism, reproduction and vocalization of a population of this species in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in the Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão (PECJ from October 2005 through December 2008. Collecting was conducted using pitfall traps with a drift-fence on different altitudinal gradients (1,540 m, 1,780 m and 2,000 m a.s.l.. Fifty-two specimens of H. luederwaldti were collected in the PECJ. The mean snout-vent length (SVL was 36.17 mm for males and 42.61 mm for females, indicating sexual dimorphism in body size. Holoaden luederwaldti occurred during the warm-rainy months. The population was distributed between 1500 and 2000 m, and the greater abundance was registered in well preserved forest areas. Mature females contained from 36 to 41 oocytes and the mean of oocyte diameter was 3.72 mm. The advertisement call of H. luederwaldti consists of simple notes composed of three harmonics. The record of the population of H. luederwaldti in the PECJ has reinforced the importance of investigating different areas of the forest when conducting faunal surveys.

  3. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  4. Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

    2009-08-26

    From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is

  5. Recommendations for monitoring avian populations with point counts: a case study in southeastern Brazil

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    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern hemisphere, bird counts have been fundamental in gathering data to understand population trends. Due to the seasonality of the northern hemisphere, counts take place during two clearly defined moments in time: the breeding season (resident birds and winter (after migration. Depending on location, Neotropical birds may breed at any time of year, may or may not migrate, and those patterns are not necessarily synchronous among species. Also in contrast to the northern hemisphere, population trends and the impact of rapid urbanization and deforestation are unknown and unmonitored. Throughout one year, we used point counts to better understand temporal patterns of bird species richness and relative abundance in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, to examine how to implement similar bird counts in tropical America. We counted birds twice each day on 10 point transects (20 points day‑1, separated by 200 m, with a 100 m limited detection radius in a semideciduous tropical forest. Both species richness and bird abundance were greater in the morning, but accumulation curves suggest that longer-duration afternoon counts would reach the same total species as in morning counts. Species richness and bird abundance did not vary seasonally and unique species were counted every month; relatively few species (20% were present in all months. Most (84% known forest species in the area were encountered. We suggest that point counts can work here as they do in the northern hemisphere. We recommend that transects include at least 20 points and that the simplest timing of bird counts would also be seasonal, using timing of migration of austral migrants (and six months later to coordinate counts. We propose that bird counts in Brazil, and elsewhere in Latin America, would provide data to help understand population trends, but would require greater effort than in temperate latitudes due to greater species richness and different dynamics of

  6. Land-use effect on hydropedology in a mountainous region of Southeastern Brazil

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    Leandro Campos Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the Mantiqueira Range, southeastern region, shelters the last remnants of the ecologically important Upper Montane Tropical Forest. since extensive exploration that has been taking place in this biome for decades, the influence of land-use changes on hydropedology in these areas must be investigated once major land-use changes have been observed. This study aims to evaluate the land-use influence on soil drainable porosity (SDP in a headwater watershed located in the Mantiqueira Range region, and to validate the proposed methods based on micromorphological and hydrological indicators. The native vegetation of the study area is Atlantic forest that occupies 62% of the area, and the remaining 38% has been used for pasture. Thirty nine combinations of environmental variables were tested, each one generating a map for predicting SDP. The performance of the spatial prediction of SDP was assessed using 20% of the data from the total number of samples collected throughout the watershed. The least values of SDP are due to the process of removal of native forest and replacement by pasture. Areas with high to moderate SDP are associated with native forest fragments demonstrating the effects of the Atlantic Forest on the water infiltration and groundwater recharge processes, given by the greater contribution of baseflow in a forested catchment located within the studied watershed. The analysis of soil micromorphological images provided useful supporting information on the soil porosity system and along with hydrological properties of the watershed helped understand the SDP behavior on subsurface and groundwater storage capacity.

  7. Population biology and diet of Pomadasys corvinaeformis Perciformes: Pomadasyidae in Caraguatatuba Bay, Southeastern Brazil

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    Márcia Regina Denadai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pomadasys corvinaeformis inhabits sandy and rocky bottoms in coastal waters, and is common in trawl samples taken from beaches. The species is very abundant on the Brazilian coast, and is of high economic and ecological importance. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution, population biology and diet of P. corvinaeformis in Southeastern Brazil. Samples were taken by trawling monthly from August 2003 to October 2004, in two previously selected areas. The Northern area is more exposed to wave activity and is influenced by a river, functioning as a small estuary. In contrast, the Southern area is relatively sheltered from wave energy and influenced to a lesser degree by smaller rivers. The length of the specimens was measured, and the sex and gonadal stage were macroscopically identified. The abundance of this species was compared between areas and among months. The diet was analyzed seasonally by the frequency of occurrence, the percent volume, and the index of alimentary importance. P. corvinaeformis occurred in unequal proportions in the two study areas 86 in the Northern area and 14 in the Southern area and was found most abundant in May 2004, followed by June 2004. The proportion of mature and in-maturation individuals increased gradually from autumn to summer. Nine major groups of food items were recorded in the diet of P. corvinaeformis, and crustaceans comprised five of the categories: unidentified crustacean fragments, zoea larvae, amphipods, copepods and shrimps. In both, fish stomach and intestine, crustacean fragments were the most frequent item. The second most frequent items were shrimp in the stomach, and amphipods in the intestine mainly represented by their tubes. These results demonstrate that P. corvinaeformis can be considered a carnivore, with a preference on benthic organisms.

  8. Geographic expression of AIDS epidemic in Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between 1980 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Celso; Henn, Carlos Alberto; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of reported AIDS cases in adults and its association with living conditions in the city of Campinas, Southeastern Brazil. Data on AIDS cases in men (n=2,945) and women (n=1,230) aged more than 13 years and living in Campinas, recorded in the SINAN (Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases), were used to map the spatial distribution of this disease and the male:female ratio. Maps were constructed for the following periods: from 1980 to 1995, from 1996 to 2000, and from 2001 to 2005. The variables included in the analysis were address, sex and age. A weighted composite index was used to study living and health conditions in the area. Patients' home addresses were geocoded on a cartographic base, after correction and standardization according to a reference database of streets. A generalized additive model was adjusted to analyze the spatial distribution of the ratio of male:female cases in space, in the three study periods. The ratio of male:female cases was higher in areas with better living conditions (central) and around the prison (northwestern), where families of prisoners and former prisoners live temporarily, while this ratio was lower in the city suburbs (southwestern). The trends towards the AIDS epidemic affecting more women and poorer individuals were confirmed by the decrease in the ratio of male:female cases in the period, particularly in vulnerable and impoverished populations. Geographic information systems and spatial data analysis can be useful for AIDS control and surveillance actions.

  9. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    G. Penido

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM. The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005. Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment’s interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001. We did not verify predator’s species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  10. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

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    Amom Mendes Luiz

    Full Text Available Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals, museum specimens (N = 9,730 and literature records (N = 4,763. Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%, as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%. However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%. Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for

  11. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Leão-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals), museum specimens (N = 9,730) and literature records (N = 4,763). Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%), as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%). However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%). Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for understanding

  12. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil

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    PM. Andrade

    Full Text Available Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19° 58’-59’ S and 43° 52’-55’ W, 800-1100 m altitude, in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  13. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, G; Ribeiro, V; Fortunato, D S

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire) affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM). The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction) was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005). Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment's interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance) this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together) there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001). We did not verify predator's species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  14. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  15. Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus within urban areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Rocha David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate density, parity rates, daily survival and longevity of natural populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in three neighborhoods with distinct socio-economic and infrastructure profiles. METHODS: Mosquito collections of the Culex quinquefasciatus species were performed weekly during two four month periods, from August to November 2008 (spring and March to June 2009 (fall, in a favela (slum, a suburban area and a middle class area of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Collections were performed with backpack aspirators, in 20 randomly selected houses in each area per week, during 15-20 minutes per house. Ovaries were removed from captured females and classified as initial, intermediary or final stage. Furthermore, females were dissected for determination of parity based on the condition of the tracheal system. Mosquito survival rate and longevity were estimated on a per month basis for each neighborhood. RESULTS: We collected a total of 2,062 Culex quinquefasciatus, but monthly vector density was not correlated with temperature and rainfall. We dissected the ovaries of 625 Culex quinquefasciatus, and overall, there was a higher proportion of nulliparous females during the dryer months, while gravid females were more frequent in rainy months. In the middle class neighborhood, the parity rate reached up to 93.75% with survivorship of 0.979. Lower parity and survival rates were obtained in the suburban area (as low as 36.4% parity and 0.711 daily survival. Up to 84.7% of Culex quinquefasciatus females could survive the eight day period needed to complete West Nile Virus incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus varied significantly between the neighborhoods. This suggests that vectorial capacity and disease transmission risk may vary greatly between different urban areas, which is potentially useful information for vector control programs.

  16. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  17. Intertidal mangrove mudflat 240+239Pu signatures, confirming a 210Pb geochronology on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.J.; Patchineelam, S.R.; Ketterer, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    A sediment core was taken to determine if sediment accumulation rates could be conducted using 240+239 Pu signatures in the coastal mangrove mudflats of southeastern Brazil. The results from this study show that 240+239 Pu fallout activities are sufficient and well preserved in the coastal sediments of this region. Sediment accumulation rates determined from the 240+239 Pu signatures were 4.4 mm/year and 4.1 from 210 Pb (CIC) method. A sediment mixing coefficient rate was calculated using chlorophyll-a profile (9.5 cm 2 ). (author)

  18. A cave population of Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline, 1947 in the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

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    Eleonora Trajano

    Full Text Available A cave population of the armored catfish Isbrueckerichthys alipionis is reported from the Santana Cave, in the rio Betari watershed, Upper Ribeira karst area, Iporanga, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The cave population was compared to an epigean population of I. alipionis and no significant differences where found in morphology or degree of pigmentation. As the cave population is known for at least 30 years and is apparently isolated from epigean streams, it is classified as troglophilic. The discovery of this troglophilic species in the Santana Cave is an additional strong argument for the conservation of that cave.

  19. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied

  20. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  1. Floral visitors and reproductive strategies in five melittophilous species of Bignoniaceae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Yuriko A. N. Pinto Yanagizawa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pollination strategies of Bignoniaceae, the floral biology and the floral visitors in five species, three cerrado shrubs (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC. Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham., and Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham., and two lianas from the border of a semideciduous seasonal forest (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham. Sandw., and Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill. were studied in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The flowering periods were partially overlapping, especially between species in the same habitat. All the five species were functionally allogamous, melittophilous, nototribic and mainly pollinated by long tongued large bees. Some medium-sized and small pollen-foraging bees were occasional legitimate visitors, whereas others visitors were robbers/thieves. Each species showed a particular set of pollinators. Only two pollinator species were observed in more than one bignon. There was no partition of pollinators even among the species of bignons blooming at the same time at the same habitat.Com objetivo de avaliar as estratégias de polinização de espécies de Bignoniaceae, foram estudados a biologia floral e os visitantes florais de cinco espécies, três arbustivas do cerrado (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC. Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham. e Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. e duas lianas da orla da floresta estacional semidecidual (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham. Sandw. e Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill., na região de Botucatu (22º52'20" S e 48(026'37" W, estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os períodos de florescimento, principalmente entre espécies do mesmo habitat, apresentaram sobreposição parcial. Observou-se que as cinco espécies são alogâmicas funcionais, melitófilas, nototríbicas, polinizadas principalmente por abelhas grandes de língua comprida. Algumas abelhas coletoras de pólen de tamanho médio e pequeno atuaram como polinizadoras ocasionais, enquanto outros visitantes foram pilhadores. Cada

  2. Sensitivity of tree ring growth to local and large-scale climate variability in a region of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-González, Alejandro; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Anholetto Júnior, Claudio Roberto; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between tree growth in two tropical species and local and large-scale climate variability in Southeastern Brazil. Tree ring width chronologies of Tectona grandis (teak) and Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) trees were compared with local (Water Requirement Satisfaction Index—WRSI, Standardized Precipitation Index—SPI, and Palmer Drought Severity Index—PDSI) and large-scale climate indices that analyze the equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (Trans-Niño Index-TNI and Niño-3.4-N3.4) and atmospheric circulation variations in the Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic Oscillation-AAO). Teak trees showed positive correlation with three indices in the current summer and fall. A significant correlation between WRSI index and Caribbean pine was observed in the dry season preceding tree ring formation. The influence of large-scale climate patterns was observed only for TNI and AAO, where there was a radial growth reduction in months preceding the growing season with positive values of the TNI in teak trees and radial growth increase (decrease) during December (March) to February (May) of the previous (current) growing season with positive phase of the AAO in teak (Caribbean pine) trees. The development of a new dendroclimatological study in Southeastern Brazil sheds light to local and large-scale climate influence on tree growth in recent decades, contributing in future climate change studies.

  3. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  4. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

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    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  5. Understanding the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio, Southeastern coast of Brazil, during the Quaternary

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    Macario, K.; Coe, H. H.; Gomes, J.; Oliveira, F.; Gomes, P.; Carvalho, C.; Linares, R.; Alves, E.; Santos, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Southeast was formerly occupied by Atlantic forest before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, when deforestation slowly started to take place. To understand the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio during the Quaternary, and possibly identify when they roughly took place, we make use of soil phytolith identification (as proxy), stable isotopes analyses and 14C dating of soil profiles. Nowadays, those are helpful tools to reveal the palaeoenvironmental secrets hidden below-ground. The soil profile studied, which was divided in 4 horizons ranging from 10 and 115 cm in depth, was collected in the surroundings of Cabo Frio, in the Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern coast of Brazil. Its total organic carbon (TOC) varied from 0.42 to 1.11% (for the different horizons), when its δ13C values ranged from -18.81 (topsoil) to -23.72‰ (~ 80cm deep). Phytolith D/P index varied from 0.1 to 0.21. Due to the low carbon content within soil horizons, soil organic matter (SOM) fractions were chosen for isotopic analyses. Mostly of the 14C-SOM analyses were performed in a newer 14C facility, which runs a NEC 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system, the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University (LAC-UFF) located in Niteroi, RJ. In brief, before measurements could be performed, the soil samples were treated with HCl 1.0M to remove carbonates, then combusted in sealed evacuated pre-baked tubes, cryogenically clean and converted to graphite (as decribed in Xu et al. 2007). In order to verify the distribution of 14C ages of different chemical soil fractions (Pessenda et al. 2001), a refractory C fraction (humin) was extracted from the topsoil horizon, and also converted to graphite following established protocols (Santos et al. 2007a,b). Due to its very low carbon mass (measured at the Keck-CCAMS Facility at University of California, Irvine. (UCI), which runs a modified NEC AMS-system (NEC 0.5MV 1.5SDH-2 AMS system). Other

  6. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  7. Structural control over well productivity in the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mirna A. Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The well productivity in crystalline terrains is extremely changeable and depends on external factors, in addition to the intrinsic properties of rocks. In the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil, the main factor that influences well productivity is the existence of open discontinuities permeability in geologic environments that favor groundwater recharge. In that area, Pre-Cambrian shear and fault zones were reactivated throughout geologic time, controlling the morphostructural compartments and the Cenozoic sedimentary deposition. Superposition of productivity data and structural maps showed that more productive wells are concentrated mainly along the regional geologic structures. The structural control over well productivity is also noticeable in detailed scale. Using fine scale maps we show that the most productive wells are located in areas where brittle structures with NW-SE and E-W directions denote the action of neotectonic transtensional stress. The comprehension of evolutionary geologic history allied to fracturing analysis proved to be an efficient and a low cost technique, which is adequate for selecting areas for further developments using more expensive methods.A produtividade dos poços tubulares profundos em terrenos cristalinos é extremamente variável e depende, além das propriedades intrínsecas da rocha, de fatores externos a ela. Na bacia do rio Jundiaí, Região Sudeste do Brasil, a existência de descontinuidades abertas em situações geológicas favoráveis à recarga constitui o principal fator que influencia a produtividade dos poços. Nesta área, zonas de cisalhamento e zonas de falhas pré-cambrianas reativadas ao longo do tempo geológico controlam a compartimentação morfoestrutural e a deposição de sedimentos cenozóicos. O cruzamento do mapa estrutural com os dados dos poços que explotam o Sistema Aqüífero Cristalino mostrou que poços com produtividade elevada em relação aos demais concentram

  8. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

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    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  9. FROG ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH BROMELIADS IN A SANDY COASTAL PLAIN IN THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MARCIO MARQUES MAGESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians may use bromeliads for reproduction (i.e., bromeligenous species or only for refuge and foraging (i.e., bromelicolous species. The partition of bromeliad resources is essential to maintain the coexistence of the associated assemblages. We sampled 913 bromeliads in a sandy coastal plain (i.e., restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil and found 234 frogs belonging to seven species. One of the frog species was bromeligenous and the other six were facultative bromelicolous. The bromeliads of the genus Aechmea were the most frequently used by frogs. The low degree of frog occupancy of bromeliads (26% suggests habitat segregation. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of bromeliad species for conservation of the associated frog assemblages.

  10. Oral bacterial microbiota and traumatic injuries of free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines, Chelidae in southeastern Brazil

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    Bruno O. Ferronato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 and 2007, we collected free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus, from two anthropogenically altered rivers in southeastern Brazil. Oral microbiological samples were taken for isolation of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria; a physical examination was performed;and we evaluated possible effects on the turtles’ health. Twenty-nine species of bacteria were isolated in Piracicaba River turtles (n=10, and twenty-four species in Piracicamirim stream turtles (n=8, most of them gram-negative. In both sites, potential pathogens for reptiles were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus sp. Although boatpropeller lesions were common on the carapace of the turtles, we have not found turtles with signs of clinical diseases. The oral bacterial microbiota of P. geoffroanus inhabiting the Piracicaba River basin are composed of a diverse microbe spectrum, and long-term studies of the effects of pollution and traumatic injuries on this population and its microbial flora are warranted.

  11. Assessing man-induced environmental changes in the Sepetiba Bay (Southeastern Brazil) with geochemical and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel Ferreira; Peres, Lucas G. M.; Yepez, Santiago; Mulholland, Daniel S.; Machado, Wilson; Tonhá, Myller; Garnier, Jérémie

    2017-10-01

    The Sepetiba Bay, Southeastern Brazil, has undergone intense environmental changes due to anthropogenic influence. This work aims to: (i) evaluate the changes in the drainage landscape use over the last decades, (ii) identify new and past punctual and diffuse anthropogenic sources and assess risks of man-induced disturbances of the coastal zones of Sepetiba. A multivariate statistics approach on the sediment's elemental geochemical dataset discriminated three groups: the electroplating waste-affected elements (As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), terrigenous elements (Si, K, Ti, Al and Fe), and biogenic and carbonate-derived elements (Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Ni, and Cr). Sediment core profiles of trace elements evidence records of former environmental impacts from old metallurgical wastes. Analysis of two Landsat images from 30 years ago and 2015 reveals a decrease in the mangrove area of nearly 26%. The ongoing suppression of mangroves could enhance the release of trace elements into the Sepetiba Bay, increasing the risks to human and biota health.

  12. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

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    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  13. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Parasite infracommunities of Leporinus friderici: A comparison of three tributaries of the Jurumirim Reservoir in southeastern Brazil

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    FÁBIO H. YAMADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic homogenization. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish? The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Brazil. The present study did not find any significant differences in parasite communities among populations of L. friderici in the three upstream tributaries. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams.

  15. Temporal variation of the gammaridean fauna (Crustacea, Amphipoda associated with the sponge Mycale angulosa (Porifera, Demospongiae in southeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Fernandes de Britto Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMarine sponges are advantageous microhabitats because of their complex architecture. The system of internal canals provides circulation of water and deposition of particulate organic matter, ensuring availability of food and shelter. Diminutive amphipods have little difficulty penetrating the spaces of sponges and remain in their aquiferous systems as one of the most abundant taxa in this association. This study evaluated the temporal variation of the gammaridean amphipod species associated with the sponge Mycale angulosa. Sponge samples were collected every three months over one year at Pontal da Cruz Beach, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. The amphipod assembly varied over time, while the amphipod density and sponge biomass remained approximately constant. Six species contributed to the temporal variation infaunal composition, highlighting the importance of the natural history of each species.

  16. Bats from the Restinga of Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Luz, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bat richness and diversity in coastal sand dunes (‘restinga’ are still scarce. Therefore, the objectives of thepresent study were to estimate bat richness in the restinga of Praia das Neves (state of Espírito Santo, southeasternBrazil and to analyze species abundance. Ten sampling nights were carried out in May and July 2008, resulting in asampling effort of 21,847.5 h.m2. We captured 125 individuals from 17 bat species. In this study, Tonatia saurophilawas recorded for the first time not only in the state of Espírito Santo but also in the restinga ecosystem. The mostabundant species was Artibeus lituratus with 32% of all captures. Surveys in coastal restingas are urgently needed inorder to obtain more information about the bats living in this environment.

  17. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinators

  18. Breeding of the blue-and-white swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil

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    Zélia da Paz Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pygochelidon cyanoleuca is a common species, but little is known about its biology and life history in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to monitor the reproduction of the species in this environment. We determined the total number of nests, nesting peak, construction site, shape, composition and distribution pattern of nests, and the success and possible causes of reproductive failure. The study was conducted between July and December 2007, in the hall of the library of the Federal University of Uberlândia in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nests were screened in spinning gutters and fixtures in the ceiling of the hall. We found 33 nests, of which 31 were active. Two nesting peaks were observed (August and November. Most nests had a platform shape. The pattern of distribution was aggregate. 19.4% of the nests were successful. The causes of failure were predation and unviable eggs. Pygochelidon cyanoleuca was reasonably successful and was able to make use of the structure of the roof of the library to build its nests. However, the high frequency of unviable eggs underscores the importance of studies on the potential effects of urbanization on birds and other organisms of the Cerrado and other Brazilian regions.

  19. Breeding of the blue-and-white swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia da Paz Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pygochelidon cyanoleuca is a common species, but little is known about its biology and life history in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to monitor the reproduction of the species in this environment. We determined the total number of nests, nesting peak, construction site, shape, composition and distribution pattern of nests, and the success and possible causes of reproductive failure. The study was conducted between July and December 2007, in the hall of the library of the Federal University of Uberlândia in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nests were screened in spinning gutters and fixtures in the ceiling of the hall. We found 33 nests, of which 31 were active. Two nesting peaks were observed (August and November. Most nests had a platform shape. The pattern of distribution was aggregate. 19.4% of the nests were successful. The causes of failure were predation and unviable eggs. Pygochelidon cyanoleuca was reasonably successful and was able to make use of the structure of the roof of the library to build its nests. However, the high frequency of unviable eggs underscores the importance of studies on the potential effects of urbanization on birds and other organisms of the Cerrado and other Brazilian regions.

  20. Herd characteristics and management practices associated with bulk tank milk quality of dairy herds in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; de Macedo, Susana Nori; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2018-04-30

    This study identified the association of management practices and herd characteristics with milk quality of bulk tanks in southeastern, Brazil. Milk samples were collected weekly during 8 weeks from 63 dairy herds. Bulk tanks were evaluated for total bacteria (TBC), preliminary incubation (PIC), pasteurization (PC), coliform (CC), and somatic cell counts (SCC). Associations found were type of milking system utilized in the farm with TBC, PIC, and SCC; the use of gloves for milking with TBC and PIC; sanitation of milking equipment prior to milking with PC and CC; strip cup testing of cows with PC; teat washing prior to milking with SCC; pre-milking teat disinfection with TBC and CC; post-dipping with TBC and SCC; and the alkaline-acid washing procedure of milking equipment with PIC and PC. The regression analysis explained the variation of bulk tank PC (- 0.47 log cfu/mL) due to the adoption of strip cup test (P = 0.036) and, by 0.366 log cfu/mL due to alkaline and acid washing of milking equipment (P = 0.036). Herringbone milking systems adopted on farms represented a change of - 0.11 log cfu/mL on the log SCC (P = 0.048). Findings may provide a guideline to prioritize efforts aimed at improving milk quality at the farm level in Brazil.

  1. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

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    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  2. Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Eduardo, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

  3. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

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    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da mat

  4. Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild rodents in an area of endemic canine hepatozoonosis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Magro, Natalia Mizuhira; da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Calabuig, Cecilia Irene Pérez; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2016-07-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne parasite that occurs worldwide. In rural areas of Brazil, H. canis vectors remain unknown, which has led to speculation about alternative routes of transmission. Small rodents can play a role in the transmission (via predation) of Hepatozoon americanum, which led us to question whether predation might be an alternative mode of transmission for H. canis. Thus, this study investigated whether Hepatozoon spp. are present in wild small rodents in forest fragments that surround rural areas in Botucatu County, São Paulo, Brazil, where canine hepatozoonosis is endemic. The study included blood samples from 158 dogs, which were screened by microscopy and molecular analysis. Blood samples and tissues from 67 rodents were obtained for histopathology and molecular detection. The prevalence of H. canis was high (66.45%) in dogs from rural areas of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The molecular analysis showed that wild rodent species in Brazil were infected with Hepatozoon spp. other than H. canis. Therefore, although the hypothesis that sylvatic rodents act as reservoirs for H. canis was not supported, the presence of monozoic cysts in the rodents suggests that, in addition to intermediate hosts, wild small rodents in Brazil might act as paratenic hosts of Hepatozoon spp. because they harbor infective stages for intermediate host predators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Precambrian continental crustal evolution of Southeastern Sao Paulo state - Brazil: based on isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes in the Southeastern Sao Paulo are presented, indicating the age and the geochemical nature of the continental crust of this area. Approximately 300 Ar, Sr and Pb isotopic age determinations are included in this paper, categorized as to their reliability and significance. Looking for the continental crust growth related to the geological time, at the end of the lower Proterozoic, at least 85% of the continental crust has already accreted and differentiated. (C.G.C.)

  6. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  7. Evidences of delayed size recovery in Araucaria angustifolia populations after post-glacial colonization of highlands in Southeastern Brazil

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    Valdir M. Stefenon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the relationship between historical demography and the current genetic structure of A. Angus As a first effort towards overcoming this lack, microsatellite data scored in six populations and isozyme allele frequencies published for 11 natural stands of this species were analysed in order to assess molecular signatures of populations' demographic history. Signatures of genetic bottlenecks were captured in all analysed populations of southeastern Brazil. Among southern populations, signatures of small effective population size were observed in only three out of 13 populations. Southern populations likely experienced faster recovery of population size after migration onto highlands. Accordingly, current genetic diversity of the southern populations gives evidence of fast population size recovery. In general, demographic history of A. Angusmatches climatic dynamics of southern and southeastern Brazil during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Palynological records and reconstruction of the past climatic dynamics of southeastern and southern Brazil support the hypothesis of different population size recovery dynamics for populations from these regions.Até o momento, pouco se conhece sobre a relação entre história demográfica e a presente estrutura genética da A. Angus Como uma primeira tentativa em transpor esta deficiência, dados de microssatélites coletados em seis populações e freqüências alélicas de isoenzimas publicadas para 11 populações naturais desta espécie foram analisadas com o objetivo de acessar assinaturas moleculares da história demográfica populacional. Assinaturas de gargalos genéticos foram capturadas em todas as populações analisadas provenientes do Sudeste do Brasil. Entre as populações do Sul, assinaturas de pequeno tamanho populacional efetivo foram observadas em somente três entre 13 populações. Populações do Sul provavelmente apresentaram uma rápida recuperação do

  8. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined ...

  9. Reproductive ecology of the exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo,Rodolfo Antônio de; Oliveira,Aline Aparecida de; Zacharias,Maria Alice; Barbosa,Sandra Maria; Pereira,Flávia Fontes; Cazela,Gisele Natacha; Viana,Joyce Pedroso; Camargo,Reila Andreza de

    2008-01-01

    The exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae), a species native to Central America, is used as fish feed and fiber and cellulose production in Brazil. This study was carried out in urban areas and verified the reproductive biology of this plant species. Flower and fruit morphology, compatibility system, reproductive phenology, pollination and frugivore animals, and germination of disseminated seeds were recorded by standard field and laboratory procedures. This tree is self-compatible...

  10. Living benthic Foraminifera from the Saquarema lagoonal system (Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Belart, Pierre; Laut, Vanessa; Clemente, Iara; Raposo, Débora; Martins, Virgínia; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Lorini, Maria; Fortes, Rafael; Laut, Lazaro

    2017-01-01

    Transitional environments such as coastal lagoons with narrow connections to the sea are ecosystems very sensitive to natural or anthropogenic pressures. They are biodiversity hotspots and for this reason it should be studied and preserved. This study lists the benthic Foraminifera species from the Saquarema lagoonal system (SLS), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This complex ecosystem consists of four large connected lagoons, namely Urussanga, Jardim, Boqueirão, and Saquarema. A poorly diversif...

  11. Diet and nematode infection in Proceratoprhys boiei (Anura: Cycloramphidae from two Atlantic rainforest remnants in Southeastern Brazil

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    Thaís Klaion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 neatodes per individual.Proceratophrys boiei é um anuro da familia Cycloramphidae que vive no folhico e é endêmico de areas de floresta na Mata Atlantica do Sudeste do Brasil. Nós analisamos o trato digestivo de 38 indivíduos de Proceratophrys boiei provenientes de duas áreas de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudar a composição da dieta e a fauna helmíntica associada a esta espécie. s principais itens alientares na dieta de P. boiei fora Coleoptera, rthoptera e Blattaria. Cinco espécies de nematóides foram encontradas: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (apenas larvas e uma espécie de nematóide não identificada. A prevalência total foi de 71% e a intensidade media de infecção foi de 7,3 ± 5,8 nematóides por indivíduo.

  12. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, A C D; Coelho, S; Cardoso-Leite, E

    2017-01-01

    Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V), and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm) and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m) were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas) because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil.) K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott) Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  13. Sugar cane burning pollution and respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Monte Aprazível, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguera, Denise; André, Paulo Afonso; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to analyze associated factors as well as peak expiratory flow measurements in schoolchildren. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with schoolchildren aged 10-14 from the city of Monte Aprazível (Southeastern Brazil). Questionnaires containing the asthma and rhinitis components of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were administered. The questionnaires also approached sociodemographic characteristics, predisposing factors, and family and personal medical history. Repeated measures of peak expiratory flow in the children, and of black carbon and particulate matter (PM2,5) concentration levels were carried out. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was 11% and 33.2%, respectively. Among asthmatic children, 10.6% presented four or more wheezing attacks in the past 12 months. Past family history of bronchitis and rhinitis was associated with presence of asthma (p=0.002 and p PM2,5 concentration. The prevalence of asthma symptoms is below and that of rhinitis is above the national average. Although within acceptable levels, pollution in the cane trash burn season may contribute to the exacerbation of asthma and rhinitis episodes.

  14. Disentangling the influences of habitat structure and limnological predictors on stream fish communities of a coastal basin, southeastern Brazil

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    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    Full Text Available In stream environments habitat structure and limnological factors interact regulating patterns of energy and material transfer and affecting fish communities. In the coastal basins of Southeastern Brazil, limnological and structural characteristics differ between clear and blackwaters streams. The former have a diversity of substrate types, higher water velocities, and lower water conductivity, while the latter have sandy substrate, tea-colored and acidic waters, and low water velocities. In this study, we verified the relative importance of habitat structure and limnological variables in predicting patterns of variation in stream fish communities. Eight first to third order streams were sampled in the coastal plain of Itanhaém River basin. We captured 34 fish species and verified that community structure was influenced by physical habitat and limnology, being the former more important. A fraction of the variation could not be totally decomposed, and it was assigned to the joint influence of limnology and habitat structure. Some species that were restricted to blackwater streams, may have physiological and behavioral adaptations to deal with the lower pH levels. When we examined only the clearwater streams, all the explained variation in fish community composition was assigned to structural factors, which express specific preferences for different types of habitats.

  15. Determination of water quality, toxicity and estrogenic activity in a nearshore marine environment in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marilia Teresa Lima; Santos, Ana Dalva de Oliveira; Felix, Louise Cruz; Gomes, Giselle; de Oliveira E Sá, Mariana; da Cunha, Danieli Lima; Vieira, Natividade; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Bila, Daniele Maia

    2018-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be found in domestic sewage, wastewater treatment plant effluents, natural water, rivers, lakes and in the marine environment. Jurujuba Sound, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, receives untreated sewage into its waters, one the main sources of aquatic contamination in this area. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the estrogenic potential of water sampled from different depths and from areas with differential contamination levels throughout Jurujuba Sound. Water quality was evaluated and acute toxicity assays using Allviibrio fischeri were conducted, while estrogenic activity of the water samples was determined by a Yeast Estrogen Screening assay (YES). Water quality was mostly within the limits established for marine waters by the Brazilian legislation, with only DOC and ammoniacal nitrogen levels above the maximum permissible limits. No acute toxicity effects were observed in the Allivibrio fisheri assay. The YES assay detected moderate estrogenic activity in bottom water samples from 3 sampling stations, ranging from 0.5 to 3.2ngL -1 , as well as in one surface water sample. Estrogenic activity was most frequently observed in samples from the bottom of the water column, indicating adsorption of estrogenic compounds to the sediment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant Anna, Clemax Couto

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of wheezing was studied in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, recruited by a surveillance routine established in villages from May 2007 to June 2008. Data were obtained from hospital records. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for wheezing were estimated according to categories of target variables, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence of wheezing was 58.1% (136/234). Risk factors that remained significantly associated with wheezing in the final model were: age bracket, inversely associated (0-11 months: reference; 24-35 months: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99); hospitalization in the autumn (summer: reference; autumn: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.05-2.40); dyspnea (1.41, 95%CI: 1.09-1.83); chest indrawing (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73); crackles (1.43, 95%CI: 1.09-1.87). The results show a high disease burden related to wheezing and suggest the phenotype of early-onset persistent wheezing related to recurrence of viral respiratory infections.

  17. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  18. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  19. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations.

  20. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba of Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Cunha-Barros

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62; 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7; 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12; and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21. Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02. For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  1. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  3. Chemical composition, antischistosomal and cytotoxic effects of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia grown in Southeastern Brazil

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    André L.L. Mantovani

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the chemical composition, the in vitroantischistosomal effects, and the cytotoxicity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae, grown in the Southeastern Brazil. Borneol (22.4%, epi-α-muurolol (13.4%, α-bisabolol (13.1%, precocene I (13.0%, and eucalyptol (7.9% were the major essential oil constituents. Incubation with essential oil at 200 μg/ml killed all the adult S. mansoni worms after 24 h (LC50117.7 and 103.9 μg/ml at 24 and 120 h of incubation, respectively. At a concentration of 50 μg/ ml, the essential oil significantly decreased the motor activity and reduced the percentage of egg development after 120 h. In addition, the essential oil separated all the coupled S. mansoni worm pairs into individual male and female at 25 and 50 μg/ml within 120 and 24 h, respectively. This oil was cytotoxic to GM07492-A cells at only concentrations higher than 200 µg/ml (IC50243.7 µg/ml. These data indicate that LA-EO exhibits moderate in vitro activity against adult S. mansoniand exerts remarkable effects on eggs development.

  4. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S. J.G.; Holanda, J. N.F., [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  5. Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Roberts Vinicius de Melo; Oliveira, Raphael Nunes; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nassau N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mails: robertsreis@ufmg.br, luizm@demec.ufmg.br, koury@ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory. Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents 23.5% of electric energy consumption and it presents a low residential energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally. The average performance coefficient is equal to 2.10, a low value due to the use of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump, a return on investment in from 2.1 to 2.7 years can be expected. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. (author)

  6. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

    2003-08-01

    We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  7. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  8. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

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    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  9. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil

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    A. C. D. Castello

    Full Text Available Abstract Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V, and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil. K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  10. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

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    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  11. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  12. Youth map of the city of Santo André, Southeastern Brazil: an instrument to read social inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Tatiana; Soares, Cássia Baldini; Minuci, Elaine Garcia; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Trapé, Carla Andrea

    2010-02-01

    To analyze social inequalities in young adults living in an urban area by mapping sociodemographic and economic data. Using data from the 2000 Demographic Census, 57 sociodemographic and economic variables of young adults aged from 15 to 24 years, living in the city of Santo André, Southeastern Brazil, were distributed among 43 areas of statistical data, corresponding to a division of the region into smaller districts. Data from the year 2000 were collected from the Santo André City Hall Department of Socioeconomic Indicators. Using factorial analysis, 13 variables were grouped in two factors - working conditions and life conditions, which distinguished areas that were similar to one another statistically. Cluster analysis of areas was performed, resulting in four social groups. The area that concentrated young adults with higher access to wealth was classified as central and that including individuals with lower access to wealth was classified as peripheral. Two intermediate areas could be identified, one closer to the highest access to wealth ('almost central') and another close to the lowest access to wealth ('almost peripheral'). Discriminating variables were associated with work, migration, level of education, fertility, adolescent's position in the household, presence of spouse or partner, living conditions and assets owned. Differences among social groups revealed important inequalities among young adults who live, study and/or work in the city, which will contribute to the planning of public social policies aimed at these groups.

  13. New morphological data on Cucullanus pinnai pinnai (Nematoda) parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vivian Suane de Freitas; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Luque, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology of Cucullanus pinnai pinnai parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River, Brazil, based on differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), providing new morphological data about this species of parasite. Nematodes were collected between May and October 2012 from specimens of Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River (22°48'2"S, 43°37'35"W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Some characteristics of specimens of Cucullanus in this study fall within the range of morphological variations of previously studied C. pinnai pinnai. Most of the specimens studied here had excretory pore and deirids located at the posterior end of the oesophagus, a feature not recorded in previous studies of this species. In addition, the size of the gubernaculum was larger than the other specimens previously studied. The SEM and DIC analyses of C. pinnai revealed several morphological details of the cephalic region and the tail papillae. With regard to the polymorphism of C. pinnai, morphological and genetic studies of this cucullanid nematode are needed, involving large numbers of host species and a wide geographical distribution.

  14. Reproductive strategy of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonoidea on the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Rafaela Torres Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the reproductive investment (RI and the fecundity of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Holthuis, 1950, caught by trawling in the southeastern Brazilian coast in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The carapace length (CL of ovigerous females was measured and the development stage of their ovaries and embryos were analyzed. A significant relationship was observed between the female body and embryo weights (Linear regression: r² = 0.26, F = 20.77, P < 0.0001, Ln BDW = 0.92. Ln FBDW - 2.24 and between number of embryos and CL (Linear regression; stage I: r² = 0.38, F = 36.15, P < 0.0001; stage II: r² = 0.34, F = 14.10, P < 0.001, but not between the RI and CL (ANOVA: F = 0.47, df = 7, P = 0.85. Association of the changes in embryo development and ovarian maturation of ovigerous females was tested. Females with rudimentary ovaries predominantly showed embryos in stage I (early development and females with developed ovaries only showed embryos in stage II (final development, showing synchrony between the development of both, thus supporting the hypothesis of a continuous reproductive cycle for N. schmitti in the region. Such information is fundamental for understanding the reproductive biology of these crustaceans, as well as other caridean shrimps, in order to promote the maintenance and preservation of natural stocks.

  15. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  16. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  17. Characterization of potassic materials of Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, P.; Navarro, F.C.; Roveri, C.D.; Bergerman, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium, which has featured in Brazil's agricultural sector and in the world's in the application of fertilizers, is present in magmatic rocks, such as nepheline syenite and phonolite, found in the Alkaline Massif of Pocos de Caldas (AMPC). The rare earth elements (REE), in turn, also occur in this region and have important uses in various industrial fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of potassic rocks of AMPC in the fertilizer and rare earths industry. Five samples were collected and characterized. It was observed that there was no preferential concentration by granulometric range of potassium oxide, alumina, silica and iron oxide. Feldspathic mass, potash feldspar, and muscovite were found in all samples. The samples show REE with amounts greater than those found in the earth's crust, except for lutetium and scandium and possessed average content of potassium oxide from 8.70 to 14.40%. (author)

  18. Hydraulically Induced Seismicity in South-Eastern Brazil Linked to Water Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convers, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    While hydraulic stimulus on seismic activity is most commonly associated with hydraulic fracturing processes, we find in SE Brazil a rare case of seismicity influenced by hydraulic stimulation linked to seasonal rain and water wells in a farming area. These are thought to be the main factors influencing the seasonal seismicity activity in Jurupema, a farming town located in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. With temporary seismic station deployments during 2016 and 2017, we analyze the seismicity in this area, its temporal and spatial distribution, and its association with the drilling of ground water wells in this particular area. In a region where water wells are often drilled to provide irrigation for farming, these are often perforated down to about 100 m depth, penetrating below the uppermost sandstone rock layer ( 50 m) into a fractured basaltic rock layer, reaching the confined aquifer within it. While the wells are constantly pumped during the dry season, during the course of the rainy season (when these are not being used), a possible infiltration into the confined basaltic aquifer, from both the rainwater and the upper sandstone aquifer, adds changes to the pore pressure of the fractured rock, and modifies the tectonic pre-stress conditions, to facilitate stress release mechanisms in pre-existing faults and cracks. With our temporary seismic station deployments, we not only examine the seismicity in this region during both 2016 and 2017, but we additionally compare its characteristics to the nearby Bebedouro case in an apparent induced seismic case of analogous source, and seismic activity with magnitudes up to 2.9 occurring between 2005 and 2010.

  19. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  20. Relative growth and sexual maturity of the stone crab Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 (Brachyura, Xanthoidea in southeastern Brazil

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    Giovana Bertini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative growth and size at onset of morphological sexual maturity of the stone crab Menippe nodifrons were investigated. A total of 399 crabs was captured on Praia Grande and Tenório beaches at Ubatuba. Carapace width (CW and length, cheliped propodus length and height, abdomen width in females, and gonopod length in males were recorded. In females, the abdominal width showed negative allometry for juveniles and positive allometry for adults; the puberty molt occurred at 31.6 mm CW. In males, the size at onset of morphological sexual maturity was estimated as 29.7 mm CW; the gonopod growth showed positive allometry for juveniles, and an isometric relationship for adults. The gonopod length and the abdominal width were the most appropriate morphometric variables to estimate size at onset of sexual maturity in this stone crab.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o crescimento relativo e a maturidade sexual morfológica de Menippe nodifrons. As coletas foram realizadas na Praia Grande e Tenório, Ubatuba, São Paulo. Os caranguejos foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados na região da largura (LC e comprimento da carapaça, comprimento e altura dos própodos quelares direito e esquerdo, largura do abdome (LA nas fêmeas e comprimento do gonopódio (CG nos machos. Obteve-se 399 indivíduos, sendo 195 machos e 204 fêmeas. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual com 29,7mm LC e as fêmeas com 31,6mm LC. Para as fêmeas a melhor relação que indicou a muda da puberdade foi LA vs. LC, sendo que o crescimento foi alométrico negativo na fase jovem e alométrico positivo após a muda da puberdade. Para os machos foi CG vs. LC evidenciando crescimento alométrico positivo na fase jovem e isométrico na fase adulta.

  1. Variação nictemeral da clorofila a, produção primária do fitoplâncton e fatores ambientais da região de Ubatuba (Lat. 23º30'S Long. 45º06'W Diel variations in chlorophyll a, phytoplancton primary production and enviromental factors from Ubatuba region (Lat. 23º30'S Long. 45º06'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Teixeira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments with natural phytoplankton populations was carried out to study the diel variation of chlrophyll a, primary production and some environmental factors. Samples were collected from surface over a period of 24 hours and always from one fixed station located in Flamengo Inlet, Ubatuba region, southern Brazil The experiments were performed in situ and simulated conditions to verify the patterns of diel cycles of both biotic and abiotic factors. The results obtained showed that diel variations were markedly pronounced mainly in relation to primary production and chlorophyll a. Diel variations of biological factors seems to be due to exogenous and endogenous phenomena.

  2. A new species of Pacholenus Schoenherr from southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, and new occurrences of species of the genus

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    Sergio Antonio Vanin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pacholenus Schoenherr from southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, and new occurrences of species of the genus. Pacholenus monteiroi sp. nov. (type-locality Brazil, Rio de Janeiro state, Carapebus, Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba is described and illustrated. The weevil develops as a stem gall-former in Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng (Myrtaceae. The new species is easily distinguished from the other five known of the genus by the presence of a prominent supra-ocular ridge. An updated key for identification for all species of Pacholenus is provided. Three species of Pacholenus are presently recorded for the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo; P. pelliceus and P. monteiroi occur in both states, while P. penicillus is only known from Rio de Janeiro; P. hispidus occurs in São Paulo, being the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from Minas Gerais south to Santa Catarina.Nova espécie de Pacholenus Schoenherr do sudeste do Brasil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, e novas ocorrências de espécies do gênero. Pacholenus monteiroi sp. nov. (localidade-tipo Brasil, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Carapebus, Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba é descrita e ilustrada. Esse gorgulho se desenvolve em galhas caulinares de Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng (Myrtaceae. A nova espécie é facilmente distinta das outras cinco conhecidas do gênero devido à presença de uma crista supra-ocular proeminente. Uma chave atualizada para identificação das espécies de Pacholenus é fornecida. Três espécies de Pacholenus ocorrem nos estado do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo; P. pelliceus e P. monteiroi ocorrem em ambos os estados, enquanto que P. penicillus apenas no Rio de Janeiro; P. hispidus ocorre em São Paulo, sendo a espécie do gênero com a distribuição mais ampla, sendo encontrada desde Minas Gerais até Santa Catarina.

  3. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable "spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia:Echimyidaewith palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi ,a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent,is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetationphysiognomies in São Paulo State,Brazil.The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C.bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii and armadillo burrows.Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station,southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C.bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos.There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C.bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations.It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant.The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.Rev.Biol. Trop. 52(4:1009-1011.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El roedor colonial Clyomys bishopi está aparentemente limitado a vegetación de semi-sabana (cerradoen el estado de São Paulo,Brasil.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la presencia de C.bishopi está asociada a la individuos de las palmeras Attalea gearensis,Syagrus loefgrenii y madrigueras de armadillos.El estudio fue realizado en la Estación Ecológica de Itirapina,en el sureste de Brasil.Treinta y seis cuadrantes fueron dispuestos en diferentes fisionomías del la vegetación del cerrado para encuestar el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi, árboles individuales de palma y madrigueras de armadillos.Se calcularon tablas de contingencia y correlaciones de Sperman para evaluar, respectivamente, la dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y las otras variables.Se encontró una fuerte dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y todas las variables medidas.Esto sugiere que este roedor alcanza grandes

  4. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  6. Reproduction of Cichla kelberi Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 introduced into an artificial lake in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Villares Junior, G A; Naous, F

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the reproduction of Cichla kelberi in an artificial lake, located in the municipality of Leme, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, and summer. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 192 and 235 mm (L(50)), for males and females, respectively, and 290 mm (L(100)) for both sexes. Spawning was parceled. The oocytes matured at a size of 428.4 microm, reaching their maximum at 2,203.2 microm. A mean of fecundity were of 12,129.2 oocytes, with the mean of oocytes in each batch of 4,897.7. This species has external fertilization, is nonmigratory, and with parental care of the young. Various attributes of the peacock bass make their introduction a temptation. However, due to their feeding and reproductive characteristics, they have no natural predators, making it difficult to control their population growth or eradicate them.

  7. Reproduction of Cichla kelberi Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 introduced into an artificial lake in southeastern Brazil

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    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the reproduction of Cichla kelberi in an artificial lake, located in the municipality of Leme, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, and summer. The L50 and the L100 of this species were 192 and 235 mm (L50, for males and females, respectively, and 290 mm (L100 for both sexes. Spawning was parceled. The oocytes matured at a size of 428.4 µm, reaching their maximum at 2,203.2 µm. A mean of fecundity were of 12,129.2 oocytes, with the mean of oocytes in each batch of 4,897.7. This species has external fertilization, is nonmigratory, and with parental care of the young. Various attributes of the peacock bass make their introduction a temptation. However, due to their feeding and reproductive characteristics, they have no natural predators, making it difficult to control their population growth or eradicate them.

  8. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  9. Fish Biodiversity Patterns in Reef Communities of the Southeastern Coast of Brazil

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    Ralf Riedel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas are increasingly becoming a tool of choice for conservation and management of marine resources and ecosystems. Data on biodiversity are necessary to assist in establishing protected areas for conservation objectives to be met. Toward that effect, we investigated reef biodiversity patterns in three large-scale coastal regions of Brazil. The study areas comprised of an upwelling region, an adjacent high impacted region, and a more distant marine park. We surveyed four reef sites in each study region. Fish species and abundance, substrate relief, and water temperature were recorded during the surveys. Biodiversity was estimated using Simpson’s and Shannon’s indices on species richness and abundance. Fish diversity was highest at the upwelling area. No difference in diversity was observed between the high impacted region and the marine park. No substrate relief patterns were found. Temperature readings showed higher frequency of low temperature episodic events at the upwelling region. Our results favor the upwelling region for establishment of a Marine Protected Area. Moreover, the similar diversity between the high impacted region and the marine park showed evidence of spillover effects from the upwelling into the high impacted region, further demonstrating the importance of the upwelling region for conservation.

  10. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  11. Rainwater chemistry at the summit and southern flank of the Itatiaia massif, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, William Z. de; Almeida, Marcelo D. de

    2004-01-01

    Wet deposition and related rainwater chemistry were studied at the Itatiaia massif, on which is settled the Itatiaia National Park (INP). Samples were simultaneously collected on a weekly basis over 12 months, using automated wet and dry samplers, at the INP-Headquarters (INP-Hq; altitude=820 m) and the Itatiaia Plateau (It-Pt; altitude=2460 m). Conductivity, pH, Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- were determined in 36 rainwater samples. Volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was lower at the INP-Hq (4.9) than at the It-Pt (5.3). Very strong correlation between Cl - and Na + was found for the INP-Hq (r=0.99). At the Itatiaia massif, SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + comprised together about 60% of the total inorganic ions and appear to exert the major control on rainwater pH. - Rainwater chemistry at the Itatiaia massif in SE Brazil is strongly dominated by S and N inorganic species, and influenced by human activities

  12. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

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    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  13. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

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    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  14. Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae) infecting Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae) in the Chavantes Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Ramos, Igor Paiva; Zica, Erica de Oliveira Penha; Wunderlich, Alison Carlos; Carvalho, Edmir Daniel; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to report the infection by Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum metacercariae in Steindachnerina insculpta from the Chavantes Reservoir, medium Paranapanema River, municipality of Ipaussu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty specimens of S. insculpta were collected and 29 were infected with S. musculosum metacercariae (prevalence = 96.67%) in the eyes and visceral cavity. The mean intensity of infection and abundance were 96.6 ± 29.41 (7-846) and 93.3 ± 28.6 (0-846), respectively. Positive correlation was observed between parasite abundance in the eyes and standard length (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005), total weight (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001), and condition factor (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154). The high parasitism rates by S. musculosum metacercariae in S. insculpta can be an indicative that this fish species is highly susceptible to infection by this diplostomid, and even reflect the presence of a large abundance of the intermediate host. Moreover, S. musculosum metacercariae are reported for the first time in S. insculpta.

  15. Effect of seawater samples from a pollution impacted area in southeastern Brazil to Mysidopsis juniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaro-Pedroso, C.; Nipper, N.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located at the coast of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, holds the largest oil terminal in the country, besides a small harbor and an extensive touristic activity. Since 1969, when the oil terminal was installed, the area has been submitted to chronic oil pollution due to the terminal's activities and to a number of spills of different magnitudes, caused by accidents with oil tankers. Sewage disposal is another cause of impact in the area. In a research conducted in CETESB's laboratory at the marine Biology Center from University of Sao Paulo, the occurrence of lethal and sublethal effects of seawater samples from that region, on the mysid shrimp Mysidopsis juniae, was analyzed in short-term chronic toxicity tests. The water samples were collected seasonally, for 18 months, at ten stations of the channel. The test endpoints were survival, growth and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity did not reach the minimum acceptable value for controls, of 50%. Dry weight data indicated a detrimental effect of some samples. This could be caused by a lowered lipid content. Abnormalities in the uropod and telson development were observed for some treatments

  16. Post-fire regeneration in seasonally dry tropical forest fragments in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mayke B; Menezes, Luis Fernando T DE; Nascimento, Marcelo T

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is one of the highly threatened biome. However, studies on the effect of fire on these tree communities are still scarce. In this context, a floristic and structural survey in three forest areas in the southeast of Brazil that were affected by fire between 14 and 25 years ago was performed with the objective of evaluating post-fire regeneration. In each site, five systematically placed plots (25 m x 25 m each) were established. The more recently burnt site had significantly lower values of richness and diversity than the other two sites. However, the sites did not differ in density and basal area. Annona dolabripetala, Astronium concinnum, Joannesia princeps and Polyandrococos caudescens were within the 10 most important species for the three sites. Comparing these data with adjacent mature forests, the results indicated differences both in structural and floristic aspects, suggesting that the time after fire was not sufficient for recuperation of these areas. The recovery process indicate at least 190 years for areas return to basal area values close to those observed in mature forests nearby.

  17. No contribution of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes to the risk of neutropenia due to benzene exposure in Southeastern Brazil

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    Carmen Silvia Passos Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to benzene has been associated with haematological diseases such as neutropenia (NEB and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We tested whether the null genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, involved in benzene inactivation, altered the risk for NEB in southeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA from 55 NEB patients and 330 controls was analysed by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of the GSTM1, GSTT1 and combined null genotypes was similar in patients and controls (GSTM1, 27.3% vs. 38.8%, p = 0.16; GSTT1, 25.5% vs. 19.7%, p = 0.24; GSTM1/GSTT1, 12.7% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.26; respectively. The distribution of genotype classes in NEB patients was similar to normal controls, suggesting that GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes make no specific contribution to the risk of NEB. As the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were previously associated with increased risk for AML in Brazil and elsewhere, we hypothesise that different thresholds of chemical exposure relative to distinct GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes may determine whether AML or NEB manifests in benzene exposed individuals from southeastern Brazil. Although indicative, our results still require support by prospective and large scale epidemiological studies, with rigorous assessment of daily chemical exposures and control of the possible contribution of other polymorphic genes involved in benzene metabolism.

  18. A comparison study of convective and microphysical parameterization schemes associated with lightning occurrence in southeastern Brazil using the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepka, G. D.; Pinto, O.

    2010-12-01

    The intent of this study is to identify the combination of convective and microphysical WRF parameterizations that better adjusts to lightning occurrence over southeastern Brazil. Twelve thunderstorm days were simulated with WRF model using three different convective parameterizations (Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller-Janjic and Grell-Devenyi ensemble) and two different microphysical schemes (Purdue-Lin and WSM6). In order to test the combinations of parameterizations at the same time of lightning occurrence, a comparison was made between the WRF grid point values of surface-based Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Lifted Index (LI), K-Index (KI) and equivalent potential temperature (theta-e), and the lightning locations nearby those grid points. Histograms were built up to show the ratio of the occurrence of different values of these variables for WRF grid points associated with lightning to all WRF grid points. The first conclusion from this analysis was that the choice of microphysics did not change appreciably the results as much as different convective schemes. The Betts-Miller-Janjic parameterization has generally worst skill to relate higher magnitudes for all four variables to lightning occurrence. The differences between the Kain-Fritsch and Grell-Devenyi ensemble schemes were not large. This fact can be attributed to the similar main assumptions used by these schemes that consider entrainment/detrainment processes along the cloud boundaries. After that, we examined three case studies using the combinations of convective and microphysical options without the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme. Differently from the traditional verification procedures, fields of surface-based CAPE from WRF 10 km domain were compared to the Eta model, satellite images and lightning data. In general the more reliable convective scheme was Kain-Fritsch since it provided more consistent distribution of the CAPE fields with respect to satellite images and lightning data.

  19. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.

  20. Photoacclimation in a tropical population of Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta) from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A I N; Necchi-Júnior, O

    2008-02-01

    Photoacclimation of photosynthesis was investigated in a tropical population of C. glomerata (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, 20 degrees 48' 24" S and 49 degrees 22' 24" W) by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll a content. Plants were acclimated to two levels of irradiance: low (65 +/- 5 micromol.m(-2).s(-1)) and high (300 +/- 10 micromol.m(-2).s(-1)) and exposed short-term (4 days) and long-term (28 days) under a light-dark cycle of 12:12 hours. Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves revealed distinct strategies of photoacclimation. In long-term exposure, plants acclimated by altering the photosynthetic units (PSU) number and keeping fixed the PSU size, revealed by increased rates of maximum photosynthesis (Pmax), lower photosynthetic efficiency (alpha) and higher values of the saturation parameter (Ik) under high irradiance. The short-term acclimation strategy consisted of changing the PSU size, with a fixed number of PSUs, as revealed by similar Pmax but higher alpha and lower Ik under low irradiance. Chlorophyll a contents followed the general pattern reported in green algae of higher concentrations under lower irradiance. Dark/light induction curves revealed consistently higher values of potential quantum yield under low irradiance. Initial and final values showed a higher recovery capacity in the short (84.4-90.6%) term exposure than in the long-term case (81.4-81.5%). ETR (electron transport rate) and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching) values were consistently higher under low irradiance. ETR showed a continuous and steady increase along the light exposure period in the short and long-term experiments, whereas NPQ values revealed a rapid increase after 15 seconds of light exposure, kept a slightly increasing trend and stabilized in most treatments. Lower photosynthetic performance (ETR) and recovery capacity of potential quantum yield were observed, particularly in long-term exposure, suggesting that this population is constrained by the

  1. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 (Testudinidae in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil

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    JF Borini

    Full Text Available Red-footed Tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonariaSpix, 1824 raised as pets and voluntarily handed over to environmental officers by their owners or apprehended by officers represent a large contingent of animals that overfill triage centres in Brazil. There is no consensus on the fate of these animals, and their numbers continue growing. In this study, we evaluated the movement patterns of C. carbonaria originating from triage centres in areas of cocoa plantations and forest remnants to define their home range and dispersion. After 120 days of quarantine and acclimatisation, eight C. carbonaria adults were released and monitored via radio telemetry for 10 months. The radio transmitters of two individuals presented problems, and consequently, it was not possible to track these individuals. Five individuals remained in an area of 7.75 ha 10 months after release, avoiding contact with humans after the first three months. The greatest problems were the proximity of individuals to inhabited areas in the first three months after release, the death of two individuals, and the escape of one individual. After the experiment, the animals were sent back to the triage centre. Our results suggest that a proportion of the animals in the triage centres are able to survive in natural conditions. Considering their survival and fidelity to the release site, the translocation of animals described herein should be considered partially successful. However, if this measure is adopted, it must be preceded by studies of the animals' origins and by a rigorous genetic, sanitary and behavioural analysis of each individual.

  2. The feeding habits of the eyespot skate Atlantoraja cyclophora (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes in southeastern Brazil

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    Alessandra da Fonseca Viana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stomach contents of the eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903, were examined with the goal to provide information about the diet of the species. Samples were collected off the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, near Ilha Grande, between January 2006 and August 2007, at a depth of about 60 m. The diet was analyzed by sex, maturity stages and quarterly to verify differences in the importance of food items. The latter were analyzed by: frequency of occurrence, percentage of weight and in the Alimentary Index. The trophic niche width was determined to assess the degree of specialization in the diet. Additionally, the degree of dietary overlap between males and females; juveniles and adults and periods of the year were defined. A total of 59 individuals of A. cyclophora were captured. Females and adults were more abundant. The quarters with the highest concentrations of individuals were in the summer of the Southern Hemisphere: Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and Jan-Feb-Mar 07. Prey items were classed into five main groups: Crustacea, Teleosts, Elasmobranchs, Polychaeta, and Nematoda. The most important groups in the diet of the eyespot skate were Crustacea and Teleosts. The crab Achelous spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871 was the most important item. The value of the niche width was small, indicating that a few food items are important. The comparison of the diet between males and females and juveniles and adults indicates a significant overlap between the sexes and stages of maturity; and according to quarters, the importance of prey groups differed (crustaceans were more important in the quarters of the summer and teleost in Jul-Aug-Sep and Oct-Nov-Dec 06, indicating seasonal differences in diet composition. Three groups with similar diets were formed in the cluster analysis: (Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and 07; (Apr-May-Jun 06 and Jul-Aug-Sep 07; (Jul-Aug-Sep 06 and Oct-Nov-Dec 06.

  3. Microclimate and soil moisture in a silvopastoral system in southeastern Brazil

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    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the microclimate changes in silvopastoral systems are quantified at different time and spatial scales and compared with single-pasture systems. The study was conducted in a silvopastoral system in São Carlos, Brazil (22°01' South and 47°53' West. The silvopastoral system consisted of grass pastures [Urochloa (sin. Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilik] lined with strips of native trees spaced at 17 m. Continuous microclimate measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and incident photosynthetically active radiation were carried out from September 2010 to September 2012 at two positions of the silvopastoral system (2.0 and 8.5 m from the rows of trees and at a pasture under full sunlight, located in an adjacent area. The soil moisture was monitored weekly from 24 March 2010 to 1 April 2012 at distances of 0.0, 2.0, 4.75, and 8.5 m from the rows of trees. The rows of native trees reduced wind speeds (46% reduction and changed the photosynthetically active radiation incidence pattern on the pasture (up to 40% reduction of incidence at the point nearest to the trees. The combined action of these factors promoted thermal and air humidity changes on the pasture at the different points measured. With respect to soil moisture, there was greater soil moisture removal at the sampling points near the rows of native trees under the silvopastoral system, mainly due to enhanced exploration by tree roots at greater depths in dry spells or early dry periods, when compared with the midpoints between the rows.

  4. Indoor organic and inorganic pollutants: In-situ formation and dry deposition in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew G.; Miguel, Antonio H.

    We have measured indoor and outdoor levels of particle- and gas-phase pollutants, collected in offices, restaurants and a hotel at six different sites in and around the cities of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil, during summer 1993. Gas-phase species included acetic acid, formic acid, nitrous acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide, nitric acid, oxalic acid, and pyruvic acid. Fine mode ( 3 μm dp) species measured included chloride, potassium, acetate, nitrate, magnesium, formate, sodium, pyruvate, nitrite, calcium, sulfate, oxalate, and ammonium. One sample (˜ 6 h) was simultaneously collected indoors and outdoors at each site during regular working hours. Indoor samplers were located ca. 1.5 m from the floor, and the outdoors immediately outside the window. Indoor/outdoor concentration ratios suggest that fine potassium chloride was produced indoors in appreciable amounts at both restaurants studied and, to a lesser extent, in the three offices as well. Indoor fine nitrate particles found in restaurants appear to have been produced by fuel combustion; a small fraction may have resulted from dry deposition of nitric acid onto existing fine particles. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine- and coarse-mode acetate suggest their production at all sites. The average concentration of gas-phase acetic acid was 42 μg m -3 indoors compared to 9.0 μg m -3 outdoors. In-situ formation of nitrous acid and acetic acid appears to have occurred at all indoor sites. High levels of formic and acetic acids were produced indoors at a pizzeria that used wood for cooking. Nitrous acid average concentrations for all sites were 8.4 μm m -3 indoors and 3.2 μm m -3 outdoors. Indoor/outdoor ratios at all sites suggest that dry deposition indoors may have occurred for hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfur dioxide and that fine-mode sulfate infiltrate buildings from outside at most sites.

  5. Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae) from Southeastern Brazil with new definition of species groups to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos, Maria Inês Silva; De Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-16

    Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859 are described and illustrated based on adult males from Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo states (southeastern Brazil). A new species groups definition is proposed for the genus, with a redefinition of the former six (aristeae sp. group, celsa sp. group, isus sp. group, granigera sp. group, milleri sp. group and striata sp. group) and designation of four new groups (alea new sp. group, amazonica new sp. group, grandis new sp. group and jureceki new sp. group). The male genitalia of M. clypeata is illustrated for the first time and distributional maps for all species of the genus are provided.

  6. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  7. Stream water quality in the context of payments for environmental services in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. C.; Reis, L. D. C.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Zuccari, M. L.; Green, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Public policy of payment for environmental services (PES) was established in 2007 to face the challenge of recuperatingwater resources at one of the headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin, which supplies an important reservoir for the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Such effort consists of reforestation of riparian zones and spring lands at the hills of selected catchments, including the Ribeirão das Posses (RP) catchment. Since 2012 the University of São Paulo has developed research at RP to monitor the benefits of these practices on stream water quality, and identified a few parameters as good indicators to follow up the results of this PES program. The present study has the objective to show results of the monthly monitoring in2015,including 13 sampling stations at RP catchment distributed as follows: one in a spring forested area, three in spring areas of different ages of reforestation (3, 5 and 8 years), and nine at reaches of RP streamlocated in a way to contemplate the effects of the first order streams that comes from the studied spring areas entering RP. We established two additional stations at the Jaguari River, upstream and downstream of RP outlet. In situ measurements include temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and collect water samples to bring to the laboratory for analyses of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC), total nitrogen (TN) and alkalinity. Also, sediments (fine fraction: >0.45 μm; and coarse fraction: >63 μm) are collected for isotopic carbon analyses. Preliminary results show pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.8, while DO ranges from 5.8 to 8.9 mg L-1. As for EC, the mean at the spring forested station was 34.6 μS cm-1, while at spring areas of 3, 6 and 8 years of reforestation they were 53.3, 73.8 and 34.8 μS cm-1, respectively. We expected that by the end of this annual monitoring the benefits of reforestation will be affirmed.

  8. Precambrian terranes of African affinities in the southeastern part of Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S; Junior, Siga; Harara, O.M; Preciozzi, F; Sato, K; Kaufuss, G

    2001-01-01

    distinct, representing the main suture that separates the terranes of African and South-American affinities. As observed in figure 1, it is considered in this article that the region of African affinity is constituted by the terrains located east of the Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena suture zone, being represented by two major units: the Granite Belt - outcropping along the whole eastern portion of the Brazilian southern region, and the Punta del Este terrain (PET) south-easternmost of Uruguay. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of a series of gneisses and migmatites formed in the 1000-900 Ma interval, according to Preciozzi et al. (1999; Basei et al 2000), intensely reworked during the Rio Doce orogeny (600-500 Ma). These authors proposed that the terranes situated east of the Alferes-Cordilheira Shear Zone should not integrate the Granite Belt, suggesting that this crustal segment represent in South America terranes related to the Namaqua Belt recognized in the southwestern portion of the African continent. Similar terranes have not been recognized in Brazil and Argentina. In PET, three major tectonic units can be characterized: a gneissic-migmatitic basement, a low-grade metasedimentary cover (Rocha Group) and a post-tectonic series that includes alkaline granitoids and acid volcanic rocks. Considering that the PET basement correlates with the Namaqua Complex gneisses, the Rocha Group was tentatively correlated with the Gariep Group supracrustal units (au)

  9. Spatial-temporal distribution of fire-protected savanna physiognomies in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo H.O. Pinheiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the influence of edaphic finer textures, as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest formations in the absence of fire, was possible thanks to rare characteristics found in a savanna fragment located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The total suppression of fire for over four decades, and the occurrence of two savanna physiognomies, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão, allowed the conduction of this study based on the hypothesis that cerradão, a physiognomy of forest aspect consisting of fire-sensitive tree and shrubs species, is favored by fire absence and higher soil hydric retention capacity. Edaphic samples were collected from a regular grid of 200 m² for the production of isopletic maps of the distribution of clay, fine sand, coarse sand and silt edaphic textures by the geostatistic method of ordinary kriging. Changes in the areas occupied by both savanna physiognomies, defined on the basis of aerial photographs taken over a period of 43 years, were assessed through mean variation rates. Besides corroborating the hypothesis of edaphic hydric retention as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest physiognomies in savanna areas, we were able to infer the positive influence of higher precipitation on the increase in cerradão expansion rates.A influência de texturas edáficas finas, como fator de facilitação para a expansão de formações florestais sobre áreas savânicas, através da maior retenção hídrica edáfica, na ausência de incêndios, foi possível ser estudada graças às características encontradas em um fragmento savânico com 38,8 ha, situado em Corumbataí (SP. A supressão total do fogo por quatro décadas, e a ocorrência de duas fisionomias, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, permitiram a condução deste estudo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em uma grade regular de 200 m², abrangendo toda a área do fragmento. Foram produzidos mapas iso-pléticos, com a distribuição das

  10. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

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    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  11. Adequacy assessment of mathematical models in the dynamics of litter decomposition in a tropical forest Mosaic Atlantic, in southeastern Brazil

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    FP. Nunes

    Full Text Available The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20×20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 – Olson Exponential Model (1963, which considers the constant K, 2 – Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004, 3 – Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005, which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004 model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p> 0.05 between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2. However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the

  12. Adequacy assessment of mathematical models in the dynamics of litter decomposition in a tropical forest Mosaic Atlantic, in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, F P; Garcia, Q S

    2015-05-01

    The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20 × 20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 - Olson Exponential Model (1963), which considers the constant K, 2 - Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004), 3 - Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005), which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004) model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2). However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the decomposition

  13. Population ecology of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea, Sergestoidea, Luciferidae of the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Sarah de Souza Alves Teodoro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luciferid shrimps have short life spans and a rapid turnover of generations, engage in sequential spawning, and protect their eggs during incubation. This study investigates the ecology of Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 in the littoral zone, Ubatuba region, São Paulo. Sampling was conducted monthly from July 2005 to December 2006 using a Renfro net trawled over a distance of 50 m for a total sampling effort of 50 m² at each station. Nine stations were sampled, ranging from 1 to 15 m deep. Three stations each were grouped into zones 1, 2 and 3 (Z1, Z2 and Z3. Monthly values of salinity, temperature and rainfall were recorded at each station. The pre-buccal somite length (SL of each specimen was measured. The results showed that in shallower zones (Z1 and Z2, 6306 individuals were captured, whereas in the deeper zone (Z3, 3808 specimens were captured, but no significant differences in SL was detected between the specimens from Z1 and Z2 and those from Z3 (ANOVA, p=0.25. The abundance of shrimps did not differ significantly between seasons (Tukey's test, p=0.02 except in the spring. The sex ratio differed significantly over the seasons (χ², pEste estudo analisa a ecologia de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 em Ubatuba, São Paulo. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, com uma rede de Renfro, arrastada por uma distância de 50 m, totalizando um esforço amostral de 50 m² em cada ponto de coleta. Nove pontos foram amostrados, variando de 1 a 15 m de profundidade. Cada 3 pontos foram agrupados em 3 zonas (Z1, Z2 e Z3. Os valores de salinidade, temperatura e pluviosidade foram registrados mensalmente em cada transecto. Os espécimes foram medidos quanto ao comprimento do somito pré-bucal (SL. Os resultados mostram que nas zonas mais rasas (Z1 e Z2 foram coletados 6306 indivíduos, enquanto que na mais profunda (Z3 obteve-se 3808 espécimes, não havendo diferença estatística entre as zonas (ANOVA, p=0

  14. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

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    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  15. The relationships between microbiological attributes and soil and litter quality in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Barros, Nairam F; Moço, Maria Kellen S

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to link soil and litter microbial biomass and activity with soil and litter quality in the surface layer for different pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The purpose of the study was to see how strongly the differences among species and stands affect the microbiological attributes of the soil and to identify how microbial processes can be influenced by soil and litter quality. Soil and litter samples were collected from six pure and mixed stands of six hardwood species (Peltogyne angustifolia, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium) native to the southeastern region of Bahia, Brazil. In plantations of native tree species in humid tropical regions, the immobilization efficiency of C and N by soil microbial biomass was strongly related to the chemical quality of the litter and to the organic matter quality of the soil. According to the variables analyzed, the mixed stand was similar to the natural forest and dissimilar to the pure stands. Litter microbial biomass represented a greater sink of C and N than soil microbial biomass and is an important contributor of resources to tropical soils having low C and N availability.

  16. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

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    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  17. New insights on the geological evolution of the continental margin of Southeastern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krob, Florian; Stippich, Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter

    2017-04-01

    New insights on the geological evolution of the continental margin of Southeastern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data Krob, F.C.1, Stippich, C. 1, Glasmacher, U.A.1, Hackspacher, P.C.2 (1) Institute of Earth Sciences, Research Group Thermochronology and Archaeometry, Heidelberg University, INF 234, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany (2) Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515 Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900, Brazil Passive continental margins are important geoarchives related to mantle dynamics, the breakup of continents, lithospheric dynamics, and other processes. The main concern yields the quantifying long-term lithospheric evolution of the continental margin between São Paulo and Laguna in southeastern Brazil since the Neoproterozoic. We put special emphasis on the reactivation of old fracture zones running into the continent and their constrains on the landscape evolution. In this contribution, we represent already consisting thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 427.6 (1.8) Ma whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.52) and 92.0 (1.86) Ma. These thermochronological ages from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks show six distinct blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos) with different evolution cut by old fracture zones. Furthermore, models of time-temperature evolution illustrate the differences in Pre- to post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. The presented data will provide an insight into the complex exhumation history of the continental margin based on the existing literature data on the evolution of the Paraná basin in Brazil and the latest

  18. The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi and the advertisement calls of three species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae from the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique Wogel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi is figured and described for the first time from individuals collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi also are described and compared with the advertisement calls of others Chiasmocleis species restricted to Atlantic Rainforest. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi are similar, consisting of one pulsed note of harmonic structure emitted repetitively. Our study corroborates the monophyly of the genus Chiasmocleis based on similarities in advertisement calls. Calls of syntopic species (C. atlantica with C. carvalhoi and C. capixaba with C. schubarti were less similar than those of closely related allopatric species.

  19. Vascular Flora of a Cerrado sensu stricto remnant in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    Carvalho, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna has suffered massive destruction in recent years, mainly due tothe expansion of agricultural areas. Many remnants of this vegetation are still poorly studied. Therefore, thepurpose of this study was to carry out a floristic survey in a remnant of Cerrado in the municipality of Pratânia,central-west region of state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In total, 120 species (38 families, 88 genera wereregistered. The families with greater richness were: Fabaceae (23 species, Asteraceae (15, Myrtaceae (10,Malpighiaceae and Rubiaceae (seven each and Bignoniaceae (five. The shrub component was predominant inthe study area representing 37.5 % of the recorded species. A comparison among eight Cerrado areas showedgreater similarity between areas with similar altitude.

  20. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae, living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil

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    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higer number of prey (but in lower volume when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  1. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis (Teiidae) from a restinga area (Barra de Maricá) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccinini-Seale, D; Rocha, C F D; Almeida, T M B; Araújo, A F B; De Sena, M A

    2004-08-01

    Chromosomes of Cnemidophorus littoralis, a new species of teiid lizard recently described, were studied. The animals are from a restinga area in Barra de Maricá, RJ. The karyotype presents a diploid number of 2n = 46 chromosomes and a chromosomal sex determination mechanism of the type XX:XY. Nucleolar organizer regions, Ag-NORs, are at the sixth pair of chromosomes; there is variability of size and number of the Ag-stained nucleoli on the 50 interphase nuclei for each specimen analyzed. These nucleoli are related to NOR patterns that also demonstrated variability in size and number. This paper presents the first description of the karyotype of Cnemidophorus littoralis and of a chromosomal sex determination mechanism of the XX:XY type in the genus Cnemidophorus from Southeastern Brazil.

  2. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

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    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  3. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Reinaldo, Mônica Renata; Sena, Anne de; Granato, Celso F H

    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

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    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  5. Population biology and distribution of the tanaid Kalliapseudes schubarti Mañé-Garzon, 1949, in an intertidal flat in Southeastern Brazil

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    F. P. P. Leite

    Full Text Available The population biology and the spatial and temporal distribution of Kalliapseudes schubarti Mañé-Garzon, 1949, a common tanaidacean in mud flats and estuaries in southern and southeastern Brazil, was studied in the Araçá region, São Sebastião (SP, Brazil. This species showed a clustered dispersion in the area and the individuals were concentrated in the superficial sediment layer (5 cm. Higher densities of K. schubarti were recorded in areas characterized by moderately sorted fine sediment. Multiple regression analysis revealed a positive influence of the organic matter contents and a negative effect of the silt-clay contents on the abundance of K. schubarti. This species showed a marked temporal variation with very low abundance in winter and fall (March to August. Sexual dimorphism was evidenced with males being larger than females. Ovigerous females were also larger than pre-ovigerous ones. Sex ratio was skewed towards females. Seven cohorts were identified during the sampling period, the estimated longevity was 12 months, and no seasonal oscillation in growth was evidenced. The continuous reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of larval phases (manca II and neutron and reproductive females throughout the year, and high fecundity among the tanaids associated with fast growth and limited longevity support the case for the opportunistic life strategy suggested for this species in the literature.

  6. Hydrography, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in shelf and oceanic waters off southeastern Brazil during autumn (may/june, 1983

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    Frederico Pereira Brandini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton photosynthesis and nutrients were studied in relation to the hydrographic environment of the southeastern Brazil from May 3 to June 31 of 1983 during an oceanographia cruise conducted by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian Navy. Temperature and salinity at 5 meters depth ranged from 21 to 25º C and from 33.00 to 37.11, respectively. The concentration of nutrients varied, nitrate + nitrite-N from 1.0-3.0 µg-at/l, phosphate-P 0.1-0.9 µg-at/l and silicate-Si 5-25 µg-at/l. The chlorophyll-a concentrations along the coast varied from 0.35 to 1.48 mg/m³ with maxima in front of Paranaguá Bay (PR and over the southern shelf of Santa Catarina State. Low concentrations around 0.20 mg/m³ of uniform distribution were observed in shelf and off-shelf areas. Comparatively high concentrations were measured over the shelf break zone in front of Paranaguá Bay indicationg the occurrence of shelf break upwelling of deep nutrient rich waters. The pattern of vertical distribution was stratified and irregular in coastal stations and uniform in shelf and oceanic waters although some subsurface peaks were sometimes detected. The integrated chlorophyll values within the euphotic layer varied between 2.70 and 28.06 mg/m². The surface photo synthetic capacity varied from 0.4 to 7.7 mgC/mgChl.a/hr with higher values obtained in coastal areas.. The vertical distributions were variable in coastal areas and more uniform in mid-shelf stations. Sub-surface maxima of photosynthesis were detected in both nearshore and off-shore stations, and surface inhibition was not observed.Os padrões de distribuição espacial de parâmetros hidrográficos, clorofila-a e fotossíntese do fitoplancton são estudados em relação ao regime oceanográfico da região sueste do Brasil nos meses de maio e junho de 1983. A região oceânica foi totalmente dominada pela Agua Tropical da Corrente do Brasil (AT com caracter

  7. Particle Fluxes and Bulk Geochemical Characterization of the Cabo Frio Upwelling System in Southeastern Brazil: Sediment Trap Experiments between Spring 2010 and Summer 2012

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    ANA LUIZA S. ALBUQUERQUE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical and biogeochemical processes in continental shelves act synergistically in both transporting and transforming suspended material, and ocean dynamics control the dispersion of particles by the coastal zone and their subsequent mixing and dilution within the shelf area constrained by oceanic boundary currents, followed by their gradual settling in a complex sedimentary scenario. One of these regions is the Cabo Frio Upwelling System located in a significantly productive area of Southeastern Brazil, under the control of the nutrient-poor western boundary Brazil Current but also with a wind-driven coastal upwelling zone, inducing cold-water intrusions of South Atlantic Central Water on the shelf. To understand these synergic interactions among physical and biogeochemical processes in the Cabo Frio shelf, a series of four experiments with a total of 98 discrete samples using sediment traps was performed from November 2010 to March 2012, located on the 145 m isobath on the edge of the continental shelf. The results showed that lateral transport might be relevant in some cases, especially in deep layers, although no clear seasonal cycle was detected. Two main physical-geochemical coupling scenarios were identified: singular downwelling events that can enhance particles fluxes and are potentially related to the Brazil Current oscillations; and events of significant fluxes related to the intrusion of the 18°C isotherm in the euphotic zone. The particulate matter settling in the Cabo Frio shelf area seems to belong to multiple marine and terrestrial sources, in which both Paraiba do Sul River and Guanabara Bay could be potential land-sources, although the particulate material might subject intense transformation (diagenesis during its trajectory to the shelf edge.

  8. Particle Fluxes and Bulk Geochemical Characterization of the Cabo Frio Upwelling System in Southeastern Brazil: Sediment Trap Experiments between Spring 2010 and Summer 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S; Belém, André L; Zuluaga, Francisco J B; Cordeiro, Livia G M; Mendoza, Ursula; Knoppers, Bastiaan A; Gurgel, Marcio H C; Meyers, Philip A; Capilla, Ramsés

    2014-05-14

    Physical and biogeochemical processes in continental shelves act synergistically in both transporting and transforming suspended material, and ocean dynamics control the dispersion of particles by the coastal zone and their subsequent mixing and dilution within the shelf area constrained by oceanic boundary currents, followed by their gradual settling in a complex sedimentary scenario. One of these regions is the Cabo Frio Upwelling System located in a significantly productive area of Southeastern Brazil, under the control of the nutrient-poor western boundary Brazil Current but also with a wind-driven coastal upwelling zone, inducing cold-water intrusions of South Atlantic Central Water on the shelf. To understand these synergic interactions among physical and biogeochemical processes in the Cabo Frio shelf, a series of four experiments with a total of 98 discrete samples using sediment traps was performed from November 2010 to March 2012, located on the 145 m isobath on the edge of the continental shelf. The results showed that lateral transport might be relevant in some cases, especially in deep layers, although no clear seasonal cycle was detected. Two main physical-geochemical coupling scenarios were identified: singular downwelling events that can enhance particles fluxes and are potentially related to the Brazil Current oscillations; and events of significant fluxes related to the intrusion of the 18°C isotherm in the euphotic zone. The particulate matter settling in the Cabo Frio shelf area seems to belong to multiple marine and terrestrial sources, in which both Paraiba do Sul River and Guanabara Bay could be potential land-sources, although the particulate material might subject intense transformation (diagenesis) during its trajectory to the shelf edge.

  9. Herpetofauna of Paranapiacaba: expanding our knowledge on a historical region in the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil

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    Vivian Trevine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest area of preserved Atlantic forest is located in the southern portion of Brazil. The region of Paranapiacaba is depicted in Brazilian zoological studies as one of the first and most intensely sampled areas of the state of São Paulo.We provide a concise list of reptiles and amphibians from the Paranapiacaba Municipal Park. It represents the first comprehensive survey of the group in the area. We recorded 136 species of reptiles and amphibians from field surveys, museum collections and the literature. The anuran diversity of Paranapiacaba is greater than that of Estação Ecológica de Boracéia, which has been considered the most distinctive areas in São Paulo in terms of amphibian diversity. The rich history of herpetological research in the region, including the occurrence of the two most threatened species in Brazil, converts the area to an important conservation landmark for the Brazilian herpetofauna.

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA. Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA.We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of 1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species, confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L. infantum vector in Brazil, Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia monticola. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris, a known reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas.The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to elaborate

  11. Long-term avifaunal survey in an urban ecosystem from southeastern Brazil, with comments on range extensions, new and disappearing species

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    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban avifaunal surveys in Brazil have been increasing in recent years, despite none of them consisting of long-term studies indicating events of regional colonization and/or missing species. Here, we present an avifaunal survey of an urbanized ecosystem in southeastern Brazil, carried out along 30 years, on the campus of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state. Inside the campus there is a forest reserve adjacent to a small lake. The inventory was mainly based on opportunistic records from the years 1982-2013. We recorded 134 bird species along the past 30 years. However, the present avifauna is composed of 123 species. A total of 97 species was recorded in the reserve, including the forest fragment and the adjacent lake, of which 44 were exclusive to this area. Nevertheless, the majority of the current species found in the study area is forest independent (N = 51 or semi-dependent (N = 46. There is a predominance of insectivorous (N = 43 and omnivorous (N = 29 species. The current avifauna is represented by 15 migratory species, which can be found both in the urbanized area and in the forest remnant. However, the majority of the species (N = 75 is resident in the area, including three invasive species, whereas few others (N = 28 are occasional visitors. The remaining species were probably introduced in the area. There were 11 cases of disappearing species, which include typical forest birds, and also species typical of wetlands and rural environments. We also comment on recent colonization and on the possible effects of isolation on birds. Probably, the majority of forest-dependents are on the brink of extinction in the forest fragment. Thus, the species' list provided here can be useful as a database for monitoring long-term effects of urbanization on this bird community.

  12. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Paiz, Laís Moraes; da Silva, Vanessa Gusmon; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; von Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno; Castagna, Claudio Luiz; Motoie, Gabriela; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA). Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of 1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species, confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L.) infantum vector in Brazil, Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L.) infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia monticola. Natural infection by L. (L.) infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), a known reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas. The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to elaborate prevention and

  14. On the use of 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists for surveying birds in lowland Atlantic Forests in southeastern Brazil

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    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid and continuous deforestation, recent bird surveys in the Atlantic Forest are following rapid assessment programs to accumulate significant amounts of data during short periods of time. During this study, two surveying methods were used to evaluate which technique rapidly accumulated most species (> 90% of the estimated empirical value at lowland Atlantic Forests in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Birds were counted during the 2008-2010 breeding seasons using 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists. Overall, point counting detected as many species as lists (79 vs. 83, respectively, and 88 points (14.7 h detected 90% of the estimated species richness. Forty-one lists were insufficient to detect 90% of all species. However, lists accumulated species faster in a shorter time period, probably due to the nature of the point count method in which species detected while moving between points are not considered. Rapid assessment programs in these forests will rapidly detect more species using 10-species lists. Both methods shared 63% of all forest species, but this may be due to spatial and temporal mismatch between samplings of each method.

  15. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  16. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  17. Undecomposed Twigs in the Leaf Litter as Nest-Building Resources for Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern Region of Brazil

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    Tae Tanaami Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the leaf-litter stratum exhibits one of the greatest abundances of ant species. This diversity is associated with the variety of available locations for nest building. Ant nests can be found in various microhabitats, including tree trunks and fallen twigs in different stages of decomposition. In this study, we aimed to investigate undecomposed twigs as nest-building resources in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forest areas in the southeastern region of Brazil. Demographic data concerning the ant colonies, the physical characteristics of the nests, and the population and structural of the forest were observed. Collections were performed manually over four months in closed canopy locations that did not have trails or flooded areas. A total of 294 nests were collected, and 34 ant species were recorded. Pheidole, Camponotus, and Hypoponera were the richest genera observed; these genera were also among the most populous and exhibited the greatest abundance of nests. We found no association between population size and nest diameter. Only tree cover influenced the nest abundance and species richness. Our data indicate that undecomposed twigs may be part of the life cycle of many species and are important for maintaining ant diversity in the leaf litter.

  18. Comparison of two mammalian surveys made with camera traps in southeastern Brazil, focusing the abundance of wild mammals and domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, W D; Adania, C H; Esbérard, C E L

    2013-02-01

    Sampling allows assessing the impact of human activities on mammal communities. It is also possible to assess the accuracy of different sampling methods, especially when the sampling effort is similar. The present study aimed at comparing two mammalian surveys carried out over a three-year interval, in terms of sampling effort, capture success, abundance of domestic dogs, impact of human activities, and relative biomass using camera traps, in the Serra do Japi Biological Reserve and surroundings, located in Jundiaí, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The total richness recorded was 13 species, one domestic and 12 wild mammals. Sampling effort in both surveys was similar, but capture success and number of captures differed. The abundance of wild mammals and dogs did also differ between surveys. There was a highly significant correlation between abundance of wild mammals and capture effort for the survey performed in 2006/2007, but not for the survey performed in 2009/2010. The difference between samples may be related to human disturbance, since the number of domestic mammals photographed was higher in the second survey, three years after the first survey. Despite being a reserve, the area is still under pressure from urbanization, biological invasion, environmental degradation, and hunting, which may reduce the abundance of wild mammals.

  19. Lophiobrycon weitzmani, a new genus and species of glandulocaudine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Grande drainage, upper rio Paraná system, southeastern Brazil

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    Ricardo M. C. Castro

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of glandulocaudine, Lophiobrycon weitzmani, is described based on specimens collected in headwater tributary streams of the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná system, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The inclusion of the new species in the phylogeny of the subfamily Glandulocaudinae proposed by Weitzman & Menezes (1998, reveals a sister group relationship between the new genus and the monophyletic group composed of Glandulocauda and Mimagoniates that currently form the tribe Glandulocaudini. The new species can be readily distinguished from all other species of the tribe by the autapomorphic presence in adult male individuals (with more than 23.9 mm standard length of an adipose-fin whose base extends for almost the entire distance between the posterior terminus of the base of the dorsal fin and the base of the upper lobe of the caudal fin and averages approximately 25% standard length, along with the presence of globular expansions formed by the lepidotrichia and hypertrophied soft tissue in the middle portions of the first and second pectoral-fin rays. The diagnosis of the tribe Glandulocaudini is modified to accommodate the new genus.

  20. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

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    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  1. Four new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

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    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2009-08-01

    Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 48'32"S, 43 degrees 37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.

  2. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  3. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-10-20

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  4. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  5. Epidemiological surveillance of informal workers' health in two cities in southeastern Brazil: the experience of the TRAPP-TRAPPURA projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Filho, Heleno Rodrigues; Cugliari, Luciana; Gaspar, Aidê A Coelho Dos Santos; Loureiro, José Fernando; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Informal labor markets have grown in peripheral countries, accounting for more than 50% of jobs. There is anecdotal evidence of a direct relation between informal sector growth and an increase in the frequency and severity of work-related diseases and injuries. Two sister pilot projects were conducted in Uberaba and Campinas, Brazil to develop population-based epidemiological surveillance of workplace injuries in the informal sector. Results for Campinas and Uberaba found cumulative yearly incidences of 5.1% and 10.4%, with incidence rates of 2.2 and 6.5 injuries per 100,000 worked hours, respectively. The proportions of lost work time were 0.3% and 0.31%. Rates found were comparable to those found in the literature for both formal and informal jobs. These results suggest that bad working conditions in the formal labor market are replicated in the informal market as subcontracting and outsourcing contribute to the growth of informal jobs.

  6. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  7. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. By means of artificial nests and quail eggs filled with paraffin, it was possible to identify the marmosets as predators through the bite pattern left on the paraffin. The results suggest a possible occurrence of predation on natural nests. Further studies involving the monitoring of natural nests will be able to confirm the role of marmosets in the decline of bird populations in the study area.

  8. Shallow-water brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Araçá Bay (Southeastern Brazil), with spatial distribution considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitto, Renata A S; Bueno, Maristela L; Guilherme, Pablo D B; Di Domenico, Maikon; Christensen, Ana Beardsley; Borges, Michela

    2018-04-05

    The detailed study of arm ossicles, particularly the lateral arm plates, is providing valuable information in the elucidation of ophiuroid taxonomy. The present study describes in detail 16 species of brittle stars from Araçá Bay, Brazil. This information is used to construct the first interactive electronic key, providing a valuable resource for a broad range of researchers. Brittle stars families were divided into three groups based on their spatial distribution: i) infaunal species of intertidal and shallow subtidal belonging to Amphiuridae and Ophiactidae, ii) epizoic species belonging to Amphiuridae, Ophiactidae, and Ophiotrichidae and, iii) epifaunal species of the subtidal belonging to Ophiodermatidae and Hemieuryalidae. In the global context of recent revisions of ophiuroid taxonomy, the present work provides additional characters for use in future phylogenetic studies.

  9. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa valilbilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) from the southeastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, H K; Silveira, F L

    2005-02-01

    The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860) and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in Sao Sebastiao channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45 degrees 26'W, 23 degrees 50'S). The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorun), high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P variabilis and 41.7% of P caribaeorum), and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaribaeonrum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.

  10. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

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    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  11. Specific profiles of perfluorinated compounds in surface and drinking waters and accumulation in mussels, fish, and dolphins from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Tao; Yun, Se Hun; Moreira, Isabel; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    Despite the concern over widespread distribution of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) even in sparsely populated regions of the world, few studies have reported their occurrence in South America. In this study, PFCs were measured in Rio de Janeiro State in southeast Brazil: in drinking water from various districts in the State, in river water and tucuxi dolphins from the Paraiba do Sul River, several species of fish from the State, and mussels from Guanabara Bay. Liver, kidney, and muscle from fishes were analyzed to enable an understanding of the tissue distribution of PFCs. PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected in all drinking water samples in concentration ranges of 0.58-6.70, 0.35-2.82, and 0.15-1.00 ng L(-1), respectively. The profiles of PFCs in drinking water from Brazil (with PFOS concentrations comparable to or higher than those of PFOA) were different from the profiles that have been reported for other countries. In fish, concentrations of PFOS were, in general, higher in liver than in muscle. Concentrations of PFOA in livers of fish were similar to or lower than fish muscle tissue concentrations. PFOS and PFOA were found in brown mussels from Guanabara Bay. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PFOA calculated for mussels were higher than the BCFs calculated for fishes. Elevated concentrations of PFUnDA (mean: 109+/-17.4 ng g(-1) wet weight) were found in mussels from certain locations within Guanabara Bay. Although PFCs were detected in all types of samples analyzed, the concentrations were generally lower than the concentrations reported for Japan and the USA.

  12. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T M; Sampaio, Susy M P; Marcoris, Maria L G; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Prado, Angelo P

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.

  13. Testing the ecomorphological hypothesis in a headwater riffles fish assemblage of the rio São Francisco, southeastern Brazil

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    Lilian Casatti

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology of 14 fish species resident in a headwater riffles area of the São Francisco river, southeastern Brasil, was analyzed and combined with diet and feeding behavior data, previously obtained by us. The three larger species groups formed in the ecomorphological analysis were found to reflect primarily microhabitat occupation in the following manner: a nektonic characids with compressed bodies, lateral eyes and lateral pectoral fins, with diurnal and opportunistic feeding habits (Astyanax rivularis, Bryconamericus stramineus, and Bryconamericus sp.; b nektobenthic characiforms and siluriforms with fusiform bodies and expanded pectoral fins, including sit-and-wait characidiins, predators of aquatic insect larvae (Characidium fasciatum and Ch.zebra, as well as the algae grazing parodontids (Apareiodon ibitiensis and Parodon hilarii, and also the heptapterid and trichomycterid catfishes that practice substrate speculation and feed on benthic aquatic insect larvae (Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Imparfinis minutus, Rhamdia quelen, and Trichomycterus sp.; c benthic species with depressed bodies, suctorial oral discs, dorsal eyes, and horizontal pectoral fins, represented by the periphytivorous loricariid catfishes (Hisonotus sp., Harttia sp., and Hypostomus garmani. Correlation between diet and general morphology was not significant in our analysis, unless when the analyzed set included only nektonic and benthic species, indicating that the lack of correlation between these factors is most pronounced in the group of nektobenthic species. The unequivocal case of morphological convergence found between the nektobenthic Characidiinae and Parodontidae is a clear example of the integration between phylogenetic information and ecomorphology, and provides a way to objectively identify cases of morphological and adaptive convergence and divergence. Furthermore, the general congruence between the ecomorphological results and the independently obtained

  14. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is

  15. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  16. Mercury in litterfall and sediment using elemental and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in the mangrove of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Cynara Pedrosa; Bernini, Elaine; Araújo, Beatriz Ferreira; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes de; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de

    2018-03-01

    Mercury and elemental and isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen were determined in litterfall and sediments from the mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in sediment ranged from 33 to 123 ng g-1 and 0.20-1.38 ng g-1, respectively. The δ13C in sediment varied from -29.4 to -26.5‰ and from 2.4 to 5.8‰ in δ15N. The THg concentration in litterfall and its annual input to the mangrove was 21 ± 2 ng g-1 and 16 ± 4 μg m-2 for the species Laguncularia racemosa, 18 ± 1 ng g-1 and 17 ± 3 μg m-2 for Rhizophora mangle, and 53 ± 4 ng g-1 and 33 ± 4 μg m-2 for Avicennia germinans, respectively. The isotopic composition of leaf litter ranged from -28.6 to -26.9‰ for δ13C and 4.5-7.2‰ for δ15N. Both the highest annual Hg input via litterfall and highest sediment Hg concentration were observed in areas dominated by A. germinans. These results suggest that the rate of litterfall of plant species and the atmospheric deposition have played an important role in the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the mangrove ecosystem.

  17. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  18. Epidemiology and genetic variability of human metapneumovirus during a 4-year-long study in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danielle B L; Durigon, Edison L; Carvalho, Ariane C L; Leal, Andréa L; Souza, Thereza S; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Moraes, Claudia T P; Vieira, Sandra E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Stewien, Klaus E

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) were compared with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in infants and young children admitted for acute lower respiratory tract infections in a prospective study during four consecutive years in subtropical Brazil. GeneScan polymerase chain assays (GeneScan RT-PCR) were used to detect hMPV and hRSV in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 1,670 children during January 2003 to December 2006. hMPV and hRSV were detected, respectively, in 191 (11.4%) and in 702 (42%) of the children admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections at the Sao Paulo University Hospital. Sequencing data of the hMPV F gene revealed that two groups of the virus, each divided into two subgroups, co-circulated during three consecutive years. It was also shown that a clear dominance of genotype B1 occurred during the years 2004 and 2005, followed by genotype A2 during 2006. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by 137 Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  20. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  1. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  2. Juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, southeastern Brazil

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    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study is to describe the juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, São Paulo, Brazil, analyzing its occurrence period and the patterns of utilization for the most abundant species. Using a beach seine monthly for one year, we sampled 13861 individuals, of 57 species and 24 families. The fish species used the study area for different proposes: Atherinella brasiliensis was sampled in all phases of gonadal development and considered as resident, juveniles of Trachinotus goodei used the beaches for growth and juveniles of Mugil curema and Mugil liza used the beaches as a route from the ocean to the estuary. Our results showed the importance of the sandy beaches for juvenile fish, especially in spring and summer when most juveniles occur and recruit. Unfortunately, this is the period of the most intense tourist activity. As many of the species studied are commercially important, this study highlighted the necessity of coastal habitat preservation for better fishery management.

  3. Seasonal AVS-SEM relationship in sediments and potential bioavailability of metals in industrialized estuary, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizoli, Erico Casare; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson

    2012-04-01

    In anoxic sediments, as those found in estuaries, the mobility of metals can be controlled by the formation of stable sulfide complexes. The potential bioavailability of a metal can then be predicted on the basis of the acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) criterion. Distributions of AVS and SEM (Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni) along the sediment profiles were determined seasonally for three rivers that constitute the Santos-Cubatão estuarine system (SE Brazil), which is located in one of the most industrialized areas of Latin America. AVS and SEM concentrations varied significantly, from 0.04 to 31.9 μmol g(-1) and 0.086-6.659 μmol g(-1), respectively. The highest AVS levels in sediments were detected in the winter, whereas high SEM values predominated in the summer. Considering SEM-AVS molar differences as a parameter to evaluate potential bioavailability, sediments nearest to the industrial area represent higher risk to biota, especially during the summer. It is due to relatively low AVS values and not necessarily high concentrations of metals.

  4. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  5. A new species of Trichogenes from the rio Itapemirim drainage, southeastern Brazil, with comments on the monophyly of the genus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Mário C. C. de Pinna

    Full Text Available A new species of the formerly monotypic genus Trichogenes is described from a high-altitude stream of the rio Itapemirim system, an isolated Atlantic drainage in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Trichogenes claviger, new species, differs from all other trichomycterids by the sexually dimorphic posterior process of the opercle, much elongated in males; the terminal mouth; the deeply bifurcated anterior neural spines and the presence of a large anterodorsal claw-like process on the neural arches of the anterior four free vertebrae. The new species also differs from its only congener, T. longipinnis, by a number of additional traits, including the the lack of branched anal-fin rays in specimens of any size; the broader than long posterior nostril; the deeper head (head depth 72.9-86.6% HL; the presence of a fine dark line along the base of the anal fin; the lack of dark spots on cheeks; the shape of the interopercle; the presence of odontodes on a bony expansion on the posterodorsal margin of the interopercle; the fewer vertebrae (35; the absence of an antorbital; and the fewer pleural ribs (eight. Small juveniles of the new species are also strikingly different from those of all other Trichomycteridae, including T. longipinnis, having a very large lateral eye, an upturned mouth, and compressed head. Trichogenes claviger occurs in shaded sectors of a blackwater sluggish stream with sandy substrate and patchy accumulations of vegetable debris, a habitat markedly different from the rocky torrential environment known for T. longipinnis. A comparison of the internal anatomy of the two species provides the basis for a hypothesis of a monophyletic Trichogenes. Data from the new species further support a sister-group relationship between Trichogeninae and Copionodontinae, as well as the position of that clade as sister group to all remaining Trichomycteridae.

  6. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

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    Joaquim A. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  7. Origin and structural evolution of the Cenozoic Rift System of Southeastern Brazil; Origem e evolucao estrutural do Sistema de Riftes Cenozoicos do Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalan, Pedro Victor [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios], E-mail: zalan@petrobras.com.br; Oliveira, Joao Alberto Bach de

    2005-05-15

    The southeastern region of Brazil did not constitute a typical passive margin as one would expect from the premises of Plate Tectonics. After 25 m.y. that rifting (134-114 Ma) ceased an uplift of epeirogenic nature of the continental crust started in response to the drifting of the South American Plate over a thermal anomaly (Trindade hot spot). This Late Cretaceous (89-65 Ma) uplift was accompanied by intense alkaline (over non-extended crust) and basaltic (over thinned crust) magmatism. A marked absence of tectonism, however, also characterized this event. The resulting highlands extended over 300 000 km{sup 2} (Cretaceous Serra do Mar), and they were the main source area for coniacian-maastrichtian sediments of the Santos, Campos and Parana Basins. By the end of the rising (exactly at the K/T boundary) a widespread erosional surface had developed (Japi Surface) and leveled the top of the highlands at around 2 000 m (in relation to present-day sea level). This mega-plateau was adjacent to the subsiding Santos and Campos Basins and created an isostatically unstable situation. Gravitational collapse began around 7 m.y. after K/T, towards the depocenters of the basins. From Late Paleocene to Early Miocene (58-20 Ma) the continental crust broke and collapsed into a series of grabens, thus forming corridors (rifts) parallel to the current coastline. The ancient eastern edge of the Cretaceous Serra do Mar coincided with the current cretaceous hinge line of the Santos and Campos Basins. The topographic remnants of the mega-plateau nowadays form the highest parts of the Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar Ranges, modified by elastic rebound and tilting of the fault blocks. (author)

  8. COMPARISON OF DIET AND USE OF BROMELIADS BETWEEN A BROMELICOLOUS AND A BROMELIGENOUS ANURAN AT AN INSELBERG IN THE SOUTHEASTERN OF BRAZIL

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    PERTEL WESLEI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from an inselberg in southeastern Brazil were studied using a sample ofsixty tank of bromeliads Alcantharea sp. We found 153 tadpoles of S. arduous, 21adults of S. arduous, 30 adults of T. miliaris, and two adults of Scinax x-signatus,which were not considered in our analyses. Tadpoles of S. arduous were present in35% of the analyzed plants. Adults of S. arduous (bromeligeneous occurred in 25%of analyzed plants, while adults of T. miliaris (bromelicolous occurred in 30%.Apparently the presence of toe pads in S. arduous allow them to occupy the centerportion of bromeliads, while T. miliaris, which lack pads on their toes, were foundon the base of the plant axils. The number of anuran species and the abundance ofindividuals found were low. This may be a result of the high altitude of our studiedsite or a restriction imposed by the saxicolous environment, such as high temperaturesand low humidity during the day. Both species can be considered generalist feedersdue to their wide variety of ingested prey. Formicidae was their main prey but wasabsent segregation in the bromeliads. Blattodea was very common inside the bromeliadaxils and represented the most signifi cant prey by weight in both frog species. Weconclude that both anurans forage inside and outside of bromeliads. Trophic nichebreadth in S. arduous was larger than in T. miliaris. Even both species being commoninhabitants of the same environment, they demonstrated a marked spatial segregationin the bromeliads. Based on their diet, however, there may be disputes for territoryoutside of the bromeliads.

  9. Litterfall dynamics in a iron-rich rock outcrop complex in the southeastern portion of the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil

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    Eduardo André Ribeiro Valim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems on cangas (duricrust present considerable heterogeneity of habitats due to microtopographic variations, soil accumulation and a variety of plant functional groups. Therefore, spatial and temporal ecosystem processes such as litterfall are to be expected to be large, and the absence of a level of productivity represents all the facets of iron-rich landscapes. We investigated litterfall in a iron-rich rock complex in the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil, with habitats formed on different evolutionary stages of the soil, resulting in a gradient of biomass, canopy cover and community structure. The measurements were made in open field areas, dominated by herb-shrub vegetation and interspersed with islands of dense vegetation in which there were individual trees, as well as in areas of semideciduous forest. The litterfall, especially that of leaf litter, followed the gradient of woody cover and was approximately two times greater in the forest formation. However, the spatial and temporal variations in deposition were greatest in the herb-shrub areas and least in the semideciduous forest area, intermediate values being obtained for the tree island areas. The peaks in litterfall also varied among habitats, occurring in some periods of the rainy season and during the transition from rainy to dry in the herb-shrub and tree island areas, whereas they occurred at the end of the dry season in the semideciduous forest area. The results show significant differences in the patterns of litterfall among different physiognomies within the same iron-rich rock complex, indicating the need for expanded studies, focusing on the flow of matter and energy in such environments.

  10. Habitat monitoring and genotoxicity in Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Ucididae), as tools to manage a mangrove reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M A A; Duarte, L F A; Toledo, T R; Adam, M L; Torres, R A

    2013-10-01

    In Brazil, the state of São Paulo contains both preserved areas (Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station) and extremely impacted ones (Cubatão Municipality). This study evaluated the concentrations of five metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg) in two mangroves with different levels of anthropogenic impact and the apparent genotoxicity to Ucides cordatus. Water and sediment samples were obtained, and metal concentrations were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The genotoxic impact was quantified based on the number of micronucleated cells per 1,000 analyzed (MN‰), using hemolymph slides stained with Giemsa. Metal concentrations in water were below the detection limit, except for lead, although no significant difference was observed between the areas (P > 0.05). Sediment from Cubatão had higher concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu than sediment from Juréia-Itatins (P  0.05). Crabs from Cubatão had a 2.6 times higher mean frequency of micronucleated cells (5.2 ± 1.8 MN‰) than those from Juréia-Itatins (2.0 ± 1.0 MN‰; P mangrove sediments of Cubatão were reflected in the micronucleus assay, demonstrating their genotoxic effect; however, genetic damage should be attributed to a synergistic effect with other kinds of pollutants previously recorded in different environments of Cubatão. U. cordatus proved to be an excellent bioindicator of mangrove pollution. This study established, for the first time, the normal frequency of MN‰ in a population of this species within an ecological station.

  11. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

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    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  12. High prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli carrying toxin-encoding genes isolated from children and adults in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Liliana Cruz; da Cunha, Keyla Fonseca; Monfardini, Mariane Vedovatti; de Cássia Bergamaschi Fonseca, Rita; Scaletsky, Isabel Christina Affonso

    2017-12-18

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are important bacterial causes of childhood diarrhea in Brazil, but its impact in adults is unknown. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children and adults living in endemic areas. A total of 327 stools specimens were collected from children (n = 141) and adults (n = 186) with diarrhea attending health centers. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) were identified by their virulence genes (multiplex polymerase chain reaction) and HEp-2 cell adherence patterns. DEC were detected in 56 (40%) children and 74 (39%) adults; enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (23%) was the most prevalent pathotype, followed by diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (13%), and occurred at similar frequencies in both diarrheal groups. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains were recovered more frequently from children (6%) than from adults (1%). Twenty-six percent of the EAEC were classified as typical EAEC possessing aggR gene, and carried the aap gene. EAEC strains carrying aggR-aap-aatA genes were significantly more frequent among children than adults (p < 0.05). DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr. genes were detected from children (10%) and adults (6%). EAEC and DAEC strains harboring genes for the EAST1 (astA), Pet, Pic, and Sat toxins were common in both diarrheal groups. The astA and the porcine AE/associated adhesin (paa) genes were found in most of aEPEC strains. High levels of resistance to antimicrobial drugs were found among DAEC and aEPEC isolates. The results show a high proportion of EAEC and DAEC carrying toxin-encoding genes among adults with diarrhea.

  13. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 1- Parity of blood seeking Anopheles (Kerteszia in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992 at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. Indoor and outdoor collections were made on human bait at evening crepuscular period. The Polovodova technique for age grading was applied to 3,501 females of Anopheles cruzii and to 416 females of An. bellator. That sample represented 34.4% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. The most abundant species found was An. cruzii. However, An. bellator showed an endophagy that was almost three times greater than that of An. cruzii. The overall parous rate was 25.4% and uniparity was practically dominant one. A proportion of 26.9% of An. cruzii and 12.0% of An. bellator were found to be uniparous. Only three outdoor females of the former species (0.1% showed biparity. Parity of An. cruzii was higher in females caught outdoors than in those caught indoors. Nevertheless, 497 nulliparous females examined (417 cruzii and 80 bellator had ovaries that had advanced to Christophers and Mer stages III to V. These results imply that these females had already practised hematophagy. Relating these results to those from the parous females, a high statistical significance was found, leading to the conclusion that gonothophic discordance is a common pattern among these anophelines. Further, these results obtained with human bait catches strongly suggest that nearly 38.0% of these host-seeking females had already taken at least one previous blood-meal. So it is possible that enough time could thus be available for the plasmodian development in the vectors.

  14. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana e suas relações sócio ambientais no município de Ubatuba-SP La leishmaniose tégumentaire américaine et ses relations avec le socio-environnement à Ubatuba-SP American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its relations with the social environment in Ubatuba-SP

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    Helen da Costa Gurgel

    2011-12-01

    de cas se produit dans la région nord du Brésil, mais est encore très présente sur le Littoral nord de l'État de São Paulo, une région de forte attraction touristique. Afin de comprendre l'influence des changements socio-environnementaux dans la dynamique de la maladie, nous avons analysé la distribution spatio-temporelle des cas déclarés entre 1998 et 2006 à Ubatuba dans l’Etat de São Paulo. Le type d’utilisation des terres et la variabilité du climat, considérés comme importants pour le développement et la prolifération de l'insecte vecteur, ont aussi été analysés. Les données ont été traitées grâce aux outils et techniques de SIG et de télédétection. L'intérêt pour cette recherche est apparu en raison de l'augmentation du nombre de cas signalés à partir de 2003, année durant laquelle on a enregistré une concentration des précipitations sur les premiers mois de l’année. Le climat chaud et humide de la région contribue à la prolifération des moustiques qui transmettent la maladie. L'analyse a montré la prévalence survenue chez les individus économiquement actifs et les hommes. Il existe également une relation significative entre le type d'utilisation des terres et la localisation de la maladie, ainsi que la proximité des habitats en forêt. Le facteur social semble également important, il fait référence au coût de l’immobilier qui est généralement moins élevé dans les périphéries urbaines situées à proximités des espaces boisés, secteurs où prolifèrent les insectes vecteurs. Le déplacement de la maladie semble également être influencé par les facteurs économiques et démographiques puisque  l'implantation des logements est souvent motivée par la situation financière du futur résident.The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is a vetorial disease that can be acquired when anyone is bitten by an infected mosquito. The majority of the cases occur in Northern parts of Brazil, although in the

  15. Modeling changes in organic carbon stocks for distinct soils in southeastern brazil after four eucalyptus rotations using the century model

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    Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in carbon (C cycle and soil quality. Considering the complexity of factors that control SOM cycling and the long time it usually takes to observe changes in SOM stocks, modeling constitutes a very important tool to understand SOM cycling in forest soils. The following hypotheses were tested: (i soil organic carbon (SOC stocks would be higher after several rotations of eucalyptus than in low-productivity pastures; (ii SOC values simulated by the Century model would describe the data better than the mean of observations. So, the aims of the current study were: (i to evaluate the SOM dynamics using the Century model to simulate the changes of C stocks for two eucalyptus chronosequences in the Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil; and (ii to compare the C stocks simulated by Century with the C stocks measured in soils of different Orders and regions of the Rio Doce Valley growing eucalyptus. In Belo Oriente (BO, short-rotation eucalyptus plantations had been cultivated for 4.0; 13.0, 22.0, 32.0 and 34.0 years, at a lower elevation and in a warmer climate, while in Virginópolis (VG, these time periods were 8.0, 19.0 and 33.0 years, at a higher elevation and in a milder climate. Soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm layer to estimate C stocks. Results indicate that the C stocks simulated by the Century model decreased after 37 years of poorly managed pastures in areas previously covered by native forest in the regions of BO and VG. The substitution of poorly managed pastures by eucalyptus in the early 1970´s led to an average increase of C of 0.28 and 0.42 t ha-1 year-1 in BO and VG, respectively. The measured C stocks under eucalyptus in distinct soil Orders and independent regions with variable edapho-climate conditions were not far from the values estimated by the Century model (root mean square error - RMSE = 20.9; model efficiency - EF = 0.29 despite the opposite result obtained

  16. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  17. Fluvial fluxes of natural radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Keila Cristina Pinheiro Marchini de

    2008-01-01

    Radium isotopes are among the most important isotopes in the environment from both radioprotection and geo-hydrological points of view. They are also a powerful tool for studying geohydrological processes and have been used intensively as tracers of groundwater sources that discharge into the coastal ocean.The complex exchange of fluvial, subsurface and seawater within a coastal area directly affects global biogeochemical cycles. Environmental scientists have few tools to accurately quantify such processes and must therefore rely on various tracer techniques. Radium isotopes have been frequently applied as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The unique radium signature of SGD is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In this study we determined the fluvial fluxes of the radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, northernmost part of Sao Paulo Bight. The research work was carried out from April/ 2007 to August/ 2007 and covered 17 small rivers sources that belong to the major surface draining system of such coastal area. During this period of investigation, groundwater samples were also collected from 10 sources available in this coastal region. Activity concentrations of 223 Ra in riverine waters discharging to Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba embayments varied from -1 to 335 mBq 1000L -1 (in Cocanha River), while 224 Ra concentrations ranged from 17 mBq 100L -1 to 7270 mBq 100L -1 . Activity concentrations up to 1424 mBq 100L -1 were observed for 226 Ra in riverine waters, while 228 Ra concentrations varied from 1412 mBq 100L -1 to 4058 mBq 100L -1 . Groundwater activity concentrations of 223 Ra varied from 1 mBq 100L -1 to 126 mBq 100L -1 , while 224 Ra ranged from 118 mBq 100L -1 to 3701 mBq 100L -1 . 223 Ra/ 224 Ra activity ratios up to 0.7x10 -1 and 0.2 were observed in riverine and groundwater, respectively. For 226 Ra groundwater activity concentrations

  18. Prurido do traje de banho: relato de seis casos no Sul do Brasil Seabather’s eruption: report of the six cases in southern Brazil

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    André Luiz Rossetto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O prurido do traje de banho ou seabather’s eruption é uma dermatite intensamente pruriginosa que ocorre pelo contato com larvas plânulas do cnidário cifozoário Linuche unguiculata, especialmente sob os trajes de banhistas. As larvas disparam seus nematocistos a partir de cnidócitos ou células urticantes de defesa na pele da vítima, causando uma típica erupção pápulo-eritemato-pruriginosa. Os primeiros cinco casos descritos no Brasil foram publicados em 2001, no litoral Sudeste (Ubatuba, SP, obtendo-se associação com larvas de Linuche unguiculata, uma vez que a ocorrência e o ciclo de vida do cnidário já haviam sido estudados no Canal de São Sebastião, SP. Os autores relatam os seis casos na região Sul do Brasil (Estado de Santa Catarina, enfatizando os aspectos clínicos e a pesquisa para identificação do agente na água do mar local.Seabather’s eruption is an intensely pruriginous form of dermatitis that occurs after contact with the planula larvae of the cnidarian scyphozoan Linuche unguiculata, especially under the bather’s clothes. They discharge their poisonous nematocysts from the cnidocytes, causing a typical eruption presenting papules, erythema and intense itching. The first five cases described in Brazil were published in 2001 and occurred on the southeastern coast (Ubatuba, State of São Paulo. Those cases were linked to larvae of Linuche unguiculata, because the occurrence and life cycle of this cnidarian had been studied in the São Sebastião Channel, State of São Paulo. The present authors report the six cases observed in southern Brazil (State of Santa Catarina, with a description of the typical clinical aspects and an investigation linking the cases to Linuche unguiculata in the local seawater.

  19. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  20. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei) in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

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    Lima, Sergio M. Q.; Berbel-Filho, Waldir M.; Araújo, Thais F. P.; Lazzarotto, Henrique; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Avise, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE), São João (SJO), Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC) and Guapimirim (GMI)], and Santo Aleixo (SAL). Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL). A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type locality. In

  1. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

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    Sergio M. Q. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE, São João (SJO, Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC and Guapimirim (GMI], and Santo Aleixo (SAL. Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL. A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type

  2. The Skull of Epidolops ameghinoi from the Early Eocene Itaboraí Fauna, Southeastern Brazil, and the Affinities of the Extinct Marsupialiform Order Polydolopimorphia.

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    Beck, Robin M D

    2017-01-01

    The skull of the polydolopimorphian marsupialiform Epidolops ameghinoi is described in detail for the first time, based on a single well-preserved cranium and associated left and right dentaries plus additional craniodental fragments, all from the early Eocene (53-50 million year old) Itaboraí fauna in southeastern Brazil. Notable craniodental features of E. ameghinoi include absence of a masseteric process, very small maxillopalatine fenestrae, a prominent pterygoid fossa enclosed laterally by a prominent ectopterygoid crest, an absent or tiny transverse canal foramen, a simple, planar glenoid fossa, and a postglenoid foramen that is immediately posterior to the postglenoid process. Most strikingly, the floor of the hypotympanic sinus was apparently unossified, a feature found in several stem marsupials but absent in all known crown marsupials. "Type II" marsupialiform petrosals previously described from Itaboraí plausibly belong to E. ameghinoi ; in published phylogenetic analyses, these petrosals fell outside (crown-clade) Marsupialia. "IMG VII" tarsals previously referred to E. ameghinoi do not share obvious synapomorphies with any crown marsupial clade, nor do they resemble those of the only other putative polydolopimorphians represented by tarsal remains, namely the argyrolagids. Most studies have placed Polydolopimorphia within Marsupialia, related to either Paucituberculata, or to Microbiotheria and Diprotodontia. However, diprotodonty almost certainly evolved independently in polydolopimorphians, paucituberculatans and diprotodontians, and Epidolops does not share obvious synapomorphies with any marsupial order. Epidolops is dentally specialized, but several morphological features appear to be more plesiomorphic than any crown marsupial. It seems likely Epidolops that falls outside Marsupialia, as do morphologically similar forms such as Bonapartherium and polydolopids. Argyrolagids differ markedly in their known morphology from Epidolops but share some

  3. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil Mortalidade indígena Guarani no Sul e Sudeste do Brasil

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    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.Mundialmente, povos indígenas apresentam elevada carga de doença, expressa por profundas iniquidades em saúde na comparação com os não-indígenas. Neste estudo, descreve-se a mortalidade Guarani no Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, com foco nas iniquidades em saúde. A estrutura populacional Guarani expressa elevada natalidade, mortalidade precoce e baixa idade mediana e esperança de vida ao nascer. A taxa de mortalidade bruta (TM bruta = 5,0/1.000 se assemelha à nacional, mas a TM < 5 anos (44,5/1.000 e a taxa de mortalidade infantil (29,6/1.000 são duas vezes maiores que as TM correspondentes nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. A proporção de óbitos infantis pós-neonatais foi de 83,3%, 2,4 vezes maior que a população geral. As proporções de causas mal definidas (15,8% e de evitáveis pelos serviços de saúde (51

  4. Dominância de Aedes aegypti sobre Aedes albopictus no litoral sudeste do Brasil Dominance of Aedes aegypti over Aedes albopictus in the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Ricardo A Passos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a infestação de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus e verificar sua associação com fatores climáticos e com a sua freqüência em recipientes de área urbana. MÉTODOS: Foi selecionado o município de São Sebastião, localizado no litoral Sudeste do Brasil. Foram utilizados os dados do "Programa de Controle de Vetores de Dengue e Febre Amarela no Estado de São Paulo" que realiza a vigilância entomológica em pontos estratégicos, armadilhas e delimitação de focos. Os pontos estratégicos são imóveis onde existem recipientes em condições favoráveis à proliferação de larvas. Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes de significância estatística: Kruskal-Wallis, Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Fligne e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se crescimento anual da positividade de armadilhas e pontos estratégicos para Ae. aegypti e diminuição para Ae. albopictus. Observou-se aumento do número de imaturos de Ae. aegypti e diminuição da outra espécie. Na positividade de imóveis para a presença de larvas, verificou-se aumento gradativo do número de imóveis com Ae. Aegypti, superando a positividade para Ae. albopictus. Houve uma fraca correlação das espécies com os fatores abióticos. As maiores freqüências de imaturos de ambas espécies foram em recipientes artificiais passíveis de remoção. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram no período de estudo a predominância de Ae. aegypti sobre Ae. albopictus em área urbana, indicando que o crescimento populacional do primeiro parece ter afetado a chance de sua coexistência. Sugere-se que algum processo de seleção natural possa estar operando e desse modo contribuindo para levar à separação das duas espécies.OBJECTIVE: To assess infestation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopiticus and describe their association with weather conditions and container colonization in urban areas. METHODS: The town of São Sebastião in the southeastern coast of Brazil

  5. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  6. Gastronomia, Sustentabilidade e Turismo na Praia de Caçandoca, Ubatuba (São Paulo-Brasil

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    Marielys Siqueira Bueno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A praia de Caçandoca, em Ubatuba, possui uma comunidade de pesca artesanal que é também remanescente de um quilombo. Desde a abertura de estradas acessando praias da região do litoral norte paulista, a partir dos anos de 1970, a comunidade sofreu inúmeras pressões da especulação imobiliária para seu despejo e mudança, pela beleza do local e seu possível aproveitamento turístico. Mas ela conseguiu o reconhecimento da propriedade territorial como terra de quilombo, e hoje busca manter sua identidade e sua cultura material. Uma parte importante dessa cultura é sua culinária de pescados, levantada pelo A. em entrevistas abertas com antigos moradores da Caçandoca. E hoje, projetos comunitários e de governo oferecem possibilidades alternativas de aproveitamento dessa cozinha tradicional em uma atividade de turismo sustentável. Palavras-chave: turismo sustentável; pesca artesanal; quilombo; culinária caiçara; Ubatuba-SP. Abstract The beach named Caçandoca, in Ubatuba, has an artisan fishing's community who is also remainder of a "quilombo". Since the opening of roads allowed access to the north coastland of São Paulo, on the seventies, the community have suffered a lot of pressures from the immovable speculation for her evacuation or removing, because of the natural beauty of the place and its possible touristic utilization. But she obtained the recognition of the territory's property, as a "quilombo's" land, and nowadays she searchs to conserve her identity and her material culture. An important part of this culture is her fishing cookery, approached by the A. in opening interviews with old dwellers of Caçandoca. And, at the present time, community's and governmental's projects offer alternative possibilitys to make good use of this traditional cookery in a sustainable tourism acivity. Keywords: sustainable touris; artisan fishing; quilombo ; culinária caiçara ; Ubatuba-SP. Resumen La playa de Caçandoca, em

  7. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  8. Aids em área rural de Minas Gerais: abordagem cultural AIDS in rural Minas Gerais state (Southeastern Brazil: a cultural approach

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    Patricia Neves Guimarães

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever comportamentos facilitadores à exposição ao HIV/Aids em população rural. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa realizada com 52 pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de DST/Aids, em 2002-2003. Foram feitas entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas em profundidade com os participantes (30 homens e 22 mulheres, conduzidas no ambulatório ou em suas residências, em municípios rurais da região norte de Minas Gerais. As entrevistas foram transcritas, analisadas em categorias: concepções da doença, trabalho, sociabilidade, informações prévias sobre a doença, modo de vida. A interpretação dos resultados baseou-se na análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Na percepção dos entrevistados, a Aids era "doença de cidade grande" e de "forasteiro", desvinculada da cultura local. Todos os entrevistados se infectaram através de atividades heterossexuais ou homossexuais. A migração rural-urbana é aspecto relevante da infecção do HIV na região devido ao deslocamento em busca de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: As noções populares de doença contribuem para vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV. É necessário apreender noções culturais locais para melhor entender as categorias de pensamento dessa população, enfocando essas noções ao divulgar informações sobre a doença.OBJECTIVE: To describe behaviors facilitating HIV/AIDS exposure in rural population. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted comprising 52 patients who attended a STD/AIDS outpatient clinic in 2002 and 2003. In-depth open and semi-structured interviews were carried out with subjects (30 males, 22 females at the clinic or at home in rural municipalities in the northern area of Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed considering categories such as disease, work, social life, prior HIV/AIDS knowledge, and lifestyle. Content analysis was used for result interpretation. RESULTS: Interviewees perceived AIDS as a "big city

  9. Topologia do risco de acidentes do trabalho em Piracicaba, SP Spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries in a city of Southeastern e Brazil

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    Lia Thieme Oikawa Zangirolani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial do risco de acidente do trabalho controlado por variáveis nutricionais e outras co-variáveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle espacial de base hospitalar, tendo como variável de interesse a localização espacial dos acidentes do trabalho. Foram amostrados 794 trabalhadores, no período de maio a outubro de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão para casos (N=263 foram: ser trabalhador acidentado do trabalho, morador de Piracicaba, com idade entre 15 e 60 anos, e atendido em centro de ortopedia e traumatologia. Os controles (N=531 tiveram o mesmo critério de idade e residência na cidade, exceto que o acidente não era do trabalho, tendo sido considerandos também trabalhadores acompanhantes dos casos. A distribuição espacial da estimativa baseou-se no ajuste do modelo aditivo generalizado, tendo as coordenadas geográficas dos casos e controles como componente espacial não linear e as demais co-variáveis como componente linear. RESULTADOS: A variação da estimativa do risco espacial de acidentes do trabalho, controlada por sexo (OR=1,87; pOBJECTIVE: To assess spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries controlled for nutritional variables and other covariables. METHODS: Hospital-based spatial case-control study with work-related injuries spatial distribution as the main variable of interest. A total of 794 workers were selected between May and October 2004. Inclusion criteria for cases (N=263 were: worker with work-related injury; living in Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil; age between 15 and 60 years old; and cared at an orthopedics and trauma center. Controls (N=531 met the same criteria for age and residence, but had non-work-related injuries and workers accompanying cases were included as well. Spatial distribution was estimated by adjusting a generalized additive model with geographical coordinates of cases and controls as spatial non-linear component and the remaining covariables

  10. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

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    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  11. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.H.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ebbert, H.D; Dantas, E.L; Costa, A.C.D. da

    2001-01-01

    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  12. Liquidambar para produção de madeira no sul e sudeste do Brasil Sweetgum for wood production in the South and Southeastern Brazil

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    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2011-03-01

    equilíbrio. Além disso, esta espécie tem  a capacidade de regenerar vigorosamente a partir das  touças e das raízes adventícias.
    Sweetgum is a North and Central American tree species well known for the healing gum since the times of the Aztec civilization. In the southern United States, this is the most widely planted broadleaf species for wood  production. It grows well on a variety of site conditions, including on alluvial soil prone to flooding. As a result  of the wide natural distribution, it shows important variations in phenology and growth traits. The more  northern provenances tend to shut down growth processes much earlier and resume them later than the southern sources. These variations reflect directly on  the growth patterns among seed sources. Experiments  in several sites have demonstrated its potential value for wood production in small wood lots in the South and Southeastern Brazil. The most southern seed sources  (Central American have proved to be far more  productive than the North Americans; the fastest  growing provenances have shown productivity similar to fast growing eucalypts, in the order of 40 m3/ha.yr. The  ood has multiple use including pulp, railway sleepers, sawn timber, furniture and firewood. It is  especially valued for use in veneer and plywood  industries. However, it must be dealt with cautiously because of its highly invasive nature. In Brazil, it  produces large amounts of seed with great chances to  germinate and to rapidly take over the site. One key  factor for this success is the absence of foraging agents  uch as birds and rodents which coexist in its  natural range. Moreover, this species regenerates vigorously from stumps as well as from adventitious  roots.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valeriana Valadares; Conceição, Abiqueila da Silva; Maximiano, Leandro Henrique Silva; Belligoli, Leonardo de Queiroz Gomes; Silva, Eduardo Sergio da

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD®) results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence) compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®)-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar). A comparison of the ELISA (IVD®) and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab®) that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403) prevalence for E. histolytica infection. The ELISA kit (IVD®) can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

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    Valeriana Valadares Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD® results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. Methods: In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. Results: For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar. A comparison of the ELISA (IVD® and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab® that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403 prevalence for E. histolytica infection. Conclusions: The ELISA kit (IVD® can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

  15. Distribuição vertical e sazonal de Anopheles (Kerteszia em Ilha Comprida, SP Vertical and seasonal distribution of Anopheles (Kerteszia in Ilha Comprida, Southeastern Brazil

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    Helene Mariko Ueno

    2007-04-01

    Comprida, Southeastern Brazil, CDC light traps baited with dry ice were placed fortnightly from 17:00 to 20:00, at one, six and 12 meters high from September 2001 to September 2002. Association between An. bellator and An. cruzii densities and weather were assessed by Spearman coefficient and comparisons among heights and species densities were made by Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. RESULTS: A total of 55,226 mosquitoes were caught: 1,341 were An. bellator (2.4% of Culicidae, 278 at one meter, 261 at six meter and 802 at 12m high. Following the same sequence, An. cruzii was represented by 452, 1,032 and 4,420 adults, totalizing 5,904 mosquitoes (10.7%. There was a positive correlation between densities of both species and daily maximum temperature, and between density of An. bellator and thermal amplitude. The densities were higher for both species at tree canopy. At the three levels, the density of An. cruzii was higher. CONCLUSIONS: The acrodendrophilic behavior of these species was confirmed, remarkably in An. cruzii. After aggressive measures of control, these anophelines have remained in this region, but they are not under entomological surveillance. The persistent transmission of malaria and increasing tourism activities in this region highlight the need for surveillance of these species.

  16. Geological evolution of the center-southern portion of the Guyana shield based on the geochemical, geochronological and isotopic studies of paleoproterozoic granitoids from southeastern Roraima, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo Esteves

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses the granitoids of center-southern portion of Guyana Shield, southeastern Roraima, Brazil. The region is characterized by two tectonic-stratigraphic domains, named as Central Guyana (GCD) and Uatuma-Anaua (UAD) and located probably in the limits of geochronological provinces (e.g. Ventuari-Tapajos or Tapajos-Parima, Central Amazonian and Maroni-Itacaiunas or Transamazon). The aim this doctoral thesis is to provide new petrological and lithostratigraphic constraints on the granitoid rocks and contribute to a better understanding of the origin and geo dynamic evolution of Guyana Shield. The GCD is only locally studied near to the UAD boundary, and new geological data and two single zircon Pb-evaporation ages in mylonitic biotite granodiorite (1.89 Ga) and foliated hastingsite-biotite granite (1.72 Ga) are presented. These ages of the protholiths contrast with the lithostratigraphic picture in the other areas of Cd (1.96-1.93 Ga). Regional mapping, petrography, geochemistry and zircon geochronology carried out in the Urad have showed widespread Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitic magmatism. These granitoid rocks are distributed into several magmatic associations with different Paleoproterozoic (1.97-1.89 Ga) ages, structural and geochemical affinities. Detailed mapping, petrographic and geochronological studies have distinguished two main sub domains in the UAD. In the northern UAD, the high-K calc-alkaline Martins Pereira (1.97 Ga) and Serra Dourada S-type granites (1.96 Ga) are affected by NE-SW and E-W ductile dextral shear-zones, showing coexistence of magmatic and deformational fabrics related to heterogeneous deformation. Inliers of basement (2.03 Ga) crop out northeast of this area, and are formed by meta volcano-sedimentary sequence (Cauarane Group) and TTG-like calc-alkaline association (Anaua Complex). Xenoliths of meta diorites (Anaua Complex) and para gneisses (Cauarane Group) reinforce the intrusive character of Martins Pereira

  17. Condições hidrográficas na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba: variações sazonais e em média escala Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf off Ubatuba: seasonal and meso-scale variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Mendes de Castro Filho

    1987-01-01

    estruturas térmica e halina, tem provavelmente um importante papel na troca de massas de água entre a costa e o talude, contribuindo para o enriquecimento das águas da plataforma continental através dos movimentos ascendentes que ocorrem em seu núcleo.Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf offshore of Ubatuba have shown different water mass distributions for summer (December, 1985 and winter (July, 1986. Two physical domains were identified: inner shelf and outer shelf, both separated by a front particularly well defined during the winter, The inner shelf has a two layer vertical stratification during summer, with a strong thermocline at mid-depths. During winter this region shows almost no stratification, During summer the upper layer (depths smaller than 20 m is filled with Coastal Water (CW, which interacts with Tropical Water (TW offshore. South Atlantic Central Water (SACA predominates in the lower layer during surrmer. Vertical interaction between CW and SACA is restricted to a band near the coast. During winter SACA does not penetrate towards the coast in the lower layer and, as a consequence, the inner shelf shows the presence of CW only. For winter interactions between CW and SACA are observed only across the front that separates inner and outer shelf. For this season there is also a noticeable intrusion of TW towards the coast on the upper layer of the outer shelf. A descriptive model for the wind driven seasonal circulation of the inner shelf is sugested, based on: 1 the water mass distributions observed and: 2 meteorological conditions from a coastal station located southward of Ubatuba, The outer shelf dynamics seems to suffer strong influence from the Brazil Current. Eddies or meanders with characteristics of frontal eddies, have been observed on both seasons on the outer shelf. These eddies should play an important role on the water mass exchange between the shelf and the slope, contributing for the enrichment of shelf waters by the upward

  18. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  19. MLST-Based Population Genetic Analysis in a Global Context Reveals Clonality amongst Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI Isolates from HIV Patients in Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Fonseca, Fernanda; Ferreira, Thatiana; Mora, Delio; Andrade-Silva, Juliana; Khan, Aziza; Dao, Aiken; C. Reis, Eduardo; Almeida, Margarete; Maltos, André; Rodrigues Jr, Virmondes; Trilles, Luciana; Rickerts, Volker; Chindamporn, Ariya; Sykes, Jane; Cogliati, Massimo; Nielsen, Kirsten; Boekhout, Teun; L. Silva-Vergara, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an important fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with HIV. In Brazil, despite the free availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the public health system, the mortality rate due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is still high. To

  20. Arraias em rios da região Sudeste do Brasil: locais de ocorrência e impactos sobre a população Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population

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    Domingos Garrone Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No presente trabalho objetivamos descrever o processo de colonização da Bacia do Alto Paraná, Sudeste do Brasil, por arraias, demonstrando sua atual situação e provável tendência, os impactos gerados e discutindo algumas ações de manejo e medidas mitigadoras. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas entrevistas com ribeirinhos e profissionais de saúde para o levantamento de informações sobre a ocorrência de arraias e acidentes associados a estes animais, além de coletas e observações subaquáticas de potamotrigonídeos, entre 2004 e 2009, em localidades situadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul, no Sudeste, Sul e parte do Centro-Oeste do Brasil. RESULTADOS: Três espécies de arraias foram identificadas na área de estudo, demonstrando utilizar os caminhos abertos pela Hidrovia Tietê-Paraná para se dispersarem. Dezesseis vítimas de acidentes envolvendo esses animais foram encontradas, notadamente banhistas e pescadores, chamando a atenção pelo fato dos casos não serem notificados e apresentarem elevada morbidade, com marcante incapacidade temporária para o trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: Este é o primeiro relato de invasão biológica envolvendo espécies de elasmobrânquios conhecido na literatura e, pelas arraias estarem colonizando áreas densamente povoadas e ampliando sua área de distribuição a cada ano, é de se esperar que sua interação negativa com humanos se intensifique, provocando alterações importantes no perfil epidemiológico dos acidentes por animais peçonhentos ocorridos no sudeste brasileiro.INTRODUCTION: In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. METHODS: Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays

  1. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  2. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

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    Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  3. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (sagittae of Southeastern-Southern Brazil Part VI: Albuliformes, Anguiliformes, Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, Myctophiformes, Ophidiiformes, Polimixiiformes, Batrachoidiformes and Lophiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Bockis Giaretta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This publication is part of a series that will constitute an Atlas of Teleostei Otoliths of the Southeastern-Southern Brazilian region. In this article, we present the results of sagittae's morphologic and morphometric analyses from fishes remaining to the orders: Albuliformes (one species, Anguiliformes (four, Osmeriformes (one, Stomiiformes (one, Aulopiformes (five, Myctophiformes (nine, Ophidiiformes (three, Polimixiiformes (one, Batrachoidiformes (one and Lophiformes (three. Features, measurements and indices were analyzed according to methodology used in anterior series. Whenever possible three otoliths of each species have been illustrated and photographed. The frequency of occurrence of each characteristic was calculated by total length classes (TL and differences within and among them have been analyzed applying multiple χ² test (significance 0.05.

  4. Population structure and reproduction of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in Ubatuba-Enseada Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Carolina Ferreira Haluch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and reproductive aspects of the southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus in Santa Catarina northern coast were investigated. Trawl nets were used for the monthly surveys between October (2003 and September (2004. A total of 425 individuals between 4.2 and 31.8cm (mean 12.7 ± 5.7 were analyzed, and the majority of the individuals (4.2 to12.5cm was captured mainly in summer, autumn and winter, while larger individuals were captured in spring. Females of all size classes were predominant during summer and winter, and weight/length relationship showed significant differences between sexes and a positive alometric growth for the species. The size at first maturity (L50 was estimated in 16.7cm for females and 15.4cm for males. The reproductive period occurred in warm seasons, and M. americanus showed multiple spawning. The hepatossomatic index demonstrated a similar seasonal pattern as the gonadosomatic index, and was a good indicator of the spawning. The condition factor wasn’t a good indicator of the spawning period, but it was related with the recovery process and gonad maturation. Characteristics of the population dynamic showed that M. americanus utilizes the study area for reproduction and recruitment.

  5. Estrutura de um curso de taxonomia de campo: o modelo aplicado em Ubatuba, São Paulo Structure of taxonomy field course: the model applied at Ubatuba-São Paulo

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    Hermógenes de F Leitão Filho

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available As atividades de campo são essenciais à formação de um bom taxonomista. Os problemas mais usuais das atividades didáticas no campo são: a grande número de alunos; b formação heterogênea e desequilíbrio de conhecimento dos participantes; c repetições e tendência de coletas direcionadas para as formas de vida mais evidentes. As causas e conseqüências destes problemas são discutidas. Como solução é proposta uma metodologia, fundamentada numa vivência de muitos anos de atividades didáticas no campo em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação. São abordados tópicos como o número ideal de participantes, área de abrangência, época de atividade, divisão de trabalho e material e equipamentos necessários. Dependendo do número de espécies coletadas na mesma localidade, esta metodologia pode gerar uma lista de espécies da região com indicações precisas de hábito, habitat, nomes vulgares, abundância, usos, fenologia e outras informações que sempre afloram em trabalhos desta natureza. Como exemplo são apresentados os resultados da aplicação dessa metodologia em um curso de campo realizado em Ubatuba-SP e região.The field activities are essential for the education of a good taxonomist. The most common problems found in field activities are: a large number of students, b heterogeneous educational background and unlevelled knowledge of the participants, c repetitions and tendency of collecting the more evidents life-forms. The causes and consequences of such problems are discussed herein. The proposed solution is a methodology, based on many years of experience in field courses for undergraduate and graduate courses. Topics about the ideal number of participants, area of coverage, period of activity, division of work and the necessary material and equipment are discussed. According to the number of species collected at the same place, this methodology may result in a list of local species with precise information about

  6. Low sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in southeastern Brazil Baixa sensibilidade da reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de meningite tuberculosa no sudeste do Brasil

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    Vânia Maria Sabadoto Brienze

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocols showed low sensitivity (36% and 53% for TB AMPLICOR and MPB64 nested PCR, respectively, when compared with classic microbiological methods (73% and 54% for Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture, respectively, in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in 91 patients in southeastern Brazil. Only three PCR-positive, microbiologically negative patients were found. Analysis of sequential cerebrospinal fluid samples by nested PCR detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA up to 29 days after the introduction of antituberculosis chemotherapy.Dois protocolos de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR apresentaram baixa sensibilidade (36% e 53%, respectivamente, para TB AMPLICOR e PCR aninhado baseado no gene MPB64, quando comparados aos métodos microbiológicos clássicos (73% e 54% respectivamente para baciloscopia e cultura, no diagnóstico de meningite tuberculosa em 91 pacientes do sudeste do Brasil. Somente três pacientes apresentaram PCR positiva e microbiologia negativa. A análise de amostras seqüenciais de líquor com a PCR aninhada detectou DNA de Mycobacterium tuberculosis até 29 dias após a introdução de tratamento.

  7. Aspectos sobre a biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Biological aspects of Tonatia bidens (Spix in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Carlos E. L. Esbérard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 foi estudada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 76 morcegos foi capturado usando redes de neblina e redes manuais para insetos em refúgios diurnos. Algumas observações dos morcegos em cativeiro foram incluídas. Machos compreenderam 47% das capturas. Fêmeas prenhas foram observadas em novembro e maio, e fêmeas lactantes em janeiro, abril e maio. Animais subadultos foram registrados em dezembro, fevereiro, maio e julho. Os restos de presas observadas em refúgios de alimentação demonstram a dieta insetívora e carnívora deste morcego. O comportamento alimentar é similar a de outras espécies carnívoras de morcegos Phyllostomidae.The biology of Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 was studied at Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. A total of 76 bats was captured using mist nets or using hand nets during sampling in diurnal roosts. Some observations of bats in captivity are also included. Males comprised 47% of the captures. Pregnant females were observed in November and May and lactant females in January, April and May. Subadult animals were recorded in December, February, May and July. The prey remains observed in feeding roosts demonstrates the insectivorous and carnivorous diet of this bats. The feeding behavior is similar to other carnivorous species of phyllostomid bats.

  8. Notas sobre predação em uma taxocenose de anfíbios anuros no sudeste do Brasil Predation notes in an anuran amphibians assemblage from southeastern Brazil

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    José P. Pombal Jr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anfíbios anuros são predados por todos os grupos de vertebrados e muitos invertebrados. Todavia os estudos sobre predação em anfíbios anuros ainda são esparsos e anedóticos. Neste estudo são fornecidas informações sobre predação de anuros de uma assembléia no sudeste do Brasil. Invertebrados (aranhas e barata d’agua, a rã Leptodactylus cf. ocellatus e cinco espécies serpentes (quatro Colubridae e um Viperidae predaram espécies ou indivíduos de pequeno porte.Anuran amphibians are preyer by all vertebrate groups and several invertebrates. However, predation studies on amphibians are still occasional and anecdotic. Herein, informations on predation of an anuran assemblage of southeastern Brazil are provided. Invertebrates (spiders and water bugs, the frog Leptodactylus cf. ocellatus, and five snake species (four Colubridae and one Viperidae preyer on small individuals or small anuran species.

  9. Spatial variability in persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in beach-stranded pellets along the coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I.; Dias, Patrick S.; Oliveira, Renato; Fisner, Mara; Turra, Alexander; Izar, Gabriel M.; Abessa, Denis M.S.; Saha, Mahua; Hosoda, Junki; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Lourenço, Rafael A.; Magalhães, Caio A.; Bícego, Márcia C.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2016-01-01

    High spatial variability in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs, and polybrominated diphenylethers was observed in plastic pellets collected randomly from 41 beaches (15 cities) in 2010 from the coast of state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The highest concentrations ranged, in ng g −1 , from 192 to 13,708, 3.41 to 7554 and < 0.11 to 840 for PAHs, PCBs and DDTs, respectively. Similar distribution pattern was presented, with lower concentrations on the relatively less urbanized and industrialized southern coast, and the highest values in the central portion of the coastline, which is affected by both waste disposal and large port and industrial complex. Additional samples were collected in this central area and PCB concentrations, in ng g − 1 , were much higher in 2012 (1569 to 10,504) than in 2009/2010 (173 to 309) and 2014 (411), which is likely related to leakages of the PCB commercial mixture. - Highlights: •Organic pollutant amounts adsorbed in plastic pellets showed high variability. •Contamination suggests the influence of local sources and their transport to other sites. •Temporal changes of PCB amount are related to leakages of the commercial mixture.

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

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    Andre Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further.

  11. Presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Delmondes, Aline Ferreira Dos Santos; Barbosa, Vanessa De Araújo; Marra, Francisco de Assis; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis, is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Americas, primarily occurring in areas of apparent anthropomorphic modifications in several regions of Brazil. Sand flies were captured using light traps. Out of all captured species, Lu. longipalpis numbers had increased within the park. We report the occurrence of Lu. longipalpis in an area of Atlantic Forest, possibly representing the first sylvatic population of Lu. longipalpis in an area absent of peridomestic captures, but with the risk of L. infantum transmission in the areas of Niterói and Maricá.

  12. Mammals, Volta Grande Environmental Unity, Triângulo Mineiro, states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

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    Lessa, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Volta Grande Environmental Unity represents one of the few remnants of Cerrado protected by areserve in the Triângulo Mineiro region, municipalities of Conceição das Alagoas (19°55' S, 48°23' W andMiguelópolis (20°12' S, 48°03' W, in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, respectively. The mammalian fauna ofthis reserve was inventoried between 2003 and 2004 to generate estimates about taxonomic composition, richness, andabundance of species. A sampling effort of 832 trapping-nights resulted in 24 species recorded. Cumulative curvessuggest that the overall inventory is not complete and that more species are likely to be registered. The majority ofspecies recorded is widespread along the Cerrado, but include some noteworthy records of endangered species, such asthe Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and the Manned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. The record of thearboreal cricetid rodent Oecomys bicolor represents a slight extension of the southeastern limit of its distribution.

  13. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the occidental terrane and the Paraiba do Sul Klippe within the Neoproterozoic Ribeira orogenic Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Claudia Sayao; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal; Heilbron, Monica; Ragatky, Diana

    2000-01-01

    The occidental Terrane is envisaged as the eastern/southeastern reworked margin of the Sao Francisco/Rio de la Plata plate associated with and E-trending subduction under the Congo plate. The Paraiba do Sul Klippe is part of the Oriental Terrane, envisaged as a portion of the Congo plate. A collisional-stage resulted in intense westward deformation of the Occidental Terrane under intermediate pressure metamorphism (syn-D1+D2 events). A late-collisional stage resulted in subvertical folding and steep shear zones (D3 event). Both stages were associated with voluminous crustal-derived granites. U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology as well as geochemical and structural data point to three magmatic episodes: a syn-collisional stage 1; a syn-collisional stage 2; and a late-collisional stage. This paper presents a magmatic evolutionary model for this crustal segment of the Ribeira orogenic belt based on new geological data of Brasiliano granites and data available in the literature. (author)

  14. Métodos de cultura de algas do plancton marinho: estudos realizados nas regiões de Cananéia e de Ubatuba, SP Culture methods of planktonic marine alrae: studies in Cananéia and Ubatuba regions

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    Armando A. H Vieira

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of algae culture collected in Brazilian waters was proposed due to the lack of literature on the subject: an attempt was made to develop a methodology to obtain algae culture and its purification. Several species were isolated from samples collected a Ubatuba and Cananéia (São Paulo (Lat. 23º30'S - Long. 45º06'W and Lat. 25º01'S - Long. 47º54'W by means of phytoplankton net and Van Dorn bottle. The following isolation techniques were employed after washing and concentration: glass capillary, inoculation of mixed cultures on Petri dishes with solid medium and positive phototropism. The isolated algae were kept in five different mediuns. Washing techniques were tested (centrifugation, "filter tubes" and re-isolation , antibiotics and ultra violet radiation to obtain unialgal bacteria-free cultures were employed to obtain pure cultures. Five différents antibiotics, mixed in différents concentrations, were employed during several periods of expositions. The re-isolation proved to be the best method to obtain the purification of the cultures.

  15. Characterization of potassic materials of Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Southeastern Brazil; Caracterizacao de materiais potassicos do macico alcalino de Pocos de Caldas (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, P.; Navarro, F.C.; Roveri, C.D. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), MG (Brazil); Bergerman, M.G., E-mail: pattypgpatty@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Potassium, which has featured in Brazil's agricultural sector and in the world's in the application of fertilizers, is present in magmatic rocks, such as nepheline syenite and phonolite, found in the Alkaline Massif of Pocos de Caldas (AMPC). The rare earth elements (REE), in turn, also occur in this region and have important uses in various industrial fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of potassic rocks of AMPC in the fertilizer and rare earths industry. Five samples were collected and characterized. It was observed that there was no preferential concentration by granulometric range of potassium oxide, alumina, silica and iron oxide. Feldspathic mass, potash feldspar, and muscovite were found in all samples. The samples show REE with amounts greater than those found in the earth's crust, except for lutetium and scandium and possessed average content of potassium oxide from 8.70 to 14.40%. (author)

  16. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-12-21

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation.

  17. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  18. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen in the Lower Basin of the Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil: Element fluxes and biogeochemical processes

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    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the lower basin of the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR, in which 57,000 km2 of the basin is located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. We proposed to identify the main sources of C and N fluxes in the PSR waters, to evaluate biogeochemical processes in the watershed, and to estimate C and N riverine loads to the Atlantic Ocean in the context of the sugarcane plantation expansion for ethanol production. Riverine water samples were collected at seven stations along 12 months. Physicochemical and limnological parameters, as well as discharge, were measured together with organic and inorganic C and N species in the dissolved and suspended particulate material. C and N concentrations in bed fluvial sediments, and suspended particulate material were measured, and their elemental ([C:N]a and isotopic (δ13C compositions were compared with the [C:N]a and δ13C of the following sources: riparian soils, insular flooded soils, aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, pasture grass, sugarcane, sugarcane byproducts, and forest litterfall. Temporal patterns in the physicochemical and limnological environment were correlated to discharge. It also was observed that sugar cane production can increase riverine C and N fluxes. Riparian soils inputs were larger than insular soils, which was likely to act as a biogeochemical barrier. Effects of the macrophytes on riverine C and N were unclear, as well as urban sewage disposal effects. Although the PSR loads represented a very small percentage of the fluvial input to global biogeochemical cycles, we suggest that this and other medium sized watersheds in Eastern and Southeastern South America can be significant contributors to the continental biogeochemical riverine loads to the ocean, if their loads are considered together.

  20. Reproductive ecology of the exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae in southeastern Brazil Ecologia reprodutiva da árvore exótica Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae no sudeste do Brasil

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    Rodolfo Antônio de Figueiredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae, a species native to Central America, is used as fish feed and fiber and cellulose production in Brazil. This study was carried out in urban areas and verified the reproductive biology of this plant species. Flower and fruit morphology, compatibility system, reproductive phenology, pollination and frugivore animals, and germination of disseminated seeds were recorded by standard field and laboratory procedures. This tree is self-compatible and autonomously self-pollinated, with its flowers being mainly visited by bees and its fruits consumed by birds and bats. Germination of its dispersed seeds is fast and occurs at a high rate. The results of this work suggest that M. calabura is very adaptable to cultivated areas,thus being an excellent choice for urban reforestation. However, its reproductive characteristics place this plant as an invasive species with significant potential in southeastern Brazil.A árvore exótica Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae é nativa da América Central e, no Brasil, ela é utilizada para alimentação de peixes e para produção de fibras e celulose. Este estudo, realizado em áreas urbanas, verificou a biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie vegetal. A morfologia de flores e frutos, o sistema de compatibilidade, a fenologia reprodutiva, os animais polinizadores e frugívoros e a germinação das sementes foram estudados através de procedimentos-padrão de campo e laboratório. A árvore é autocompatível e apresenta autopolinização espontânea, com suas flores visitadas por abelhas e frutos consumidos por aves e morcegos. A germinação das sementes é rápida e com elevada taxa. A conclusão é que M. calabura é uma espécie vegetal altamente adaptada à reprodução sob condições de cultivo, sendo uma excelente opção para inclusão em projetos de reflorestamento urbano. Apesar disso, as características reprodutivas colocam essa espécie como importante

  1. Pesquisa de compra de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes em duas cidades do Estado de São Paulo Alcohol purchase survey by adolescents in two cities of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Romano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O consumo de álcool é um problema de saúde pública. A disponibilidade comercial é um importante fator no estímulo ao consumo de álcool por adolescentes. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar com que freqüência menores de 18 anos conseguem comprar bebidas alcoólicas em estabelecimentos comerciais. MÉTODOS: Adolescentes com idades entre 13 e 17 anos tentaram comprar bebidas alcoólicas em uma amostra aleatória de estabelecimentos comerciais em Paulínia (N=108 e Diadema (N=426, no Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em novembro e dezembro de 2003 em Paulínia e de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2005 em Diadema. Eles foram orientados a não mentir sobre sua idade quando questionados e a dizer que a bebida era para consumo próprio. Os testes estatísticos realizados foram bi-caudais e o nível de significância considerado foi de pOBJECTIVE: Alcohol use is a public health problem. Commercial availability is an important factor that encourages the use of alcohol by young people. The aim of the study was to assess how often young people under 18 could buy alcohol in shops METHODS: Adolescents from 13 to 17 attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages at a random sample of shops in the cities of Paulinia (n=108 and Diadema (n=426, Southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted from November to December 2003 in Paulínia, and July 2004 to August 2005 in Diadema. They were told not to lie about their ages when asked and to say that the beverage was for themselves. Statistical tests performed were two-tailed and the significance level considered was p<0.05. RESULTS: Adolescents, under the minimum legal age, were successful in purchasing alcoholic beverages in the first attempt in 85.2% of the surveyed outlets in Paulinia, and 82.4% in Diadema. The adolescents bought alcoholic beverages just as easy in all shops researched. CONCLUSIONS: The data showed almost unanimous easiness of teenagers to obtain alcoholic beverages, suggesting the

  2. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

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    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  3. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  4. Mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations in the initial steps of the weathering process of charnockite from the Caparaó Range, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Caroline Cibele Vieira; Varajão, Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino; Varajão, César Augusto Chicarino; Boulangé, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Electron Probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) were conducted on charnockite from the Caparaó Suite and its alteration cortex to determine the mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations resulting from the weathering process. The hydrolysis of the charnockite occurred in different stages, in accordance with the order of stability of the minerals with respect to weathering: andesine/orthopyroxene, pargasite and alkali feldspar. The rock modifications had begun with the formation of a layer of incipient alteration due to the percolation of weathering solutions first in the pressure relief fractures and then in cleavage and mineral edges. The iron exuded from ferromagnesian minerals precipitated in the intermineral and intramineral discontinuities. The layer of incipient alteration evolves into an inner cortex where the plagioclase changes into gibbsite by direct alitisation, the ferromagnesian minerals initiate the formation of goethitic boxworks with kaolinitic cores, and the alkali feldspar initiates indirect transformation into gibbsite, forming an intermediate phase of illite and kaolinite. In the outer cortex, mostly traces of alkali feldspar remain, and they are surrounded by goethite and gibbsite as alteromorphics, characterising the formation of the isalteritic horizon that occurs along the slope and explains the bauxitization process at the Caparaó Range, SE Brazil.

  5. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  6. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, W.S.; Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g −1 for Fe to 7 μg g −1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  7. Parasitism of Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Cycloramphidae by Hannemania sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae in an area of Atlantic Forest, Ilha Grande, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatano F.H.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied some parameters of the parasitism by the mite Hannemania sp. on the endemic frog Hylodes phyllodes in the Atlantic Forest of Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity and total intensity of infestation, body regions infected, and host sexual differences in parasitism rate of the larvae of Hannemania sp. on individuals of H. phyllodes were assessed. Prevalence was 86.5% (N = 37; total of 1,745 larvae of Hannemania sp for male hosts and 91.7% (N =12; total of 330 larvae for female hosts, with no significant difference between the sexes. Overall prevalence of Hannemania sp. on H. phyllodes was 87.7%. Mean intensity of infestation in males (54.5 ± 42.5; range 1-173 larvae was higher than in females (29.9 ± 47.6; range 1-166. We conclude that the rates of intensity, abundance, and prevalence of Hannemania larvae parasitizing Hylodes phyllodes at Ilha Grande were considerably high, suggesting that this species of anuran constitutes a relevant host for this mite species to complete its lifecycle in the area. Differences between males and females in infestation rates probably reflect their differential use of space in the forest.

  8. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. G. Simeão

    Full Text Available Abstract Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005. The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae; during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae. Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae, Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  9. Infection by Leishmania spp. in Free-Ranging Opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an Environmentally Protected Area Inhabited by Humans in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiz, Laís Moraes; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Motoie, Gabriela; Castagna, Claudio Luiz; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing concern about the participation of wild hosts and reservoirs in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, particularly within the context of increasingly frequent environmental changes and the expansion of the One Health concept. This work is a molecular research of infection by Leishmania spp. among the wildlife of an environmentally protected area located in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The studied area has a history of intense environmental changes, with notifications of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the 1990s, and a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis since 2009. Eighty-two wild mammals were sampled by monthly captures in this region over a 1-year period. Blood samples were collected from each animal and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR using primers for the region of the internal transcribed spacer-1. The results of gene sequencing for the first time revealed the infection of opossums (Didelphis albiventris) by Leishmania spp., subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, in Campinas. These findings, in addition to environmental and historical characteristics of the studied area, indicate a possible role of wildlife in the introduction and/or maintenance of natural foci of leishmaniasis transmission.

  10. Bio-Optical Properties of the Inner Continental Shelf off Santos Estuarine System, Southeastern Brazil, and their Implications for Ocean Color Algorithm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical characterizations of coastal water masses are important tools for a better understanding of physical and biochemical processes and aid the optimization of ocean color algorithms. In this study we present three optical classes of water observed during October/2005 and March/2006 on the inner continental shelf adjacent to Santos Bay (Brazil, based on remote sensing reflectance. ANOVA indicated a crescent estuarine influence in classes 1 to 3. Class 3 presented the highest chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentration and highest light absorption coefficients. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM dominated the light absorption in all classes and was strongly correlated to salinity in October/2005 due to the influence of the La Plata plume. The results indicated that CDOM dynamics in the Santos inner shelf are very complex. The performance of global chlorophyll algorithms was significantly smaller for October/2005 than for March/2006. As inconsistent changes in light absorption spectra by phytoplankton were detected between samplings, the results show that future bio-optical algorithms for this region must be optimized preferentially considering CDOM optical parameters.

  11. Seasonal and spatial differences in feeding habits of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in a coastal catchment of southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo L Rheingantz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 is one of the best known aspects of its biology throughout its distribution range. However, most dietary studies have been undertaken during short time periods, making it difficult to identify temporal patterns in the feeding behavior of the species. The present study aimed to describe the diet of L. longicaudis in the lower region of the Mambucaba Catchment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a three year period, based on analyses of spraints (feces. The results show fish as the main prey item (frequency of occurrence, FO = 85.78%, as already described in previous studies. Crustaceans were the second main prey (FO = 70.67%, occurring in the spraints during the whole year, however presenting a higher frequency of occurrence than fish in samples collected during some months. Anurans were the third most important prey item (FO = 9.56% and mammals, birds and reptiles were preyed upon only rarely (less than 4%. Fish and crustaceans were present in the diet of the species throughout the year and frogs were important mostly from June to August (dry season. This higher rate of predation on amphibians during the drier months was probably related to the decrease of the main prey.

  12. Thermo chronology by the fission track method of a passive marge (Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil) and within a collision chain (external zone of the alpine arch in France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Vignol Lelarge, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dating method by counting fission tracks on apatite (this rock is a geo-thermometer sensitive to weak temperature changes below 150 Celsius degrees) is an efficient tool for the thermal history of rocks. We have used this method in 2 different geological contexts: the Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil and the alpine mountain in France. This dating method is based on the fact that some rocks like mica keep fossil remains of the passage of the fission products emitted during the simultaneous fission of uranium 238 present in the rock. This method requires the irradiation in a slow neutron flux of the sample because the initial quantity of uranium is unknown. The age t of the sample is given by the formula: t=(1/l 1 )*ln[1+(r s /r i )*(l 2 /l 1 )*F*σ*I] where: l 1 is the alpha decay constant of U 238 ; l 2 is the simultaneous fission decay constant of U 238 , r s is the number of fission tracks in the sample before the irradiation; r i is the number of fission tracks induced by the irradiation; F is the thermal neutron flux; σ is the thermal fission cross-section of U 235 ; and I is the isotopic rate U 235 /U 238 . This document is divided into 4 chapters. The first chapter presents the general principle of the method, the mechanisms capable of producing fission tracks and the techniques used to make these tracks visible with an optical microscope. The second chapter deals with the conditions of the irradiation and the calibration of the method. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the applications to the 2 geological contexts. (A.C.)

  13. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

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    Necchi-Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19º45'-21º25'S, 49º05'-51º30'W, situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40% and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5% and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%. Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta, were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%, free filaments (27%, gelatinous filaments (27%, crusts (7%, tufts (3%, and gelatinous colonies (3%. The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8% with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems.

  14. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

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    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  15. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  16. PREVALENCE OF THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS AMONG UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES IN SÃO PAULO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: predictive factors and geoprocessing spatial analysis

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    Cássio Vieira de OLIVEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There are limited studies on the prevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Objective Identify the prevalence and risk factors for HCV infection in university employees of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Digital serological tests for anti-HCV have been performed in 3153 volunteers. For the application of digital testing was necessary to withdraw a drop of blood through a needlestick. The positive cases were performed for genotyping and RNA. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used, with P-value 40 years, blood transfusion, injectable drugs, inhalable drugs (InDU, injectable Gluconergam®, glass syringes, tattoos, hemodialysis and sexual promiscuity. Age (P=0.01, OR 5.6, CI 1.4 to 22.8, InDU (P<0.0001, OR=96.8, CI 24.1 to 388.2, Gluconergam® (P=0.0009, OR=44.4, CI 4.7 to 412.7 and hemodialysis (P=0.0004, OR=90.1, CI 7.5 – 407.1 were independent predictors. Spatial analysis of the prevalence with socioeconomic indices, Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index by the geoprocessing technique showed no positive correlation. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection was 0.7%. The independent risk factors for HCV infection were age, InDU, Gluconergan® and hemodialysis. There was no spatial correlation of HCV prevalence with local economic factors.

  17. Longitudinal anthropometric assessment of infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers, Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil Evaluación antropométrica longitudinal de lactantes nacidos de madres infectadas por VIH-1 Avaliação antropométrica longitudinal de lactentes nascidos de mães infectadas pelo HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Arlene Fausto; Mariângela Carneiro; Carlos Maurício F Antunes; Enrico Antonio Colosimo; Jorge Andrade Pinto

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth parameters in infants who were born to HIV-1-infected mothers. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal evaluation of the z-scores for the weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) data collected from a cohort. A total of 97 non-infected and 33 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 2003 was studied. The average follow-up period for the infected and non-infected ch...

  18. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  19. Uveíte por tuberculose em um centro de referência no Sudeste do Brasil Tuberculous uveitis at a referral center in southeastern Brazil

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    Wesley Ribeiro Campos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a ocorrência de uveíte por tuberculose (UTB em um centro de referência em Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Um total de 16 pacientes (idade > 15 anos atendidos consecutivamente de janeiro de 2001 a julho de 2004 no Centro de Referência de Uveíte do Estado de Minas Gerais para avaliação diagnóstica de uveíte foi selecionado para este estudo. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos, assim como dados sobre avaliação para toxoplasmose, sífilis e doenças reumatológicas, teste tuberculínico e sorologia anti-HIV. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 pacientes, 11 (69% tinham UTB. História prévia de contato com tuberculose pulmonar foi relatada por 72% (8/11 dos pacientes do grupo com UTB e por 20% (1/5 dos pacientes do grupo sem UTB. Embora a razão de chances para essa associação tenha sido de 10,67 (IC95%: 0,59-398,66, o valor de p apresentou significância limítrofe (0,078. Não houve diferença quanto ao quadro ocular inflamatório e ao resultado do teste tuberculínico entre os pacientes com UTB e os sem UTB. Todos os pacientes tinham sorologia negativa para o HIV e foram acompanhados por 2 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, a história prévia de contato com tuberculose pulmonar foi de grande ajuda para o diagnóstico da UTB.OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of tuberculous uveitis (TBU at a referral center in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 16 consecutive patients (>15 years of age who underwent diagnostic evaluation of uveitis between January of 2001 and July of 2004 at the Minas Gerais State Referral Center were selected for study. Demographic and clinical data, as well as data related to screening for toxoplasmosis, syphilis, and rheumatologic diseases, together with the results of tuberculin skin testing and HIV testing, were collected. RESULTS: Of the16 patients evaluated, 11 (69% were found to have TBU. A history of contact with pulmonary tuberculosis was reported by 8 (72% of the 11

  20. Between the sea and the land: the livelihood of estuarine people in southeastern Brazil Entre o mar e a terra: modos de vida de comunidades estuarinas no sudeste do Brasil

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    Natalia anazaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of this study is to characterize and compare the livelihood strategies of two coastal communities from the estuarine region of Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing the interplay among four economic activities: small-scale agriculture, fishing, tourism-related jobs, and extraction of non-timber vegetal resources. The local people of these communities are mostly Caiçara, the native inhabitants of southeastern Brazilian coast, in an Atlantic forest area. The miscegenation of Amerindians, European colonizers, and African Brazilians gave rise to the Caiçara people, whose subsistence was originally based on small-scale itinerant agriculture, small-scale fishery, and some extraction of forest products. Their livelihoods activities changed through time: agricultural practices were gradually abandoned, while fishing grew in importance. Recently, tourism-related jobs and the extraction of non-timber vegetal resources acquired a key role in the estuarine Caiçara livelihood. After an historical overview, we focus our analysis on the local factors and external pressures affecting the combination of these activities.O objetivo central deste artigo é caracterizar e comparar as estratégias dos meios de vida de duas comunidades da região estuarina do vale de Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, analisando a inter-relação entre quatro atividades econômicas: agricultura de pequena escala, pesca, trabalhos relacionados ao turismo e extração de recursos vegetais não madeireiros. Os habitantes destas comunidades são na maior parte Caiçaras, nativos da costa sudeste do Brasil, vivendo em área do domínio Mata Atlântica. Caiçaras são descendentes de ameríndios e colonizadores europeus, com influências mais recentes de escravos africanos. Sua subsistência era baseada originalmente na agricultura itinerante de pequena escala, na pesca artesanal e, em menor grau, na extração de produtos florestais. Suas

  1. A bio-economic appraisal of pair trawl fisheries off southeastern Brazil Uma análise bio-econômica da pesca de parelhas no sudeste do Brasil

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    Luiz Arnaud Britto de Castro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the pair trawl fisheries was made in an attempt to introduce bio-economic models into fishery management in southern and southeastern Brazil. The biological parameters of demersal fishes found in the literature were used to mount the bio-economic model. Since there are no historical data on the economics of the fishery industry, the present market values of fish and of the diverse items that compose the costs of the catch have been used. The results show that the fleet was oversized in the period 1976-1981. The number of boats was reduced from 28 pairs to only 11 in 1996, but was still considered too big. The size of the fleet is reflected in the economic results of the analysis which shows negative returns. However, the fact that some of the fixed costs are not actually spent by the owners of the boats, as many of them have no insurance and most of the boats are already completely paid off and do not accrue costs on the capital invested must all be taken into account. On the other hand, the income figures used in this analysis did not take into account the value of the by-catch landed.Numa primeira tentativa de introduzir modelos bio-econômicos no gerenciamento pesqueiro no sudeste e sul do Brasil realizou-se um estudo da pesca de parelhas. Para isso construiu-se um modelo utilizando os parâmetros biológicos disponíveis na literatura. Como não há registros históricos de dados econômicos da pesca, foram utilizados os valores atuais do pescado e dos diversos insumos utilizados nessa atividade. Os resultados indicam que a frota estava superdimensionada no período de 1976-1981. De fato, daquela época até 1996, essa frota reduziu-se de 28 parelhas para apenas 11, um número ainda excessivo. O superdimensionamento da frota reflete-se nos resultados econômicos da análise, na forma de retornos financeiros negativos. Entretanto, deve-se levar em conta que alguns dos custos fixos não representam efetivo desembolso por parte dos

  2. TRABALHADORES DO MAR: UMA DISCUSSÃO SOBRE AS TRANSFORMAÇÕES DO TRABALHO DO PESCADOR ARTESANAL DE UBATUBA/SP

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    Larissa Tavares Moreno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo realiza uma discussão quanto ao trabalho do pescador artesanal, mais propriamente, visando apreender as transformações do trabalho nesta atividade, assim como, suas particularidades, limites e entraves enfrentados por estes sujeitos que vivem do trabalho da pesca artesanal no município de Ubatuba/SP. Neste sentido, revelando a importância de estudos geográficos nesta área, comprometidos com esses trabalhadores artesanais do mar, revelando como o seu trabalho (e modo de vida atualmente são ainda muito atuantes, mesmo que marcados pelas processualidades conflitantes do capital, que levam a sua desorganização.

  3. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  4. Diet of the ichthyofauna associated with marginal vegetation of a mangrove forest in southeastern Brazil Dieta da ictiofauna associada à vegetação marginal de um mangue no sudeste do Brasil

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    Michéle de O. D. A. Corrêa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the diet of fish species that use the mangrove vegetation for shelter and feeding in a river southeastern Brazil. The fieldwork, including collecting and underwater observations, was carried out in the dry (July and August 2004 and in the rainy season (February and March 2005 in order to assess the existence of seasonal variation in the diets. Seven kinds of food items were consumed, two of plant origin and five of animal origin. Crustaceans predominated in the diet of most species, either in the form of unidentified fragments or discriminated in eight groups. The predominance of species using mainly a single food source (crustaceans, principally Ostracoda and Tanaidacea and the existence of seasonal variation in the diets of some species became very evident in the analysis food niche breadth, with a predominance of dietary specialists. In the Rio da Fazenda mangrove, the submersed marginal vegetation was used by the ichthyofauna as a locale for foraging, and principally as cover by bottom-feeding species. These species may be using the vegetation for protection from aerial and aquatic predators, or even from the pull of the current during the turn of the tide. In the study area, the great diversity of crustaceans constitutes an important food source for most fish species which adjusted their diet according to seasonal changes in food availability and to interactions with other species.O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a dieta das espécies de peixes que utilizam a vegetação do mangue do Rio da Fazenda como local de abrigo e alimentação em um rio do sudeste do Brasil. O trabalho de campo, incluindo coleta e observação subaquática das espécies, foi realizado na estação seca (julho e agosto de 2004 e na chuvosa (fevereiro e março de 2005 com o objetivo de verificar a existência de variação sazonal na dieta. Sete tipos de itens alimentares foram consumidos pelas espécies, dois de origem

  5. Stream fish, water and habitat quality in a pasture dominated basin, southeastern Brazil Ictiofauna de riachos, qualidade da água e do hábitat em uma bacia hidrográfica dominada por pastagens, Sudeste do Brasil

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    L. Casatti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A fish survey in 35 stream reaches (from 1st to 3rd order with physicochemical and habitat assessment in the São José dos Dourados system, southeastern Brazil, was conducted. Most of the basin land cover (77.4% is used for pasture. From the sampled stream reaches, 24 were of good physicochemical quality, 10 of fair quality, and only one of poor quality. A habitat assessment showed that 10 stream reaches were considered fair, 22 were poor, and 3 were very poor. Fifty species were collected and their abundances showed strong correlation with habitat descriptors. In addition to the correlation between fish abundance and habitat, some species also showed optimal distribution related to the degree of physical habitat conservation. Streams located in this region experience organic pollution, but the most important aspect is the decline of the instream physical habitat condition, especially in first order streams, which negatively affects coarse substrates and water column dependent fish species. Effluent control, riparian vegetation restoration programs, siltation control and adequate sustainable soil use are practices which could mitigate such impacts.A ictiofauna de 35 trechos de riachos (de 1ª a 3ª ordem no sistema do Rio São José dos Dourados, Sudeste do Brasil, foi estudada juntamente com a avaliação físico-química e física do hábitat. Na região estudada, 77,4% do solo é utilizado para pastagens. Quanto à avaliação físico-química da água, 24 trechos foram classificados como bons, 10 como regulares e um como pobre; quanto à avaliação física do hábitat, 10 foram considerados regulares, 22 como pobres e 3 como muito pobres. Cinqüenta espécies foram coletadas e suas abundâncias apresentaram forte correlação com descritores do hábitat. Em adição a esta correlação, observou-se que algumas espécies também demonstraram sua distribuição ótima coincidente com o grau de conservação do hábitat físico. Os riachos

  6. Species composition and similarities among anuran assemblages of forest sites in southeastern Brazil Composição de espécies e similaridades entre taxocenoses de anuros de áreas florestais do sudeste do Brasil

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    Jaime Bertoluci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests show high anuran species richness, but some Brazilian forest formations, like cerradão, semideciduous forests and restingas, remain poorly known. The composition of anuran species were determined for four forest sites belonging to different biomes in southeastern Brazil, based on two complementary techniques (visual encounter survey and survey on breeding sites, both applied simultaneously. A total of 60 anuran species belonging to eight families was recorded. Species richness and levels of endemism were higher in the Atlantic rainforest site. Sites located in the Cerrado domain were more alike than those located in the Atlantic Forest Domain. Similarity in anuran species composition was negatively correlated to the geographical distance among sites, which explains part of similarities in species composition. Factors affecting these occurrence patterns are discussed. One species (if its identity is confirmed is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (The World Conservation Union, though it is not included in the Brazilian list of threatened amphibians. The presence of certain species with special habitats and microclimate requirements (bioindicators suggests well-preserved ecosystems.As florestas neotropicais apresentam altas riquezas de espécies de anuros, mas algumas formações florestais brasileiras, como o cerradão, as florestas semidecíduas e as restingas, permanecem pouco conhecidas. A composição de espécies de anuros de quatro áreas florestais pertencentes a diferentes biomas do sudeste do Brasil foi determinada com base em duas técnicas complementares (procura visual e investigação nos sítios reprodutivos, aplicadas de forma simultânea. Registramos um total de 60 espécies de anuros, incluídas em oito famílias. A riqueza de espécies e o nível de endemismo foram maiores na área coberta por floresta pluvial atlântica. As áreas localizadas no domínio do Cerrado foram mais similares entre si do que as

  7. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep farms in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil Práticas de manejo para controle de parasitas gastrointestinais em fazendas com ovinos em Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite related problems are considered one of the major health problems for sheep breeding, causing considerable economic losses to commercial husbandry. The aim of this study was to determine the technological level and the level of knowledge of farmers regarding management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis was based on 213 questionnaires applied by official veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária, IMA, covering 16.6% of all counties. From two hundred and thirteen sheep farms sampled, 117 farms had their technological level determined. From the samples, 0.9% were characterized as high level, 45.3% as medium, and 53.0% as low technological level. The flock size ranged from 2 to 1843 with an average of 80.5 sheep per farm. The majority of the sheep production systems was extensive/semi-extensive (74.5%. The management practices adopted by the farmers to reduce parasitism were: split young and adult animals (5.6%, change pasture after deworm the animals (5.2%, use quarantine for incoming animals (2.3%, deworm newly arrived sheep (1.5%, and have regular technical assistance (31.9%. Although 76.5% of the farmers medicate the animals, treatments were performed without any major technical criteria, with an average interval of 4.6 months. The most commonly used drug families were macrocyclic lactones (38.5% and benzimidazoles (24.9%. The management practices adopted in Minas Gerais are based on old recommendations and may not return in a good set of strategies to prevent parasite infections. Field observations reinforce the finding where farmers have obtained unsatisfactory results in maintaining the health and productivity level of their enterprises.Problemas relacionados com parasitas são considerados um dos principais problemas sanitários na criação de ovinos, causando consideráveis perdas econômicas para

  8. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  9. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil The Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse breeding in Bromeliaceae on the outskirts of an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.Larvae of Aedes albopictus from a plant of the Bromeliaceae family on the outskirts of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil, were collected. This occurrence sheds new light on the attempt to determine the potential of this plants as a breeding site for this mosquito in Brazil.

  10. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (sagittae of Southeastern-Southern Brazil Part V: Perciformes (Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Polynemidae, Mullidae, Kyphosidae, Chaetodontidae, Mugilidae, Scaridae, Percophidae, Pinguipedidae, Blenniidae, Gobiidae, Ephippidae, Sphyraenidae, Gempylidae, Trichiuridae, Scombridae, Ariommatidae, Stromateidae and Caproidae

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    Cesar Santificetur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This publication is part of a series prepared with the purpose to constitute an Atlas of Teleostei Otoliths for the Southeastern-Southern Brazilian area. Here we present the results of 15 morphological features and six shape indices for 33 Perciformes species of 20 families. Whenever available in out collection, three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed. The frequency of occurrence of each feature was calculated inside and among total length classes being the differences analyzed through multiple χ2 tests (significance level 0.05. Based on otoliths measurements, six shape indices values were obtained being the minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviations values presented.

  11. Heterogeneidade espacial da dengue em estudos locais, Niterói, RJ Heterogeneidad espacial del dengue en estudios locales, Niteroi, Sureste de Brasil Spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever in local studies, City of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil

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    Regina Fernandes Flauzino

    2009-12-01

    Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sinan between 1998 and 2006, in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, were georeferenced according to census tracts. These tracts were classified into homogeneous areas for the occurrence of the disease: slum, shipyard and urban area. Cases were grouped into five periods - two inter-epidemic periods (1998-2000 and 2003-2005 and three epidemic periods (2001, 2002 and 2006 - and analyzed using operations between layers in a geographic information system (GIS environment. The kernel method was used to identify clusters of cases. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was used to confirm these clusters statistically. RESULTS: Of all cases, 57% were females. Age groups with the highest number of cases were 20-29-years (20.5% and 30-39-years (17.7%. The hill slum sector showed only 11% of households covered by garbage collection service, the highest percentage of illiterate individuals (8.7% and head of families with income lower than one monthly minimum wage (29.5%. Cases remained in the slum sectors. In the first epidemic year and in the inter-epidemic periods, the highest number of cases was found in the hill and flatland slum sectors; in the second and third epidemic years, in the flatland slum sector. CONCLUSIONS: The economically active portion of the population was that most affected in the study area. Census tracts show spatial heterogeneity in relation to life conditions. In addition, in some tracts, there are differences in spatial and temporal distribution of the risk of occurrence of dengue fever.

  12. Mortalidade infantil em município da região Centro-Oeste Paulista, Brasil, 1990 a 1992 Infant mortality in a midwest city of Southeastern Brazil, 1990 to 1992

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    Jaime de O. Gomes

    1997-08-01

    étrica no trabalho de parto e atenção pediátrica por baixo peso ao nascer, entre outras. A análise por causas múltiplas mostra que 76,05% dos óbitos têm as causas básicas relacionadas a causas perinatais e confirma a relação entre as deficiências de peso e as complicações respiratórias do recém-nascido. As complicações maternas também relacionaram-se com o baixo peso. Identificaram-se grandes diferenças no coeficiente de mortalidade infantil entre as áreas da zona urbana não somente restritas aos valores, como também ao tipo de doenças responsáveis pela ocorrência do óbito. Conclui-se haver vantagem no uso associado das quatro técnicas que são complementares, tanto para estudo, como para planejamento de ações dirigidas à prevenção da mortalidade infantil.INTRODUCTION: Infant mortality was studied in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil in the period from 1990 to 1992 using data from death certificates collected at the registry office, by the application of methods for obtaining a collective diagnosis which will assist in the identification and choice of strategies for the control of local problems. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original data were corrected using documental research into health services and household interviews. Data of the Live Birth Information System (SINASC was used to study variables such as maternal age and birthweight. The quality of original death certificates was initially analyzed using the amount of information, sensitivity, specificity and Kappa value. RESULTS: The global sensitivity for the underlying cause was 78.84% and Kappa 71.32% for the total of causes. One hundred and eighty-nine deaths occurred, 66.15% of them in the neonatal period, (41.28% during the first day of life and 33.85% in late childhood. The birthweight of 58.28% of deaths was less than 2,500g. The underlying causes of death were studied the by possibility, of their avoidance (a method developed by Erica Taucher, by a "reduced" group of causes

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  14. Entre a serra e o mar: memória, cultura, tradição e ancestralidade no ensinar-aprender entre as gerações do Quilombo da Fazenda - Ubatuba/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina dos Santos Bezerra Perez

    2014-01-01

    A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo realizar uma descrição densa (GEERTZ, 2008) partindo das narrativas e memórias da comunidade quilombola do Sertão da Fazenda da Caixa, situada na cidade de Ubatuba, Litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, sobre o seu passado, futuro e presente, compreendendo o seu patrimônio material e imaterial, suas referências culturais e a influência do seu universo sociocultural e simbólico em sua prática educativa. A pesquisa, de cunho etnográfico, buscou compreender...

  15. Solos do topo da Serra São José (Minas Gerais e suas relações com o paleoclima no Sudeste do Brasil Soils of the São José Hills (Minas Gerais State, Brazil and their relationship with palaeoclimate in Southeastern Brazil

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    A. C. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade de ecossistemas do sudeste do Brasil nem sempre pode ser relacionada com fatores edáficos, geomorfológicos ou hidrológicos. Topos de elevações, onde os solos são caracterizados pela unicidade de material de origem, podem constituir ambiente especial para estudos de gênese de solos e datações de eventos cíclicos relacionados com a dinâmica do clima regional. Depois de um levantamento detalhado de solos no topo da Serra São José (Prados - Minas Gerais, dois perfis de solo (P1 e P2, originados de metarenitos da Formação Tiradentes e caracterizados por deposições sucessivas de camadas arenosas alternadas com camadas arenosas enriquecidas com matéria orgânica, foram estudados, com intuito de encontrar testemunhos de paleoambientes. O pequeno platô localiza-se a 1.350 m acima do nível de mar e 350 m acima do nível topográfico regional dominante. No P1, foram identificadas trinta e três camadas enriquecidas com matéria orgânica, alternadas com camadas de areia. Três camadas no P1 (20-30, 70-80 e 100-110 cm, com conteúdo de C orgânico respectivamente de 0.5, 7 e 1 dag kg-1, apresentam idades radiocarbônicas The diversity of ecosystems in southeastern Brazil can not always be related to edaphic, geomorphologic, or hydrologic factors. Mountain summits, where soils are characterized by common parent material, offer a special environment for studies of soil genesis and dating of cyclic events related to regional climate dynamics. After a detailed investigation of soils from the São José Hills (Prados - Minas Gerais State, Brazil, two soil profiles (P1 and P2 originated from arenite of the Tiradentes Formation were studied. They are characterized by successive depositions of sandy layers alternated with layers of sand enriched with organic matter. The study site lies 1,350 m above sea level and 350 m above the dominant topographical level of the region. Thirty-three layers with organic matter, alternated with

  16. Range extension for Thomas' Mastiff bat Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in northern, central and southeastern Brazil Distribuição geográfica de Thomas' Mastiff Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae na região norte, central e sudoeste do Brasil

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    Miriam M. Sodré

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thomas' Mastiff bat, Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 is known from northern South America in Ecuador, Venezuela and Guiana and so it probably occurs in Brazil, yet it has not been reported. Here, we present the first record for E. maurus in Brazil. Captures were from the Brazilian states of Tocantins and Goiás (northern and midwestern Cerrado region of the country, and São Paulo (southeastern Brazil, Atlantic Forest. In the first two locations, all bats were roosting in palm leaves while in the later location, a single animal was found alive in a 15th-storey apartment in the city of São Paulo. This bat inhabits savannas with swamps dominated by the palm Mauritia flexuosa (buriti and gallery forests. This record is the first of E. maurus in an urban area. Brazilian specimens are apparently larger than those from northern South America.Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 tem sua ocorrência no norte da América do Sul, no Equador, na Venezuela e na Guiana. O presente estudo descreve a primeira ocorrência de E. maurus para o Brasil, com capturas recentes de espécimes nos estados de Tocantins e Goiás (regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do país, domínio de Cerrado, e no estado de São Paulo, região sudeste, inserido no domínio da Mata Atlântica. Nos dois primeiros casos, os espécimes estavam no interior de folhas de palmeiras, e último, o indivíduo foi encontrado vivo dentro do quarto de um apartamento na cidade de São Paulo. Dados bibliográficos revelam que esta espécie habita regiões abertas, associada às áreas periodicamente alagadas (no cerrado, veredas dominadas por palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa (buriti e matas de galeria. Este trabalho ressalta o primeiro registro desse morcego em local urbanizado. Os espécimes brasileiros apresentam dimensões corpóreas maiores que os espécimes provenientes na região norte da América do Sul.

  17. External factors determining breeding season in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae on the São Paulo State northern coast, Brazil

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    Cobo Valter José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the water and air temperatures, pluviosity and photoperiod on the breeding season of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, in Ubatuba littoral, southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly collections were conducted out from January/95 to December/96 in an estuarine area from 23º29'10"-23º29'45"S to 45º09'10"-45º10'00"W. Water and air temperature variation showed the highest correlation coefficient with the frequency of ovigerous females, r² = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively. However, an analysis of the set of environmental variables, revealed the photoperiod as the factor of highest association with the ovigerous frequency (r² = 0.68. This degree of association allow us to suggest that the breeding season duration of G. cruentata might have some variations over different latitudes, and such results could be quite diverse in populations from different latitudes.

  18. A new species of Aphanoblastella (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae parasitic on Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Southeastern Brazil = Nova espécie de Aphanoblastella (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae parasito de Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae do sudeste do Brasil

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    Adriano Reder de Carvalho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphanoblastella juizforense sp. nov. is described in the gills of the heptapterid fish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 from the Paraibuna River, Juiz de Fora, Minasn Gerais State, Brazil. The new species can be separated from all congeners by the long coiledcopulatory organ with one counterclockwise ring; sinuous accessory piece and for the robust shape of the ventral bar.Aphanoblastella juizforense sp. nov. é descrita parasitando as brânquias de Rhamdia quelen (Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 do rio Paraibuna, Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie podeser diferenciada de todas as outras espécies do gênero por apresentar o órgão copulatório alongado, em forma de espiral, em sentido anti-horário, com peça acessória sinuosa e pela constituição mais robusta da barra ventral.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  20. Population structure of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 (Crustacea: Penaeoidea in the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo H. Castro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of the penaeidean shrimp Xyphopenaeus kroyeri was studied in Ubatuba Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The period and site of juvenile recruitment were monitored using a monthly sampling design with eight fixed areas (transects from September 1995 to August 1996. The population structure was assessed using size frequency distributions (based on carapace length for each month and sampling area. Females were significantly larger than males, suggesting a differential growth between sexes. The very low occurrence of large adults in the Bay can be related to offshore migration for reproduction. Recruitment occurred throughout the year, with a peak during the summer, when the highest recruitment rates were obtained along inshore transects. The present investigation revealed valuable information on the biology of the species mainly in the study region, which is considered a nursery ground for juveniles of X. kroyeri. The species showed an important variation from the typical life cycle that it is assumed to hold over its entire range and X. kroyeri should be classified as having a life cycle different from that proposed previously in the literature, i.e. the juveniles prefer inshore areas instead of estuaries. Some suggestions for the seabob fishery management are proposed as an alternative for minimising the impact during the harvest period and adjusting the protection schedule.

  1. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-01-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 μg/L for benzene, 0.70 μg/L for toluene, and 1.54 μg/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 μg/L to 2.0 μg/L, the concentration of toluene varied from 60 Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  2. Paepalanthus sphaeroides, a new species of Eriocaulaceae from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovó, M.; Echternacht, L.; Sano, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthus sphaeroides (Eriocaulaceae, Paepalanthoideae) from the Mantiqueira Range in South-eastern Brazil and compare it with the morphologically most similar species: Paepalanthus aequalis and Paepalanthus eriophaeus. Paepalanthus sphaeroides has unique membranaceous

  3. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  4. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina Blood-meal sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae in a South-eastern State of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Flores-Mendoza

    1996-04-01

    in southeastern Brazil, feeding on a wide variety of animals, the cow being the primary host.

  5. Occurrence of Hymenoptera on Sus scrofa carcasses during summer and winter seasons in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Hymenoptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa durante as estações de inverno e verão do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance has been given to nest construction and larval food transport to the nest as a precondition for the eusociality of insects. Most adult hymenopterans feed on liquids, although bees and a few wasps may also feed on pollen. Carrion represents an additional source of protein for some species and they will scavenge for dead animals in the wild. This paper aims at analyzing Hymenoptera visitors on a pig carcass during the process of decomposition, in the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006 in Brazil, and comparing the results with other studies in the Neotropical region. To our knowledge, this is the first study which described the occurence of Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista and Scaptotrigona depilis on decomposing carcasses in southeastern Brazil. It also raises the hypothesis of possible applications of Hymenoptera to achieve more precise PMI estimations, apart from other insects already known as having great importance in such estimates.Considerável importância tem sido dada às construções de ninhos e transporte de alimento larval para o ninho como uma pré-condição para a eusociabilidade dos insetos. Muitos adultos de himenópteros alimentam-se em líquidos, embora as abelhas e poucas vespas podem também se alimentarem de pólen. Carcaças representam uma fonte adicional de proteína para algumas espécies e elas foram uma vez observadas se alimentando de animais mortos na natureza. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar Hymenoptera visitantes em carcaças de porcos durante o verão de 2005 e inverno de 2006 no Brasil, ao longo dos estágios de decomposição, comparando com resultados de outros estudos na região Neotropical. Pelo nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro estudo que descreveu a ocorrência de Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista e Scaptotrigona depilis em carcaças em decomposição no sudeste do Brasil. Isso também aumenta a hipótese na possibilidade de aplicação de Hymenoptera em auxiliar a

  6. The coal carbon and the soil organic matter isotopes in the studies of vegetation and climate change in the Quaternary and the soil formation tax from the Sao Paulo State, Southeastern region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Boulet, R.; Aravena, R.; Scheel-Ybert, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the Jaguariuna and Botucatu regions (state of Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, based on σ 13 C values of soil organic matter (SOM), 14 C dating and analysis of charcoal present in the soil profiles. Sampling sites were located under natural vegetation (cerradao), along the slopes of small hills. charcoal was found predominantly between 50 and 150 cm deep, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in this area, between 3000 and 6000 years BP. The presence of charcoal on tops of the hills suggests that sedimentation could not be the major process responsible for burying the charcoal within the soil. Biological activity (termites, ants, earthworms) played an important role in this process. For Jaguariuna site, more enriched values of σ 13 C of SOM were observed from the late Pleistocene until mid Holocene, indicating drier climate when compared with present-day conditions. For Botucatu site, the σ 13 C profile suggests predominance of C 3 vegetation during the entire Holocene. (author)

  7. Occurrence of Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in snake carrion in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma Carcaça de Cobra no Sudeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de C. Moretti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of 27 second-instar larvae of the flesh fly Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in a carcass of a snake usually called as Urutu, Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae is reported. The snake was kept in captivity in a snake farm in Morungaba, São Paulo state, Brazil. Descriptions of reptile carcass colonization by insects and general biological data of this flesh fly are scarce and this necrophagic behavior is described for the first time in literature.A ocorrência de 27 larvas de segundo estádio do sarcofagídeo Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma carcaça de urutu Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae é relatada. A cobra era mantida em cativeiro em um serpentário no município de Morungaba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrições de colonização de carcaças de répteis por insetos e dados gerais da biologia deste sarcofagídeo são escassos, e este comportamento necrófago é descrito pela primeira vez na literatura.

  8. Avaliação da prevalência de cárie dentária em escolares de localidade urbana da região Sudeste do Brasil Evaluation of the prevalence of dental caries en school-children in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur W. Moreira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se no ano de 1994, na cidade de Paulínia, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, um levantamento epidemiológico de cárie dentária com o intuito de comparar a atual prevalência com os dados de um estudo prévio de 1980. Foram examinados 1.416 escolares de 7 a14 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, por 10 dentistas previamente calibrados, utilizando-se os índices CPO.D e CPO.S. Verificou-se que houve uma queda da prevalência de cárie em 67,8% em relação aos dados de 1980. Observou-se uma inversão dos componentes do índice CPO.D: em 1980 prevalecia o componente cariado (69,5%, enquanto que o componente obturado prevaleceu em 1994 (79,0%. Os componentes extraídos e a extração indicada praticamente desapareceram no ano de 1994.An epidemiologic survey of dental caries was undertaken in the town of Paulínia, S. Paulo state, south-eastern Brazil, in 1994, for the purpose of comparing the present prevalence with that registered during the previous study of 1980. The children examined numbered 1,416, were of both sexes and aged 7-14. Ten dentists, preciously trained, used DMF.T and DMF.S dental caries indexes. A level of prevalence of dental caries 67.8% below that of 1980 was found. Futher, there had been an inversion of DMF.T index components. Whereas in 1980 the component caries was higher (69.5%, while the filing component prevailed (79.0% in 1994. The missing toth component has disappeared altogether in this recent survey.

  9. Habitat use by a tree frog species of Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae at an urban forest fragment from south-eastern Brazil Uso do hábitat por uma espécie de Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae em um fragmento florestal urbano no sudeste do Brasil

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    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pattern of habitat use by the tree frog Scinax aff. perereca. Fieldworks were performed from August 1996 to August 1997 at Parque das Mangabeiras, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Calling males were observed in September, October and December 1996, February to April and June 1997. Females were found only in October 1996. Specimens were found perched on vegetation, on the ground or on stones near waterfall. At Parque das Mangabeiras, S. aff. perereca occupied nine types of substrata. The most frequently used substrata were shrubs, stones at the stream edges, and fallen trunks. The pattern of spatial occupation varied among months. Males were found calling in aggregations on the vegetation and spatial niche breadth was related to species abundance.No presente estudo é tratado o uso do hábitat por Scinax aff. perereca, durante o período de agosto de 1996 a agosto de 1997 em uma área de mata urbana em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Machos em atividade de vocalização foram encontrados em setembro, outubro e dezembro de 1996 e de fevereiro a abril e junho de 1997. As fêmeas foram capturadas apenas em outubro de 1996. Os indivíduos foram encontrados em galhos da vegetação no solo ou em pedras próximas a quedas de água. Na área estudada, S. aff. perereca usa nove tipos de substratos, sendo os mais freqüentes a vegetação herbácea, pedras na margem do riacho e troncos caídos. O padrão de ocupação espacial variou ao longo dos meses. Os machos foram encontrados vocalizando em agregados e a largura de nicho espacial foi diretamente relacionada a abundância da espécie.

  10. Perfil do idoso em área metropolitana na região sudeste do Brasil: resultados de inquérito domiciliar Profile of the elderly in an metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil: results of a household survey

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    Luiz Roberto Ramos

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo multicêntrico visando levantar as necessidades de saúde da população de idosos residentes em zona urbana, conduzido em 6 países na América Latina e coordenado pela Organização Panamericana da Saúde. No Brasil, 1.602 idosos (60 anos e + residentes no Distrito de São Paulo, participaram de inquérito domiciliar com questionário de avaliação funcional multidimensional - amostra populacional aleatória, em múltiplos estágios, estratificada por nível socioeconômico. Os resultados mostraram uma população bastante carente (70% tinha uma renda per capita de menos de 100 dólares por mês, vivendo predominantemente em domicílios multigeracionais (59% viviam com os filhos e/ou com netos, com alta prevalência de doenças crônicas (somente 14% referiu não ter nenhuma doença e distúrbios psiquiátricos (27% foram considerados casos psiquiátricos, e com uma elevada proporção de pessoas com perda de autonomia (47% precisavam de ajuda para realizar pelo menos uma das atividades da vida diária. Os resultados são analisados tendo em vista as demandas futuras por serviços de saúde especializados e suporte social por parte da crescente população de idosos no Brasil.A multicentre study concerned with the health needs of the elderly population living in urban areas and coordinated by the Panamerican Health Organization was undertaken in 6 Latin-American countries. In Brazil, 1,602 elderly residents (of 60 years of age and over in the District of S. Paulo, constituting a multistage random sample stratified by socioeconomic status, participated in a household survey using a multidemensional functional assessment questionnaire. The results showed a highly deprived population (70% had a per capita income of less than US$ 100 per month, living mostly in multigenerational households (59% were living with children and/or grandchildren, with a high prevalence of chronic physical illnesses (only 14% referred no illness and

  11. Desempenho econômico da cultura do girassol em sistemas de agricultura familiar do sudeste paranaense Economic performance of sunflower in family farming systems of southeastern Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima dos Santos Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho econômico da cultura do girassol em sistemas de produção familiar do sudeste paranaense. Foram avaliadas 26 situações culturais, as quais variaram quanto às condições edafoclimáticas, à intensidade de uso de mecanização, ao custo com fertilizantes e à cultivar utilizada. A Análise de Componentes Principais indicou que o desempenho econômico da cultura do girassol não esteve correlacionado com a intensidade de uso de mecanização, sendo possível auferir maiores margens brutas, tanto em sistemas totalmente mecanizados, quanto em sistemas com mecanização intermediária ou com tração animal. O custo com fertilizantes e a produtividade foram os fatores mais importantes para o desempenho econômico da cultura. Verificou-se também que o custo com sementes não esteve correlacionado com a margem bruta. Assim, para as condições do presente estudo, é economicamente mais interessante a utilização de materiais com alto potencial produtivo, mesmo que o custo de aquisição das sementes seja maior. Pela Análise de Cluster, as 26 situações culturais foram agrupadas em quatro classes de desempenho econômico. As menores margens brutas variaram entre R$180 ha-1 (sistema totalmente mecanizado e R$288 ha-1 (tração animal e intermediário. As maiores margens brutas variaram entre R$553 ha-1 (sistema totalmente mecanizado e R$695 ha-1 (tração animal e intermediário.This study aimed to evaluate the economic performance of sunflower in family farms of the Southeastern region of Paraná. Twenty-six situations were evaluated, according to the agroecological conditions, the different levels of mechanization, the amounts of fertilizer applied and varieties. Principal Component Analysis showed that the economic performance was not correlated to the level of mechanization. It was possible to obtain higher gross margins in intensive mechanization, intermediate or animal traction systems

  12. Population structure of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomidae in the Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura populacional do anfioxo Branchiostoma caribaeum (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomidae na Baía de Guanabara, sudeste do Brasil

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    Luis F. B. da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Population structure of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum Sandevall, 1853 was studied in four surveys, corresponding to austral seasons, in a tropical bay, southeast of Brazil. Abundance was higher in the spring and was positively correlated to coarse sediments, limiting its occurrence to some sectors of the sampling area. Body length and biomass differed seasonally but not between sexes. Sexually mature individuals occurred in all seasons, suggesting continuous breeding that is typical of tropical species. Variation in the frequency of small specimens indicates temporal differences in the intensity of breeding. The body length of recruits differed from other population of lancelets and the small length which B. caribaeum attained sexual maturity in Guanabara Bay may be related to local environmental stress or the great availability of food.A estrutura populacional do anfioxo Branchiostoma caribaeum Sandevall, 1853 foi analisada em quatro campanhas abrangendo todas as estações do ano, na Baía de Guanabara, sudeste do Brasil. A abundância de indivíduos foi maior na primavera e positivamente correlacionada com sedimentos grossos, tendo sua distribuição limitada a alguns setores da área amostral. O tamanho corpóreo e a biomassa diferiram sazonalmente, mas não entre os sexos. Indivíduos sexualmente maduros ocorreram em todas as estações do ano, sugerindo uma reprodução contínua, típica de espécies tropicais. Variações na freqüência de ocorrência de espécimes pequenos indicaram diferenças temporais na intensidade da reprodução. O tamanho corpóreo dos recrutas diferiu de populações de anfioxos de outros locais. O menor tamanho em que B. caribaeum atinge a maturidade sexual na Baía da Guanabara pode estar relacionada ao estresse ambiental ou à grande disponibilidade de alimento do local.

  13. Comparação entre duas coortes de mães adolescentes em município do Sudeste do Brasil Comparison between two cohorts of adolescent mothers in Southeastern Brazil

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    Eleonora RO Ribeiro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a prevalência de gravidez na adolescência e analisar variáveis sociobiológicas relacionadas ao binômio mãe-filho entre duas coortes de mães adolescentes de nascidos vivos em Ribeirão Preto (1978-1979 e 1994. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas mães adolescentes logo após o parto, sendo 943 em 1978/79 e 499 em 1994, abrangendo nascidos vivos de parto único, de famílias residentes em Ribeirão Preto, SP. Foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: O percentual de mães adolescentes aumentou de 14,1% em 1978/79 para 17,5% em 1994 (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of pregnancy among adolescents and analyze trends in some social and biological variables among two cohorts of adolescent mothers in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, during 1978/79 and 1994. METHODS: Two cohorts of adolescent mothers were interviewed shortly after delivery, comprising 943 women in the first survey (1978/79 and 499 in the second (1994. Both surveys covered more than 98% of births in all childbirth clinics. Only singleton livebirths from adolescent mothers living in the municipality were included in the analysis. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis, with a 0.05 significance level. RESULTS: The percentage of adolescent mothers increased from 14.1% in 1978/79 to 17.5% in 1994 (p<0.05, mainly due to an increase in deliveries in the 13-17 years age group. There was a reduction in the number of smokers and mothers with lower schooling. The number of prenatal care visits increased. There was also an increase in the proportion of single mothers, of those who were employed and got private delivery care. Low birth weight and preterm birth rates remained unchanged for all of them. Ceasarean section and forceps delivery rates increased substantially. Mothers in the 13-17 years age group however showed twice as much premature and low birth weight children, a higher proportion of single mothers with

  14. Risco de distúrbios psiquiátricos menores em área metropolitana na região Sudeste do Brasil Risk of minor psychiatric disorders in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho Souza

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar as características associadas ao risco de ocorrência de distúrbios psiquiátricos menores para a categoria de motoristas e cobradores de ônibus urbanos na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, em 1990. METODOLOGIA: Estudou-se a prevalência dos distúrbios psiquiátricos menores (DPM em uma amostra de 925 motoristas e cobradores, controlando e identificando as variáveis de confundimento existentes, através da análise de regressão logística, utilizando-se um modelo progressivo, passo a passo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se uma prevalência de DPM de 20,3% no conjunto dos dois grupos de trabalhadores, sendo significativamente maior entre os cobradores (28% do que entre os motoristas (13% (p OBJECTIVE: Its aim was to identify and analyse the prevalence and the risks associated with minor psycuiatric in disorders bus drivers and conductors in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1990. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was analysed in a random sample of 925. A logistic regression approach was used in the analysis which was implemented by means of a forward stepwise model technique. RESULTS: A prevalence of 20.3% was observed in the group as a whole, and a significant difference was found between conductors (28% and drivers (13% (p < 0.0001. The logistic regression analysis showed that the two major risk factors were heavy traffic (or = 1.99; confidence interval 95%=1.39-2.84 and the conductor's activity (or = 1.84; ci95% = 1.09-3.10. Other risk factors were sleep privation (less than six hours, absenteeism, seats without mechanisms of adjustment, internal migration and work schedule changes. CONCLUSION: The excess of risk for the occupational category of the conductor suggests the importance of the specific work condition as relevant for psychic suffering, leading to the consideration of the conductor-passenger relationship as possibly an important factor. Further studies for a better

  15. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea from the southeastern coast of Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum e Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoanthidea da costa sudeste do Brasil

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    H. K. Boscolo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in São Sebastião channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorum, high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P. variabilis and 41.7% of P. caribaeorum, and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaeorum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.A biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 e Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 foi estudada por amostras mensais de colônias etiquetadas de junho de 1996 a junho de 1997, no canal de São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brasil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. A gametogênese apresentou-se semelhante à de outros zoantídeos, como evidenciado em preparações histológicas. O diâmetro dos oócitos e os estágios de maturação dos folículos testiculares foram avaliados por preparações do tipo "squash". Ambas as espécies mostraram hermafroditismo seqüencial protogínico, com alta freqüência de pólipos férteis (83% em P. variabilis e 72% em P. caribaeorum e de colônias na condição sexual feminina (65,3% para P. variabilis e 41,7% para P. caribaeorum, e, aparentemente, gametogênese contínua. Em P. caribaeorum, a liberação de oócitos foi contínua e a liberação de espermatozóides ocorreu durante metade do período analisado. Para P. variabilis, a libera

  16. Padrões de abundância, riqueza e diversidade de moluscos bivalves na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil: uma comparação metodológica

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    Soares-Gomes Abílio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and richness patterns of bivalve molluscs were studied on the continental shelf of Ubatuba (23º38'S, 45º14'W and 23º25'S, 44º51'W between 15-120 metres depth. The samples were taken with a rectangular dredge and a beam trawl. The results showed higher values of richness, diversity and evenness for inner shelf (from coast to nearly 50 m depth and greater values of abundance for outer shelf (from 50 to around 120 m depth. This pattern might be due to the higher instability of the inner shelf, which is influenced by the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the occurrence of cold fronts. Sanders' rarefation curves, distribution and abundance curves and DIMO model were used and the results compared. The Qinghong's model proved to be a good tool for summarizes the results of diversity in a such plural account.

  17. Análise do mosaico silvático em um fragmento de floresta tropical estacional no sudeste do Brasil Silvatic mosaic analysis in a fragment of a tropical seasonal forest in southeastern Brazil

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    Eliana Cardoso Leite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na "Mata da Câmara", um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecídual localizado em São Roque, SP, e teve como objetivos a identificação e análise do mosaico silvático, discutindo-se a arquitetura atual da floresta e inferindo sobre sua dinâmica de construção. Utilizou-se o método de inventário de linhas interceptadas, em que se amostraram três áreas de 50 × 105 m. Os resultados indicaram que as porcentagens de área ocupada por ecounidades em equilíbrio 2A foram de 46,8%, 48,6% e 75,7%, respectivamente nas três áreas estudadas. Pode-se concluir que na área A há uma floresta jovem, na área B uma floresta em fase de pré-maturidade com sinais de perturbações recentes e antigas e na área C uma floresta madura com alguns sinais de perturbações antigas. Comparando os resultados desta análise com aqueles obtidos através de levantamento fitossociológico, realizado na mesma área, a análise silvigenética mostrou ser mais uma importante ferramenta para discussão da dinâmica florestal, mas que em alguns caso tende a superestimar o grau de maturidade das florestas. No contexto dos fragmentos florestais remanescentes do Estado de São Paulo, pode-se dizer que a Mata da Câmara representa uma área de floresta relativamente bem preservada.This study was carried out in "Mata da Câmara", a fragment of a seasonal semideciduous forest, in São Roque - SP, Brazil. The objective of the present work was to identify and analyze the silvatic mosaic, by discussing its current architectural aspects and inferring about its construction dynamics. The line-intercept inventory method was used in three 50 x 105 m areas. The results showed that percentages of the area occupied by 2A steady-state eco-units, were 46.8%, 48.6%, and 75.7% for areas A, B and C respectively. It can be concluded that there is a young forest in area A; a pre-mature forest with signs of both recent and old disturbances in area B, and in

  18. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo em Ilhabela, litoral do Estado de São Paulo Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in Ilhabela, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença de Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo localizadas em ambientes ecologicamente distintos, em termos de positividade, densidade e volume de água. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Realizaram-se coletas quinzenais, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999, em tanques de bromélias localizadas nos ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata; o conteúdo aquático das plantas foi medido e registrado. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise da freqüência de bromélias com presença de Ae. albopictus (ANOVA, abundância (Kruskal-Wallis e volume de água das bromélias positivas (Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A presença e a densidade de Ae. albopictus em bromélias de solo variou com o tipo de ambiente. Os maiores percentuais de positividade (85% e abundância (81% foram observados nas plantas localizadas em ambiente urbano. Constatou-se ainda preferência dos mosquitos pelas bromélias com maiores volumes de água (média de 300 ml. CONCLUSÕES: As diferentes freqüências com que Ae. albopictus foi registrado nos ambientes e suas respectivas densidades mostraram sua capacidade de invasão a novos habitats. Recomenda-se intensificar a vigilância entomológica nessas plantas, dada a sua capacidade em traduzir-se em criadouros permanentes. A presença desse mosquito de importância médica em bromélias em área preservada da Mata Atlântica poderá resultar em agravo à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in ecologically distinct environments in terms of positivity, density and volume of water. METHODS: The study was carried out in the municipality of Ilhabela, North coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections were fortnightly performed between March 1998 and July 1999, in containers of bromeliads located in urban, peri-urban and forest environments. The water content in plants was measured and recorded

  19. Gradiente fitofisionômico-edáfico em formações florestais de Restinga no sudeste do Brasil Phytophysiognomic-edaphic gradient of forest formations in restinga areas of southeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando Silva Magnago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar as variações fitofisionômicas em quatro formações florestais, em relação aos gradientes de inundação e características pedológicas. O estudo foi no Parque Natural Municipal de Jacarenema, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. Quatro perfis de solo com profundidades variadas foram abertos, onde uma amostra foi coletada em cada horizonte existente por perfil. Para acompanhamento da flutuação do lençol freático, foram instalados piezômetros, em profundidade de 2 m em cada fitofisionomia. O reconhecimento e delimitação das unidades vegetacionais seguiu os critérios fisionômicos, ecológicos e aspectos florísticos apresentados pelas diferentes formações, sendo as características vegetacionais de cada fitocenose expressas por perfis ilustrativos. Nas fisionomias estudadas, foram identificadas quatro classes de solos distintas, sendo Organossolos Tiomórficos Sápricos solódicos muito mal drenados sob a Floresta Inundada, Gleissolos Tiomórficos Húmicos solódicos mal drenados sob a Floresta Inundável, Espodossolos Humilúvicos Hidromórficos dúricos moderadamente a imperfeitamente drenado sob a Floresta Não Inundável de Transição e Neossolos Quartzarênicos Órticos espódicos excessivamente drenados sob Floresta Não Inundável. Os resultados mostram a existência de respostas vegetacionais das florestas em virtude das variáveis edáficas.This research aimed to evaluate the phytophysiognomic variations in four forest formations related to flood gradient and edaphic characteristics. The study was carried out at the Jacarenema Nautral Municipal Park, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We made four soil profiles varying in depth, and collected one sample from each horizon per profile. Piezometers were set up at 2m depth in each phytophysiognomy to record groundwater variance. Recognition and delimitation of the vegetation units followed the phytophysiognomic, ecological and

  20. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae no Sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Callisto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm were sampled: 61 in the Indaiá stream and 17 in other two streams. Twelve Corydalus larvae (22-79 mm in the Indaiá stream and three out of 15 larvae in the headwaters of São Francisco river (38-50 mm had Corynoneura, larvae and pupae on their gills (3rd to 6th and a few larvae attached to the abdominal segments of larger Corydalus larvae (> 25 mm. Sixty-nine larvae of Corynoneura were found in the regurgitated material from Corydalus. It is remarkable that by attaching to larger body size predators, prey could become free from predator bouts and could also be transported by them.Comensalismo entre Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Insecta, Megaloptera, Corydalidae e Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae foi registrado no córrego Indaiá situado a 1.380 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19-20ºS, 43-44ºW e nas nascentes do rio São Francisco a 1.300-1.700 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Setenta e oito larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-88 mm foram coletadas: 61 no córrego Indaiá e 17 em outros córregos. Doze larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-79 mm no córrego Indaiá e três encontradas nas nascentes do rio São Francisco (tamanhos: 38-50 mm apresentaram larvas e pupas de Corynoneura em suas brânquias (3ª a 6ª e algumas larvas fixadas nos segmentos abdominais de grandes Corydalus (> 25 mm. Sessenta e nove larvas de Corynoneura foram

  1. Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae infecting Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae in the Chavantes Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae infectando Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae no reservatório de Chavantes, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Aline Cristina Zago

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the infection by Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum metacercariae in Steindachnerina insculpta from the Chavantes Reservoir, medium Paranapanema River, municipality of Ipaussu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty specimens of S. insculpta were collected and 29 were infected with S. musculosum metacercariae (prevalence = 96.67% in the eyes and visceral cavity. The mean intensity of infection and abundance were 96.6 ± 29.41 (7-846 and 93.3 ± 28.6 (0-846, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between parasite abundance in the eyes and standard length (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005, total weight (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001, and condition factor (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154. The high parasitism rates by S. musculosum metacercariae in S. insculpta can be an indicative that this fish species is highly susceptible to infection by this diplostomid, and even reflect the presence of a large abundance of the intermediate host. Moreover, S. musculosum metacercariae are reported for the first time in S. insculpta.O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar a infecção por metacercárias de Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum em Steindachnerina insculpta provenientes do Reservatório de Chavantes, médio Paranapanema, município de Ipaussu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados 30 espécimes de S. insculpta, sendo que 29 estavam infectados por metacercárias de S. musculosum (prevalência = 96,67% nos olhos e na cavidade visceral. A intensidade média de infecção e abundância apresentaram valores de 96,6 ± 29,41 (7-846 e 93,3 ± 28,6 (0-846, respectivamente. Foi observada correlação positiva entre a abundância dos parasitas presentes nos olhos com relação ao comprimento padrão (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005, peso (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001 e fator de condição (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154. As altas taxas de parasitismo de metacercárias de S. musculosum em S. insculpta podem ser um indicativo de que esta espécie de peixe é altamente suscept

  2. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  3. Epidemiologia dos acidentes do trabalho fatais em área metropolitana da região sudeste do Brasil, 1979-1989 Epidemiology of fatal work accidents in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil from 1979 to 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. de Lucca

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram localizados e analisados 476 prontuários de acidentes do trabalho fatais arquivados na Agência de Campinas do INSS, ocorridos nos Municípios de Campinas, Cosmópolis, Paulínia, Sumaré e Valinhos, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1979 a 1989. Mediante as informações contidas na Comunicação de Acidente de Trabalho (CAT, Boletim de Ocorrência (BO e atestados de óbito, foram analisados os acidentes do trabalho segundo características das empresas, do acidentado e do acidente propriamente dito. Através dos dados disponíveis no Ministério do Trabalho/RAIS, sobre o número de trabalhadores registrados segundo ramo de atividade e ocupação dos municípios, estimou-se o risco de acidente de trabalho. A Densidade de Incidência foi maior para os "carpinteiros" (94,3 óbitos por 100.000 trabalhadores/ano, seguida dos "condutores de veículo" (69,6 e "pedreiros" (63,3. Comparada aos "técnicos", estes profissionais têm de três a cinco vezes mais probabilidade de morrer em função da atividade desempenhada (Razão de Densidade de Incidência. A Construção Civil (22,1% e Transportes (14,9%, sendo os ramos de atividade que mais contribuíram na mortalidade dos acidentados, apresentaram elevada Densidade de Incidência, de 59,8 e 57,3 óbitos por 100.000 trabalhadores/ano, respectivamente, se comparada ao do Comércio Varejista (9,4.Campinas is an important industrial centre in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. 476 registers filed at the Campinas agency of the Brazilian National Social-Welfore Institution, covering the Campinas, Cosmópolis, Paulínia, Sumaré and Valinhos Counties from 1979 to 1989, were analysed. The information obtained from the Notifications of Work Accidents, (C.A.T., police reports (B.O. and death certificates, Work accidents were studied on the basis of according to characteristics of the enterprise, concerned the worker involved and the accident itself. Using data from the Ministry of Labour on the

  4. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

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    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  5. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    been used as an indicator of water quality and habitat quality. The aim of this paper was to survey and monitor waterfowl population at the largest natural lake of the 'Area of Environmental Protection' of Lagoa Santa, Southeast Brazil. The 'Lagoa do Sumidouro' holds approximately 253 ha with a 12,072 m of perimeter. Species richness and abundance was estimated from June 1999 to December 2002. It was recorded 27 species of 12 families. Twelve species were considered residents, while eight migratory and another seven species did not present any seasonal pattern. Ardeidae was the most representative family holding 23% of the species followed by Anatidae (15% and Socolopacidae (11%. Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 is considered threatened to extinction, while Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 and Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 are considered rare for the state of Minas Gerais. There was no difference of species richness among the three main seasons ('wet', 'dry', and 'transitional'. Species diversity was higher during the wet season. The occurrence of threatened and migratory species at 'Lagoa do Sumidouro' makes the lake an area of extreme biological importance.

  6. Estudo antropométrico e dietético de nadadores competitivos de áreas metropolitanas da região sudeste do Brasil Anthropometric and dietetic study of competitive swimmers of metropolitan areas of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Soares

    1994-02-01

    swimmers of two clubs representative of the two largest cities in Brazil (S.Paulo and Rio de Janeiro were studied. The 30 males and 37 females studied belonged to the swimming categories "junior" (15-17 yrs old and "senior" (18-25 yrs old. Food intake obtained from self-register and 24 hour-recall showed similar results and therefore the 24 hour-recall was used for comparisons with the literature. Ages within both sexes were anthropometrically similar. The most frequently eaten foodstaffs were similar to those quoted by the metropolitan population of the respective areas. Moroever, the athletes from both cities reported similar food-supplements. The energy intake was found to average almost double the estimated value for the respective metropolitan populations, but were similar to results obtained for swimmers all over the world. Snacks between meals supplied 25-28% of the overall energy intake. The main caloric source were cereals. However, despite their contribution of almost 50% of the total energy intake, carbohydrates attained a level of only 55-60% of that recommended for competitive athletes. On the other hand, the protein intake found (2.5-3.0 g/kg/day exceeded the recommended values by 100%. The fat intake particularly of satured fat, was also considered high. The swimmers' intake of micronutrients was well abone that quoted by the regular population of these metropolitan areas, when related to the caloric intake, but the values of Mg, Fe and vitamins A and D were somecohot lower than those recommended. This is due to the higers energy intake of the swimmers. From these overall results it may be concluded that the alimentary pattern of the swimmers studied does not differ greatly from that of the local population, being distinguished by its higher and more frequent intake of caloric foods rather than by its qualitative aspects.

  7. Hábitos alimentares aterogênicos de grupos populacionais em área metropolitana da região sudeste do Brasil Atherogenic alimentary habits of population groups in a metropolitan area of southeastern Brazil

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    Ignez Salas Martins

    1994-10-01

    . Por outro lado, o consumo de colesterol acima de 300mg/dia situou-se nas faixas de 37 a 50% e de 20 a 32% para os homens e mulheres, respectivamente. A percentagem de dietas com calorias provenientes das gorduras (G% acima de 30% variou de 25 a 40%, para os homens e de 45 a 50% para as mulheres. A participação dos ácidos graxos saturados (AGS% em proporções maiores ou iguais a 10 foi relativamente baixa para ambos os sexos: de 5 a 17% para os homens e menos de 10% para as mulheres. Os percentuais de casos em que a relação ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados (AGS/AGI guardou valores menores ou iguais a 1, também foi baixa para a população em geral; situou-se entre 7 e 22% para os homens e em proporções abaixo de 10%, para as mulheres. Concluiu-se que a dieta se apresenta como provável fator de risco de doenças cardiovasculares, dislipidemias, obesidade e hipertensão, para grande parte da população.This present study is one part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, Brazil" undertaken in Cotia county. An alimentary inquiry based on the alimentary history of the individual was carried out among a sub-sample of the population (568 individuals. The objectives of the inquiry are the following: a- the identification of the atherogenic potential of the diets of different human groups, stratified according to social class and b the analysis of consumption differentials of some nutrients, which confer atherogenicity to the diet, as between social classes. The consumption differentials were analyzed as between men and women, by social class and taking the 50th percentile (P50 of the sample as the standard of reference, with regard to the following dietary constituents: energy, total proteins, proteins of animal origin, percentages of protein calories (P%, fatty acids, fats (F% and carbohydrates (CH%. Also, according to this

  8. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil Composição florística do cerrado na Reserva Pé-de-Gigante (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

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    Marco Antônio Batalha

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.Estudamos uma área de 1225 ha, composta principalmente por cerrado, situada em Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, estado de São Paulo (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. Em três fisionomias de cerrado (campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, coletamos, durante 18 meses, em excursões mensais, espécimes em fase fértil e os identificamos em nível específico. Encontramos 360 espécies, pertencentes a 236 gêneros e 69 famílias. As fam��lias mais ricas foram: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae. As fisionomias savânicas foram mais ricas do que a florestal. A razão entre espécies arbustivo-arbóreas e herbáceo-subarbustivas foi de aproximadamente 2:1. Analisamos a flora como um todo e seus componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivo-arbóreo separadamente, comparando-os com outras áreas disjuntas de cerrado. Dessa comparação, obtivemos valores de similaridade (índice de Sørensen de 0,47 a 0,81, que mostraram que a diversidade 3 foi maior no componente herbáceo-subarbustivo do que no

  9. The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented. PMID:23950667

  10. Rocks age and metamorphic occurrence from the southeastern part of Sao Paulo State and their crustal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr whole rock isotope systematics and U-Pb on zircons method analyses are reported for rocks from the southeastern part of Sao Paulo state Brazil. The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes, in this area, provides an important indication of the age and nature of the continental crust. (author) [pt

  11. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  12. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  13. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  14. Flora ficológica da região sublitorânea rasa de costões rochosos do Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Ubatuba, São Paulo Phycological flora from the shallow sublittoral zone of the rocky shores of Serra do Mar State Park, Ubatuba, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisa Eneida Marques Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Em unidades de conservação da zona costeira, o conhecimento das macroalgas marinhas é essencial para monitoramento e manejo. Para o Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Ubatuba, norte do Estado de São Paulo, estudos pretéritos realizados na Enseada da Fazenda listam espécies de macroalgas, coletadas em costões rochosos e manguezais. O presente estudo visou complementar o levantamento taxonômico da flora ficológica marinha do Núcleo Picinguaba, avaliando também a adequação da metodologia para amostragens de suas comunidades de costões rochosos. Foram selecionados 13 pontos de coleta, entre a Ponta da Almada e a Ponta do Cambury, área de maior interferência antropogênica na zona costeira do PESM. No verão de 2007, foram efetuadas coletas de macroalgas, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até o limite do substrato rochoso com a areia. Para uniformizar o esforço amostral, estas buscas foram efetuadas, em cada ponto de coleta, pelo mesmo especialista, durante uma hora de mergulho em apnéia, em uma extensão horizontal do costão rochoso de cerca de 20 m. Foram identificados 128 táxons de categoria infragenérica (80 Rhodophyta, 22 Ochrophyta e 26 Chlorophyta. Callithamniella flexilis Baardseth, Cryptonemia seminervis (C. Agardh J. Agardh, Cladophora pseudorupestris C. Hoek e Cladophora cf. pygmaea Reinke são ocorrências novas para o litoral do Estado de São Paulo, tendo sido descritas e ilustradas. Foram acrescentadas 64 espécies de macroalgas para os costões rochosos do PESM. O esforço amostral foi considerado adequado, resultando na identificação de número de espécies de macroalgas similar ao de outros estudos realizados no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo e no extremo sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para o monitoramento da zona costeira desta unidade de conservação, recomenda-se o levantamento taxonômico das macroalgas dos costões rochosos de modo continuado, durante o per

  15. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Tavares; S. Siciliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoo...

  16. Rainfall Interception in Mangrove in the Southeastern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Galvani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are among the ecosystems biologically more productive and important in the world, providing unique goods and services to societies and coastal systems. These areas, however, are increasingly fragmented, contributing to the loss of their services and benefits. The rains have an important influence in this ecosystem is central to the dissolution of sea salts. This study investigated the total rainfall in the mangroves located in the Coastal System Cananeia-Iguape (SP at different time scales (daily, monthly, sea-sonal and annual and its interception by the mangrove canopy. It found an intercept of 8.8%, ranging from 13% to 4% in the annual scale, showing that the annual variation of rainfall, which reflects both its quantity and its intensity contributes to the percentage of that interception by the canopy. It was also found that as the intensity of precipitation increases, trapping the mangrove canopy reduces.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction in Santos, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Júnior,Edson Duarte; Bestane,Walter Jorge; Bartolo,Elaine Bestane; Fittipaldi,João Antônio Saraiva

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent population-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of erectile dysfunction is between 30% and 56% among men over the age of 40. Most of these studies, however, are from the United States or Europe. We need estimates of erectile dysfunction from samples of Brazilian populations, as societies that differ ethnically, culturally, and economically may also differ with respect to potential risk factors for erectile dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of erectile dy...

  18. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  19. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch species in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Viana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding ecology of five elasmobranch species was studied on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The specimens were caught with a trawl or bottom longline between January 2006 and August 2007. The diets of Psammobatis rutrum and Psammobatis extenta appeared to be basically carcino-benthophagous, with a very small niche width. Rioraja agassizii was basically carcino/ichthyo-benthophagous, also with a narrow niche, including teleost fish and shrimp, but in different proportions according to age and sex. Rhizoprionodon lalandii was ichthyophagous, not influenced by age or sex. The analyses of these species and Atlantoraja cyclophora indicated two trophic groups: one composed of the smaller rays, P. extenta and P. rutrum, which basically fed on small crustaceans, polychaetes and nematodes; and the other of R. lalandii and the larger rays R. agassizii and A. cyclophora, which preyed on teleost fish and brachyurans.

  20. Vascular epiphyte vegetation in rocky savannas of southeastern Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, R. J. V.; Kolbek, Jiří; Becker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-2 (2008), s. 101-117 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : epiphytic communities * campo rupestre * Minas Gerais Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.194, year: 2008

  1. The man revamping Brazil's approach to water quality | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-20

    Sep 20, 2017 ... Following the rupture of a large dam in southeastern Brazil, metal waste and mud flowed downstream, contaminating the water and wreaking havoc as the worst environmental disaster in the nation's history. Adalto Bianchini's research is helping the country rewrite its rules on one of its most precious ...

  2. Sedimentação atual nas enseadas de Ubatumirim e Picinguaba, região norte de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Modern sedimentation pattern in Ubatumirim and Picinguaba Bay, northern Ubatuba coastal region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistem na identificação das características sedimentológicas e batimétricas da superfície de fundo e sua correlação com os agentes dinâmicos, que visando caracterizar os processos sedimentares atuantes nas enseadas de Ubatumirim e Picinguaba e na plataforma interna adjacente. Os trabalhos realizados consistiram na caracterização da batimetria de detalhe da área, na coleta e análise de 77 amostras de sedimentos de superfície de fundo, em levantamentos bimestrais de perfis termossalinométricos e análise de fotos aéreas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram o predomínio de sedimentos compostos de areias finas e muito finas e, secundariamente, por areias médias e grossas, que compõem feições manchas e feições alongadas, orientadas segundo NNW-SSE. Estas feições representam variações marcantes na composição dos sedimentos, possivelmente associadas a sedimentos palimpsestos. A estrutura oceanográfica da área mostra um padrão de circulação no interior das enseadas predominantemente no sentido anti-horário, com células de circulação junto à linha de costa em sentido oposto, que influenciam o transporte de sedimentos provenientes dos rios que aportam nas praias do interior das enseadas. As velocidades de correntes junto ao fundo, mais efetivas na distribuição sedimentar devem estar associadas aos agentes dinâmicos gerados pela passagem de sistemas frontais.This work deals with the identification of the bathymetric, sedimentary distribution, and sedimentary features, as well as with their correlation to hydrodynamic processes which are responsible for the transportation and deposition of particulate materials in Ubatumirim and Picinguaba bays and in the adjacent inner shelf. The methodology comprised the batthymetric characterization, 77 bottom surface sampling and the measurements of temperature and salinity profiles. Results showed the dominance of fine and very fine sands, and secondarily, the existence of NNW-SSE elongated coarse and medium sand features. These features are related to relict sediments. The oceanographic structure shows an anti-clockwise circulation in the bays, with an opposite direction for the longshore currents, which demonstrate rip cell circulation in opposite direction along the coastline This pattern causes the transport of fluvial sediments to the opposite sides of the beaches. The sediment transport and generation of sedimentary features could be associated to the passage of cold fronts over the area.

  3. Produção primária e algumas considerações ecológicas da região de Ubatuba (Lat. 23º30's - Long. 45º06'w, Brasil Primary production and some ecological considerations from Ubatuba region (Lat. 23º30'S - Long. 45º06'W, Brazil

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    Clóvis Teixeira

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Medidas sobre produção primária, foram determinadas em trés diferentes pontos de uma enseada (Lat. 23º30'S; Long. 45º06'W durante o inverno e verão (1975-1976 . Algumas características fotossintéticas das populações naturais foram determinadas em condições simuladas. Os valores da produção primaria, relacionados às condições ambientais e aos diferentes valores C:clorofila-a encontrados, demonstraram que a região estudada apresenta características oligotroficas . A composição do fitoplâncton, com relaçao ao seu tamanho celular, deve, entretanto, favorecer um aproveitamento máximo dos nutrientes em termos de assimilação e propiciar uma elevada taxa de multiplicação celular. Os altos valores encontrados para os diferentes demonstraram que as populações estudadas sao adaptadas às altas intensidades luminosas, desde que nenhuma barreira física seja estabelecida. Além das considerações ecologicas apresentadas, os dados obtidos permitiram sugerir uma possível viabilidade da criação de organismos filtradores como uma opção para a maricultura.Primary production and hydrographic measurements were taken at three different points at a bight (Lat. 23º30'S; Long. 45º06'W during the winter and summer (1975-76. Some photosynthetic characteristics of the natural populations were also simulated in laboratory experiments. The relation between primary production and the environmental parameters, as well as with the different values of C: chlorophyll obtained, showed that the region is oligotrophic. However the cell size composition of phytoplarikton may promove a maximum uptake of nutrients and improve the cellular reproduction. High values found for Ik showed that the population is adapted to high intensities as long as no physical barrier is established. Besides the ecological aspects presented the results allow us to suggest the viability of growing filter-feeding organisms as an option for marine culture.

  4. Saúde mental e a continuidade do cuidado em centros de saúde de Belo Horizonte, MG Salud mental y la continuidad del cuidado en centros de salud de una ciudad en Sudeste de Brasil Mental health and continuity of care in healthcare centers in a city of Southeastern Brazil

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    Graziella Lage Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    encaminamientos fueron factores facilitadores de la continuidad del cuidado. Ninguna característica individual estuvo asociada a la continuidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren haber una falla en la propuesta de línea de cuidado. La continuidad del tratamiento parece estar mas relacionada a factores referentes al servicio de que las características del paciente.OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the continuity of mental health care provided for patients referred to healthcare centers. METHODS: A follow-up study was carried out with 98 patients assisted between 2003 and 2004. These patients were referred to eight healthcare centers with mental health teams located in the catchment area of a mental health reference venter in the city of Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil. Social, demographic, clinical and continuity variables were described and then compared using the chi-square test. RESULTS: After referral, 35 patients did not attend the first visit in the healthcare center. Of those who did, 38 continued in treatment. To return to the reference center for a new visit after referral and to have had more than two referrals were factors that facilitated continuity of care. No individual characteristic was associated with continuity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there is a gap in the proposal for the line of care. Treatment continuity seems to be more related to service factors than to patients' characteristics.

  5. Anemia em catadores de material reciclável que utilizam carrinho de propulsão humana no município de Santos Anemia in recyclable waste pickers using human driven pushcarts in the city of Santos, southeastern Brazil

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    Mauro Abrahão Rozman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de anemia e analisar os fatores de risco a ela associados nos catadores de material reciclável que utilizam carrinho de propulsão humana do município de Santos - São Paulo. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com 253 catadores foi realizado em julho de 2005. A coleta de informações foi feita por meio de questionário com informações sobre características individuais, ocupacionais e dietéticas. Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica e coletado sangue venoso para hemograma completo e sorologias de HIV, HCV, HBV e sífilis. A análise estatística foi feita por análise uni e multivariada (regressão logística, relacionando a anemia aos fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 38,3%. As variáveis que mostraram associação independente com anemia no modelo multivariado foram: sexo (OR 4,11; IC95%: 1,56-10,87, infecção pelo HIV (OR 9,23; IC95%: 2,93-29,1, IMC (OR 0,21; IC95%: 0,07-0,64, anos de trabalho como catador (OR 4,54; IC95%: 1,29-16,0, consumo de leite (OR 0,36; IC95%: 0,16-0,81 e de proteína animal (OR 0,39; IC95%: 0,15-0,97. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia entre catadores de material reciclável é elevada mesmo após a obrigatoriedade de adição de ferro nas farinhas de trigo e milho. Os catadores são excluídos das ações de proteção à saúde do trabalhador, previstas na legislação. Ações de saúde dirigidas a essa categoria profissional devem ser implementadas, garantindo a acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anemia and describe associated risk factors in recyclable waste pickers using human-driven pushcarts in the city of Santos. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 253 recyclable waste pickers was conducted in the city of Santos, southeastern Brazil, in July 2005. A questionnaire was used to collect information about individual, occupational, and dietary factors. All subjects underwent an anthropometric

  6. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

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    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada

  7. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera assemblages in litter in a mountain stream of the Atlantic Rainforest from Southeastern Brazil Comunidades de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera em folhiço de um riacho de montanha da Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil

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    Vera L. Crisci-Bispo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera associated with litter in southeastern Brazil streams aimed to answer the following questions: 1 Does richness and composition of EPT fauna differ between riffle and pool mesohabitats despite being associated to the same substratum, litter? 2 Does the similarity of the EPT fauna between both mesohabitats change with time? 3 Does the EPT functional feeding structure differ between both mesohabitats (riffles-pools? In order to answer these questions, monthly collections, from November 1999 to June 2000, were done in Ribeirão (Stream Bocaina with a D-net (10 litter patches in riffles and 10 in pools. The EPT fauna at Ribeirão Bocaina was more diversified and more abundant in the litter in riffles than in the litter in pools, although, when richness was standardized for the same number of individuals it became similar in both conditions. EPT fauna was very different between both mesohabitats in terms of faunal composition as well as in terms of function. Probably it was due to differences in water speed, in the time of litter residence and in the concentration of dissolved oxygen between both mesohabitats.A fauna de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera associadas ao folhiço em um riacho do sudeste do Brasil foi estudada com o objetivo de responder às seguintes questões: 1 A riqueza e a composição faunística de EPT difere entre os dois mesohabitats (corredeira-remanso mesmo quando associadas ao mesmo substrato, folhiço? 2 A similaridade da fauna de EPT entre os dois mesohabitas muda temporalmente? 3 A estrutura funcional de EPT difere entre os dois mesohabitats (corredeira-remanso? Para responder essas questões, coletas mensais, de novembro de 1999 a junho de 2000, foram feitas no Ribeirão Bocaina com rede D (10 acúmulos de folhas em remanso e 10 em corredeira. A fauna de EPT do Ribeirão Bocaina foi mais diversificada e mais abundante no folhiço em corredeira do que no folhi

  8. Environmental influences on distribution of four Sciaenidae species (Actinopterygii, Perciformes in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies de Sciaenidae (Actinopterygii, Perciformes numa baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

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    Francisco G. Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We sampled fish and measured environmental variables in the Sepetiba Bay, a tropical embayment at Southeastern Brazil. The aim was to assess environmental influences on distribution of four abundant species of Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar, 1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 to test the habitat partition hypothesis. Samples were taken between June 1993 and July 1996, at three bay zones (outer, central and inner. Depth was the most important environmental variable to influence fish distribution, followed by transparency. M. furnieri showed significant negative correlation to depth, transparency and salinity, while C. gracilicirrhus showed the opposite situation. The highest densities of C. leiarchus occurred in the lowest temperature, while M. americanus did not showed preferences for any of the examined environmental variables. Spatial separation, mainly between M. furnieri and C. gracilicirrhus, seems to be the strategy developed to coexist in the Sepetiba Bay, with M. furnieri being more adapted to copy with harsh environmental conditions of the inner bay. The other three species, which use mostly the outer bay zone, seem to be restricted to more stable conditions, where influences from oceanic waters are more intense.Foram coletados peixes e medidas as variáveis ambientais na Baía de Sepetiba, uma baía tropical do Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi determinar influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies abundantes de Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar,1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier,1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 para testar a hipótese de partição do hábitat. Amostragens foram feitas entre Junho de 1993 e Julho de 1996 em três zonas da baía (externa, central e interna. A profundidade foi a mais importante variável ambiental que

  9. Composição florística e a conservação de floresta secundárias na serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic composition and conservation of old secondary Forest in the serra Cantareira in São Paulo, South-Eastern Brazil.

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    Frederico Alexandre Roccia Dal Pozzo ARZOLLA

    2011-06-01

    study was to describe the floristic composition of a stand of an old secondary forest in the Cantareira State Park in São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. A total of approximately 11km of trail along the old and new power line routes were sampled between 2006 and 2010. A total of 179 species belonging to 54 families and 127 genera were identified in the floristic survey, with the richest families being Fabaceae (19 species, Myrtaceae (18, Lauraceae (16 and Rubiaceae (15 and the richest genera Ocotea and Myrcia (6, Eugenia (5 and Maytenus, Mollinedia and Nectandra with four species each. Ten of these species are considered threatened, four of them in the São Paulo state list and six in the IUCN list. One of these, Mollinedia oligotricha, was considered to be probably extinct. The floristic similarity with other forest remnants in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and surrounding areas ranged from 11% to 38%. Threats to existing areas are discussed, together with possible conservation strategies.

  10. Tendência temporal da amamentação na cidade do Rio de Janeiro: 1996-2006 Tendencia temporal del amamantamiento en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: 1996-2006 Time trend in breast-feeding in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil: 1996-2006

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    Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal da prática de aleitamento materno (AM e de aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de sistema de monitoramento baseado em inquéritos realizados nos anos de 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 e 2006 durante a Campanha Nacional de Imunização na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. A população de estudo foi constituída de 19.044 crianças menores de um ano de idade que compareceram aos postos de vacinação. Para cada ano foi estudada uma amostra probabilística por conglomerado (postos de vacinação, auto-ponderada representativa da população de crianças menores de 12 meses (6 e em AMEOBJETIVO: Analizar la tendencia temporal de la práctica del amamantamiento materno (AM y del amamantamiento materno exclusivo (AME. MÉTODOS: Fueron analizados datos del sistema de monitoreo con base en pesquisas realizadas en los años de 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 y 2006 durante la Campaña Nacional de Inmunización en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil. La población de estudio fue constituida por 19.044 niños menores de un año de edad que asistieron a los puestos de vacunación. Para cada año fue estudiada una muestra probabilística por conglomerado (puestos de vacunación, autoponderada representativa de la población de niños menores de 12 meses (6 y en AMEOBJECTIVE: To analyze time trend in breast-feeding (BF and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF. METHODS: Data from a monitoring system, based on surveys conducted during the National Immunization Campaign in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2006, were analyzed. Study population was comprised of 19,044 children younger than one year of age, who were present in vaccination stations. A probability cluster sample (vaccination stations, self-weighted and representative of the population of children younger than 12 months of age (6 and EBF<6 were found in all categories of all maternal

  11. Consulta ginecológica sob a ótica de estudantes do ensino médio do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Consulta ginecológica bajo la óptica de estudiantes de educación secundaria en Rio de Janeiro, RJ High school students' opinions of gynecological consultations in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Sandra de Morais Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar diferenças socioculturais e percepções sobre a consulta ginecológica por adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 418 alunas do ensino médio de três escolas de diferentes perfis, localizadas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, em 2010. Aplicou-se questionário estruturado, abordando características sociodemográficas, comportamento sexual e avaliação da consulta ginecológica. Utilizou-se o teste de Qui-quadrado (Yates e o t de Student, adotando-se p OBJETIVO: Analizar diferencias socioculturales y percepciones sobre la consulta ginecológica en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 418 alumnas de educación secundaria de tres escuelas con diferentes perfiles, localizadas en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, RJ, en 2010. Se aplicó cuestionario estructurado, abordando características sociodemográficas, comportamiento sexual y evaluación de la consulta ginecológica. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (Yates y el t de Student, adoptándose un pOBJECTIVE: To analyze sociocultural differences and perceptions of gynecological consultations for high school girls. METHODS: A transversal study with 418 high school girls from three schools of different profiles in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil in 2010. A structured questionnaire encompassing socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior and evaluation of gynecological consultations was completed. Yates' Chi-square test and the Student's t-test were utilized adopting a value of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The students of private and federal public schools presented similar profiles but both were different from the state school girls. The latter had lower socioeconomic status, and their parents had lower levels of education, the predominance of afro-descendants was observed, as were a larger number of sexual partners, pregnancy and cases of sexual violence. The average age of menarche and sexarche among the students were similar, but the first

  12. ESTUDO DA MORFOLOGIA URBANA E DA DIFERENCIAÇÃO SÓCIO-ESPACIAL A PARTIR DE UMA IMAGEM SPOT5: exemplo do Município de Ubatuba, SP, Brasil

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    Andrea de Castro Panizza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considéré par Santos (1997a, 1997b, 2005 comme une catégorie de l'espace géographique, la forme permet l'étude de l'organisation spatiale. Dans les villes côtières, l'organisation et la dynamique spatiales sont engendrées par les activités touristiques, principal moteur du développement local. L'utilisation d'une image Spot5, des données statistiques et des reconnaissances sur le terrain ont permis l'étude de la morphologie urbaine d'Ubatuba, ville situe au littoral nord de l'Etat de São Paulo (Brésil. Avec cet étude, nous allons présenter une description détaille de l'occupation du territoire, démontrer la fragmentation urbaine existante et la mise en périphérie de la population locale. Enfin, il était possible de montrer que l'étude de l'organisation spatiale révèle aussi la ségrégation sociale.

  13. Judicialização do acesso a medicamentos no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Judicialización del acceso a medicamentos en el Estado de Minas Gerais, Sureste de Brasil Judicialization of access to medicines in Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marina Amaral de Ávila Machado

    2011-06-01

    Gerais, Sureste de Brasil. Se evaluaron los tipos de asistencia en el sistema de salud y la representación de los autores junto al Poder Judicial. Los medicamentos fueron descritos según registro en la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, esencialidad, inclusión programática en el Sistema Único de Salud y evidencias de eficiencia. RESULTADOS: Más de 70% de los autores fueron atendidos en el sistema privado de salud y 60,3% fueron representados por abogados particulares. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el de artritis reumatoidea (23,1% y los inmunosupresores fueron los más solicitados (principalmente adalimumabe y etanercepte. Aproximadamente 5% de los medicamentos pleiteados no eran registrados en la Agencia, 19,6% estaban presentes en la Relación Nacional de Medicamentos Esenciales, 24,3% componían el Programa de Medicamentos de Alto Costo y 53,9% presentaban evidencia consistente de eficiencia. Entre los medicamentos no disponibles en el sistema público, 79,0% presentaban alternativa terapéutica en los programas de asistencia farmacéutica. CONCLUSIONES: El fenómeno de la judicialización en la salud puede indicar fallas del sistema público de salud, dado que hay solicitudes de medicamentos constantes de sus listas. Aún constituye un obstáculo para la práctica del uso racional de medicamentos y para la consolidación de las premisas de la Política Nacional de Medicamentos, principalmente cuando son solicitados medicamentos sin comprobación de eficiencia y no estandarizados por el Sistema Único de Salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of claimants and medicines demanded in lawsuits. METHODS: Descriptive study that examined 827 lawsuits with 1,777 demands of access to medicines in the period between July 2005 and June 2006 in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. There were examined the type of health care provided to claimants and their attorneyship. The medicines were described based on the following: drug registration at the

  14. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  15. O LITORAL BRASILEIRO : EXPLORAÇÃO, OCUPAÇÃO E PRESERVAÇÃO - UM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE REGIÕES LITORÂNEAS DOS ESTADOS DE SÃO PAULO E RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    Andrea de Castro Panizza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study of the spaces systems evolution of two zones in the Brazilian coast: Ubatuba (in the São Paulo State, south-eastern Brazil and Tibau do Sul (in the Rio Grande do Norte State, north-eastern Brazil. These systems changed by successive deteriorations associated to the society evolution. The study researched the changes of the space organization and the social and environmental conflicts characterized for two patterns of territory occupation: the tourism areas (for recreational and tourist uses and the environmental protected areas (national parks and permanent protection areas.

  16. Thermochronology of the South American platform in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through apatite fission tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello Saenz, C.A.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.B.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio A, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fission-track method (FTM) in apatite was applied to 45 samples collected in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira mountain range), the Serra do Mar (Mar mountain range), regions next to these mountain ranges and the coastal region between Ubatuba and Santos in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to study the thermochronology of the South American Platform in southeast Brazil and its influence on Santos and Campos basins. The data presented in this work complement the previously presented data on the same region (Tello Saenz et al., 2003. J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 15, 765-774) with 31 new samples analyzed. The weighted mean of the corrected ages from high Mantiqueira (around 1000m), (121+/-6)Ma, coincides with the South Atlantic opening. The fact that its thermal history starts at a relatively low temperature (∼80 deg. C) suggests that the age of ∼120Ma would be the formation age of Serra da Mantiqueira due to a rapid pulse, in which tracks had no time to be retained at the closure temperature, that is ∼120 deg. C. The Serra do Mar presents a more complicated thermal history, with several reactivations indicated by the changes in the slope of its cooling curve. The thermal histories obtained in the regions next to these mountain ranges are compatible with the results mentioned above. The Santos Basin has unconformities that agree with changes in the slope thermal histories of the studied region

  17. Shallow landslide prediction and analysis with risk assessment using a spatial model in the coastal region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha, P. I. M.; Canavesi, V.; Alvalá, R. C. S.

    2013-10-01

    In Brazil, most of the disasters involving landslide occur in coastal regions, with population density concentrated on steep slopes. Thus, different approaches have been used to evaluate the landslide risk, although the greatest difficulty is related to the scarcity of spatial data with good quality. In this context, four cities located on the southeast coast of Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - in a region with the rough reliefs of the Serra do Mar and with a history of natural disasters were evaluated. Spatial prediction by fuzzy gamma technique was used for the landslide susceptibility mapping, considering environmental variables from data and software in the public domain. To validate the susceptibility mapping results, it was overlapped with risk sectors provided by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM). A positive correlation was observed between the classes most susceptible and the location of these sectors. The results were also analyzed from the categorization of risk levels provided by CPRM. To compare the approach with other studies using landslide-scar maps, correlated indexes were evaluated, which also showed satisfactory results, thus indicating that the methodology presented is appropriate for risk assessment in urban areas and can be replicated to municipalities that do not have risk areas mapped.

  18. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES Factores asociados a recidiva en hanseníasis en Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil HIV prevalence in pregnant women and vertical transmission in according to socioeconomic status, Southeastern Brazil

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    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    ón de Agravios de Notificación, Prontuarios y entrevistas. Se utilizó regresión logística condicional y abordaje jerárquico. RESULTADOS: Posterior al análisis ajustado, se mostraron asociados a la ocurrencia de recidiva: individuos residentes en casas alquiladas (OR=4,1; IC95%:1,43;12,04, en domicilio de madera/tapia (OR=3,2; IC 95%:1,16;8,76, que moraban con más de cinco personas (OR=2,1; IC95%:1,03;4,36, con trastorno por uso de alcohol (OR=2,8;IC95%:1,17;6,79, irregularidad del tratamiento (OR= 3,8; IC95%: 1,44;10,02, sin esclarecimiento sobre la enfermedad/tratamiento (OR= 2,6; IC95%:1,09,6,13, que usaban transporte colectivo para el acceso a la unidad de salud (OR=5,5; IC95%: 2,36;12,63, forma clínica de la enfermedad (OR= 7,1;IC95%: 2,48;20,52 y esquema terapéutico (OR= 3,7; IC95%:1,49;9,11. CONCLUSIONES: Los factores predictivos de recidiva se relacionan con condiciones de vivienda, hábitos de vida, organización de los servicios de salud, formas clínicas y esquemas terapéuticos. Compete a los servicios de salud ofrecer orientaciones adecuadas a los pacientes, así como garantizar la regularidad del tratamiento.OBJECTIVE: To describe HIV prevalence in pregnant women and the rate of vertical transmission according to socioeconomic status of residential neighborhoods. METHODS: Ecological exploratory study, which used the Information System of Notifiable Diseases database on HIV-positive pregnant women and AIDS in children, reported from 2000 to 2006, in Vitória, Southeastern Brazil. For analysis of socioeconomic data the Urban Quality Index was utilized The HIV prevalence rate in pregnant women and vertical transmission rate were calculated. Spatial distribution was carried out by Terraview 3.2.0. To verify the association between urban quality and HIV prevalence in pregnant women, Poisson regression was used. RESULTS: A total of 137 HIV-positive women and 14 children infected by vertical transmission was reported. Seven children matched to HIV

  19. Análise espacial e sazonal da leptospirose no município de São Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Análisis espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis en el municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006

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    Tatiana Spinelli Martins Soares

    2010-04-01

    de Información de Agravios de Notificación. Fueron realizados mapas temáticos con las variables tasa de incidencia, letalidad, tasa de alfabetización, renta promedio mensual, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimiento de agua y red de cloacas. Para identificar el patrón espacial (disperso, en aglomerado o azaroso, fueron analizados por el Índice de Moran global y local. Fue utilizado el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman para evaluar asociaciones entre las variables con patrón espacial en aglomerados. RESULTADOS: El patrón espacial en aglomerados fue observado en las variables tasa de incidencia de leptospirosis, tasa de alfabetización, renta promedio mensual, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimiento de agua y red de cloacas. Fueron notificados 773 casos en el período seco y 1.717 en el húmedo. La incidencia y la letalidad están correlacionadas con las condiciones socioeconómicas de la población, independientemente del período. CONCLUSIONES: La leptospirosis está distribuida por todo el municipio de Sao Paulo y su incidencia aumenta en el período de lluvias. En el período seco, los locales de aparecimiento de los casos coinciden con las áreas de peores condiciones de vivienda y, durante el período húmedo, también aumenta en otros distritos, probablemente debido a la proximidad de ríos y riachuelos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of leptospirosis and identify possible ecological and social components of its transmission. METHODS: A total of 2,490 cases registered in each district of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2006, were georeferenced. The data were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Thematic maps were made, showing the variables of incidence rate, lethality rate, literacy rate, average monthly income, number of residents per household, water supply and sewage system. To identify spatial patterns (dispersed, clustered or random

  20. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por niños y adolescentes, comercializados en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil entre los años de 2001 y 2005. Los tenores de nutrientes informados por los rótulos fueron confrontados con los resultados obtenidos por métodos analíticos (fisico-químicos oficiales, considerando la variabilidad de 20% tolerada por la legislación vigente, para aprobar o condenar las muestras. Se calcularon promedios, desvíos estándar e intervalos con 95% de confianza para los nutrientes analizados, así como la distribución de la frecuencia porcentual de muestras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos los productos salados analizados presentaron inconformidades relativas al contenido de fibra alimentar, sodio o de grasas saturadas. Los productos dulces presentaron variación de cero a 36% de condenación relativa al tenor de la fibra alimentar. Más de la mitad (52% de los biscochos rellenos fueron condenados con relación a la cantidad de grasas saturadas. Los nutrientes implicados con la obesidad y sus complicaciones para la salud fueron aquellos que presentaron mayores proporciones de inconformidad. La falta de fidedignidad de las informaciones de rótulos en las muestras analizadas viola las disposiciones de la Resolución de la Directoria Colegiada Anvisa 360/03 y los derechos garantizados por la ley de Seguridad Alimentar y Nutricional y por el Código de Defensa del Consumidor. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron altos índices de no conformidad de los datos nutricionales en los rótulos de alimentos destinados al público adolescente e infantil, indicando la urgencia de acciones de fiscalización y de otras medidas de rotulación nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. METHODS: A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005

  1. Avaliação clínica e hematológica em bezerros Nelore infectados experimentalmente com isolados de Babesia bigemina das regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Norte do Brasil Clinical and hematological evaluation of Nelore calves experimentally infected with isolates of Babesia bigemina from the Southeastern, Northeastern and Northern regions of Brazil

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    Carla Lopes de Mendonça

    2003-06-01

    alterations caused by isolates of Babesia bigemina from southeastern, northeastern and northern Brazil in experimentally infected Nelore calves. Eighteen calves between 7 and 9 months of age, without antibodies against Babesia sp and raised free from ticks, were used. Three animals were previously inoculated with 2.0x10(9 parasitic erythrocytes (PE for each stabilate. The other 15 calves were subdivided into three groups, with five animals each, that were subinoculated with 1.0x10(10 PE of the respective isolates. The clinical and hematological alterations were evaluated by the determination of parasitaemia, haemogram, plasmatic fibrinogen, reticulocyte count, descriptive analysis of the bone marrow and erythrocytic osmotic fragility, for 30 days, totalizing seven moments of observation. The follow-up of the immunological response by the indirect fluorescent antibody test was carried out daily until the 10th day after inoculation (DAI and after that, on the 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th DAI. A mild clinical manifestation of the disease was observed. The laboratory findings revealed low levels of parasitaemia; decrease of the erythrogram values; absence of reticulocytes, initial decrease in the total count of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes with a posterior elevation of the number of these cells; hypercellularity of the erythrocytic series and decrease of the myeloid: erythroid relation which was more accentuated between the 8th and 12th DAI, and an increase of the erythrocytic osmotic fragility in the groups inoculated with the Southeast and Northeast isolates. None of the three isolates of B. bigemina gave rise to the clinical characteristic form of the disease, although they induced an humoral immune response.

  2. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    comparadas con base en estimaciones de la diversidad para medir la riqueza, dominancia y análisis de varianza (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 31.134 formas inmaduras de mosquitos en las bromelias, distribuidas en siete géneros y 37 especies. El ambiente urbano registró mayor abundancia, 14.575 individuos, seguido del periurbano con 10.987, y la selva virgen, con el menor número de ejemplares, 5.572. Fueron colectadas 30 especies en el habitat urbano, 32 en el periurbano y 33 en la selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus en los ambientes urbano y perirurbano, y Culex ocellatus en la selva. De acuerdo con el test de ANOVA la frecuencia de mosquitos en bromelias no fue diferente entre los ambientes investigados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. La diversidad de especies en la selva fue mayor, y semejante entre el periurbano y el urbano. CONCLUSIONES: La composición específica de culícidos en bromelias de suelo se mostró diversificada, siendo mayor en aquellas de ambientes de selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJECTIVE: To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens, followed by the periurban (10,987 and then the forest environment (5,572. There were collected 30 species

  3. Consumo de substâncias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil. I - Prevalência do consumo por sexo, idade e tipo de substância The consumption of psychoactive substances by adolescents in schools in an urban area of Southeastern region of Brazil. I - Prevalence by sex, age and kind of substance

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    Gilson M. Muza

    1997-02-01

    pelos meninos como pelas meninas, muitas vezes em idades bem precoces.INTRODUCTION: Concern over the consumption of psychoactive substances by teenagers has given rise to a great wordwide effort to produce information about this phenomenon. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of consumption of legal and illegal psychoactive substances, its distribution by age, sex and age at first experience of them, among teenage pupils in county, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th grads at public and private city schools. The questionnaire contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. RESULTS: The sample of 88.9% had consumed alcoholic beverages sometime in their lives, 37.7% had used tobacco, 31.1% solvents, 10.5% medicines, 6.8% marihuana, 2.7% cocaine, 1.6% hallucinogens, and 0.3% of the sample had consumed some opiate substance. The rates of consumption increased with age for all substances; however, the use of tobacco and of illegal substances was less intense during the later years of adolescence. As to sex distribution, boys consumed more than girls, except for medicines, with girls consuming barbiturates, amphetamines and tranquilizers in proportions similar to or higher than those observed among boys. Age at first experience showed that access to psychoactive substances occurred at very early ages. CONCLUSIONS: Experimenting with psychoactive substances, whether legal or illegal, is a frequent phenomenon during adolescence, both among boys and girls, often at very early ages.

  4. Longitudinal anthropometric assessment of infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers, Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil Evaluación antropométrica longitudinal de lactantes nacidos de madres infectadas por VIH-1 Avaliação antropométrica longitudinal de lactentes nascidos de mães infectadas pelo HIV-1

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    Maria Arlene Fausto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth parameters in infants who were born to HIV-1-infected mothers. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal evaluation of the z-scores for the weight-for-age (WAZ, weight-for-length (WLZ and length-for-age (LAZ data collected from a cohort. A total of 97 non-infected and 33 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 2003 was studied. The average follow-up period for the infected and non-infected children was 15.8 months (variation: 6.8 to 18.0 months and 14.3 months (variation: 6.3 to 18.6 months, respectively. A mixed-effects linear regression model was used and was fitted using a restricted maximum likelihood. RESULTS: There was an observed decrease over time in the WAZ, LAZ and WLZ among the infected infants. At six months of age, the mean differences in the WAZ, LAZ and WLZ between the HIV-infected and non-infected infants were 1.02, 0.59, and 0.63 standard deviations, respectively. At 12 months, the mean differences in the WAZ, LAZ and WLZ between the HIV-infected and non-infected infants were 1.15, 1.01, and 0.87 standard deviations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The precocious and increasing deterioration of the HIV-infected infants' anthropometric indicators demonstrates the importance of the early identification of HIV-infected infants who are at nutritional risk and the importance of the continuous assessment of nutritional interventions for these infants.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento en lactantes nacidos de madres infectadas con el VIH-1. MÉTODOS: Evaluación longitudinal de los z-escores peso-edad (PI, estatura-edad (EI, peso-estatura (PE fue realizada en una cohorte. Fueran estudiados 97 lactantes no infectados y 33 lactantes infectados nacidos de madres infectadas con el VIH-1 en Belo Horizonte, Sureste de Brasil, de 1995 a 2003. El tiempo medio de seguimiento para los lactantes infectados y no infectados fue de 15,8 meses

  5. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo

    2008-10-01

    teléfono, totalizando 1.267 mujeres y 855 hombres. La frecuencia del consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue medida por medio de una guía con preguntas cortas y simples. En la evaluación de los factores asociados al consumo, se realizó análisis de regresión linear multivariada y jerarquizada, con variables sociodemográficas en el primer nivel jerárquico, de comportamiento en el segundo y relacionadas con el patrón de alimentación en el tercer nivel. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue mayor entre las mujeres. En los dos sexos se verificó que la frecuencia de consumo aumentaba con la edad y la escolaridad del individuo. Entre las mujeres que informaron haber realizado dieta el año anterior hubo mayor consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras. El consumo de alimentos que indican un patrón de consumo no saludable como azúcares y grasas se mostró inversamente asociado al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en los dos sexos. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras de la población adulta residente en Sao Paulo fue mayor entre las mujeres, estando influenciado por la edad, la escolaridad y la dieta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by adults and to assess factors associated with this frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, carried out between October and December 2003 in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Telephone interviews were conducted on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (>18 years living in the city of Sao Paulo and with access to land telephone lines, totaling 1,267 women and 855 men. Frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was obtained by means of a questionnaire containing short, simple questions. Association of different factors with fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by multivariate linear regression using a hierarchic model with sociodemographic variables in the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables in the

  6. Uso de medicamentos por pessoas com deficiências em áreas do estado de São Paulo Uso de medicamentos por personas con deficiencias en áreas del Estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil

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    Shamyr Sulyvan Castro

    2010-08-01

    que componen el banco de datos: área, sexo, renta, grupo etario, raza, consumo de medicamentos y tipos de medicamentos consumidos. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de consumo entre las personas con deficiencia fue de: 62,8% entre los visuales; 60,2% entre los auditivos y de 70,1% entre los físicos. Las personas con deficiencia física consumieron 20% más medicamentos que los no deficientes. Entre las personas con deficiencia visual, los medicamentos más consumidos fueron los diuréticos, agentes del sistema renina-angiotensina y analgésicos. Personas con deficiencia auditiva utilizaron más analgésicos y agentes del sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre individuos con deficiencia física, analgésicos, antitrombóticos y agentes del sistema renina-angiotensina fueron los medicamentos más consumidos. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo mayor consumo de medicamentos entre las personas con deficiencias al compararse con los no deficientes, siendo los individuos con deficiencia física los que más consumieron fármacos, seguidos de los deficientes visuales y auditivos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of medicines and the main therapeutic groups consumed by persons with physical, hearing and visual disabilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed, where data from the 2002 Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP - São Paulo State Multicenter Health Survey, as well as the 2003 Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital - City of São Paulo Health Survey, Southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. Respondents who reported having disabilities were studied, according to variables that comprise the database: geographic area, gender, income, age group, ethnic group, use of medicines and types of drugs consumed. RESULTS: The percentage of use of drugs by persons with disabilities was 62.8% among the visually impaired; 60.2% among the hearing impaired; and 70.1% among the persons with physical disabilities. Individuals with physical disabilities

  7. Consumo de substâncias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil: II - Distribuição do consumo por classes sociais The intake of psychoactive substances by school-age adolescents in an urban area of Southeastern region of Brazil: II - Distribution of consumption by social levels

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    Gilson M. Muza

    1997-04-01

    educational and housing levels in an attempt to identify individuals or groups in different social contexts. The present study investigates the distribution of consumpition of psychoactive substances according to social class in a sample of teenage pupils in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in the 8th, 9th, 10th and 12th grades in public and private city schools. The questionnaires contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. The adaptation of a model that identifies 5 social class strata (business middle class, managerial middle class, lower middle class, proletariat and subproletariat on the basis of indicators that situate the individuals within the social relations of production, was used. RESULTS: The 3 middle class strata were more often represented, whereas the proletariat and subproletariat were less frequently represented in this teenage pupil population than in the population in general. There was no difference in alcohol or tobacco consumption according to social class, although prevalence tended to be higher at the two extremes of the social ladder. In contrast, the consumption of illegal substances was higher in the middle class and lower in the proletariat. CONCLUSION: Although the consumption of legal substances did not differ among social classes, the higher consumption of illegal substances by the wealthier teenagers was probably due to the higher cost of these products as compared those of alcohol and tobacco.

  8. Geological evolution of the center-southern portion of the Guyana shield based on the geochemical, geochronological and isotopic studies of paleoproterozoic granitoids from southeastern Roraima, Brazil; Evolucao geologica da porcao centro-sul do escudo das Guianas com base no estudo geoquimico, geocronologico e isotopico dos granitoides paleoproterozoicos do sudeste de Roraima, Brasil

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    Almeida, Marcelo Esteves

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses the granitoids of center-southern portion of Guyana Shield, southeastern Roraima, Brazil. The region is characterized by two tectonic-stratigraphic domains, named as Central Guyana (GCD) and Uatuma-Anaua (UAD) and located probably in the limits of geochronological provinces (e.g. Ventuari-Tapajos or Tapajos-Parima, Central Amazonian and Maroni-Itacaiunas or Transamazon). The aim this doctoral thesis is to provide new petrological and lithostratigraphic constraints on the granitoid rocks and contribute to a better understanding of the origin and geo dynamic evolution of Guyana Shield. The GCD is only locally studied near to the UAD boundary, and new geological data and two single zircon Pb-evaporation ages in mylonitic biotite granodiorite (1.89 Ga) and foliated hastingsite-biotite granite (1.72 Ga) are presented. These ages of the protholiths contrast with the lithostratigraphic picture in the other areas of Cd (1.96-1.93 Ga). Regional mapping, petrography, geochemistry and zircon geochronology carried out in the Urad have showed widespread Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitic magmatism. These granitoid rocks are distributed into several magmatic associations with different Paleoproterozoic (1.97-1.89 Ga) ages, structural and geochemical affinities. Detailed mapping, petrographic and geochronological studies have distinguished two main sub domains in the UAD. In the northern UAD, the high-K calc-alkaline Martins Pereira (1.97 Ga) and Serra Dourada S-type granites (1.96 Ga) are affected by NE-SW and E-W ductile dextral shear-zones, showing coexistence of magmatic and deformational fabrics related to heterogeneous deformation. Inliers of basement (2.03 Ga) crop out northeast of this area, and are formed by meta volcano-sedimentary sequence (Cauarane Group) and TTG-like calc-alkaline association (Anaua Complex). Xenoliths of meta diorites (Anaua Complex) and para gneisses (Cauarane Group) reinforce the intrusive character of Martins Pereira

  9. Photoacclimation in a tropical population of Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta from southeastern Brazil Fotoaclimatação em uma população tropical de Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta do sudeste do Brasil

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    AIN. Bautista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacclimation of photosynthesis was investigated in a tropical population of C. glomerata (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, 20º 48’ 24" S and 49º 22’ 24" W by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll a content. Plants were acclimated to two levels of irradiance: low (65 ± 5 µmol.m-2.s-1 and high (300 ± 10 µmol.m-2.s-1 and exposed short-term (4 days and long-term (28 days under a light-dark cycle of 12:12 hours. Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI curves revealed distinct strategies of photoacclimation. In long-term exposure, plants acclimated by altering the photosynthetic units (PSU number and keeping fixed the PSU size, revealed by increased rates of maximum photosynthesis (Pmax, lower photosynthetic efficiency (alpha and higher values of the saturation parameter (Ik under high irradiance. The short-term acclimation strategy consisted of changing the PSU size, with a fixed number of PSUs, as revealed by similar Pmax but higher alpha and lower Ik under low irradiance. Chlorophyll a contents followed the general pattern reported in green algae of higher concentrations under lower irradiance. Dark/light induction curves revealed consistently higher values of potential quantum yield under low irradiance. Initial and final values showed a higher recovery capacity in the short (84.4-90.6% term exposure than in the long-term case (81.4-81.5%. ETR (electron transport rate and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching values were consistently higher under low irradiance. ETR showed a continuous and steady increase along the light exposure period in the short and long-term experiments, whereas NPQ values revealed a rapid increase after 15 seconds of light exposure, kept a slightly increasing trend and stabilized in most treatments. Lower photosynthetic performance (ETR and recovery capacity of potential quantum yield were observed, particularly in long-term exposure, suggesting that this population is constrained by the typical high light

  10. Balanço de carbono e nutrientes em plantio puro e misto de espécies florestais nativas no sudeste da Bahia Carbon and nutrient balance in pure and mixed stands of native tree spe