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Sample records for uavs holy grail

  1. UAVs: Holy Grail for Intel, Panacea for RSTA, or Much Ado about Nothing? UAVs for the Operational Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Roy

    1998-01-01

    ..., operational, and tactical objectives. UAVs have supported military operations including the Vietnam War, the 1983 Israeli War, the Gulf War and most recently the United Nations Peace Keeping Operation in Bosnia, to name a few. Although U.S...

  2. In search of the Holy grail

    CERN Multimedia

    Grant, Eric

    2008-01-01

    "Our knowledge of the universe has evolved considerably over the pas ten years - and perhaps it might do so even more dramatically when CERN, the European organization for nuclear research located in Geneva, inaugurates its new particle accelerator this summer: the tool for discovery of the "God Particle" and a step towards the holy grail of science." (4 pages + photos)

  3. Neonatal pain management: Still in search of the Holy Grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInadequate pain management but also inappropriate use of analgesics in early infancy has negative effects on neuro-developmental outcome. As a consequence, neonatal pain management is still in search for the Holy Grail. At best, effective pain management is based on prevention,

  4. Sustainable urban development in Brisbane City--the Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K; Weber, T

    2003-01-01

    Impacts from urban stormwater runoff on receiving environments have been well documented, particularly through specific regional scientific studies. Using various local government planning and management elements, urban developments in Brisbane City are now able to address stormwater management in an increasingly holistic context. One key initiative includes facilitating Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) components within an Integrated Water Management Strategy that looks at policy formation, planning strategies, design option, community marketing and acceptance, maintenance programs and finally evaluation of various WSUD approaches. These can include the use of Natural Channel Designs, grassed swales, bio-filtration systems, porous pavements and roofwater tanks in several economic combinations. By linking with the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Brisbane City Council has influenced the design of WSUD planning tools and benefited the city with academic inputs into extensive evaluation programs. As well, it has also contributed to the Cooperative Research Centre's research outcomes. These evaluation programs are increasingly providing better understanding of various stormwater quality best management practices throughout Australia. As part of the overall implementation process, active involvement by a range of stakeholders has been crucial. These stakeholders have included internal planning, development assessment and design staff, external consultants, developers, and other local and state government agencies. The latter two groups are assisting in the important task of "regionalisation" of Brisbane City Council's policies and guidelines. Implementation of WSUD initiatives and stormwater re-use strategies under Council's new "Integrated Water Management" agenda are showing some excellent results, suggesting that sustainable urban development is no longer like the search for the Holy Grail.

  5. MicroMasters: the pursuit of the Holy Grail in online learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa de Almeida Cabral, P.M.; Ribeiro Jorge, N.; van Valkenburg, W.F.; Ubachs, George; Konings, Lizzie

    2017-01-01

    In the MOOC world new concepts hatch every month, trying to find the Holy Grail of online learning. Last year edX adopted the new MIT concept of a MicroMasters credential: a series of graduate level courses offered by top universities to advance their career. The credential is credit-eligible and

  6. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  8. Dust in the wind: Soiling of solar devices : Is there a Holy Grail solution? (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence; Costa, Suellen C.; Machado, Marcelo; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Soiling, the sedimentation of particulate matter (on the size scale of 1/10 the diameter of a human hair) on the exposed surfaces of solar collectors, is a growing area of concern for solar-system performance, reliability, maintenance, and cost. In the case of photovoltaics (PV), the condition of this first-surface of interaction of the incident photons is critical for ensuring that the maximum-possible light reaches the conversion devices. This paper begins with a more than seven-decade historical look at the research invested into this problem, highlighting the motivation and milestones; the researchers and the progress. The current growing terrestrial markets for solar have brought a new focus on soiling and dust issues. That is because many of these new markets in the solar-rich geographic regions of our world are ironically also in the most dust-rich and soiling-prone ones as well. This paper continues to provide an overview of the status of current research efforts toward understanding the basic soiling mechanisms, the relationships to the PV technology approaches, the geographical differences (highlighting Brasil, India, and the MENA region) in the severity of the problem, the dust physics and chemistry—all relating to the current and future mitigation approaches. Included are some fundamental microscale through nanoscale examinations at how individual dust particles adhere to module glass surfaces—as well as how the particles might stick to each other under certain environmental conditions. These observations are used to show how fundamental science may lead to the macroscale engineering solutions of these soiling problems. This presentation is designed to both overview the soiling area and highlight some of the current and future research directions, speculate on short-term approaches preventing solar showstoppers, and speculate on some "holy-grail" schemes that might lead to the final solutions.

  9. Will the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007 challenge the holy grails of South African medical doctors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The South African healthcare establishment is primarily managed and overseen by medical doctors. This powerbase was established over many years, especially after the early 1930s. World War II gave doctors the final approval to take this supervisory and sole decision-making role regarding healthcare training, practice models and other health workers in South Africa. This phenomenon led initially to doctors having a certain jurisdiction to set the pace and to make the rules. This jurisdiction became more comprehensive and extent with time in South Africa to include a collection of unique medical traditions, customs, privileges, habits, healthcare rights and empowerment as well as exclusive medical training and practice models to become known as the holy grails of the South African medical doctors. The power of these holy grails has become untouchable to anyone outside the medical domain. Since the 1980s, some powers vested in these holy grails have been lost to the allied health professions and to other insiders of the HPCSA brotherhood itself. The recognition of traditional healers by means of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007 seems to challenge these holy grails of medical doctors. This may also create internal conflict in the South African medical brotherhood that can cost medical doctors more ground. Aims The study aimed to determine if the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 challenges the holy grails of South African medical doctors, subsequently affecting the long-established management and guardian system of the medical field within South Africa or the practice rights of medical doctors. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the possible effect of the Traditional Health

  10. Prediction: The Modern-Day Sport-Science and Sports-Medicine "Quest for the Holy Grail".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Fanchini, Maurizio; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-05-01

    In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to "predict" outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine's modern-day equivalent of the "Quest for the Holy Grail." The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.

  11. Biomedical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples: The Holy Grail for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Guttman, Andras

    2018-06-05

    More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the omics options for FFPE tissue sample analysis in the molecular diagnostics field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Background: Energy's holy grail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues

  13. 'Holy Grails' of Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TS in a reaction was first suggested in the context of explaining the temperature variation ... and creates no concrete impression about its nature and charac- teristics. .... the TS. For accurate calculation of rate constants, however, the choice of ...

  14. Spinal anesthesia; the Holy Grail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voet M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marieke Voet, Cornelis SlagtDepartment of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAfter reading the paper recently published in Local and Regional Anesthesia by Whitaker et al:1 “Spinal anesthesia after intraoperative cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in an infant,” we would like to share our thoughts. In a recently published paper by Habre et al,2 the incidence of severe critical events in pediatric anesthesia was investigated. In 261 hospitals across Europe (33 countries, severe critical events were registered. In total, 31,127 anesthetic procedures in 30,874 children were included. Age, medical history, and physical condition were the major risk factors for a serious critical event. In total, 1,478 patients had a critical event, most of them during or immediately after anesthesia. Children younger than 3 years of age are at risk for critical events.View the original paper by Whitaker and colleagues.

  15. Spinal anesthesia: the Holy Grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Voet, Marieke; Slagt, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Marieke Voet, Cornelis SlagtDepartment of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAfter reading the paper recently published in Local and Regional Anesthesia by Whitaker et al:1 “Spinal anesthesia after intraoperative cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in an infant,” we would like to share our thoughts. In a recently published paper by Habre et al,2 the incidence of severe critical events in pediatric anes...

  16. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  18. Python : the holy grail of programming

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 3 to 5 July, CERN hosted the fifth EuroPython Conference bringing together 300 users of Python, an open source programming language, which is more and more appreciated, especially at CERN. The local organisation of Euopython 2006 was managed by a small team from the PH/SFT group. Above, David Quarrie presenting the use of Python in Atlas analyses. If you visited Building 40 at the beginning of July, you may have come across a long orange and yellow snake. This had no relation with the Football World Championship! It was just the mascot of the fifth EuroPython Conference that saw almost 300 software developers, designers and business people gathering at CERN for the annual meeting of the European Python community. Python is an open source programming language actively used in industry and academia for a wide variety of purposes. As CERN decided to host this conference, it is perhaps not surprising to learn that Python is increasingly used in our Laboratory in both computing and physics application domai...

  19. Determining organ dose: the holy grail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Tian, Xiaoyu; Segars, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    Among the various metrics to quantify CT radiation dose, organ dose is generally regarded as one of the best to reflect patient radiation burden. Organ dose is dependent on two main factors, namely patient anatomy and irradiation field. An accurate estimation of organ dose requires detailed modeling of both factors. The modeling of patient anatomy needs to reflect the anatomical diversity and complexity across the population so that the attributes of a given clinical patient can be properly accounted for. The modeling of the irradiation field needs to accurately reflect the CT system condition, especially the tube current modulation (TCM) technique. We present an atlas-based method to model patient anatomy via a library of computational phantoms with representative ages, sizes and genders. A clinical patient is matched with a corresponding computational phantom to obtain a representation of patient anatomy. The irradiation field of the CT system is modeled using a validated Monte Carlo simulation program. The tube current modulation profiles are simulated using a manufacturer-generalizable ray-tracing algorithm. Combining the patient model, Monte Carlo results, and TCM profile, organ doses are obtained by multiplying organ dose values from a fixed mA scan (normalized to CTDI vol -normalized, denoted as h organ ) and an adjustment factor that reflects the specific irradiation of each organ. The accuracy of the proposed method was quantified by simulating clinical abdominopelvic examinations of 58 patients. The predicted organ doses showed good agreement with simulated organ dose across all organs and modulation schemes. For an average CTDI vol of a CT exam of 10 mGy, the absolute median error across all organs was 0.64 mGy (-0.21 and 0.97 for 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively). The percentage differences were within 15%. The study demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate organ doses in clinical CT examinations for protocols without and with tube current modulation. The methodology can be used for both prospective and retrospective estimation of organ dose. (orig.)

  20. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

  1. The Holy Grail of quantum optical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers together with phase-shifters and beamsplitters have certainly been the most studied objects in the field of quantum optics. Despite such an intensive study, optical parametric amplifiers still keep secrets from us. We will show how they hold the answer to one of the oldest problems in quantum communication theory, namely the calculation of the optimal communication rate of optical channels

  2. Grails in action

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbrook, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Web apps shouldn't be hard to build, right? The developers of Grails agree. This hyper-productive open-source web framework offers "code by convention", leaving developers to focus on what makes their app special. Through its use of Groovy, it gives a powerful, Java-like language and full access to all Java libraries. Grails in Action is a comprehensive guide to the Grails framework. First, it covers the basics: the domain model, controllers, views, and services. Then, the fun! It dives into a Twitter-style app with features like AJAX/JSON, animation, search, wizards-even messaging and Jabber integration. It also offers loads of great plugins that'll make apps shine. RETAIL SELLING POINTS Fast track to super productivity Covers Grails 2.1 from the ground up Tons of tips and tricks from the trenches AUDIENCE No Java or Groovy background is required, but it is helpful for readers to have a background in web development and knowledge of an object-oriented language. ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Grails is an open source w...

  3. History Revenged: Monty Python Translates Chretien de Troyes's "Perceval, or the Story of the Grail" (Again).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Finds "Monty Python and the Holy Grail" functions as a "surprisingly accurate cultural translation" of de Troyes's "Perceval" text. Suggests that using such films helps students open a door upon film studies and discursive studies that will serve them well as they adapt to their own historical moment. (PA)

  4. The econometrics of the Holy Grail : A critique (Revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuzenkamp, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodological views of David Hendry. A critique is given on the reification of the so-called Data Generating Process. The merits of general to specific modelling are analyzed. Hendry's neo-Popperian philosophy is examined. It is argued that this philosophy is not able to

  5. Euro adoption may not be holy grail many believe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Maailmapanga Poola ja Baltimaade divisjoni juhi Thomas Laurseni sõnul on Eesti valmis euroga liitumiseks. Euroopa Komisjoni rahandusvoliniku Joaquín Almunia sõnul ei lahenda euroga liitumine kõiki majandusprobleeme

  6. Consensus in Gestational Diabetes MELLITUS: Looking for the Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2018-05-28

    The world's pre-eminent diabetes, obstetric, endocrine, and health organizations advocate a plethora of diverse algorithms for the screening, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Additionally, there are regional recommendations of local health societies. Several of these proposals for GDM are contentious because some of them were developed from unscientific studies, based on expert-opinion, catered to preserve resources, and subjectively modified for convenience. Due to the wide variety of choices available, the approach to GDM can be extremely diverse even within the same hospital. This lack of consensus creates major problems in addressing prevalence, complications, efficacy of treatment, and follow-up of GDM. Moreover, it becomes nearly impossible to compare the numerous studies. Furthermore, the lack of consensus confuses the health care providers of obstetric health who look to the experts for guidance. Therefore, a clear, objective, "evidence-based" global approach, which is simple, easy to follow, and validated by corroborative research, is crucial. We contend that, despite decades of research, a single acceptable global guideline is not yet on the horizon.

  7. ThreeFive photonics : searching for the holy grail?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Berends, J.J.; Dolmans, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Dutch company ThreeFive Photonics was founded by telecom professional Wouter Deelman and PhD student Chretien Herben attached to Delft University of Technology. The founders set out to develop revolutionary opto-electronic chips with the potential to change the telecom industry. That

  8. Panchgavya and cow products: A trail for the holy grail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwinikumar A. Raut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, cow has been central to Indian economy, life and culture. There are innumerable references-Vedic and subsequent to the sacred significance of cow. The benefits of cow have been described at length in relation to agriculture, environment, health, economy and spiritual progress. However, the socio-political issues surrounding cow as a sacred animal have raised acrimonious debates. In Ayurveda also, there is a long tradition of using cow products for positive health, pharmaceutical processes and in therapeutics. There have been quite a few studies on the activity, efficacy, safety and acceptability of Panchagavya and other cow products. Paradoxically, many cow products available in the market for human consumption require improved standardization and proper regulation.Integration of cowpathy (Govaidyak in traditional Indian systems of medicine has been natural, based on their common dravyagunavigyan. But if its integration with conventional medicine is contemplated, we will need better understanding of the ingredients of cow products, their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and therapeutic ratio. A rational beginning can be made by data collection of experiential and anecdotal responses. A meticulous analysis of database of panchgavya and other cow products should look for temporal relationships, biological plausibility and translational potential before embarking on state-of-the-art experimental and clinical studies for selected indications. Keywords: Panchgavya, Cow products, Cowpathy, Govaidyak

  9. The search for Higgs boson stalking the 'Holy Grail'

    CERN Multimedia

    Brady, M

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists, working 100 metres underground with the world's most powerful accelerator machine, are getting ready to hunt one of science's most elusive and mysterious particles - Higgs boson" (8 pages)

  10. Achieving equilibrium status and sustainable landfill - the holy grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. H.; Gronow, Jan R.; Smith, Richard; Blakey, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research contract jointly funded by the Environment Agency and ESART examining the residues of likely post-Landfill Directive waste streams that will need to go to landfill and the time taken to achieve sufficient stabilisation such that management controls can be removed. The first part of the project has identified a number of processes that are likely to be adopted by the waste management industry in order to meet the biodegradable waste ...

  11. Rectal prolapse : in search of the holy grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of (internal and external) rectal prolapse (IRP/ERP), and its affiliated rectocele and enterocele, has become an increasingly important part of health care over the years. Although benign, rectal prolapse is associated with a myriad of debilitating symptoms including fecal

  12. Is the holy grail plastic? Radiation identification from plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butchins, L. J. C.; Gosling, J. M.; Hogbin, M. R. W.; Jones, D. C.; Lacey, R. J.; Stearn, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of shipping containers containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) made from ceramics, stoneware and other natural products are transported worldwide on a daily basis. Some of these NORM loads are sufficiently radioactive to trigger alarms from plastic scintillator detectors which have limited ability to also identify the radionuclides present thus necessitating secondary inspection which increases the operational overhead. Previous studies have been carried out to ascertain if radionuclide discrimination using plastic scintillators is possible with a variety of approaches including deconvolution and computer learning. In this paper, a two stage algorithm is described. An example implementation of the algorithm is presented, applied to operational data, and has been installed in real time operation on a polyvinyl-toluene (PVT) detector. The approach requires the collection of a large library of spectra using examples of the detectors to be deployed. In this study, data from both actual freight loads passing through a port and predefined freight containing various radionuclides were collected. The library represents freight loads that may contain industrial, medical, nuclear, and NORM radionuclides. The radionuclides in the predefined freight were placed in various orientations and in various amounts of shielding to mimic many different scenarios. Preliminary results on an initial subset of data containing industrial and NORM sources show the number of mis-classifications to be less than 1% of the total test data. Good initial results were obtained even for low energy radionuclides such as 241 Am. Where discrimination is not possible, and principle components overlap, this region or 'cloud' of the n-dimensional plot can be put aside. Those spectra that fall in the 'cloud' can be regarded as suspect and in these cases, some secondary screening will still be necessary. It is predicted that the algorithm will enable recognition of NORM loads by plastic scintillator detectors to be increased by as much as 80% and for high energy industrial radionuclides to be identified with accuracy approaching 100%

  13. Holiness and humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Houck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian spirituality includes a long tradition of suspicion of humour, humour can express and further holiness in several ways. Humour serves holiness in religious satire; it can also communicate the self-transcendent perspective of holy women and men. Humour and holiness can also illuminate each other because both are inherently relational. Christian holiness consists primarily in right relationship to the Holy One and, thus, to others. Humour’s complex relational nature is examined with the help of Ted Cohen’s analysis of joke-telling and evolutionary and cognitive research. Humour and its primary expression, laughter, are inherently ambiguous, capable of expressing and creating a range of attitudes and relationships; consequently, they can both conduce to and hinder holiness. Finally, humour can contribute to the religious imagination, and thus to holiness, by challenging established images of the holy, inviting fresh theological reflection, and inspiring ethical action. Both holiness and humour require openness to that which is beyond us and agility in responding to the other.

  14. Grails Persistence with GORM and GSQL

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unique to the popular Grails web framework is its architecture. While other frameworks are built from the ground up, Grails leverages existing and proven technologies that already have advanced functionality built in. One of the key technologies in this architecture is Hibernate, on top of which Grails builds its GORM (Grails Object Relational Mapping) model layer. This provides Grails a persistence solution. Published with the developer in mind, firstPress technical briefs explore emerging technologies that have the potential to be critical for tomorrow's industry. Apress keeps developers one

  15. Methaemoglobinaemia during Holi festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S A; Jadhav, A; Chandane, P

    2009-09-01

    We report eight children who developed methaemoglobinaemia after exposure to contaminated colours used during Holi, a traditional festival celebrated in India. Methaemoglobinaemia can be life-threatening, but outcome is good if treated in time with intravenous methylene blue. Physicians might encounter such cases after exposure to Holi colours and hence should be aware of this life-threatening but easily treatable complication.

  16. The Holy See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Holy See is on geography, the people, history, government and institutions, foreign relations, and relations with the US and the Holy See. Vatican City occupies 0.439 square kilometers (109 acres). Some 1000 individuals live within the Vatican's walls, most of whom are Italian or Swiss by nationality. Vatican citizenship usually is accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City by reason of office or employment and, with certain restrictions, to their families. The Pope delegates the internal administration of Vatican City to the Pontifical Commission for the State of the Vatican City, headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State. The legal system is based on canon law or the laws of the city of Rome. On February 11, 1929, the Holy See and the Italian government signed 3 agreements regulating a dispute since 1871 about the Law of Guarantees, law which sought to assure the Pope's spiritual freedom, an income, and special status for the Vatican area. The agreements include: a treaty recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City; a concordat fixing the relations between the government and the church within Italy; and a financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870. The Pope, at this time John Paul II, exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and within the State of the Vatican City. The Pope rules the Holy See through the Roman Curia and Papal Civil Service, which staffs it. The Holy See, which carries on an active diplomacy of considerable scope and variety, is particularly active diplomatically in international organizations. The US maintained consular relations with the Papal States from 1797-1870 and diplomatic relations with the Pope in his capacity as head of the Papal States. These relations lapsed with the final loss of all papal territories in 1870. In 1984, the US and the Holy See announced the

  17. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  18. The Holy See accedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    On 25 February the Holy See became the sixty-third non-nuclear weapon State to accede to or ratify the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, when its representatives deposited instruments of accession in Moscow, London and Washington, the capitals of the three Depositary Governments for the Treaty. (author)

  19. GRAIL mapping the moon’s interior

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011, the GRAIL mission launched two unmanned spacecraft to the Moon, which entered into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. They orbited the Moon until December 17, 2012, when they impacted the surface near the Moon’s north pole. This book contains three review articles co-authored by the GRAIL Science Team and Guest Scientists that describe the reasons for the GRAIL mission, the development of the necessary technology, and the design of the mission to acquire the most precise measurements of the lunar gravity field possible today. The book provides a detailed description of the GRAIL mission’s scientific objectives, the instrumentation and its required performance, the complex simulation of the measurement system for determining the gravity field, and the innovative education and public outreach of the mission directed toward middle-school students who could select areas of the Moon for imaging with the onboard MoonKam camera system. This volume is aimed at researchers and...

  20. The sacrament of Holy Baptism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Doroteusz Sawicki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Holy Baptism, in the Orthodox Church, along with Chrismation, the Holy Eucharist, Priesthood, Marriage, Holy Unction and Confession is one of the seven sacraments. It is one of the Mysteries established by God himself, during which His grace descends on humanity. It is an action, which unites people with their Creator by grace and leads us to the Kingdom of Heaven.In Holy Baptism, we are immersed into water three times (or HolyWater is poured three times, but never sprinkled in the Name of theHoly Trinity and die to his earthly life and sin. At the same time, weare reborn to eternal and heavenly life. We are cleansed from all sinscommitted voluntary or involuntary. Our weaknesses and propensityto sin is healed. We become a pure being and heir of the Kingdomof Heaven. We also become and enemy of Satan and all evil powers.The Orthodox Church usually chrismates immediately after baptism,especially in the case of small children, so that we would not loose in thisfight, loose our purity and more easily reach perfection. Both sacramentsare administered on the basis of the faith of the godparents.The liturgical celebration of Baptism and Chrismation begins withprayers and the naming of the child. The prayers of exorcism follow,in which the candidate for baptism (either personally or godparentson his behalf rejects Satan, unites himself to Christ and recites theSymbol of Faith. Baptism consists of the blessing of water and anointingwith oil. The main senses of the child are anointed with Holy Oil: theforehead – mind, breast – feelings, ears – contact with the surroundingworld, hands – actions, feet – Endeavour. A moment later, the child isimmersed into the water three times – Holy Baptism. Prayers are then read calling the Holy Spirit to be present during Chrismation. Holy Chrism (myrrh, which is consecrated by the laying on of hand of the Bishop, is then used to anoint the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, breast, hands and feet of

  1. Mechanisms and possible controls of the in utero Zika virus infection: Where is the Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwa, Kazumasa; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus infection (ZVI) is a great concern for human health because it frequently causes fetal anomalies. Little is known about pathophysiology of ZVI because it has been regarded as a mild, no life-threatening infection. However, the latest endemic in South and Central America took attention of perinatologists, microbiologists, and pathologists. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest neurotropic nature of Zika virus but do not clarify viral kinetics during vertical transmissions. In this review, we focus on the clinical and microbiological natures ZVI for pregnant women especially how placental barriers are broken down. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. How to boost the production of free services: in search of the holy referee grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canoy, M.; in 't Veld, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that delivering free services is driven by a combination of motivations and explains how policy makers or other principals can exploit them to deal with underproduction of free services. We identify intrinsic motivation, respect and gratitude as main examples of underlying

  3. How to boost the production of free services: in search of the holy referee grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canoy, M.; in 't Veld, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that delivering free services is driven by a combination of motivations, and explains how policy makers or other principals can exploit them to deal with underproduction of free services. We identify intrinsic motivation, respect and gratitude as main examples of underlying

  4. High Affinity, Developability and Functional Size: The Holy Grail of Combinatorial Antibody Library Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Tissot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial description of phage display technology for the generation of human antibodies, a variety of selection methods has been developed. The most critical parameter for all in vitro-based approaches is the quality of the antibody library. Concurrent evolution of the libraries has allowed display and selection technologies to reveal their full potential. They come in different flavors, from naïve to fully synthetic and differ in terms of size, quality, method of preparation, framework and CDR composition. Early on, the focus has mainly been on affinities and thus on library size and diversity. Subsequently, the increased awareness of developability and cost of goods as important success factors has spurred efforts to generate libraries with improved biophysical properties and favorable production characteristics. More recently a major focus on reduction of unwanted side effects through reduced immunogenicity and improved overall biophysical behavior has led to a re-evaluation of library design.

  5. Holy grail: Pioneering acoustic telemetry technology set to revolutionize downhole communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenaway, R.

    2003-12-01

    Acoustic telemetry, a faster and more efficient downhole-to-surface-communication technology, is the latest development in downhole communication systems. The system has been developed by Extreme Engineering Limited of Calgary, led by Derek Logan, founder and one-time senior vice-president of Ryan Energy Technologies that developed the original measurement -while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling )LWD) tools. The company predicts that acoustic telemetry will cause a massive transformation of the drilling industry in Western Canada once the technology is commercialized. Conventional MWD techniques, based on mud-pulse technology, have been industry standard since the 1970s, but mud-pulse technology is now considered extremely slow. In the 1980s industry came up electromagnetic telemetry, as an alternative to mud-pulse. Today, the need to transmit ever more data, the need for a faster communications system and greater wellbore control, has become even more pressing. Logan believes that acoustic technology is the answer. It is not only capable of transmitting data 20 to 30 times faster than mud-pulse telemetries, it can also communicate massive amounts of data. It can be used in drilling, completion production, drillstem testing, frac monitoring and any other wellbore process requiring wireless real-time telemetry. Acoustic telemetry is also the only wireless system that can perform MWD and LWD in offshore underbalanced drilling. Notwithstanding its great promise, Extreme Engineering Limited had considerable difficulty raising funds for developing and commercializing XAcT (the trade name for acoustic telemetry). Prospects are reported to have been substantially improved by recent infusion of funds by the federal Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) , and XAcT's recognition by R and D Magazine with one of the R and D 100 awards for 2003. 3 figs.

  6. American Christians for and against Parsifal: Debating the Holy Grail Opera in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Hale

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriateness of Christian themes in the performing arts has often been debated. Defenders have argued that various media, including drama, can serve as instruments of spiritual edification, while critics have contended that such efforts often eventuate in sacrilege and a vulgarising exploitation of the sacred for commercial and entertainment purposes. A heated debate took place in 1903 when Richard Wagner’s opera Parsifal, which since its première at Bayreuth in 1882 had been hailed as a magnificent representation of redemption and other themes central to Christianity, was staged at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York – its first performance as an opera outside its original venue. Numerous clergymen and lay people in several denominations sought to have the production banned and cautioned fellow Christians against seeing it. Others, generally of a theologically more liberal bent, defended the work. The heated public controversy is placed into historical context and compared with the history of Parsifal in the United Kingdom, where it was widely appreciated without noteworthy opposition.

  7. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax? Comment on "Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline

    2013-09-01

    Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax) taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  8. Maintenance of KBS’s by domain experts the holy grail in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultman, Arne; Kuipers, Joris; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Enabling a domain expert to maintain his own knowledge in a Knowledge Based System has long been an ideal for the Knowledge Engineering community. In this paper we report on our experience with trying to achieve this ideal in a practical setting, by building a maintenance tool for an existing KBS.

  9. The Holy Grail of Resource Assessment: Low Cost Ground-Based Measurements with Good Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-06-22

    Using performance data from some of the millions of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules with micro-inverters may afford the opportunity to provide ground-based solar resource data critical for developing PV projects. The method used back-solves for the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) from the micro-inverter ac production data. When the derived values of DNI and DHI were then used to model the performance of other PV systems, the annual mean bias deviations were within +/- 4%, and only 1% greater than when the PV performance was modeled using high quality irradiance measurements. An uncertainty analysis shows the method better suited for modeling PV performance than using satellite-based global horizontal irradiance.

  10. Is disaggregation the holy grail of energy efficiency? The case of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrie Armel, K.; Gupta, Abhay; Shrimali, Gireesh; Albert, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address two timely energy problems. First, significant low-cost energy reductions can be made in the residential and commercial sectors, but these savings have not been achievable to date. Second, billions of dollars are being spent to install smart meters, yet the energy saving and financial benefits of this infrastructure – without careful consideration of the human element – will not reach its full potential. We believe that we can address these problems by strategically marrying them, using disaggregation. Disaggregation refers to a set of statistical approaches for extracting end-use and/or appliance level data from an aggregate, or whole-building, energy signal. In this paper, we explain how appliance level data affords numerous benefits, and why using the algorithms in conjunction with smart meters is the most cost-effective and scalable solution for getting this data. We review disaggregation algorithms and their requirements, and evaluate the extent to which smart meters can meet those requirements. Research, technology, and policy recommendations are also outlined. - Highlights: ► Appliance energy use data can produce many consumer, industry, and policy benefits. ► Disaggregating smart meter data is the most cost-effective and scalable solution. ► We review algorithm requirements, and ability of smart meters to meet those. ► Current technology identifies ∼10 appliances; minor upgrades could identify more. ► Research, technology, and policy recommendations for moving forward are outlined.

  11. Is interleukin-6 receptor blockade the Holy Grail for inflammatory diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febbraio, M A; Rose-John, S; Pedersen, B K

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been linked to a myriad of diseases associated with inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and several types of cancer. In 2009 the US Food and Drug Administration accepted a complete-response submission for the use of Actemra (tocilizumab), t...

  12. Intravascular radiation for restenosis prevention: could it be the holy grail?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This brief editorial discusses the use of intravascular radiation in preventing restenosis after angioplasty in coronary interventions. Results in porcine coronary arteries and clinical applications are briefly reported. (UK)

  13. The modern search for the Holy Grail: is neuroscience a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Navot; Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here suggest that neuroscience may (1) enrich our knowledge; (2) outline the nature of an explanation; and (3) lead to substantial empirical and theoretical discoveries. To that end, we review work on hedonia and eudaimonia in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. These studies demonstrate the importance of neuroscientific tools in the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to define using other methods. PMID:24926246

  14. Prevention & treatment of obstetrical complications in APS: Is hydroxychloroquine the Holy Grail we are looking for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Pregnancy morbidity is part of the clinical spectrum of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), with an important social and economical cost. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents are effective in preventing the clinical manifestations in the majority of the patients. However, a consistent proportion of the pregnant women present recurrences in spite of the standard therapy. Observational studies and anecdotal reports raised the issue of additional therapeutic strategies in these refractory cases. Among these, anti-malarials (AMs) and in particular hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are becoming more and more popular in APS as well as in other systemic autoimmune rheumatic conditions. AMs display a pleiotropic activity spanning from immunomodulation effect to anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities, all of which potentially useful in APS. The well-known safety of HCQ in pregnancy encouraged its use in pregnant women with autoimmune rheumatic disorders including APS and observational reports suggested a protective effect on obstetrical recurrences. Since thrombosis does not seem to be the main pathogenic mechanism in obstetric APS, effectiveness of the treatment with HCQ should be related to other pharmacological effects rather than to the anti-platelet or anti-thrombotic activity of the molecule. Experimental models showed that HCQ may restore some defective biological functions induced by anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) on trophoblasts and a recent study reported a protective effect on in vivo aPL-mediated placental and foetal neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Although the rational behind the use of HCQ in obstetric APS is sound, the evidence from the real life is not conclusive and a critical appraisal through clinical trials is mandatory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Acetic acid dressings: Finding the Holy Grail for infected wound management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wounds have since long, contributed majorly to the health-care burden. Infected long-standing non-healing wounds place many demands on the treating surgeon and are devastating for the patients physically, nutritionally, vocationally, financially, psychologically and socially. Acetic acid has long been included among agents used in the treatment of infected wounds. In this study, we have evaluated the use of acetic acid for topical application in the treatment of infected wounds. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with infected wounds were treated with topical application of 1% acetic acid as dressing material after appropriate cleaning. A specimen of wound swab was collected before first application and further on days 3, 7, 10 and 14. Daily dressings of wounds were done similarly. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of acetic acid against various organisms isolated was determined. Results: The patients treated ranged between 9 and 60 years, with the mean age 33 years. Nearly 70% of patients were male. Aetiologies of wounds: infective 35, diabetic 25, trauma 20, burns 10, venous ulcers 5 and infected graft donor site 5. Various microorganisms isolated include Pseudomonas aeruginosa (40%, Staphylococcus aureus (2%, Acinetobacter (12%, Escherichia Coli (5%, Proteus mirabilis (3%, Klebsiella (18%, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (10%, Streptococcus (2% and Enterococcus (1%, Citrobacter (1%. Few wounds (6% also isolated fungi. About 28%, 64% and 8% of patients isolated no growth on culture after 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. MIC of all isolated organisms was ≤0.5%. Conclusion: pH of the wound environment plays a pivotal role in wound healing. Acetic acid with concentration of 1% has shown to be efficacious against wide range of bacteria as well as fungi, simultaneously accelerating wound healing. Acetic acid is non-toxic, inexpensive, easily available and efficient topical agent for effective elimination of wound infections caused due to multi-drug resistant, large variety of bacteria and fungus.

  16. MiniGRAIL progress report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, A de; Benzaim, Y; Frossati, G; Gottardi, L; Mark, H van der; Flokstra, J; Podt, M; Bassan, M; Minenkov, Y; Moleti, A; Rocchi, A; Fafone, V; Pallottino, G V

    2005-01-01

    The MiniGRAIL detector was improved. The sphere was replaced by a slightly larger one, having a diameter of 68 cm (instead of 65 cm), reducing the resonant frequency by about 200 Hz to around 2.9 kHz. The last four masses of the attenuation system were machined to increase their resonant frequency and improve the attenuation around the resonant frequency of the sphere. In the new sphere, six holes were machined on the TIGA positions for easy mounting of the transducers. During the last cryogenic run, two capacitive transducers and a calibrator were mounted on the sphere. The first transducer was coupled to a double-stage SQUID amplifier having a commercial quantum design SQUID as a first stage and a DROS as a second stage. The second transducer was read by a single-stage quantum design SQUID. During the cryogenic run, the sphere was cooled down to 4 K. The two-stage SQUID had a flux noise of about 1.6 μφ 0 Hz -1/2 . The detector was calibrated and the sensitivity curve of MiniGRAIL was determined

  17. Holy Grandeur Enough for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novriana Gloria Hutagalung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural degradation is not merely a competition between ecology and economy. The destruction of nature is closely related to religiosity and human relationships to fellow human beings, the environment, and God. Ecotheology becomes a self-criticism of the classical doctrines of Christianity, which are considered to exalt humankind as the "crown of creation" and marginalize non-human creatures as commodities of economic value for human interests. Ecotheology seems to have talked too often about damaged nature, or even extinct plants or animals, and forgetting the other side of the bountiful biodiversities, which is the holy beauty of nature. Ecotheology needs to ponder that God, the Holy Grandeur, who manifests the cosmic wisdom in the beauty of all creation, is enough for all.

  18. LAND MEASUREMENT IN HOLY BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Nelu Leu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data and facts presented here will show measurement methods for time, land, buildings and first map designs of Israel County used during time. There are also described the instruments and measurement units used to perform these types of measurements, like the plot of land, the cubit, the mason string, the cane and the pole. Like any scientific approach, the land measurement domain begins with training specialists to elaborate all projects needed. This can be done “with the help of the Holy Ghost that gives us wisdom, skills and patience”, like those that made the Tent of God, the Temple of God and the surroundings, House of Solomon and others. All measurement methods are presented and supported with quotations from the Holy Book. In the end there are presented the modern equivalents for these antique measure units for weight, length, capacity and coins mentioned in the Old and New Testament.

  19. Holy See participation in the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Holy See has participated in every General Conference of the IAEA and has made a special contribution in Vienna to international co-operation and the development of the peaceful atom. On August 20, 1957 the Holy See became a full member of the Agency. (author)

  20. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  1. The GRAIL concept modelling language for medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Bechhofer, S; Goble, C A; Horrocks, I; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D

    1997-02-01

    The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces within the GALEN and PEN&PAD projects. GRAIL is a description logic or frame language with novel features to support part-whole and other transitive relations and to support the GALEN modelling style aimed at re-use and application independence. GRAIL began as an experimental language. However, it has clarified many requirements for an effective knowledge representation language for clinical concepts. It still has numerous limitations despite its practical successes. The GRAIL experience is expected to form the basis for future languages which meet the same requirements but have greater expressiveness and more soundly based semantics. This paper provides a description and motivation for the GRAIL language and gives examples of the modelling paradigm which it supports.

  2. Cooling down MiniGRAIL to milli-Kelvin temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, A.; de Waard, A.; Gottardi, L.; Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; Fafone, V.; Flokstra, Jakob; Karbalai-Sadegh, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Moleti, A.; Pallottino, G.V.; Podt, M.; Pors, B.J.; Reincke, W; Rocchi, A.; Shumack, A.; Srinivas, S.; Visco, M.; Frossati, G.

    2004-01-01

    The latest developments in the construction of the ultra-cryogenic spherical detector MiniGRAIL are presented. The room temperature part of the vibration isolation system was improved and provided with an attenuation of about 60 dB around 3 kHz. The transfer function of the cryogenic stages gave

  3. SQUID developments for the gravitational wave antenna MiniGRAIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleikies, J.; Usenko, O.; Kuit, K.H.; Flokstra, Jakob; de Waard, A.; de Waard, A.; Frossati, G.

    2007-01-01

    We designed two different sensor SQUIDs for the readout of the resonant mass gravitational wave detector MiniGRAIL. Both designs have integrated input inductors in the order of 1.5 muH and are planned for operation in the mK temperature range. Cooling fins were added to the shunt resistors. The

  4. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  5. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  6. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  7. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  8. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  9. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax?; Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bonnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  10. Infrapopliteal calcification patterns in critical limb ischemia: diagnostic, pathologic and therapeutic implications in the search for the endovascular holy grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Saab, Fadi

    2017-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by multilevel and multivessel disease. Amongst patients with infrainguinal disease, approximately one third have predominantly isolated infrapopliteal disease and the remaining two thirds, a combination of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease. Isolated infrapopliteal disease is mainly seen in the elderly, diabetic, or dialysis-dependent patients. These patients have higher risk of amputation and shorter amputation-free survival. Infrapopliteal disease presents with either complex high-grade calcified tandem lesions in multiple vessels or with long chronic total occlusion (CTO) segments with plaques characterized by higher calcium and lower fibro-fatty content than the inflow vessels, as arterial calcium deposition increases as we progress distally in the arterial tree. Vascular calcification occurs in both intima and media. Intimal calcification leads to development of calcified atheroma and occlusive lesions. Medial calcification leads to stiffening and decrease in arterial wall elasticity and compliance leading to atherosclerosis, reduced perfusion, and PAD, increasing cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease. This article attempts to review the implications of the diverse pathologic patterns of calcium distribution in infrapopliteal vessels of CLI patients, on the diagnostic modalities, technological developments, and the evolution of therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes among these patients. A critical analysis of the currently available data is provided, pointing to the surprising omission on the role of calcium on outcomes, and future directions are discussed. Is infrapopliteal calcium a roadblock or the avenue towards new paths? Necessity remains the mother of invention.

  11. The Holy Grail of outer space: pluralism, Druidry, and the religion of cinema in The Sky Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnvig, Thore

    2012-10-01

    The Danish silent movie Himmelskibet (in English, A Trip to Mars or The Sky Ship) premiered in 1918, and a novelization of the movie appeared in 1921. The film is about a trip to Mars and portrays a Martian civilization that embraces a life of peace, vegetarianism, and non-alcoholism. Both movie and novel, though especially the novel, provide insight into the plurality-of-worlds debate in Denmark in the early 20(th) century, forming as it did a part of a general debate about the relationship between science and religion. Yet The Sky Ship did not only form part of this debate but also displayed strong religious currents itself. Most notably, a romantic, Neo-Platonically inspired Christian version of Druidry informed the portrayal of the Martians and their society. Finally, the medium itself played a role in the story. By transcending language barriers, silent movies were imagined by some to be a kind of "Esperanto of the eye" that would usher in a new golden age for mankind, even contributing to ending the horrors of World War I. Thus, The Sky Ship offers insight into an intriguing conglomeration of pluralism, religion, and technology that should be of interest to historians of astrobiology.

  12. Statins: the holy grail of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) growth attenuation? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jonathan A; Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Sohrabi, Soroush; Coughlin, Patrick A; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-01-01

    In the era of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) screening, pharmacotherapies to attenuate AAA growth are sought. HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) have pleiotropic actions independent of their lipid lowering effects and have been suggested as potential treatment for small AAAs. We systematically review the clinical evidence for this effect. Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1950-2011) were searched for studies reporting data on the role of statin therapy on AAA growth rate. No language restrictions were placed on the search. References of retrieved articles and pertinent journals were hand searched. Included studies were reviewed by 2 independent observers. The search retrieved 164 papers, 100 were irrelevant based on their title, 47 were reviews and 1 was a letter. 8 studies were excluded based on review of their abstract leaving 8 for inclusion in the study. Eight observational clinical studies with a total of 4,466 patients were reviewed. Four studies demonstrated reduced AAA expansion in statin users while 4 studies failed to demonstrate this effect. The method of determining AAA growth rates varied significantly between the studies and the ability of many studies to control for misclassification bias was poor. The claim that statins attenuate AAA growth remains questionable. Further prospective studies with stringent identification and verification of statin usage and a standardised method of estimating AAA growth rates are required. Statin type and dose also merit consideration.

  13. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Manjari; Torres, Diego F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime [1-4]. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  14. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  15. The writing and the voice in three Grail novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demétrio Alves Paz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this paper is to analyse the narrator and the characters in the romances of chivalry about the Grail: Perceval, by Chrétien de Troyes; Parsifal, by Wolfram von Eschenbach and A Demanda do Santo Graal, an anonymous portuguese text. After analysing the prodution context of these works, it is used the ideas of Paul Zumthor and Walter Benjamim about the relation of orality and writing to discuss the narrator of the novels. Then, the characters are investigated according to the typology proposed by Antonio Prieto. The first two romances of chivalry about the Grail are closer not only to the orality as well as the myth, whereas in the portuguese text there is a greater control of the narrative due to its religious characteristic.

  16. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  17. The Holy See and the NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed in Vienna on 26 June 1972. The preamble to the agreement states that the Holy See 'enjoys exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Vatican City State, of which the Roman Pontiff is the sovereign'. The Vatican City State, which covers a very small area, is itself 'ever and in all cases a neutral and inviolable territory', and since 18 June 1960 the whole of the Vatican City has been included in the Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection in the Event of Armed Conflict, which is deposited with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and it has the rights and obligations which follow from its relations with third States. The Vatican City State is thus strictly adhering to the spirit of neutrality which characterizes the policy and action of the Holy See in the international community. Nevertheless, as pointed out by Monseigneur Oriano Quilici, Resident Representative of the Holy See to the Agency, 'this by no means implies that the Vatican City State cannot accept the controls and safeguards provided for under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in respect of all contracting parties'. (author)

  18. High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.

  19. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  20. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  1. Holiness as friendship with Christ: Teresa of Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara K. Soughers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa of Avila, writing in the 16th century when ideas of holiness often excluded women and lay people, developed a radically inclusive understanding of holiness as friendship with Christ. Her idea also allowed for degrees of holiness, from those who completed only the necessary church requirements of confession and absolution all the way up to those who had a friendship that was modelled upon the relationship in the Song of Songs. It was a definition of holiness applicable to men and women, clergy, members of religious orders, and lay people. In addition, her understanding of holiness did not distinguish the holiness of ordinary lay people from that of the great saints of previous generations, for friendship with Christ was open to all.

  2. A Brief Description of Ceremony Mangongkal Holi in Toba Batak

    OpenAIRE

    Pardosi, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Judul kertas karya ini adalah A Brief Description of Ceremony of Mangongkal Holi in Toba Batak. Mangongkal holi adalah suatu upacara yang dilakukan oleh orang batak terutama suku Batak Toba dengan mengali kembali kuburan nenek moyangnya dan kemudian mengumpulkan seluruh tulang-tulangnya dan kemudian dipindahkan ketempat yang baru atau disebut dengan tugu. Kertas karya ini menjelaskan tentang pengertian dari mangongkal holi serta tata cara jalannya upacara tersebut. Selain itu juga, dalam kert...

  3. Detection and characterization of buried lunar craters with GRAIL data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rohan; Chappaz, Loic; Melosh, Henry J.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Milbury, Colleen; Blair, David M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-06-01

    We used gravity mapping observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) to detect, characterize and validate the presence of large impact craters buried beneath the lunar maria. In this paper we focus on two prominent anomalies detected in the GRAIL data using the gravity gradiometry technique. Our detection strategy is applied to both free-air and Bouguer gravity field observations to identify gravitational signatures that are similar to those observed over buried craters. The presence of buried craters is further supported by individual analysis of regional free-air gravity anomalies, Bouguer gravity anomaly maps, and forward modeling. Our best candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Earhart Crater, is approximately 200 km in diameter and forms part of the northwestern rim of Lacus Somniorum, The other candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Ashoka Anomaly, is approximately 160 km in diameter and lies completely buried beneath Mare Tranquillitatis. Other large, still unrecognized, craters undoubtedly underlie other portions of the Moon's vast mare lavas.

  4. Cooling down MiniGRAIL to milli-Kelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, A de; Gottardi, L; Bassan, M; Coccia, E; Fafone, V; Flokstra, J; Karbalai-Sadegh, A; Minenkov, Y; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Podt, M; Pors, B J; Reincke, W; Rocchi, A; Shumack, A; Srinivas, S; Visco, M; Frossati, G

    2004-01-01

    The latest developments in the construction of the ultra-cryogenic spherical detector MiniGRAIL are presented. The room temperature part of the vibration isolation system was improved and provided with an attenuation of about 60 dB around 3 kHz. The transfer function of the cryogenic stages gave about 20 dB per stage, at the resonant frequency of the sphere. The latest results of three cryogenic tests at ultra-low temperature of the spherical detector MiniGRAIL, using several thermal anchorings, are presented. Minimum temperatures of 20 mK on the mixing chamber of the dilution refrigerator and 79 mK on the surface of the sphere were reached. During the last cool down, two capacitive transducers were mounted on the sphere. The first was coupled to a room temperature FET amplifier and the second to a transformer and a double stage SQUID amplifier. Unfortunately the SQUID did not work, so only the first resonator could be used. An equivalent temperature of about 20 K was measured during an acquisition run of 7 h, using the first transducer corresponding to the FET white noise

  5. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  6. Online UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential asset for military and law enforcement operations. In particular their use for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks has been growing due to the quick developments in the areal systems themselves, sensor technology, and image processing

  7. Pilgrimages of Teachers and Students of Ecclesiastical Academies to the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhova Nataliia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with pilgrim trips to the Holy Places — the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos, — which were undertaken by teachers and students of Russian orthodox ecclesiastical academies in 1870-1910. The article covers the cases of these pilgrim trips. The author analyzes the motivation of concrete pilgrims and the significance of trips for a Russian ecclesiastical school. Besides, the author pays attention to efforts of spiritually-educational community to find the importance of the Holy Places for theological and ecclesiastical-historical sciences.

  8. The Holy Name of Jesus in Venetian-Ruled Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on Andreas Ritzos' icon with the monogram IHS in Athens, this article offers insights about the role played by the monogram on Crete and points out that the particular solution shown in Ritzos' image is not in keeping with St. Bernardine's "icon" of the Holy Name of Jesus and indicates an association with the symbolism of the holy host.

  9. Evapotranspiration from UAV Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Hoffmann Munk

    and is thus of importance in both hydrological, agricultural and atmospheric sciences. Still today, accurate measurements of ET are not achieved easily. The state-of the-art method to measure ET, the eddy covariance method, is associated with uncertainties and its footprint, though at the order of around 1...... hectare, varies much with the atmospheric stability and wind conditions. Indirect measurements of ET are obtained with satellite imagery, as a residual of the surface energy balance. Satellite images provide spatially distributed measurements, however high resolution satellite products provide footprints...... of measurements and thus new understandings of ET and its inferred parameters such as crop water stress and heat fluxes in the surface energy balance. However, UAV data collection is a new measuring method and the lightweight sensors are novel instrumentations. Workflows for processing UAV data, and the data...

  10. RECONNAISSANCE MICRO UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Gabrlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of the Uranus UAV. This quad-rotor flying robot was created to extend the abilities of the hitherto developed with airborne missions. The first part deals with the mathematical model of the robot. Next, the control system is designed, and the proposed hardware as well as the implemented software solution are presented. For integration into the robotic system, a new communication protocol was created and is described here too.

  11. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  12. Research for new UAV capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  13. Dragon Drone UAV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-02

    TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dragon Drone UAV System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A E R O S Y S T E M S BAI’s Dragon Drone ...the hundreds. BAI’s Dragon Drone system is the result of combining new ideas and emerging technologies with the in-depth knowl- edge gained from real

  14. A holy Quran ontology construction with semiautomatic population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The major contribution of this approach is to harness the benefits of learning methods, conjoined with statistical ... Keywords: Ontology; Holy Quran; named entity; machine learning ...

  15. Review Article: Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Juan E.

    2003-01-01

    The following is a review article by Juan E. Campo, Religious Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, on Bruce Lincoln's Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, Pp. 142.

  16. Towards Inculcating Morality among the Youths in Nigeria: The Holy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Inculcating Morality among the Youths in Nigeria: The Holy Family ... to acquaint youths with the basic veritable norms, values, social consciousness and ... The paper concludes that the family, church and the state as agents of moral ...

  17. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  18. Optical and acoustical UAV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christnacher, Frank; Hengy, Sébastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Naz, Pierre; Schertzer, Stéphane; Schmitt, Gwenael

    2016-10-01

    Recent world events have highlighted that the proliferation of UAVs is bringing with it a new and rapidly increasing threat for national defense and security agencies. Whilst many of the reported UAV incidents seem to indicate that there was no terrorist intent behind them, it is not unreasonable to assume that it may not be long before UAV platforms are regularly employed by terrorists or other criminal organizations. The flight characteristics of many of these mini- and micro-platforms present challenges for current systems which have been optimized over time to defend against the traditional air-breathing airborne platforms. A lot of programs to identify cost-effective measures for the detection, classification, tracking and neutralization have begun in the recent past. In this paper, lSL shows how the performance of a UAV detection and tracking concept based on acousto-optical technology can be powerfully increased through active imaging.

  19. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson , II, F. C

    2006-01-01

    .... There is an overarching USN plan for UAVs, but I propose an emphasis should be placed on the close range or tactical UAVs that will directly complement battle space management, increase situational...

  20. Collaborative UAV Exploration of Hostile Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luotsinen, Linus J; Gonzalez, Avelino J; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2004-01-01

    .... UAVs can be lost or significantly damaged during the exploration process. Although employing multiple UAVs can increase the chance of success, their efficiency depends on the collaboration strategies used...

  1. UAV Swarm Operational Risk Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    are detected, clear monitoring is required to track and identify the possible intentions of inbound UAVs. And when a target is identified, enough...armed UAVs (Davis et al. 2014). Although manufacturers in the U.S. and Israel dominate the global UAV market (approximately 75 percent share between

  2. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  3. Typology of Interpretive Narratives of the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Shariati

    2013-01-01

    A large quantity of narratives in interpretation of the Holy Quran is related to the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) s of companions of the Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH) .Investigating those narratives we see a kind of variation in His interpretations of the verses of the Holy Quran . Some narratives investigate the lexicology of the Holy Quran denotatively. They have also mentioned the reasons for the fall of the verses, the news of the nations and past events, the definiti...

  4. Holi colours contain PM10 and can induce pro-inflammatory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bossmann, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; H?flich, Conny; Valtanen, Kerttu; Heinze, Rita; Neumann, Anett; Straff, Wolfgang; S?ring, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Background At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. Methods We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system. In additi...

  5. The Ceremony of Mangongkal holi in Batak Toba society, Samosir : Lontung

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Rani Monika

    2017-01-01

    142202014 Kertas karya ini berjudul ?The Ceremony of Mangongkal holi in Batak Toba society, Samosir : Lontung?. Mangongkal holi merupakan salah satu kebiasaan masyarakat Batak Toba, kebiasaan ini dianggap juga sebagai suatu acara adat yang ingin mengangkat tulang belulang leluhur ketempat yang lebih baik. Mangongkal holi dianggap sebagi tanda penghormatan kepada keluarga yang telah meninggal. Acara adat mangongkal holi mencerminkan keyakinan bahwa seseorang akan mendapat hidup yang lebih b...

  6. Women's royal holiness as the church-historical phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article under the topic of the Royal Holiness examines its specific subtype, the righteousness of the Royal women. Among the saint queens, empresses and princesses the authors distinguish the independent rulers, the widows, and wives of monarchs. The Holy Byzantine Empress and canonized European Queen, the Queen of the Georgian and the Russian Princess defended the Christian statehood brightened by feats of patience, mercy, by building the temples. In the conclusion of the article briefly tells about the Royal martyrs and Confessors of the 20th century.

  7. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-02-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a

  9. Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of modern brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-10-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Talk: Low energy spread Ion source for focused ion beam systems-Search for the holy grail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will cover my personal experiences as a serial entrepreneur and founder of a succession of focused ion beam companies (1). Ion Beam Technology, which developed a 200kv (FIB) direct ion implanter (2). Micrion, where the FIB found a market in circuit edit and mask repair, which eventually merged with FEI corporation. and (3). ALIS Corporation which develop the Orion system, the first commercially successful sub-nanometer helium ion microscope, that was ultimately acquired by Carl Zeiss corporation. I will share this adventure beginning with my experiences in the early days of ion beam implantation and e-beam lithography which lead up to the final breakthrough understanding of the mechanisms that govern the successful creation and operation of a single atom ion source.

  11. Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Not a “Holy Grail” but a Cup at Least Half; Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Block

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we argue for the implementation of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB tax as a tool to help address the global obesity and diabetes epidemics. Consumption of SSBs has increased exponentially over the last several decades, a trend that has been an important contributor to the obesity and diabetes epidemics. Prior evidence demonstrates that a SSB tax will likely decrease SSB consumption without significantly increasing consumption of other unhealthy food or beverages. Further, this tax is unlikely to have effects on income inequality and should not contribute to weight-based discrimination. A SSB tax also should raise revenue for government entities that already pay, through health care expenditures and health programs, for the consequences of excess SSB consumption.

  12. The Holy Logos in the Writings of Philo of Alexandria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoblík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 248-266 ISSN 0010-3713 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP401/12/G168 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philo of Alexandria * Ancient Jewish philosophy * Logos * holiness Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the 'sensibility' and 'sentiment' that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It then considers how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions ...

  14. Compatibility of the holy Qur'an with sciences: anthropological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract - In holy Qur'an countless verses are related to topics on the nature and the ... concepts compatible with the most recent scientific conclusions as that relating to our ... In fact these concepts are often more and less masked within.

  15. Bingo! Holy play in experience-oriented society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    What place is there for holy play in experience-oriented society? Is it possible and useful to make analytic distinctions between the liturgical quality of events? I explored these questions by doing research on the boundaries between the religious field and the field of leisure. Fifty site visits

  16. The Holy as an Epistemic Category and a Political Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2008-01-01

    and as an artificial weapon in the service of modern politics. Cassirer's concept of myth is analyzed regarding a primary source of inspiration from the German theologian Rudolf Otto. It is shown how Cassirer can make use of Otto's phenomenological description of the transcendent experience of the holy....

  17. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    UAVs (Raven, Wasp, and Puma) do not advertise any payload capability, the Tier I operators that Team Bravo contacted claimed small payload...www.ncca.navy.mil/services/inflation.cfm (accessed February 2011). Net Resources International. "Javelin Anti- Armour Missile." Army-Technology.com. 2011. http

  18. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  19. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  20. Design of UAV (Diseño de un UAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Estévez, José María

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto se ha diseñado un dron, un vehículo aéreo no tripulado (UAV en sus siglas inglesas). El propósito de este proyecto es empezar el diseño desde cero hasta poder vender el dron y que sea rentable. Han sido calculados los parámetros necesarios para comenzar el diseño. Se ha comprobado si todas las partes del UAV son capaces de resistir un impacto contra el suelo durante su uso, y se ha buscado la forma más óptima de conseguir los materiales, así de cómo fabricar ciertas partes y ...

  1. Two-stage SQUID systems and transducers development for MiniGRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L; Podt, M; Bassan, M; Flokstra, J; Karbalai-Sadegh, A; Minenkov, Y; Reinke, W; Shumack, A; Srinivas, S; Waard, A de; Frossati, G

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements on a two-stage SQUID system based on a dc-SQUID as a sensor and a DROS as an amplifier. We measured the intrinsic noise of the dc-SQUID at 4.2 K. A new dc-SQUID has been fabricated. It was specially designed to be used with MiniGRAIL transducers. Cooling fins have been added in order to improve the cooling of the SQUID and the design is optimized to achieve the quantum limit of the sensor SQUID at temperatures above 100 mK. In this paper we also report the effect of the deposition of a Nb film on the quality factor of a small mass Al5056 resonator. Finally, the results of Q-factor measurements on a capacitive transducer for the current MiniGRAIL run are presented

  2. The Desecration of "the Most Holy Temple of All the World" in the "Holy Land" : Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ "Abomination of Desolation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; van Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M.; de Vos, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Desecration of ‘the Most Holy Temple of All the World’ in the ‘Holy Land’: Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ ‘Abomination of Desolation,’” in The Land of Israel in Bible, History, and Theology: Studies in Honour of Ed Noort (ed. Jacques van

  3. Holy sci-fi! where science fiction and religion intersect

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Can a computer have a soul? Are religion and science mutually exclusive? Is there really such a thing as free will? If you could time travel to visit Jesus, would you (and should you)? For hundreds of years, philosophers, scientists, and science fiction writers have pondered these questions and many more. In Holy Sci-Fi!, popular writer Paul Nahin explores the fertile and sometimes uneasy relationship between science fiction and religion. With a scope spanning the history of religion, philosophy, and literature, Nahin follows religious themes in science fiction from Feynman to Foucault, and from Asimov to Aristotle. An intriguing journey through popular and well-loved books and stories, Holy Sci-Fi! shows how sci-fi has informed humanity's attitudes towards our faiths, our future, and ourselves.

  4. Bingo! Holy play in experience-oriented society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Kees

    2017-06-01

    What place is there for holy play in experience-oriented society? Is it possible and useful to make analytic distinctions between the liturgical quality of events? I explored these questions by doing research on the boundaries between the religious field and the field of leisure. Fifty site visits to public events in the Netherlands (2006-2014) resulted in a collection of ethnographic data. I used the concept of play as introduced by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga and the tools of ritual studies to explore whether these could help to produce an account of the liturgical quality of ritualized meetings. Holy play might be found in unexpected places, such as in a bingo hall. Huizinga's broad diagnosis of modernity may be outdated, but the tools he introduced remain useful to distinguish the elements that constitute late-modern meetings as more or less playful - even when this involves combinations that seem contradictory from Huizinga's own point of view.

  5. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  6. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  7. Flora of the Holy Bible part I - fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G V R

    2002-01-01

    Holy Bible described several plants and the authentication of certain Biblical flora is still in debate. In this present paper, attempts are being made to workout the correct botanical identity of certain plants based on the description mentioned in the Bible. Bible is a genuinely documented book everything mentioned in the Bible has a great significance. Present study is undertaken with a view to evaluate the biblical flora in correlation with the present day knowledge especially with the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  8. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be...

  9. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    a commercial UAV. Our results show that path loss exponents decrease as the UAV moves up, approximating freespace propagation for horizontal ranges up to tens of kilometers at UAV heights around 100m. Our findings support the need of heightdependent parameters for describing the propagation channel for UAVs...

  10. Mini UAV as an improvised air threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, K.J. de; Wiel, R.A.N. van de

    2013-01-01

    The use of UAVs for military and law enforcement purposes is increasing dramatically. Simultaneously, possible opponents are also developing UAV capabilities that they may deploy for their purposes. For example, a terrorist may deploy a commercially available model airplane or multicopter with an

  11. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  12. SLIC superpixels for object delineation UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelinck, Sophie Charlotte; Bennett, R.M.; Gerke, Markus; Koeva, M.N.; Yang, M.Y.; Vosselman, G.; Stachniss, C.; Förstner, W.; Schneider, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with

  13. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  14. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  15. Holi colours contain PM10 and can induce pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; Höflich, Conny; Valtanen, Kerttu; Heinze, Rita; Neumann, Anett; Straff, Wolfgang; Süring, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system. In addition, we incubated native human cells with different Holi colours and determined their potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response by quantifying the resulting cytokine production by means of ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and the resulting leukocyte oxidative burst by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, we performed the XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and Propidium iodide cytotoxicity tests and we measured the endotoxin content of the Holi colour samples by means of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL test). We show here that all tested Holi colours consist to more than 40 % of particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, so called PM10 particles (PM, particulate matter). Two of the analysed Holi powders contained even more than 75 % of PM10 particles. Furthermore we demonstrate in cell culture experiments that Holi colours can induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-6 (Interleukine-6) and IL-1β (Interleukine-1β). Three out of the four analysed colours induced a significantly higher cytokine response in human PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells) and whole blood than corn starch, which is often used as carrier substance for Holi colours. Moreover we show that corn starch and two Holi colours contain endotoxin and that certain Holi colours display concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in higher concentration. Furthermore we reveal that in principle Holi

  16. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  17. Global and Local Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. The mission consisted of two spacecraft, which were launched in September 2011 on a Discovery-class NASA mission. Ka-band tracking between the two satellites was the single science instrument, augmented by tracking from Earth using the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  18. Mistranslations of the Prophets' Names in the Holy Quran: A Critical Evaluation of Two Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Izzeddin M. I.

    2017-01-01

    This study is devoted to discuss the renditions of the prophets' names in the Holy Quran due to the authority of the religious text where they reappear, the significance of the figures who carry them, the fact that they exist in many languages, and the fact that the Holy Quran addresses all mankind. The data are drawn from two translations of the…

  19. The Contribution of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus to Catholic Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Philomena

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the extent to which the charism and the philosophy of education of Venerable Cornelia Connelly founder of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus are being maintained in the twenty-first century in West Africa (Nigeria and Ghana). Using data gathered from Sisters and former students of Holy Child schools as evidence it seeks to…

  20. "Holy Rus": The Geopolitical Imagination in the Contemporary Russian Orthodox Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suslov, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.......The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church....

  1. EMERGENCY RADIATION SURVEY DEVICE ONBOARD THE UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bogatov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation survey device (RSD on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10–7 – 10–1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

  2. Low complexity video encoding for UAV inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Zhang, Ruo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present several methods for fast integer motion estimation of videos recorded aboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Different from related work, the field depth is not considered to be consistent. The novel methods designed for low complexity MV prediction in H.264/AVC and anal......In this work we present several methods for fast integer motion estimation of videos recorded aboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Different from related work, the field depth is not considered to be consistent. The novel methods designed for low complexity MV prediction in H.264/AVC...... for UAV infrared (IR) video are also provided....

  3. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  4. Air Force UAVs: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...opening phases of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. By Thomas P. Ehrhard a miTchEll insTiTuTE sTudy July 2010 Air Force UAVs The Secret History

  5. A Content Analysis on the Recognition of the Educational Ministry of the Holy Spirit in Christian Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Larry A., II

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Christian education is spiritual formation, which requires transforming the minds of believers. However, since man's mind is impacted by sin, the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to transform those minds. Since the Holy Spirit and Christian educators are striving for the same goal, one can state that the Holy Spirit has an…

  6. The Pilgrimage to the Holy Face of Lucca in 1896: Documents and News from the Archive of the Congregation of the Holy Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maria Rossi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 100 records and many other documentary testimonies regarding the Congregation of the Holy Face of Lucca are stored within the funds of the Historical Diocesan Archive of Lucca. The Chapters of the Society of the Holy Face are present within the same Archive; this document is dated back to 1306-1308 and it is brought up together with the minutes of the meetings in a paper register of 16th-17th century, the only one remained concerning the renewed Society of the Holy Sacrament and the Holy Face. The brotherhood recovered importance during the 19th century mostly thanks to some priests of Lucca, including the Abbot Pietro Pera (the future Archbishop between 1845 and 1846. Specifically, two important moments regarding the renewed interest for the relics of Lucca can be registered after the Napoleonic Era. First, a competition for the construction of a golden lamp for the chapel of the Holy Face was carried out between 1835 and 1836, and Abbot Pera was charged to supervise the enterprise. Related documentaries as well as the various drawings presented for the competition are stored in the Archives of the Congregation of the Holy Face. Moreover, a pilgrimage to the simulacrum of Lucca took place during 1896. This event was very successful: the City and the entire Diocese accurately organized the arrival of about 132,000 pilgrims by controlling pilgrims’ overnighting and daily meals, and developing a visiting route concerning the shrines of the City.

  7. Effect of the Holy Month of Ramadan on Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akuchekian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student

  8. Human embryology and the holy quran: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2009-01-01

    Man's quest to know about his origin has led him to search his roots and the best source for him has been religious scriptures. The greatest miracle is the Holy Quraan. There is an elegant description of origin, development and step by step developmental stages of intra-uterine life in Quraan. Muslims had this knowledge in 7th century and the Prophet Muhammad's Ahadeeth (sayings, deeds, approvals narrated by authentic narrators) had explained almost everything about natal and even postnatal events. These findings once presented to experts in the field of Anatomy and Embryology surprised them and they believed that the knowledge given to the Prophet Muhammad was indeed divine. Who else would provide this knowledge to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except the Creator Himself.Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. However the concept of the human being developing in stages was not recognised until much later. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Sunnah [words, deeds, approvals of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) collected by authentic narrators] had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum. Actually information in the Quran and Hadith corrected many superstitious and vague ideas about human development that were prevalent before.

  9. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  10. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  11. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the additional Options available to the operational commander in charge of conducting 'presence and monitoring' missions with the introduction of an armed capability on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs...

  12. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  13. Aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for micro uav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for Micro UAV that has ability of autonomous flight. The most important goal of our proposed method is the reducing the processing cost for fully automatic reconstruction of DSM from a large amount of image obtained from Micro UAV. For this goal, we have developed automatic corresponding point generation procedure using feature point tracking algorithm considering position and attitude information, which obtained from onboard GPS-IMU integrated on Micro UAV. In addition, we have developed the automatic exterior orientation and registration procedure from the automatic generated corresponding points on each image and position and attitude information from Micro UAV. Moreover, in order to reconstruct precise DSM, we have developed the area base matching process which considering edge information. In this paper, we describe processing flow of our automatic aerial photogrammetry. Moreover, the accuracy assessment is also described. Furthermore, some application of automatic reconstruction of DSM will be desired.

  14. Cycloidal Propulsion for UAV VTOL Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boschma, James

    1998-01-01

    .... This propulsion concept holds significant promise for adaptation to UAV VTOL operations. Thrust levels demonstrated were substantially higher than achievable by the best screw type propellers, and approximately equal to those of high end helicopters...

  15. Biblical basics of the Holy Family’s dimension of Christian spirituality according to the teaching of God’s Servant Jean Berthier, founder of the Congregation Missionaries of the Holy Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Józef Sobczyk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the biblical basics of the Holy Family’s dimension of Christian spirituality drawn by Jean Berthier shows his impressive knowledge of the Holy Bible. God’ Servant uses many quotations to show biblical grounds for Christ’s imitation according to the pattern of the Holy Family. There are a few virtues of the Holy Family which deserve to be highlighted: trust and obedience to God’s Will, love to God and to neighbor, humility and mortification. Berthier not only enumerates those virtues but also encourages everyone to realize them in everyday life, such as the Holy Family did it.

  16. Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Procellarum Region as Revealed by GRAIL Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Besserer, Jonathan; Head, James W., III; Howett, Carly J. A.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Lucey, Paul J.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations, thin crust, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium. The Procellarum region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3200 km in diameter, though supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border the Procellarum region and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dikes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of quasi-rectangular border structures with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the elevated heat flux in the region.

  17. SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin Martínez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms This thesis describes the optimization of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at X-band and its integration into an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) of type octocopter. For such optimization the SAR system functionality was extended from singlepol to fulpol and it has been optimized at hardware level in order to improve its quality against noise figure. After its integration into the octocopter platform, its features has been used in order to ...

  18. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  19. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  20. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  1. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Itkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air. An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery. The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  2. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  3. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf; Chen, Yunfei; Zhao, Nan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dobbins, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  4. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  5. Evaluation and development of unmanned aircraft (UAV) for UDOT needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research involved the use of high-resolution aerial photography obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to aid UDOT in monitoring and documenting State Roadway structures and associated issues. Using geo-referenced UAV high resolution aeria...

  6. RAVEN-2: Around-The-World UAV Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burleigh, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The Raven around-the-world UAV project is part of an on-going effort to build up a significant European capability in the design, construction and operation of large UAVs and manned reconnaissance aircraft...

  7. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf

    2018-01-23

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  8. From random process to chaotic behavior in swarms of UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalie , Martin; Danoy , Grégoire; Chaumette , Serge; Bouvry , Pascal

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) applications have seen an important increase in the last decade for both military and civilian applications ranging from fire and high seas rescue to military surveillance and target detection. While this technology is now mature for a single UAV, new methods are needed to operate UAVs in swarms, also referred to as fleets. This work focuses on the mobility management of one single autonomous swarm of UAVs which mission is to cover a giv...

  9. Marine environmental radioactivity survey of Holy Loch 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Cowling, G.; Manson, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents results of a marine environmental radioactivity monitoring survey of intertidal and underwater areas around the former United States Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out jointly by DRPS and U.S. Navy staff in March 1992 following the departure of U.S. Navy submarine support facilities. Results are reported for in-situ measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of over 460 samples covering over 150 separate locations. Included is a report by the U.S. Navy summarising their results for the survey. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples from the intertidal zone and in all underwater sediment samples, but concentrations were low. The calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the public due to cobalt-60 is 1 μSv. (Author)

  10. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, R.; Voogt, V.; Zwamborn, P.; Oever, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to

  11. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tožička

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs.

  12. Ancient igneous intrusions and early expansion of the Moon revealed by GRAIL gravity gradiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Head, James W; Kiefer, Walter S; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Matsuyama, Isamu; Mazarico, Erwan; McGovern, Patrick J; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Nimmo, Francis; Phillips, Roger J; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Zuber, Maria T

    2013-02-08

    The earliest history of the Moon is poorly preserved in the surface geologic record due to the high flux of impactors, but aspects of that history may be preserved in subsurface structures. Application of gravity gradiometry to observations by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission results in the identification of a population of linear gravity anomalies with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. Inversion of the gravity anomalies indicates elongated positive-density anomalies that are interpreted to be ancient vertical tabular intrusions or dikes formed by magmatism in combination with extension of the lithosphere. Crosscutting relationships support a pre-Nectarian to Nectarian age, preceding the end of the heavy bombardment of the Moon. The distribution, orientation, and dimensions of the intrusions indicate a globally isotropic extensional stress state arising from an increase in the Moon's radius by 0.6 to 4.9 kilometers early in lunar history, consistent with predictions of thermal models.

  13. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  14. Multiple UAV Cooperation for Wildfire Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongjie

    Wildfires have been a major factor in the development and management of the world's forest. An accurate assessment of wildfire status is imperative for fire management. This thesis is dedicated to the topic of utilizing multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively monitor a large-scale wildfire. This is achieved through wildfire spreading situation estimation based on on-line measurements and wise cooperation strategy to ensure efficiency. First, based on the understanding of the physical characteristics of the wildfire propagation behavior, a wildfire model and a Kalman filter-based method are proposed to estimate the wildfire rate of spread and the fire front contour profile. With the enormous on-line measurements from on-board sensors of UAVs, the proposed method allows a wildfire monitoring mission to benefit from on-line information updating, increased flexibility, and accurate estimation. An independent wildfire simulator is utilized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Second, based on the filter analysis, wildfire spreading situation and vehicle dynamics, the influence of different cooperation strategies of UAVs to the overall mission performance is studied. The multi-UAV cooperation problem is formulated in a distributed network. A consensus-based method is proposed to help address the problem. The optimal cooperation strategy of UAVs is obtained through mathematical analysis. The derived optimal cooperation strategy is then verified in an independent fire simulation environment to verify its effectiveness.

  15. What can be learned about the lunar mantle from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Asmar, S. W.; Konopliv, A. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Melosh, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Williams, J. G.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Head, J. W.; Kiefer, W. S.; Matsuyama, I.; McGovern, P. J.; Nimmo, F.; Soderblom, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Weber, R. C.; Goossens, S. J.; Kruizinga, G. L.; Mazarico, E.; Park, R. S.; Yuan, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), a dual-spacecraft, gravity-mapping mission that is a component of NASA's Discovery Program, has successfully concluded its Primary and Extended Missions, and is currently in the science analysis phase. In order to safely navigate the dual spacecraft at an average altitude of 22.5 km above the lunar surface during the Extended Mission phase in the fall of 2012, and to derive the greatest information from the full mission data set, the focus had been on the production of gravitational fields with the highest-possible resolution. Spherical harmonic models of the Moon's gravitational field, produced by separate software systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, now include observations from both the Primary and Extended Missions. The highest-resolution models to date are to degree and order 900, corresponding to a spatial block size of 6 km, and are ideally suited to study the structure of the Moon's crust in extraordinary detail. GRAIL has achieved all measurement objectives for the Primary Mission, enabling all science investigations to be addressed. One of these investigations is to study the lunar hemispherical asymmetry, i.e., the difference between the nearside and farside. In this study we explore the nearside and farside mantle by isolating the long-wavelength gravity field. We accomplish this objective by removing plausible short-wavelength contributions from the crust that were based on the full resolution of high-degree and -order models, and by considering constraints from crustal compositions and volumes of mare basalt deposits. We localize the power spectral contributions of the nearside and farside to constrain lateral density variations, such as those associated with melting from the source regions of the mare basalts.

  16. Small-scale density variations in the lunar crust revealed by GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J. C.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Li, Y.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Goossens, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Head, J. W.; Milbury, C.; Kiefer, W. S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-07-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission have revealed that ∼98% of the power of the gravity signal of the Moon at high spherical harmonic degrees correlates with the topography. The remaining 2% of the signal, which cannot be explained by topography, contains information about density variations within the crust. These high-degree Bouguer gravity anomalies are likely caused by small-scale (10‧s of km) shallow density variations. Here we use gravity inversions to model the small-scale three-dimensional variations in the density of the lunar crust. Inversion results from three non-descript areas yield shallow density variations in the range of 100-200 kg/m3. Three end-member scenarios of variations in porosity, intrusions into the crust, and variations in bulk crustal composition were tested as possible sources of the density variations. We find that the density anomalies can be caused entirely by changes in porosity. Characteristics of density anomalies in the South Pole-Aitken basin also support porosity as a primary source of these variations. Mafic intrusions into the crust could explain many, but not all of the anomalies. Additionally, variations in crustal composition revealed by spectral data could only explain a small fraction of the density anomalies. Nevertheless, all three sources of density variations likely contribute. Collectively, results from this study of GRAIL gravity data, combined with other studies of remote sensing data and lunar samples, show that the lunar crust exhibits variations in density by ± 10% over scales ranging from centimeters to 100‧s of kilometers.

  17. Small-Scale Density Variations in the Lunar Crust Revealed by GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J. C.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Li, Y.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Goossens, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Head, J. W., III; Milbury, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission have revealed that approximately 98 percent of the power of the gravity signal of the Moon at high spherical harmonic degrees correlates with the topography. The remaining 2 percent of the signal, which cannot be explained by topography, contains information about density variations within the crust. These high-degree Bouguer gravity anomalies are likely caused by small-scale (10's of km) shallow density variations. Here we use gravity inversions to model the small-scale three-dimensional variations in the density of the lunar crust. Inversion results from three non-descript areas yield shallow density variations in the range of 100-200 kg/m3. Three end-member scenarios of variations in porosity, intrusions into the crust, and variations in bulk crustal composition were tested as possible sources of the density variations. We find that the density anomalies can be caused entirely by changes in porosity. Characteristics of density anomalies in the South Pole-Aitken basin also support porosity as a primary source of these variations. Mafic intrusions into the crust could explain many, but not all of the anomalies. Additionally, variations in crustal composition revealed by spectral data could only explain a small fraction of the density anomalies. Nevertheless, all three sources of density variations likely contribute. Collectively, results from this study of GRAIL gravity data, combined with other studies of remote sensing data and lunar samples, show that the lunar crust exhibits variations in density by plus or minus 10 percent over scales ranging from centimeters to 100’s of kilometers.

  18. Automatic UAV Image Geo-Registration by Matching UAV Images to Georeferenced Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the fast development of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles. As an alternative to traditional image acquisition methods, UAVs bridge the gap between terrestrial and airborne photogrammetry and enable flexible acquisition of high resolution images. However, the georeferencing accuracy of UAVs is still limited by the low-performance on-board GNSS and INS. This paper investigates automatic geo-registration of an individual UAV image or UAV image blocks by matching the UAV image(s with a previously taken georeferenced image, such as an individual aerial or satellite image with a height map attached or an aerial orthophoto with a DSM (digital surface model attached. As the biggest challenge for matching UAV and aerial images is in the large differences in scale and rotation, we propose a novel feature matching method for nadir or slightly tilted images. The method is comprised of a dense feature detection scheme, a one-to-many matching strategy and a global geometric verification scheme. The proposed method is able to find thousands of valid matches in cases where SIFT and ASIFT fail. Those matches can be used to geo-register the whole UAV image block towards the reference image data. When the reference images offer high georeferencing accuracy, the UAV images can also be geolocalized in a global coordinate system. A series of experiments involving different scenarios was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that our approach achieves not only decimeter-level registration accuracy, but also comparable global accuracy as the reference images.

  19. Telling the Holy Sepulchre. “Mises en scène” and textual representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Middle Ages, places and holy objects were concrete in their materiality and especially in their geographical location. However they could also proliferate in other places, in a real “multiplication of presence”. Indeed, texts and maps informed the reader and the spectator, but also put him in touch with the sphere of the holiness. The idea of the omnipresence of the salvation facilitated a relocation of the poles of worship, which was nevertheless based on material contacts. This contrast between dematerialization and attachment to things maintained a play of opposites between absence and presence. The material or textual reproduction of objects and holy places made sure they became accessible for all those who would not or could not travel to them. This contribution offers an analysis of maps and various stories of medieval authors which make a symbolic approach to the holy places in Jerusalem accessible to many believers.

  20. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Deepender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  1. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  2. GRAIL-genQuest: A comprehensive computational system for DNA sequence analysis. Final report, DOE SBIR Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Ruth Ann

    1999-01-05

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing and genome mapping technologies are making it possible, for the first time in history, to find genes in plants and animals and to elucidate their function. This means that diagnostics and therapeutics can be developed for human diseases such as cancer, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular problems. Crop and animal strains can be developed that are hardier, resistant to diseases, and produce higher yields. The challenge is to develop tools that will find the nucleotides in the DNA of a living organism that comprise a particular gene. In the human genome alone it is estimated that only about 51% of the approximately 3 billion pairs of nucleotides code for some 100,000 human genes. In this search for nucleotides within a genome which are active in the actual coding of proteins, efficient tools to locate and identify their function can be of significant value to mankind. Software tools such as ApoCom GRAIL{trademark} have assisted in this search. It can be used to analyze genome information, to identify exons (coding regions) and to construct gene models. Using a neural network approach, this software can ''learn'' sequence patterns and refine its ability to recognize a pattern as it is exposed to more and more examples of it. Since 1992 versions of GRAIL{trademark} have been publicly available over the Internet from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Because of the potential for security and patent compromise, these Internet versions are not available to many researchers in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies who cannot send proprietary sequences past their data-secure firewalls. ApoCom is making available commercial versions of the GRAIL{trademark} software to run self-contained over local area networks. As part of the commercialization effort, ApoCom has developed a new Java{trademark}-based graphical user interface, the ApoCom Client Tool for Genomics (ACTG){trademark}. Two products, ApoCom GRAIL

  3. Nutritional Concepts and Frequency of Foodstuffs Mentioned in the Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-06-01

    The Holy Quran is a religious book of Muslims. In many verses of Quran, various foods are discussed. It seems that limited studies were performed on identification the nutritional verses and their frequencies in the Holy Quran. Therefore, the aims of present study were to establish a numerical model system for studying nutritional verses of Quran, determination of verses with nutritional concepts and frequency of foodstuffs in the Holy Quran. In this descriptive analytical study, "Ghamoos e Quran" and "Vazheyab" online softwares were used to determine the nutritional keywords in Quran. For searching, translating, and interpretation of verses, "Noor-e-Jami Tafasir version 2.1"; "Zekr" and "Pars Quran"softwares were applied. Sixty-four nutritional keywords and 257 nutritional verses were identified. Findings indicated that aliment/foods, eating, water/drinking words, and their derivatives are repeated 171, 109, and 131 times in the Holy Quran, respectively. According to the Holy Quran, except Haram foods (pork meat, wine, carrion meat, blood, and meat of animals not slaughtered properly in the Islamic manner), all foods are tayyeb (lawful). The Holy Quran contains many foodstuffs and verses with nutritional concepts and it recommends eating varied and balanced diet.

  4. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  5. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  6. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  7. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  8. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  9. Viewpoints in the Translation of the Holy QURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is too much literature about the untranslatability of the Quran from its Arabic text into another language. Most Muslims: Arab and Non-Arab, and almost everyone with Arabic language background, will not find any difficulty to prove the untranslatability of the Holy Quran into another language. The Quran is the Word of Allah Almighty to his messenger Mohammed (PBUH in Arabic. It was intentionally revealed in Arabic to serve specific purpose: To defy the Arabs in their own trade and craftsmanship of producing highly rhetorical and poetic composition in their literature.  Although all the scientific, geographical and historical facts mentioned in the Quran have been found true, nevertheless, the Quran remains a book of miracles, but its miraculous ability is in its inimitability (as no one has made similar sura the like of it since its revelation and untranslatability into another form  of reproduction in other languages (as  hundreds of translations were made and are still made, but would not come to the absolute final perfect  form of translation. These translations are incomplete, as they are mere human efforts. This paper aims to shed some light on the opinions of some Islamic scholars on this issue, as well as to suggest some strategies to help in coming out with some sound translations to help Non-Arab Muslims and other Non-Arabic speakers to understand the truth about the Quran as a true WORD from Allah to all human beings on Earth.

  10. A Finnic holy word and its subsequent history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauno Koski

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on a specific ancient holy word in Finnish and its subsequent development, hiisi. In the Finnish language region hiisi appears as an element in place names in over 230 villages established by the end of the thirteenth century, and at least a majority of these must have existed since prehistoric times. In Finland as well as in Estonia it is possible to demonstrate an earlier sacral function in places which contain hiisi as a component of their name, partly with the help of archeological discoveries, and partly with the help of oral folk tradition. It is particularly among the earliest settlement areas of Southwest Finland, Satakunta and Häme that hiisi features in the names of sacrificial sites or trees, in other words in the same areas where it features in the names of burial grounds. Names in which the hiisi element precedes a word meaning a lake, pond, or other water formation, occur particularly in the eastern Finnish dialect regions, as well as in the regions of Karelian, Olonets, Lydian, and Vepsian. In addition to its factual meaning of cult place, the Finnish word hiisi has come to denote a supernatural entity both in terms of its reference to a place and in terms of its reference to a being.

  11. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  12. Towards Maturity in 1 Peter: Freedom, Holiness, Immortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Decock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth towards maturity is dependent on the presence of freedom, holiness and immortality. These are presented as divine qualities that are utterly lacking in human beings. However, while human beings are ignorant and weak, sinful and mortal the addressees of 1 Peter1 are reminded that they have also been begotten anew by the imperishable seed of God’s Word, the Good News of Jesus Christ in order to share immortal life. This article looks first at human beings who as God’s creatures are ‘flesh’, but are also enabled to acknowledge their ‘fleshly’ state, to appreciate (‘desire’ and ‘taste’ (2:2–3 the Gospel and to submit to God. The second part considers the saving role of Christ as the powerful yet rejected ‘stone’ placed and offered by God as the model and means to transcend the ‘flesh’ in the flesh (4:1–2. A final part focuses on the new birth and the growth process in which the fleshly desires and ways of living give way to a manner of life, which is a witness to God’s saving power.

  13. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    of possible contract winners including Scan Eagle, Silver Fox, Wasp, Coyote and the USMC Tier I winner Dragon Eye. Technical data for these UAVs are...Neptune’s engine and avionics are placed above the waterline and the airframe is sealed for flotation as well as providing corrosion/water intrusion

  14. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  15. Interactive Cadastral Boundary Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Höfle, B.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are evolving as an alternative tool to acquire land tenure data. UAVs can capture geospatial data at high quality and resolution in a cost-effective, transparent and flexible manner, from which visible land parcel boundaries, i.e., cadastral boundaries are delineable. This delineation is to no extent automated, even though physical objects automatically retrievable through image analysis methods mark a large portion of cadastral boundaries. This study proposes (i) a methodology that automatically extracts and processes candidate cadastral boundary features from UAV data, and (ii) a procedure for a subsequent interactive delineation. Part (i) consists of two state-of-the-art computer vision methods, namely gPb contour detection and SLIC superpixels, as well as a classification part assigning costs to each outline according to local boundary knowledge. Part (ii) allows a user-guided delineation by calculating least-cost paths along previously extracted and weighted lines. The approach is tested on visible road outlines in two UAV datasets from Germany. Results show that all roads can be delineated comprehensively. Compared to manual delineation, the number of clicks per 100 m is reduced by up to 86 %, while obtaining a similar localization quality. The approach shows promising results to reduce the effort of manual delineation that is currently employed for indirect (cadastral) surveying.

  16. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  17. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  18. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleijpen, Ric (H. M. A.); Voogt, Vincent; Zwamborn, Peter; van den Oever, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to the sensor community. The detection, classification and identification chain can take advantage of different sensor technologies. Apart from the signatures used by radar and electro-optical sensor systems, the UAV also emits RF signals. These RF signatures can be split in intentional signals for communication with the operator and un-intentional RF signals emitted by the UAV. These unintentional or spurious RF emissions are very weak but could be used to discriminate potential UAV detections from false alarms. The goal of this research was to assess the potential of exploiting spurious emissions in the classification and identification chain of mini-UAVs. It was already known that spurious signals are very weak, but the focus was on the question whether the emission pattern could be correlated to the behaviour of the UAV. In this paper experimental examples of spurious RF emission for different types of mini-UAVs and their correlation with the electronic circuits in the UAVs will be shown

  19. The Moon's largest craters and basins images and topographic maps from LRO, GRAIL, and Kaguya

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    This most recent book from lunar expert Charles J. Byrne combines the latest comprehensive imagery, topography and gravity data from all three recent Moon missions, Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and GRAIL. These major polar-orbit surveys are presented here in compact form for the convenience of amateur and practical astronomers concerned with the Moon. Chosen from the Near and Far Side's large craters and basins over 200 km in diameter, each of the 71 highlighted features is depicted with a two-page presentation of the data that includes false color topographic maps next to the mission images. Additionally, the features are presented in the estimated chronological sequence of their creation, based on a consideration of stratigraphy (overlapping layers from neighboring features) and the relative degradation of surface features.  Using this sequence as a way to convey the relative ages of lunar features, the author presents various theories concerning the Moon’s impact and thermal history ...

  20. Deconstructing the shallow internal structure of the Moon using GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Globally-distributed, high-resolution gravity and topography observations of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft afford the unprecedented opportunity to explore the shallow internal structure of the Moon. Gravity and topography can be combined to produce Bouguer gravity that reveals the distribution of mass in the subsurface, with high degrees in the spherical harmonic expansion of the Bouguer anomalies sensitive to shallowest structure. For isolated regions of the lunar highlands and several basins we have deconstructed the gravity field and mapped the subsurface distribution of density anomalies. While specified spherical harmonic degree ranges can be used to estimate contributions at different depths, such analyses require considerable caution in interpretation. A comparison of filtered Bouguer gravity with forward models of disk masses with plausible densities illustrates the interdependencies of the gravitational power of density anomalies with depth and spatial scale. The results have implications regarding the limits of interpretation of lunar subsurface structure.

  1. GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.

  2. Teaching UAVs to Race Using UE4Sim

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2017-08-19

    Automating the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in diverse scenarios has gained much attention in the recent years. However, teaching UAVs to fly in challenging environments remains an unsolved problem, mainly due to the lack of data for training. In this paper, we develop a photo-realistic simulator that can afford the generation of large amounts of training data (both images rendered from the UAV camera and its controls) to teach a UAV to autonomously race through challenging tracks. We train a deep neural network to predict UAV controls from raw image data for the task of autonomous UAV racing. Training is done through imitation learning enabled by data augmentation to allow for the correction of navigation mistakes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network (when sufficient data augmentation is used) outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flies more consistently than many human pilots.

  3. Teaching UAVs to Race Using UE4Sim

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Casser, Vincent; Smith, Neil; Michels, Dominik L.; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Automating the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in diverse scenarios has gained much attention in the recent years. However, teaching UAVs to fly in challenging environments remains an unsolved problem, mainly due to the lack of data for training. In this paper, we develop a photo-realistic simulator that can afford the generation of large amounts of training data (both images rendered from the UAV camera and its controls) to teach a UAV to autonomously race through challenging tracks. We train a deep neural network to predict UAV controls from raw image data for the task of autonomous UAV racing. Training is done through imitation learning enabled by data augmentation to allow for the correction of navigation mistakes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network (when sufficient data augmentation is used) outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flies more consistently than many human pilots.

  4. Divineness regarding the words of the Holy Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheibani Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the many questions concerning the words of the Holy Qur'an is whether their content and meaning were truly a divine revelation or they were revealed to the Prophet from God and then transferred into the form of words. In this regard, there are two perspectives. First, as all Muslims believe, the words of the Qur'an are the result of a divine revelation, where­as the second viewpoint is that the words of the Qur'an are written by a human and not God. According to this latter perspective, the words of the Qur'an are sayings of the Prophet of which only the contents are based on a divine revelation. The theory of the words of the Qur'an not being a divine revelation has been an abandoned and rejected one throughout the Islamic history. This is the reason it has not been the subject of any pertinent discussions. How can the words of the Qur'an be created by Muhammad or Gabriel even though it is believed that the Qur'an is a miracle? This article first defines the concept of revelation and then analyzes various viewpoints and opinions regarding this topic in order to conclude (with evidence that the Qur'an is the word of God and not the word of the Prophet. If he had composed the words of the Qur'an and expressed the meaning of the revelation in his own words, then the Qur'an would not be the word of God. In this case, the term 'word of God' indicates that the concept of the 'word' should be considered. Thus, it is clear that the words of the Qur'an are divine and they can be referred and attributed to God.

  5. Uav-Based 3d Urban Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpook, Wuttichai; Tan, Yumin; Liu, Huaqing; Zhao, Binbin; He, Lingfeng

    2018-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing can be used to make three-dimensions (3D) mapping with great flexibility, besides the ability to provide high resolution images. In this paper we propose a quick-change detection method on UAV images by combining altitude from Digital Surface Model (DSM) and texture analysis from images. Cases of UAV images with and without georeferencing are both considered. Research results show that the accuracy of change detection can be enhanced with georeferencing procedure, and the accuracy and precision of change detection on UAV images which are collected both vertically and obliquely but without georeferencing also have a good performance.

  6. Assessing UAVs in Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration within a Heterogeneous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouze, G.; Neely, H.; Morgan, C.; Kustas, W. P.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Cope, D.; Yang, C.; Thomasson, A.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne and satellite remote sensing methods have been developed to provide ET estimates across entire management fields. However, airborne-based ET is not particularly cost-effective and satellite-based ET provides insufficient spatial/temporal information. ET estimations through remote sensing are also problematic where soils are highly variable within a given management field. Unlike airborne/satellite-based ET, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based ET has the potential to increase the spatial and temporal detail of these measurements, particularly within a heterogeneous soil landscape. However, it is unclear to what extent UAVs can model ET. The overall goal of this project was to assess the capability of UAVs in modeling ET across a heterogeneous landscape. Within a 20-ha irrigated cotton field in Central Texas, low-altitude UAV surveys were conducted throughout the growing season over two soil types. UAVs were equipped with thermal and multispectral cameras to obtain canopy temperature and NDVI, respectively. UAV data were supplemented simultaneously with ground-truth measurements such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and plant height. Both remote sensing and ground-truth parameters were used to model ET using a Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model. UAV-based estimations of ET and other energy balance components were validated against energy balance measurements obtained from nearby eddy covariance towers that were installed within each soil type. UAV-based ET fluxes were also compared with airborne and satellite (Landsat 8)-based ET fluxes collected near the time of the UAV survey.

  7. Next Generation UAV Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, UAVs used in environmental monitoring mostly collect low spectral resolution imagery, capable of retrieving canopy greenness or properties related water...

  8. Air Force UAV’s: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... The Secret History 2 Air Force UAVs: The Secret History2 air Force uaVs: The secret history Has any airplane in the past decade captured the public

  9. Custodians of Sacred Space : Constructing the Franciscan Holy Land through texts and sacri monti (ca. 1480-1650)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema van Eck, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the construction of the Franciscan Holy Land as an ideological construct during the late medieval and early modern period. Based on an extensive corpus of texts, defined as Franciscan Holy Land writing, and a (re-)consideration of the sacri monti of Varallo and La

  10. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  11. “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939, ” Photographs, p. 104, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationDear Welty,Writing by the fireplace, I see you standing with the camerathe eye of the eye of the eyein awe and wonder,a guest in Holiness Churchwatching: the painted horse “The Lord on the Cloud” in the centera white mass moving through mountainslines upon valleys, there goes the Lord ridingoh yes, rise your heart to God in praise, sisterspeaking i...

  12. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  13. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  14. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  15. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  16. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  17. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  18. Keeping Sunday holy by sharing in the Eucharist (historical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław A. Superson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the heritage of Christianity, we see that since the very beginning, Sunday, the first day of the week, has always been the day of common Church gathering to celebrate the Eucharist. In the very beginning, as pointed by Tertullian, the celebration took place at night because of the precessions. Night or dawn gave more privacy and security. After the Edict of Milan it became a custom that a Mass should be celebrated after three o’clock, or at night, if they fell around so-called Quattro Tempora. In the middle ages it was believed that any time of the day is good to celebrate the Eucharist, but missa conventualis et sollemnis in hora Tertia. After the Council of Trent the time of the main Sunday Eucharist – summa – was determined by the bishop and in Poland it was at 10.00 AM. Often before this Mass was a Mass primaria celebrated. In the beginning of XX century the Code of Canon Law of 1917 stated that it was not allowed to celebrate a private Mass earlier than an hour before dawn or an hour after noon. For the solemnities that had its own vigil, the celebrations of the Eucharist took place in the evening. The purpose of that practice was to prepare for the celebration of the solemnity of the next day. Along with industrialization, introduction of different work shifts, persecution of the Church and other specific circumstances, it was allowed to celebrate Mass in the evening. This rule was especially visible during the Second World War and shortly after when the Sunday evening Mass was celebrated for the prisoners of war, those who were detained and foreigners. After the Church adapted the rule that the canonical hour for the Vespers would be called Vespers I, a discussion on the celebration of the Mass on Saturday evening started among the moral theologians. Participation in the Saturday evening Mass was supposed to satisfy the obligation of participation in the Sunday Mass and the holy days de praecepto. The Church

  19. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  20. UAV Based Agricultural Planning and Landslide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yaprak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV tools has become widespread in map production, land surveying, landslide, erosion monitoring, monitoring of agricultural activities, aerial crop surveying, forest fire detection and monitoring operations. In this study, GEO 2 UAV manufactured by TEKNOMER equipped with SONY A6000 camera has been used. The flight plan have been performed with 100 m altitude, with 80% longitudinal and 60% side overlapping. Ground Control Points (GCPs have been observed with Topcon and Trimble GNSS geodetic receivers. Recorded GNSS signals have been processed with LGO V.8.4 software to get sensitive location information. 985 photos have been taken for the 344 hectares the agricultural area. 291 photos have been taken for 50 hectares the landslide area. All photos were processed by PIX4D software. For the agricultural area, 25 GCPs and for the landslide area, 8 GCPs have been included in the evaluation. 3D images were produced with pixel matching algorithms. As a result, the RMS evaluation was obtained as ±0.054 m for the agricultural area and as ±0.018 m for the landslide area. UAV images have indisputable contributions to the management of catastrophes such as landslides and earthquakes, and it is impossible to make terrestrial measurements in areas where disaster impact continues.

  1. UAV magnetometry in mineral exploration and infrastructure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Parvar, K.; Burns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic surveys are critical tools in mineral exploration and UAVs have the potential to carry magnetometers. UAV surveys can offer higher spatial resolution than traditional airborne surveys, and higher coverage than terrestrial surveys. However, the main advantage is their ability to sense the magnetic field in 3-D, while most airborne or terrestrial surveys are restricted to 2-D acquisition. This study compares UAV magnetic data from two different UAVs (JIB drone, DJI Phantom 2) and three different magnetometers (GEM GSPM35, Honeywell HMR2300, GEM GST-19). The first UAV survey was conducted using a JIB UAV with a GSPM35 flying at 10-15 m above ground. The survey's goal was to detect intrusive Rhyolite bodies for primary mineral exploration. The survey resulted in a better understanding of the validity/resolution of UAV data and led to improved knowledge about the geological structures in the area. The results further drove the design of a following terrestrial survey. Comparing the UAV data with an available airborne survey (upward continued to 250 m) reveals that the UAV data has superior spatial resolution, but exhibits a higher noise level. The magnetic anomalies related to the Rhyolite intrusions is about 109 nT and translates into an estimated depth of approximately 110 meters. The second survey was conducted using an in-house developed UAV magnetometer system equipped with a DJI Phantom 2 and a Honeywell HMR2300 fluxgate magnetometer. By flying the sensor in different altitudes, the vertical and horizontal gradients can be derived leading to full 3-D magnetic data volumes which can provide improved constraints for source depth/geometry characterization. We demonstrate that a buried steam pipeline was detectable with the UAV magnetometer system and compare the resulting data with a terrestrial survey using a GEM GST-19 Proton Precession Magnetometer.

  2. MERGING GEOMETRIC DOCUMENTATION WITH MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY AEDICULE IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IN JERUSALEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Technical University of Athens undertook the compilation of an "Integrated Diagnostic Research Project and Strategic Planning for Materials, Interventions Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem". This paper focuses on the work merging the geometric documentation with the characterization of materials, the identification of building phases and the diagnosis of decay and pathology through the use of analytical and non-destructive techniques. Through this integrated approach, i.e. through the documentation and characterization of the building materials, through the diagnosis of decay and pathology, through the accurate geometric documentation of the building and through the non-destructive prospection of its internal structure, it was feasible to identify the construction phases of the Holy Aedicule, identifying the remnants of the preserved earlier constructions and the original monolithic Tomb. This work, thus, demonstrates that the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach for integrated documentation is a powerful tool for a better understanding of monuments, both in terms of its structural integrity, as well as in terms of its state of preservation, both prerequisites for effective rehabilitation.

  3. Merging Geometric Documentation with Materials Characterization and Analysis of the History of the Holy Aedicule in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Lambrou, E.; Pantazis, G.; Agrafiotis, P.; Papadaki, A.; Kotoula, L.; Lampropoulos, K.; Delegou, E.; Apostolopoulou, M.; Alexakis, M.; Moropoulou, A.

    2017-05-01

    The National Technical University of Athens undertook the compilation of an "Integrated Diagnostic Research Project and Strategic Planning for Materials, Interventions Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem". This paper focuses on the work merging the geometric documentation with the characterization of materials, the identification of building phases and the diagnosis of decay and pathology through the use of analytical and non-destructive techniques. Through this integrated approach, i.e. through the documentation and characterization of the building materials, through the diagnosis of decay and pathology, through the accurate geometric documentation of the building and through the non-destructive prospection of its internal structure, it was feasible to identify the construction phases of the Holy Aedicule, identifying the remnants of the preserved earlier constructions and the original monolithic Tomb. This work, thus, demonstrates that the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach for integrated documentation is a powerful tool for a better understanding of monuments, both in terms of its structural integrity, as well as in terms of its state of preservation, both prerequisites for effective rehabilitation.

  4. A system of UAV application in indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported on this ......In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported...... on this topic. This paper presents a detailed study on several UAV systems and UAV scheduling systems. It is followed by a proposed system of UAV application in indoor environment, which comprises components of UAV system addressed in detail; focused on scheduler as the heart of operations. Consequently, system...... architecture of UAV scheduling system is presented and the framework of scheduler component is included. Scheduler component works in a phased manner to provide a systematic abstraction and achieve an efficient computation time. This study serves as a reference guide for UAV application in indoor environment....

  5. Vision-IMU based collaborative control of a blind UAV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogervorst, R.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Wopereis, Han Willem; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Position estimation of UAVs is usually done using onboard sensors such as GPS and camera. However, in certain practical situations, the measurements of both the GPS and the onboard camera of the UAV might not always be available or reliable. This paper investigates the possibility to overcome

  6. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  7. On Beauty, Usefulness, and Holiness: Attitudes towards Languages in the Habad Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies one ultra-Orthodox group--Habad community, exploring its members' attitudes towards four languages: Hebrew, Loshen Koydesh (LK), English, and Yiddish, and focusing on usage, affection for the language, ascribed importance, and holiness. Research questions were: (1) What are the attitudes of Habad members towards these languages?…

  8. Effects of listening to Holy Qur'an recitation and physical training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-three male haemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (listening to Holy Qur'an recitation in combination with endurance–resistance training, n = 28) or a control group (endurance–resistance training only, n = 25). Functional capacity was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) ...

  9. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial patterns and theological requisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Goroncy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay begins by offering some observations about how holiness was comprehended andexpressed in Victorian and Edwardian England. In addition to the ‘sensibility’ and ‘sentiment’that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It thenconsiders how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions – he Oxford Movement, Calvinism, Wesleyanism, and the Early Keswick movement. Injuxtaposition to what was most often considered to be a negative expression of holinessassociated primarily with anthropocentric and anthroposocial behaviour as evidenced in thesetraditions, the essay concludes by examining one – namely, P.T. Forsyth – whose voice calledfrom within the ecclesial community for a radical requisition of holiness language as afundamentally positive reality describing the divine life and divine activity. The relevance of astudy of the Church’s understanding of holiness and how it sought to develop its doctrinewhile engaging with larger social and philosophical shifts endure with us still.

  10. 'Do not quench the Spirit!' The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis ...

  11. E-Halagat: An E-Learning System for Teaching the Holy Quran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadj, Yahya O. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in Islamic software that try to harness computer to serve the religion. This brought about some applications and programs for the Holy Quran and its sciences, Hadith "[image omitted]" (Prophet's Tradition) and its methodology, Fiqh "[image omitted]" (Islamic jurisdiction), and Islamic law in general.…

  12. Linguistic Precautions That to Be Considered When Translating the Holy Quran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to raise some points that should be considered when translating the Quranic Text into English. We have looked into some samples of translations, selected from well known English translations of the Holy Quran and critically examined them. There were some errors in those translations, due to linguistic factors, owing…

  13. The Cry in the Holy Quran and the Effect on the Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims that cry is the ideal way to release the negative emotions distress, sorrow, and sadness. Which sometimes is also a way to express situations of joy and pleasure of humans. The Almighty Allah also said about cry in The Holy Quran. The prophet pbuh also cry for the expressions of reverence and fear of Allah in perhaps the sort of…

  14. Laugh and Smile upon the Holy Quran: The Study of Analytical Objectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the positive impact of The Holy Quran based on the laugh and smile. This kind of derivatives in which context of praise, expression the feeling of happiness and joyful in the positive senses. Everyone needs to relieve his heart so that happiness and joy on their faces can be seen. Laughter also are some of attribute…

  15. The 'holi' dermatoses: annual spate of skin diseases following the spring festival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Saha, Debabrata

    2009-07-01

    'Holi' is an annual spring festival celebrated all over India. The central ritual of Holi involves throwing of colors on one another. Playing with toxic industrial dyes often results in various dermatological complaints in a significant number of people immediately following the celebration. To describe patterns of various skin manifestations directly or indirectly related to the use of different colors in the celebration of Holi. Observational clinical study on consecutive patients presenting to a teaching hospital in Kolkata, India. Forty-two patients with a mean age of 24.2 years were studied. Itching was the commonest symptom (25, 59.5%), followed by burning sensation, pain, oozing, and scaling. Eleven patients' symptoms were attributed to activities related to preparation of colors and the removal of colors from the skin surface. Eczematous lesions were the most common pattern (24, 57.1%) followed by erosions, xerosis and scaling, erythema, urticaria, acute nail-fold inflammation, and abrasions. Thirteen (30.9%) patients reported aggravation of preexisting dermatoses (acne, eczema, and paronychia). Secondary pyoderma occurred in 3 (7.1%). Face was the commonest site affected (24, 57.1%), followed by dorsum of the hands, scalp, forearm, palms, arms, and trunk. Ocular complaints in the form of redness, watering, and grittiness occurred in 7 (16.7%) patients. Various forms of cutaneous manifestations, often associated with ocular complaints, occur commonly due to Holi colors. Public awareness and regulatory actions are needed to avoid these preventable conditions.

  16. The Holy Trinity of Modernity : Leisure, Suburbia and the Shopping Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about leisure in suburbia would be neigh impossible without including shopping centres. Leisure, suburbia and shopping centres might well embody the holy trinity of capitalist modernity. It was the consolidation of capitalism that established our modern sense of work, free time and leisure,

  17. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE (UAV IN THE ROMANIAN AIRSPACE. AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the last decade the unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV field has evolved in terms of the sub-branches established in the aerospace industry. At national level the UAV market is still in its infancy but acknowledges an upward trend in the implementation and use of UAVs in civilian and military missions. The achievements of the past decade confirms that Romanian specialists are able to conceive, design and build UAVs at a technological and operational level comparable to the one achieved by large international producers creating the prerequisites of developing a sub-sector for the national aeronautic industry. The current article aims at providing an overview of all activities related to the conception, manufacturing, testing, improving, operating UAVs as these activities evolved within the national airspace filed with brief references to the missions and legislation in this area.

  18. Weed detection by UAV with camera guided landing sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmann, Mads

    UAVs gain more and more currency in agriculture, as they allow for inspection of even remote areas of farmland. Measurements of weed occurrence in fields is one branch of this growing field of research. A problem with UAVs is that they have a limited energy capacity: Consequently, after a short...... flight, they must return to the farm to charge. By installing a landing platform in the field it is possible to have charging facilities close to the area where the UAV is used, providing greater opportunity for autonomous flight in distant fields. A landing platform in the field will also allow...... for greater computing capacity, whereby collected images can be processed and appropriate actions can be taken. The present study uses an entry level UAV with a Pixhawk controller and a GPS specified with an accuracy of 2.5m, meaning that the GPS alone is not sufficient to coordinate the UAV landing. Using...

  19. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2018-02-12

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  20. Flocking of quad-rotor UAVs with fuzzy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Yanhui

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs. In order to improve the airspace utilization, a more compact configuration called quasi e-lattice is constructed to guarantee the compact flight of the quad-rotor UAVs. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  2. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  3. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Routing Multiple UAVs under Flight Range and Service Time Window Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAYA, Murat; SEVİNÇ, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Recently using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either for military or civilian purposes is getting popularity. However, UAVs have their own limitations which require adopted approaches to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) promised by the applications depending on effective use of UAVs. One of the important limitations of the UAVs encounter is the flight range. Most of the time, UAVs have very scarce energy resources and, thus, they have relatively short flight ranges. Besides, for the appl...

  4. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  5. Holy Koran\\\\\\'s Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Arzani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Koran, the last scared scripture sent by Allah, recommends, based on the verses frequency, seven methods to communicate with the Christians. The important point about these seven models that may be considered interesting is their sequence as they may be applied one after another in the following order: 1-        Affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations (the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the  Apostles 2-        Invitation to unity 3-        Annunciation of blessing for the true Christians 4-        Warning and threats to the Christians 5-        Invitation to consider the truth by the Christians 6-        Explanation of the infidel Christians and their damnation  7-        Order to mubahala (debate and mutual cursing and wage war against the Christians. These are the seven methods, based on Holy Koran, which are considered to be used in communicating with the Christians:   1-         The background for an efficient dialog is firstly based by affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the Apostles. The existence of a constructive and unifying dialog can have a vital role to directly eliminate the world problems; but this needs some suitable backgrounds. One of these backgrounds is the dialog based on the common matters. Relying on lots of common positive issues such as beliefs, ideas, aspirations, pains and common feelings, the humankind can establish such a dialog. 2-        In the second phase, the Holy Koran, accepting some beliefs of the Christians, invites them to unite with Muslims based on the monotheism and rejection of idolatry and idolatrous in order to reach a common understanding in communicating with each other. 3-        After a Christian receives confirmations about his/her religious ideals by Islam and is ready to unite with Muslims  based on the Monotheism, there is

  6. Holy Koran's Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ehtemam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Koran, the last scared scripture sent by Allah, recommends, based on the verses frequency, seven methods to communicate with the Christians. The important point about these seven models that may be considered interesting is their sequence as they may be applied one after another in the following order: 1-        Affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations (the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the  Apostles 2-        Invitation to unity 3-        Annunciation of blessing for the true Christians 4-        Warning and threats to the Christians 5-        Invitation to consider the truth by the Christians 6-        Explanation of the infidel Christians and their damnation  7-        Order to mubahala (debate and mutual cursing and wage war against the Christians. These are the seven methods, based on Holy Koran, which are considered to be used in communicating with the Christians:   1-         The background for an efficient dialog is firstly based by affirmation of some of the Christianity foundations such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, Saint Mary and the Apostles. The existence of a constructive and unifying dialog can have a vital role to directly eliminate the world problems; but this needs some suitable backgrounds. One of these backgrounds is the dialog based on the common matters. Relying on lots of common positive issues such as beliefs, ideas, aspirations, pains and common feelings, the humankind can establish such a dialog. 2-        In the second phase, the Holy Koran, accepting some beliefs of the Christians, invites them to unite with Muslims based on the monotheism and rejection of idolatry and idolatrous in order to reach a common understanding in communicating with each other. 3-        After a Christian receives confirmations about his/her religious ideals by Islam and is ready to unite with Muslims  based on the Monotheism, there is

  7. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  8. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  9. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  10. Remote sensing from UAVs for hydrological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    compared to other technologies: compared to field based techniques, remote sensing with UAVs is a non-destructive technique, less time consuming, ensures a reduced time between acquisition and interpretation of data and gives the possibility to access remote and unsafe areas. Compared to full...... will be able to record the spectral signatures of water and land surfaces with a pixel resolution of around 15 cm, whereas the thermal camera will sense water and land surface temperature with a resolution of 40 cm. Post-processing of data from the thermal camera will allow retrieving vegetation and soil...

  11. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  12. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  13. Slic Superpixels for Object Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Bennett, R.; Gerke, M.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with image analysis methods to improve existing mapping procedures that are cost, time and labor intensive and of little reproducibility. This study investigates a superpixel approach, namely simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC), in terms of its applicability to UAV data. The approach is investigated in terms of its applicability to high-resolution UAV orthoimages and in terms of its ability to delineate object outlines of roads and roofs. Results show that the approach is applicable to UAV orthoimages of 0.05 m GSD and extents of 100 million and 400 million pixels. Further, the approach delineates the objects with the high accuracy provided by the UAV orthoimages at completeness rates of up to 64 %. The approach is not suitable as a standalone approach for object delineation. However, it shows high potential for a combination with further methods that delineate objects at higher correctness rates in exchange of a lower localization quality. This study provides a basis for future work that will focus on the incorporation of multiple methods for an interactive, comprehensive and accurate object delineation from UAV data. This aims to support numerous application fields such as topographic and cadastral mapping.

  14. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  15. Optimal trajectory planning for a UAV glider using atmospheric thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabo, Wilson B.

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Glider (UAV glider) uses atmospheric energy in its different forms to remain aloft for extended flight durations. This UAV glider's aim is to extract atmospheric thermal energy and use it to supplement its battery energy usage and increase the mission period. Given an infrared camera identified atmospheric thermal of known strength and location; current wind speed and direction; current battery level; altitude and location of the UAV glider; and estimating the expected altitude gain from the thermal, is it possible to make an energy-efficient based motivation to fly to an atmospheric thermal so as to achieve UAV glider extended flight time? For this work, an infrared thermal camera aboard the UAV glider takes continuous forward-looking ground images of "hot spots". Through image processing a candidate atmospheric thermal strength and location is estimated. An Intelligent Decision Model incorporates this information with the current UAV glider status and weather conditions to provide an energy-based recommendation to modify the flight path of the UAV glider. Research, development, and simulation of the Intelligent Decision Model is the primary focus of this work. Three models are developed: (1) Battery Usage Model, (2) Intelligent Decision Model, and (3) Altitude Gain Model. The Battery Usage Model comes from the candidate flight trajectory, wind speed & direction and aircraft dynamic model. Intelligent Decision Model uses a fuzzy logic based approach. The Altitude Gain Model requires the strength and size of the thermal and is found a priori.

  16. Flight safety measurements of UAVs in congested airspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Describing spatial safety status is crucial for high-density air traffic involving multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in a complex environment. A probabilistic approach is proposed to measure safety situation in congested airspace. The occupancy distribution of the airspace is represented with conflict probability between spatial positions and UAV. The concept of a safety envelope related to flight performance and response time is presented first instead of the conventional fixed-size protected zones around aircraft. Consequently, the conflict probability is performance-dependent, and effects of various UAVs on safety can be distinguished. The uncertainty of a UAV future position is explicitly accounted for as Brownian motion. An analytic approximate algorithm for the conflict probability is developed to decrease the computational consumption. The relationship between safety and flight performance are discussed for different response times and prediction intervals. To illustrate the applications of the approach, an experiment of three UAVs in formation flight is performed. In addition, an example of trajectory planning is simulated for one UAV flying over airspace where five UAVs exist. The validation of the approach shows its potential in guaranteeing flight safety in highly dynamic environment.

  17. A method of fast mosaic for massive UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ren; Sun, Min; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of UAV technology, UAVs are used widely in multiple fields such as agriculture, forest protection, mineral exploration, natural disaster management and surveillances of public security events. In contrast of traditional manned aerial remote sensing platforms, UAVs are cheaper and more flexible to use. So users can obtain massive image data with UAVs, but this requires a lot of time to process the image data, for example, Pix4UAV need approximately 10 hours to process 1000 images in a high performance PC. But disaster management and many other fields require quick respond which is hard to realize with massive image data. Aiming at improving the disadvantage of high time consumption and manual interaction, in this article a solution of fast UAV image stitching is raised. GPS and POS data are used to pre-process the original images from UAV, belts and relation between belts and images are recognized automatically by the program, in the same time useless images are picked out. This can boost the progress of finding match points between images. Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is improved so that parallel computing can be applied to shorten the time of global optimization notably. Besides traditional mosaic result, it can also generate superoverlay result for Google Earth, which can provide a fast and easy way to show the result data. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a fast mosaic system of massive UAV images is developed, which is fully automated and no manual interaction is needed after original images and GPS data are provided. A test using 800 images of Kelan River in Xinjiang Province shows that this system can reduce 35%-50% time consumption in contrast of traditional methods, and increases respond speed of UAV image processing rapidly.

  18. The use of UAVs for monitoring land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2017-10-01

    Land degradation is one of the causes of desertification of drylands in the Mediterranean. UAVs can be used to monitor and document the various variables that cause desertification in drylands, including overgrazing, aridity, vegetation loss, etc. This paper examines the use of UAVs and accompanying sensors to monitor overgrazing, vegetation stress and aridity in the study area. UAV images can be used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) to examine the changes in microtopography as well as ortho-photos were used to detect changes in vegetation patterns. The combined data of the digital elevation models and the orthophotos can be used to identify the mechanisms for desertification in the study area.

  19. Current development of UAV sense and avoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhahir, A.; Razali, A.; Mohd Ajir, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now gaining high interests from civil and commercialised market, the automatic sense and avoid (SAA) system is currently one of the essential features in research spotlight of UAV. Several sensor types employed in current SAA research and technology of sensor fusion that offers a great opportunity in improving detection and tracking system are presented here. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of SAA system development in general, as well as the current challenges facing UAV researchers and designers.

  20. Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0203 Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization Kamran Mohseni UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Final Report 05/23/2016...AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0090 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...studied a dynamic data driven (DDD) approach to operation of a heterogeneous team of unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs ) or micro/miniature aerial

  1. Uav-Mapping - a User Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS) for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  2. UAV-MAPPING – A USER REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  3. VISION BASED OBSTACLE DETECTION IN UAV IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Badrloo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and preventing incidence with obstacles is crucial in UAV navigation and control. Most of the common obstacle detection techniques are currently sensor-based. Small UAVs are not able to carry obstacle detection sensors such as radar; therefore, vision-based methods are considered, which can be divided into stereo-based and mono-based techniques. Mono-based methods are classified into two groups: Foreground-background separation, and brain-inspired methods. Brain-inspired methods are highly efficient in obstacle detection; hence, this research aims to detect obstacles using brain-inspired techniques, which try to enlarge the obstacle by approaching it. A recent research in this field, has concentrated on matching the SIFT points along with, SIFT size-ratio factor and area-ratio of convex hulls in two consecutive frames to detect obstacles. This method is not able to distinguish between near and far obstacles or the obstacles in complex environment, and is sensitive to wrong matched points. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, this research calculates the dist-ratio of matched points. Then, each and every point is investigated for Distinguishing between far and close obstacles. The results demonstrated the high efficiency of the proposed method in complex environments.

  4. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  5. Estimating the Rut Depth by UAV Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Nevalainen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rut formation during forest operations is an undesirable phenomenon. A methodology is being proposed to measure the rut depth distribution of a logging site by photogrammetric point clouds produced by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The methodology includes five processing steps that aim at reducing the noise from the surrounding trees and undergrowth for identifying the trails. A canopy height model is produced to focus the point cloud on the open pathway around the forest machine trail. A triangularized ground model is formed by a point cloud filtering method. The ground model is vectorized using the histogram of directed curvatures (HOC method to produce an overall ground visualization. Finally, a manual selection of the trails leads to an automated rut depth profile analysis. The bivariate correlation (Pearson’s r between rut depths measured manually and by UAV photogrammetry is r = 0.67 . The two-class accuracy a of detecting the rut depth exceeding 20 cm is a = 0.65 . There is potential for enabling automated large-scale evaluation of the forestry areas by using autonomous drones and the process described.

  6. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  8. The Repercussion of Grammatical and Cultural Culpability of the Holy Qur'an Translation to Religious Harmony in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muta'ali, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Arguably, among the sources of Islamic radicalization in Indonesia is the interpretation of certain terminology in the holy Qur’an. In a relatively long period, religious understanding of Indonesian society is shaped by the official Translation of the Holy Qur’an by Ministry of Religious Affairs. However, this translation contains several mistakes, including mistakes in translating key terms relating to the issue of warfare, non-Muslims and killing. This eventually contributes to radicalizati...

  9. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  10. Silence in liturgy as the space for the Holy Ghost’s activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelajda Sielepin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify the essential and often neglected function of liturgical silence. In practice silence is usually intended to prepare the participants for listening or reflecting upon the word, especially when proclaimed by the minister. Whereas it is vital to know that silence constitutes a creative element of the liturgy, because the involvement of the Holy Spirit. In His action and cooperation with the participants He enables them to get into communion with Christ the Word and the Person and eventually to join effectively His mission. In that sense silence helps the Holy Ghost to fulfill His function in continuing the dialogue between God and man as well as in enhancing one’s spiritual skills for the fruitful participation in the Mystery of Christ and the Church.

  11. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  12. GENDER COGNITION IN RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE: A STUDY OF FRAMING IN THEMATIC HOLY KORAN INTERPRETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dadang S. Anshori

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir) of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text) that are obtainable from thematic interp...

  13. [Observations on the identification of Holy Emmeram at St. Emmeram's Church in Regensburg. Critical comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrer-Ertl, O

    1981-09-01

    The report deals with an attempt to identify individuals found in Saint Emmeram Church, Regensburg, Whether one or the other could be considered identical with Holy Emmeram. The data regarding the historical person of Holy Emmeram, his life and death, were taken from the Via written by the Bishop of Freising, Arbeo, in 780 A. D. Individual I showed a good correlation with measurements of medieval and modern persons for the area of Pouitou and Southwest France. In this area mainly individuals of medium stature, stocky build and cromagniform appearance are found. The majority of individuals in the area today are brachycranial; however, Individual I - although mesocranial - is also a type occurring in the area. Especially the structure of the nose is more common to the Pouitou area than to the area of Bavaria where Individual I was interred. Additional characteristics indicate that Individual I was a member of a nobel family rather than a commoner. It would also seem that Individual I can be regarded as a man of books and a cleric. Specific bone fractures of the left ulna and the maxilla are similar to those related to the injuries sustained by Holy Emmeram related to the Vita. Measurements carried out on Individual II would indicate that this person is not identical with Emmeram. The grave of Individual II - regarded up to now as a sepulcher - should probably be considered as a secondary interment of later date. The author's opinion is that Individual I is identical with Holy Emmeram, martyred in the 7th century A. D.

  14. On the Asceticism of Holy Fools (from the History of Hagiographic Topoi)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana R. Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is based on material from Old Russian lives of holy fools: Isaacius of the Cave Monastery, Procopius and John of Ustyug, Basil the Blessed, John Bolshoy Kolpak (Big Cap), Simon of Yuryevets, John Vlasaty (the Hairy), Maximus of Totma, Procopius of Vyatka, John Samsonovich of Solvychegodsk, Artemius Tretyak, and others. The main ascetic motifs that determine this type of hagiographic texts are examined in the context of hagiographic topoi. Many ascetic motifs of the li...

  15. The Slovenian Lands as the Armed Frontier of the Holy Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Tomaž

    2017-01-01

    In the late Middle Ages, the Slovenian lands formed a major bulwark defending the south-eastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Relatively little is known of the military organisation in this strategically significant region due to the absence of sufficiently detailed primary sources. However, the recent discovery of an important and thus far unpublished document from the Bavarian State Library provides excellent insight into the structure and strength of the defensive network established b...

  16. HIL Tuning of UAV for Exploration of Risky Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Melita

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the latest results of an HIL architecture, optimized to develop and test UAV platforms are presented. This architecture has been used to realize the different devices involved in the navigation and stability control of the Volcan UAV, a plane designed to operate in volcanic environments. The proposed architecture is strongly modular and flexible and allows the development of avionic hardware and software, testing and tuning the involved algorithms with non-destructive trials. A flight simulator (X-Plane with a suitable plane model and plug-in, has been adopted to simulate the UAV dynamics. The flight simulator, interfaced with the real electronic boards, allows an easy tuning of all the control parameters and data collecting for test and validation. The effectiveness of adopted methodology was confirmed by several flight tests performed subsequently by using the designed avionic modules on the real UAV.

  17. A Stepped Frequency CW SAR for Lightweight UAV Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A stepped-frequency continuous wave (SF-CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with frequency-agile waveforms and real-time intelligent signal processing algorithms, is proposed for operation from a lightweight UAV platform...

  18. Small VTOL UAV Acoustics Measurement and Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interest in civilian use of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) capability has increased greatly in recent years, and is...

  19. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  20. A Synthetic Teammate for UAV Applications: A Prospective Look

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gluck, Kevin A; Ball, Jerry T; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael A; Lyon, Don R; Cooke, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    This report describes current progress and future plans for research and development in synthetic teammates for applications in training, analysis, and system design for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations...

  1. Adaptive Levels of Autonomy (ALOA) for UAV Supervisory Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Rubin; Leen, Michael; Goldberg, Dan; Chiu, Michael

    2005-01-01

    .... To demonstrate the architecture and LOA implementation, we designed a prototype Multi-UAV Control Station Emulator research test bed, by building on existing ORCA-developed software components...

  2. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  3. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Zin Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  4. Multi‐angular observations of vegetation indices from UAV cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobejano-Paz, Veronica; Wang, Sheng; Jakobsen, Jakob

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are found as an alternative to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry, which can be used to obtain environmental data or as a complementary solution to other methods (Nex and Remondino, 2014). Although UAVs have coverage limitations, they have better resolution...... (Berni et al., 2009), hyper spectral camera (Burkart et al., 2015) and photometric elevation mapping sensor (Shahbazi et al., 2015) among others. Therefore, UAVs can be used in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, archeology, architecture, environment and traffic monitoring (Nex and Remondino, 2014......). In this study, the UAV used is a hexacopter s900 equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and two cameras; a digital RGB photo camera and a multispectral camera (MCA), with a resolution of 5472 x 3648 pixels and 1280 x 1024 pixels, respectively. In terms of applications, traditional methods using...

  5. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rapid expansion of available UAV types and increased mission capability (payload, flight duration, and system cost reductions) offers wide range of potential...

  6. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss on the hei......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...... on the height of the UAV, which is derived from actual measurements, and a real-world cellular network layout and configuration. The results indicate that interference is the dominant factor limiting the cellular coverage for UAVs in the downlink: outage level increases from 4.2% at 1.5 m height to 51.7% at 120...

  7. Pathloss Measurements and Modeling for UAVs Connected to Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2017-01-01

    . The measurements were conducted in an operating LTE network (850 MHz), using a commercial cell phone, placed inside the frame of the UAV. Trials were conducted for UAV flying at 5 different heights measured above ground level (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100m) and a pathloss regression line was obtained from results. Then......This paper assess field measurements, as part of the investigation of the suitability of cellular networks for providing connectivity to UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Evaluation is done by means of field measurements obtained in a rural environment in Denmark with an airbone UAV......, downlink (DL) SINR levels obtained during flight measurements are also presented. An important result obtained from the measurents reveal that there is a height-related DL SINR degradation. Three main sources of uncertainty on the pathloss model that could be responsible for the SINR degradation are also...

  8. Multidepot UAV Routing Problem with Weapon Configuration and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianren Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent wars, there is an increasing trend that unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are utilized to conduct military attacking missions. In this paper, we investigate a novel multidepot UAV routing problem with consideration of weapon configuration in the UAV and the attacking time window of the target. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed to jointly optimize three kinds of decisions: the weapon configuration strategy in the UAV, the routing strategy of target, and the allocation strategy of weapons to targets. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS algorithm is proposed for solving the problem, which is tested by randomly generated instances covering the small, medium, and large sizes. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed ALNS algorithm.

  9. The Holy See on sexual and reproductive health rights: conservative in position, dynamic in response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Amy L; Hill, Peter S; Rushton, Simon; Balen, Julie

    2014-11-01

    The Holy See has engaged extensively in United Nations negotiations on issues concerning sexual and reproductive health rights as they have emerged and evolved in a dynamic global agenda over the past two decades. A meta-narrative review of the mission's official statements was conducted to examine the positions, discourses and tensions across the broad range of agendas. The Holy See represents a fundamentally conservative and stable position on a range of sexual and reproductive health rights concerns. However, the mission has been dynamic in the ways in which it has forwarded its arguments, increasingly relying upon secularised technical claims and empirical evidence; strategically interpreting human rights norms in ways consistent with its own position; and framing sexuality and reproduction in the context of "the family". Seen in the broader context of a "religious resurgence" in international relations, and in light of the fact that the Holy See has frequently sought to form alliances with conservative State and non-State actors, these findings make an important contribution to understanding the slow progress as well as the potential obstacles that lie ahead in the battle to realise sexual and reproductive health rights in a changing global political environment. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  11. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  12. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  13. Contour Detection for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Crommelinck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost solution for the acquisition of high-resolution data. The potential of high-resolution UAV imagery to create and update cadastral maps is being increasingly investigated. Existing procedures generally involve substantial fieldwork and many manual processes. Arguably, multiple parts of UAV-based cadastral mapping workflows could be automated. Specifically, as many cadastral boundaries coincide with visible boundaries, they could be extracted automatically using image analysis methods. This study investigates the transferability of gPb contour detection, a state-of-the-art computer vision method, to remotely sensed UAV images and UAV-based cadastral mapping. Results show that the approach is transferable to UAV data and automated cadastral mapping: object contours are comprehensively detected at completeness and correctness rates of up to 80%. The detection quality is optimal when the entire scene is covered with one orthoimage, due to the global optimization of gPb contour detection. However, a balance between high completeness and correctness is hard to achieve, so a combination with area-based segmentation and further object knowledge is proposed. The localization quality exhibits the usual dependency on ground resolution. The approach has the potential to accelerate the process of general boundary delineation during the creation and updating of cadastral maps.

  14. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  15. Rancang Bangun Prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV dengan Tiga Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Rasyid Hadi Saputra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle atau yang biasa dikenal dengan istilah UAV  merupakan sebuah sistem penerbangan/ pesawat tanpa pilot yang berada di dalam pesawat tersebut. UAV dapat dikendalikan dengan menggunakan remote dari jarak jauh, diprogram dengan perintah tertentu, atau bahkan dengan sistem pengendalian otomatis yang lebih kompleks. Aplikasi dari teknologi UAV pun beragam mulai dari tugas militer hingga pengamatan udara. Dalam penelitian ini, sebuah UAV akan dikembangkan dengan tiga buah rotor dan satu buah motor servo di bagian belakang UAV. Perancangan model menggunakan software CATIA dengan batasan dimensi (panjang × lebar maksimum 75 × 75 cm dan massa < 2 kg. Analisis struktur rangka dilakukan untuk menguji kekuatan rangka ketika terbang dan membawa beban, dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga dan kriteria kegagalan Von-Misses. Dalam proses pengerjaan, rancangan dari CATIA dan analisis yang telah dilakukan dalam perancangan tersebut akan digunakan. Hasil yang didapat berupa UAV yang memiliki struktur rangka dengan defleksi maksimum 3,67 mm pada rangka tengah yang berbahan acrylic. Dalam pengujian di lapangan, UAV dapat melakukan gerak roll, pitch, dan yaw yang dikendalikan melalui remote control. Waktu operasi maksimum yang dapat dilakukan adalah selama 7 menit 43 detik.

  16. A mini-UAV VTOL Platform for Surveying Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Rawat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss implementation of a mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV vertical take-off and landing (VTOL platform for surveying activities related to highway construction. Recent advances in sensor and communication technologies have allowed scaling sizes of unmanned aerial platforms, and explore them for tasks that are economical and safe over populated or inhabited areas. In highway construction the capability of mini-UAVs to survey in hostile and/or hardly accessible areas can greatly reduce human risks. The project focused on developing a cost effective, remotely controlled, fuel powered mini-UAV VTOL (helicopter platform with certain payload capacity and configuration and demonstrated its use in surveying and monitoring activities required for highway planning and construction. With an on-board flight recorder global positioning system (GPS device, memory storage card, telemetry, inertial navigation sensors, and a video camera the mini-UAV can record flying coordinates and relay live video images to a remote ground receiver and surveyor. After all necessary integration and flight tests were done the mini-UAV helicopter was tested to operate and relay video from the areas where construction was underway. The mini-UAV can provide a platform for a range of sensors and instruments that directly support the operational requirements of transportation sector.

  17. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weed, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    This monograph asks should the U.S. Army alter its current UAV acquisition strategy for maneuver brigades from one in which limited numbers of high capability systems are acquired, in favor of another that fields a large quantity...

  18. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  19. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  20. Deserts and holy mountains of medieval Serbia: Written sources, spatial patterns, architectural designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential concepts in Christian thought and practice, the desert and holy mountain denote a particular kind of monastic and sacral space. They are secluded from the world, intended for asceticism, and ambivalent in nature they are inhospitable and menacing zones populated with demons, but also a monastic paradise, places for spiritual conversion and encounter with the divine. From earliest times, deserts and holy mountains had a few distinguishing characteristics. All forms of monastic life, from communal to solitary, were practiced side by side there. Monks of a special make-up and distinction known as holy men who were also often founders of illustrious communities, future saints and miracle-workers acted there. Furthermore these locales were important spiritual and bookmaking centre's, and therefore, strongholds of Orthodoxy. When trying to research Serbian material on this topic, we face a specific situation: few surviving sources on the one hand, and devastated monuments on the other. The ultimate consequence is that the entire subject has been neglected. Therefore the study of the Serbian deserts and holy mountains requires a very complex interdisciplinary approach with systematic field work as its essential part. It should address the following issues: corroboration, on the basis of written sources, of the reception of the concept of the monastic desert and holy mountain in a particular, regional, context; the distinct means and mechanisms employed in their physical realization; interpretation of their function; the recognition of patterns preserved in the surviving physical structures. Even the results obtained so far appear to be relevant enough to become included in the sacral topography of the Christian world. The author of this study gives particular attention to the detailed analysis of written sources of various genres - diplomatic sources, hagiographic material, liturgical texts, observation notes - in order to establish the

  1. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  2. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments’s LTE (long-term evolution, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area’s that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision, RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  3. Exploring Naval Tactics with UAVs in an Island Complex Using Agent-Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalis, Vasileios

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) at sea are undisputed. The amount and speed of the incoming information from a UAV, combined with its maneuverability and time-on-task capability, are assets to any navy...

  4. Development Situation, Trend and Countermeasure of Consumer-level UAV Market in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the status of Chinese consumer-level UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle market. According to the main problems in Chinese consumer-level UAV market, the author analyses the trends of Chinese consumer-level UAV market. Then, the author put forward some suggestions to develop Chinese consumer-level UAV market. In 21st century, the research and development expenditure presents the explosive growth in Chinese consumer-level UAV market. From the year of 2012, DJI released their first consumer-level UAV product. Amazon, Facebook, Google and other companies have announced their entry into the UAV market. In 2016, Huawei also announced that it will enter the UAV market.

  5. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  6. Perception-based Co-evolutionary Reinforcement Learning for UAV Sensor Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenji, Hamid

    2003-01-01

    .... A Perception-based reasoning approach based on co-evolutionary reinforcement learning was developed for jointly addressing sensor allocation on each individual UAV and allocation of a team of UAVs...

  7. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  8. The application of micro UAV in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Bukari, Saifullizan Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura

    2017-10-01

    In every outstanding construction project, there is definitely have an effective construction management. Construction management allows a construction project to be implemented according to plan. Every construction project must have a progress development works that is usually created by the site engineer. Documenting the progress of works is one of the requirements in construction management. In a progress report it is necessarily have a visual image as an evidence. The conventional method used for photographing on the construction site is by using common digital camera which is has few setback comparing to Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Besides, site engineer always have a current issues involving limitation of monitoring on high reach point and entire view of the construction site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise review of Micro UAV technology in monitoring the progress on construction site through visualization approach. The aims of this study are to replace the conventional method of photographing on construction site using Micro UAV which can portray the whole view of the building, especially on high reach point and allows to produce better images, videos and 3D model and also facilitating site engineer to monitor works in progress. The Micro UAV was flown around the building construction according to the Ground Control Points (GCPs) to capture images and record videos. The images taken from Micro UAV have been processed generate 3D model and were analysed to visualize the building construction as well as monitoring the construction progress work and provides immediate reliable data for project estimation. It has been proven that by using Micro UAV, a better images and videos can give a better overview of the construction site and monitor any defects on high reach point building structures. Not to be forgotten, with Micro UAV the construction site progress is more efficiently tracked and kept on the schedule.

  9. Multiple Event Localization in a Sparse Acoustic Sensor Network Using UAVs as Data Mules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the events to arrive in different orders at the sensors. Consequently , simple rules to group the ToAs from an event at different sensors, such as...a Microhard radio to forward the ToAs to the mule-UAV. Two Procerus Unicorn UAVs were used with different payloads. The imaging- UAV was equipped

  10. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  11. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  12. Dermatoses among Children from Celebration of "Holi," the Spring Festival, in India: A Cross-sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Agarwal, Megha; Rudra, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    "Holi" is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different "Holi"-related dermatoses. Our objective was to find out the different patterns of "Holi"-related dermatoses in a group of pediatric patients. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out over a period of 6 years (2010-2015). Consecutive patients of pediatric age group who attended dermatology outpatient department (OPD) with different dermatoses following application of "Holi" color were included in this study. A total of 63 patients (mean age 11 years; range 1-16 years) were evaluated with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Itching is the predominant presenting symptom followed by burning sensation, dryness, scaling, oozing, and loss of hair. Examination revealed that eczematous lesion was the most common (69.8%) reaction pattern followed by xerosis, desquamation, excoriation, erythema, morbilliform eruption, erosion, alopecia, ulceration, acute paronychia, and hyperpigmentation. The face was the most common (76.4%) site of affection. A sizable number of patients of pediatric age group may be affected by "Holi"-related dermatoses necessitating precautionary measures.

  13. UAV Based Imaging for Crop, Weed and Disease Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize the physiolog......Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize...... the physiological status of the vegetation. UAV imagery may be divided into three steps (1) spectral characterization of the targets of interest, (2) flight and image acquisition and (3) image processing and interpretation. The overall aims of this study were to improve knowledge in all three steps associated...... with UAV-based remote sensing for practical use in agriculture and to contribute to the incipient research on UAV based remote sensing for agricultural applications. Three case studies were performed to (1) Characterize the spectral signatures of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and creeping thistle (Cirsium...

  14. Multimodal UAV detection: study of various intrusion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengy, Sebastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Franck; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Rassy, Oussama; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular and affordable the last years for professional and private consumer market, with varied capacities and performances. Recent events showed that illicit or hostile uses constitute an emergent, quickly evolutionary threat. Recent developments in UAV technologies tend to bring autonomous, highly agile and capable unmanned aerial vehicles to the market. These UAVs can be used for spying operations as well as for transporting illicit or hazardous material (smuggling, flying improvised explosive devices). The scenario of interest concerns the protection of sensitive zones against the potential threat constituted by small drones. In the recent past, field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small FMCW RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics and RADAR was applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°), optical sensors were used for sequentially identification. The localization results have been compared to the ground truth data to estimate the efficiency of each detection system. Seven-microphone acoustic arrays allow single source localization. The mean azimuth and elevation estimation error has been measured equal to 1.5 and -2.5 degrees respectively. The FMCW radar allows tracking of multiple UAVs by estimating their range, azimuth and motion speed. Both technologies can be linked to the electro-optical system for final identification of the detected object.

  15. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  16. EAP actuators aid the quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel; Blazie, Deane

    2010-04-01

    The authors present the worldwide need for electronic Braille displays to promote literacy among the blind. The use of of EAP's to produce Braille displays is encouraged and detailed descriptions of the technology of Braille are presented. Prior art is covered since the early 1950's through present day displays based mostly on piezoelectric technologies. EAP's offer the promise of the "Holy Braille", the ability to display a full page of Braille electronically. Details on "how not to make a Braille display" are covered in prior art.

  17. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  18. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  19. On the Asceticism of Holy Fools (from the History of Hagiographic Topoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Rudi

    2015-08-01

    A focus on examples, which is one of the essential elements of the structure of hagiographic texts generally and of the lives of holy fools in particular, reflects a historical continuity of the extreme feat as such. The explanation of this cultural phenomenon could lie in the fact that Old Russian hagiographers, as well as their heroes, followed the most important ethical and aesthetic guideline of their time—the principle of imitatio, which to a great extent determined literary and behavioral strategies of the Middle Ages.

  20. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data......” that are “real” from “models” that are “simulations” has to be refined in the area of field investigations, in order to utilize UAVs to make a revolution in data and understanding about the terrestrial habitats. However, this is not straightforward, and the presentation will line up the obstacles for using UAVs...

  1. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  2. Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Zoran; Maksimović, Stevan; Georgijević, Dragutin

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.

  3. Mini-Uav LIDAR for Power Line Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G. E.; Zhou, M.; Li, C. R.; Wu, H. H.; Li, W.; Meng, F. R.; Zhou, C. C.; Ma, L.

    2017-09-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) recently are in rapid advancement, meanwhile portable and flexible mini-UAV-borne laser scanners have been a hot research field, especially for the complex terrain survey in the mountains and other areas. This study proposes a power line inspection system solution based on mini-UAV-borne LIDAR system-AOEagle, developed by Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which mounted on a Multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle for complex terrain survey according to real test. Furthermore, the point cloud data was explored to validate its applicability for power line inspection, in terms of corridor and line laser point clouds; deformation detection of power towers, etc. The feasibility and advantages of AOEagle have been demonstrated by the promising results based on the real-measured data in the field of power line inspection.

  4. Uav Photogrammetry: a Practical Solution for Challenging Mapping Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatseresht, M.; Hashempour, A. H.; Hasanlou, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed huge attentions to application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in aerial mapping since a decade ago. Though, it has several advantages for handling time/cost/quality issues, there are a dozen of challenges in working with UAVs. In this paper, we; as the Robotic Photogrammetry Research Group (RPRG), will firstly review these challenges then show its advantages in three special practical projects. For each project, we will share our experiences through description of the UAV specifications, flight settings and processing steps. At the end, we will illustrate final result of each project and show how this technology could make unbelievable benefits to clients including 3D city realistic model in decimetre level, ultra high quality map production in several centimetre level, and accessing to a high risk and rough relief area for mapping aims.

  5. Hurricane Harvey Building Damage Assessment Using UAV Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Chang, A.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey which was extremely destructive major hurricane struck southern Texas, U.S.A on August 25, causing catastrophic flooding and storm damages. We visited Rockport suffered severe building destruction and conducted UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveying for building damage assessment. UAV provides very high resolution images compared with traditional remote sensing data. In addition, prompt and cost-effective damage assessment can be performed regardless of several limitations in other remote sensing platforms such as revisit interval of satellite platforms, complicated flight plan in aerial surveying, and cloud amounts. In this study, UAV flight and GPS surveying were conducted two weeks after hurricane damage to generate an orthomosaic image and a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). 3D region growing scheme has been proposed to quantitatively estimate building damages considering building debris' elevation change and spectral difference. The result showed that the proposed method can be used for high definition building damage assessment in a time- and cost-effective way.

  6. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  7. D Modeling with Photogrammetry by Uavs and Model Quality Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrile, V.; Bilotta, G.; Nunnari, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with a test lead by Geomatics laboratory (DICEAM, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria), concerning the application of UAV photogrammetry for survey, monitoring and checking. The study case relies with the surroundings of the Department of Agriculture Sciences. In the last years, such area was interested by landslides and survey activities carried out to take the phenomenon under control. For this purpose, a set of digital images were acquired through a UAV equipped with a digital camera and GPS. Successively, the processing for the production of a 3D georeferenced model was performed by using the commercial software Agisoft PhotoScan. Similarly, the use of a terrestrial laser scanning technique allowed to product dense cloud and 3D models of the same area. To assess the accuracy of the UAV-derived 3D models, a comparison between image and range-based methods was performed.

  8. Radon Gas Concentration Measurement In Soil For Some Holy Positions In Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, K.H.; Hussain, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this search we measurement Radon gas concentration in the soil of holy positions in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city.We choice it for honorable position in all the world and, because millions of peoples and religious sciences students visit it.we selected 23 positions .By using a short-term way in modern technology its (RAD7) to measured concentration for depths (10,30,50,70)cm in all the holy positions.All the concentration in position studies within the range allowed of the global

  9. Implications of longitude and latitude on the size of solar-powered UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Parvathy; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied solar irradiance and daylight implication on solar-powered UAV design. • We explored for perpetual UAV flight for 12 cities around the world. • All year round solar-powered UAV operation possible for cities near equatorial line. • Cities in latitudes of ±35° are the optimal for solar-powered UAV. • Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on UAV design. - Abstract: The implication of solar irradiance and daylight duration on the design of a small solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is capable of operating perpetually in various cities around the world was investigated. Solar data in 2013 on 12 cities distributed around the world was collected. The effects of the available solar irradiance and daylight of the city on the maximum take-off weight and wing span of a small solar-powered UAV were studied. The analysis indicates that daylight duration is as important as the available solar irradiance to the performance of the solar-powered UAV. Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on the estimation of daylight duration. Areas considerably high in solar irradiance and daylight duration are more conducive to the effective performance of solar-powered UAVs than other areas. Therefore, cities closer to the equator have an advantage in utilizing solar-powered UAVs; where smaller and lighter solar-powered UAV can be designed

  10. Application Possibility of Smartphone as Payload for Photogrammetric Uav System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE), which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  11. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  12. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  13. UAV telemetry communications using ZigBee protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siregar, I.; Yasir, M.

    2017-10-01

    Wireless communication has been widely used in various fields or disciplines such as agriculture, health, engineering, military, and aerospace so as to support the work in that field. The communication technology is typically used for controlling devices and data monitoring. One development of wireless communication is the widely used telemetry system used to reach areas that cannot be reached by humans using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or unmanned aircraft. In this paper we discuss the design of telemetry system in UAV using ZigBee protocol. From the test obtained the system can work well with visualization displays without pause is 20 data per second with a maximum data length of 120 characters.

  14. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  15. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  16. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5) that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds). This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  17. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierek Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5 that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds. This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  18. GENDER COGNITION IN RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE: A STUDY OF FRAMING IN THEMATIC HOLY KORAN INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang S. Anshori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text that are obtainable from thematic interpretation of the Koran of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Data analysis was performed on the following topics: the origins of the creation of men and women, women's leadership, women and inheritance rights, women and ownership, and women's testimony. The research findings show: (1 The lingual and religious discourse containing gender cognition are present in the forms of words, phrases, and sentences. The lingual form of religious discourse is related to the meaning of technical vocabulary that contains appropriate understanding of the discourse topic. (2 Discourse representing gender cognition is found on three topics: women leadership (nation leadership, waris (inheritance, and women’s testimony. In terms of inheritance and women’s testimony, this interpretation refers to conditions that are explicitly stated in the Holy Koran. Meanwhile, this interpretation views leadership of the nation as more worthy to be given to men than women. book looks is more worthy of leadership in the countries was given to men than women.

  19. Bindings and covers of Cyrillic old printed editions of Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra publishing house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article observes bindings and covers of Holy Dormition Pochayiv monastery publishing house editions. On the basis of copies from V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine fonds the covering material and decoration (centerpieces, ornaments, corner pieces of Pochayiv editions covers are analyzed. Besides that, distinctive features of Pochaiv publishing house bindings and covers are defined and described. Description of bindings enabled us to find bookbinder’s chiches, which had often been put on bottom endleafs. Special attention in the article is paid to highly artistic decoration of Pochayiv publishing house bindings of Altar Gospels. In the eighties of 18th century Pochayiv publishing house printed books, ordered by Old Believers. As a rule Old Believers editions derive all their compositional elements from books of 17th century, published before the reform. Bindings of Pochayiv Old Believers editions, distinctive for its modest decoration, are not exception of this rule. Besides that, Pochayiv old printed books were sometimes binded in covers made by Kyiv Pechersk Lavra craftsmen. Centerpieces of these covers sometimes contain the image of Kyiv Holy Dormition cathedral.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  1. Radar sensing via a Micro-UAV-borne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco; Rodi Vetrella, Amedeo; Fasano, Giancarmine

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the miniaturization of flight control systems and payloads has contributed to a fast and widespread diffusion of micro-UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle). While micro-UAV can be a powerful tool in several civil applications such as environmental monitoring and surveillance, unleashing their full potential for societal benefits requires augmenting their sensing capability beyond the realm of active/passive optical sensors [1]. In this frame, radar systems are drawing attention since they allow performing missions in all-weather and day/night conditions and, thanks to the microwave ability to penetrate opaque media, they enable the detection and localization not only of surface objects but also of sub-surface/hidden targets. However, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging represents still a new frontier, since it is much more than a matter of technology miniaturization or payload installation, which can take advantage of the newly developed ultralight systems. Indeed, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging entails scientific challenges in terms of electromagnetic modeling and knowledge of flight dynamics and control. As a consequence, despite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a traditional remote sensing tool, its adaptation to micro-UAV is an open issue and so far only few case studies concerning the integration of SAR and UAV technologies have been reported worldwide [2]. In addition, only early results concerning subsurface imaging by means of an UAV-mounted radar are available [3]. As a contribution to radar imaging via autonomous micro-UAV, this communication presents a proof-of-concept experiment. This experiment represents the first step towards the development of a general methodological approach that exploits expertise about (sub-)surface imaging and aerospace systems with the aim to provide high-resolution images of the surveyed scene. In details, at the conference, we will present the results of a flight campaign carried out by using a single radar

  2. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  3. Holy Smoke!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2011-01-01

    On 27 September WADA announced that nicotine has been added to the monitoring program. "It is NOT WADA’s intention to target smokers, rather to monitor the effects nicotine can have on performance when taken in oral tobacco products such as snus". This means that snus will not be on the prohibited...... list, but the effect of the nicotine in snus on performance will be monitored. With respect to snus, such monitoring is a surprising move, and one that raises some questions: "Why snus? How can a potential effect be monitored? Is it possible to create a test that can distinguish between smokers...... and snus users? The editorial discusses theses questions and concludes with a challenging hypothesis on the motives for WADA's initiative....

  4. Holy Mackerel

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigy, Aoife

    2014-01-01

    Hi folks. My name is Aoife Carrigy and I’m a freelance food, wine and travel writer based in Dublin, Ireland. Having spent many happy years working front-of-house in restaurants – combined with dallies in book publishing, stints of teaching English and journalism, posts as restaurant reviewer for various free-sheets, and adventures in travel including a job as a cook on a 4WD tour of Australia’s north-west outback – I was lucky enough to work full-time as Deputy Editor of Ireland’s FOOD&WI...

  5. The Contribution of the Holy Ghost Congregation to the Educational Development of Nigeria: Historical and Contemporary Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historical narrative about the contribution the Holy Ghost Congregation made in the educational development of Nigeria. It is narrative because it highlights the events and the work of the early Spiritan missionaries that brought education and its benefits to Nigerians. It is pedagogic because it describes the methods these Holy…

  6. The Attitudes of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf-Salt, Jordan towards Deaf Socially and Educationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; Atiyat, Fatima A.

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to recognize the attitudes of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf-Salt, Jordan towards Deaf Socially and Educationally in the academic year 2016-2017, which consists of instructional and vocational staff towards deaf socially and educationally according to some variables (gender, age, the level of education). The sample of the…

  7. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brera, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in

  8. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment....

  9. UAV MONITORING FOR ENVIROMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands’ institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB and Infrarred Red Green (NIR. First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  10. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to Modeling Tornado Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Doe, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to assess storm damage is a useful research tool. Benefits include their ability to access remote or impassable areas post-storm, identify unknown damages and assist with more detailed site investigations and rescue efforts. Technological advancement of UAVs mean that they can capture high resolution images often at an affordable price. These images can be used to create 3D environments to better interpret and delineate damages from large areas that would have been difficult in ground surveys. This research presents the results of a rapid response site investigation of the 29 April 2017 Canton, Texas, USA, tornado using low cost UAVs. This was a multiple, high impact tornado event measuring EF4 at maximum. Rural farmland was chosen as a challenging location to test both equipment and methodology. Such locations provide multiple impacts at a variety of scales including structural and vegetation damage and even animal fatalities. The 3D impact models allow for a more comprehensive study prior to clean-up. The results show previously unseen damages and better quantify damage impacts at the local level. 3D digital track swaths were created allowing for a more accurate track width determination. These results demonstrate how effective the use of low cost UAVs can be for rapid response storm damage assessments, the high quality of data they can achieve, and how they can help us better visualize tornado site investigations.

  11. DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Polat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  12. DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, N.; Uysal, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  13. Supervising UAVs : improving operator performance by optimizing the human factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Jansen, C.; Veltman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have no operators on board and therefore enable extension of the present sensing and communication capabilities in civil and military missions, without unnecessarily endangering personnel or deploying expensive material. One should also realize that

  14. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  15. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using a commer...

  16. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  17. Preliminary Study on Earthquake Surface Rupture Extraction from Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Ding, X.; Wu, X.; Dou, A.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Because of the advantages of low-cost, lightweight and photography under the cloud, UAVs have been widely used in the field of seismic geomorphology research in recent years. Earthquake surface rupture is a typical seismic tectonic geomorphology that reflects the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of crustal movement. The quick identification of earthquake surface rupture is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, disasters distribution and scale. Using integrated differential UAV platform, series images were acquired with accuracy POS around the former urban area (Qushan town) of Beichuan County as the area stricken seriously by the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Based on the multi-view 3D reconstruction technique, the high resolution DSM and DOM are obtained from differential UAV images. Through the shade-relief map and aspect map derived from DSM, the earthquake surface rupture is extracted and analyzed. The results show that the surface rupture can still be identified by using the UAV images although the time of earthquake elapse is longer, whose middle segment is characterized by vertical movement caused by compression deformation from fault planes.

  18. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultur...

  19. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  20. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao

    2018-03-03

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  1. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  2. Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the classification of UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevaert, C.M.; Persello, C.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from

  3. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao; Mueller, Matthias; Casser, Vincent; Smith, Neil; Michels, Dominik L.; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  4. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  5. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  6. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  7. Effect of Vocalization of the Holy Quran With and Without Translation on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhati Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Jabbari, Batoul

    2016-09-01

    During recent decades, research in Iran in the area of the Quran and medical science has been seriously engaged in. With respect to the tendency toward spirituality and alternative medicine, we tried to find other aspects of the influence of the Quran. This study aimed to determine the effect of vocalizations of the Holy Quran with and without translation on the consequences of pregnancy (the prevalence of preterm delivery, caesarean delivery, and neonatal anthropometric indices) in women admitted to health care centers in Urmia, Iran. This was a three-armed parallel-group randomized clinical trial in which 168 pregnant women (25-28 weeks) in their first and second pregnancies were divided into three groups of 56 (Holy Quran with translation, Holy Quran without translation, and control group) by randomized blocking. The intervention was implemented once a week for three weeks in the health center, and on other days of the week, the participants listened at home to a CD they were given. The intervention and the control groups all received routine pregnancy care once a week. These mothers were tracked during their labor. Outcomes including gestational age at delivery, delivery type, and neonatal anthropometric indices were recorded based on the mother's records. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic and obstetric characteristics before the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the probability of preterm delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (odds ratio: 0.3, CI 95%: 0.1-1.2) and in the Holy Quran without translation group (0.6, 0.2-1.9) as compared to the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the probability of caesarean delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (0.6, 0.3-1.4) and the Holy Quran without translation group (0.5, 0.2-1.2) as compared to the control group. Based on one-way ANOVA, there was no

  8. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  10. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  11. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  12. The cosmic statements in the Holy Quran as introduction to the public understanding of space science in the Islamic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    The Holy Quran contains more than 800 cosmic statements speak about: sun, moon, planets, stars, Sirius, zodiac, day, night, twilights, position of stars, navigation, blue sky, night sky, dawn, noon, sunrise and sunset, eclipses, lunar months, release to the sky, landing to the earth, and so on. Due to the new discoveries in the 19th and 20th centuries in astronomy and space sciences, some of the Arabian-Islamic scientists and astronomers wished to find the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of these new discoveries. This current started at the end of the 19th century, and was growing through the 20th century. Hundreds of the articles published in the Daily news, and in the Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Annually Journals. Also, tens of the books published for different authors, from different Arabian and Islamic countries about the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and Space sciences. Also, Radio and TV play an important role in this field, specially after the releasing of the Human kind to the space in the second half of the 20th century. This activity led to construct the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, which follow to the Muslim World League in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia. Where, there is a Quarterly Journal for this purpose, and periodic International conference for the same purpose, the seventh conference was held in February 2004. This paper speak about the activity of the different Arabian-Islamic Scientists and Astronomers in the field of interpretations of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and space science, and their role of increasing the public understanding of space science in the Arabian and Islamic countries.

  13. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  14. WETLAND ASSESSMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP’s were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  15. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-24

    contrast to the Exdrone is the more conventional, and more Spartan, Pointer UAV. Designed by Paul McCready, PhD., the engineer who designed the “ Gossamer ... Albatross ”, the first human powered aircraft to cross the English Channel, the Pointer UAV’s design reflects an engineering philosophy predicated on

  16. [Religion and healing in the XIII century: some considerations about therapy and holy medical observations in Iacopo da Varagine's Cronica Civitatis Ianuensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The article is dedicated to recovery and holy therapy in Medieval society. In the XIII century Roman Church define the religious observations of physical and spiritual healing: the intervention of Saints and their holy miracles is very important for a perfect recovery. The article analyse the holy therapy through the study of the Cronica Civitatis Ianuensis read by the Dominican friar Iacopo da Varagine, at the end of the XIII century. This work represents one of the most important literary and hagiographic instrument to comprehend medical medieval imaginary.

  17. Linguistic Precautions that to be Considered when Translating the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to raise some points that should be considered when translating the Quranic Text into English. We have looked into some samples of translations, selected from well known English translations of the Holy Quran and critically examined them. There were some errors in those translations, due to linguistic factors, owing to the differences between the Arabic and the English Language systems. Some errors were due to the cultural background of the translator which intentionally or unintentionally has affected the translation. Many samples were discussed and suggestions for corrections were made. Then further recommendations were given to be used as guidelines for similar future attempts. We concluded that the simulation of old words in drafting a translation does not fit with the English language as a target language. As this use of archaic stylistics would lead to further complications, which makes the language of translation look strange and complicated

  18. Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages: A study of the Holy Bible translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Jamaati, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages, for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. All studied languages in some families have Zipf's exponent lower/higher than unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent. The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language, but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.

  19. The icon of the Holy Virgin Vatopedini with a portrait of Voevoda Ioan Radul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašnić Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discusses iconography and stylistic characteristic of the icon featuring the Virgin Vatopedini with the Hungarian-Wallachian Voevoda loan Radul. The icon is treasured in the cathedral church of the Holy martyr Demetrios in Bitola. In more recent times, a new layer was painted over the icon, but not so long ago the icon was restored to its original condition. The inscriptions on the icon reveal that the Voevoda was a "new ktetor" of Vatopedi and also testify the painting was completed on November 28, 1502. The representation of the enthroned Virgin with the infant Christ sitting in her lap, flanked by St John Prodromes and the founder, belongs to the iconography of Deesis. Its stylistic features indicate that in most probability it was the work by a Cretan painter from the Ritzos family.

  20. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  1. Ambient PM2.5 exposure and premature mortality burden in the holy city Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaishali; Dey, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Sourangsu

    2017-01-01

    More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM 2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5–3% per year) increase in PM 2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM 2.5 above the national air quality standard. It translates to a burden of 5700 (2800–7500) annual premature deaths (0.16% of the population), of which 29%, 18%, 33%, 19% and remaining 1% are attributed to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lower respiratory infection and lung cancer respectively. If the region achieves the Indian (WHO) air quality standard, 1900 (3800) premature deaths can be avoided every year. - Highlights: • MODIS AOD data are used to infer surface PM 2.5 in the holy city Varanasi, India. • PM 2.5 increases rapidly (1.5–3% per year) in the last 15 years. • 87% days in a year, daily PM 2.5 exceeds national standard. • 5700 annual premature death is estimated, of which 1900 can be saved if Indian standard is met. • COPD has the largest share in the burden. - This study presents 15-year ambient PM 2.5 statistics in Varanasi using satellite data (in absence of long-term in-situ data) and the associated premature mortality burden.

  2. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  3. UAV measurements of aerosol properties at the Cyprus institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitola, Kimmo; Sciare, Jean; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Argyrides, Marios; Vouterakos, Panagiotis; Antoniou, Panyiota; Apostolou, Apostolos; Savvides, Constantinos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Biskos, George; Gao, Ru-Shan; Murphy, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Bingemer, Heinz; Mocnik, Grisa

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to document the vertical profiles of aerosol particles and their physical and optical properties, within and above the boundary layer. These observations combined with satellite and ground data together can provide important information and model constrains regarding the impact of aerosols on the air quality and regional climate. Cyprus is a unique place to observe long-range transported pollution and dust originating from different areas (Europe, Africa, Turkey, and Middle East) and perform such aerosol profiling. The USRL team at the Cyprus Institute has recently started weekly routine flights with a newly developed UAV fleet to build a unique dataset of vertical profile observations. Instrumentation on the UAVs includes miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP, Murphy et al., 2015), Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS, Gao et al., 2016), Ice nuclei sampler (IN) and Dual Wavelength absorption Prototype (DWP) together with the measured meteorological parameters (P, T and RH). The UAV fleet is still expanding, as well as the instrumentation, and preliminary test flights have led to very promising results. The UAV ascend up to approximately the middle of the boundary layer, defined by LIDAR measurements at Limassol, where the UAV will fly on one altitude for several minutes ensuring stable data collection. After flying on one altitude, the UAV will continue ascending above the boundary layer, where another level flight will take place for data gathering, before descending for safe landing. The miniSASP measures the sun irradiance and sky radiance at four wavelengths (460, 550, 670 and 680nm) by doing continuous almucantar scans every 30 s. The instrument installation compensates for the pitch and roll of the UAV with 4 Hz frequency. For this reason, the flights are designed to maintain level flight conditions, to ensure proper data acquisition, and to obtain data from

  4. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  5. Integration of Multiple UAVs for Collaborative ISR Missions in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Chee Nam

    2012-01-01

    Military conflicts are shifting from jungles and deserts to cities. This is because terrorists, insurgents, and guerillas find these areas provide a rich target environment and good hideouts. With the use of UAVs, urban threats can be tracked and targeted effectively. However, in an urban environment where there is little or no GPS signals and many obstacles, navigation of UAVs is a major challenge. Multiple UAVs can be employed to share sensor information to counter these challenges and to p...

  6. Analysis of Nondeterministic Search Patterns for Minimization of UAV Counter-Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    64 Figure 4.9 Procerus Unicorn UAV [48] used in multi-UAV look-ahead Levy search demonstration conducted at 13-2 JIFX in February, 2013...minimum time or coverage path, minimal overlap, increased robustness to localization errors, etc. [3–5]. The role of randomized coverage and search...to the Procerus Unicorn UAV employed during these flight experiments, shown in Figure 4.9. Figure 4.10 shows the straight-line path between the major

  7. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    The current disruptive innovation in civilian drone (UAV) applications has led to an increased need for research and development in UAV technology. The key challenges currently being addressed are related to UAV platform properties such as functionality, reliability, fault tolerance, and endurance......-source drone platform elements that can be used for research and development. The survey covers open-source hardware, software, and simulation drone platforms and compares their main features....

  8. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV Cooperative Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    REPORT DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD...iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD APPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-UAV COOPERATIVE...the report is to lay the groundwork for future analysis in multi-UAV analysis to close the gap between existing research and efficient multi-UAV

  9. Semiautonomous Avionics-and-Sensors System for a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar

    2006-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) autonomous or remotely controlled pilotless aircraft have been recently thrust into the spotlight for military applications, for homeland security, and as test beds for research. In addition to these functions, there are many space applications in which lightweight, inexpensive, small UAVS can be used e.g., to determine the chemical composition and other qualities of the atmospheres of remote planets. Moreover, on Earth, such UAVs can be used to obtain information about weather in various regions; in particular, they can be used to analyze wide-band acoustic signals to aid in determining the complex dynamics of movement of hurricanes. The Advanced Sensors and Electronics group at Langley Research Center has developed an inexpensive, small, integrated avionics-and-sensors system to be installed in a UAV that serves two purposes. The first purpose is to provide flight data to an AI (Artificial Intelligence) controller as part of an autonomous flight-control system. The second purpose is to store data from a subsystem of distributed MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors. Examples of these MEMS sensors include humidity, temperature, and acoustic sensors, plus chemical sensors for detecting various vapors and other gases in the environment. The critical sensors used for flight control are a differential- pressure sensor that is part of an apparatus for determining airspeed, an absolute-pressure sensor for determining altitude, three orthogonal accelerometers for determining tilt and acceleration, and three orthogonal angular-rate detectors (gyroscopes). By using these eight sensors, it is possible to determine the orientation, height, speed, and rates of roll, pitch, and yaw of the UAV. This avionics-and-sensors system is shown in the figure. During the last few years, there has been rapid growth and advancement in the technological disciplines of MEMS, of onboard artificial-intelligence systems, and of smaller, faster, and

  10. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM). LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP) data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building's wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an effective tool

  11. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  12. USING DISTANCE SENSORS TO PERFORM COLLISION AVOIDANCE MANEUVRES ON UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raimundo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. “Sense and Avoid” algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk’s flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G. Some tests were made in order to evaluate the “Sense and Avoid” algorithm’s overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and “Brake” mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  13. Evolving Self-Organized Behavior for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous UAV or UCAV Swarms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Ian C

    2006-01-01

    This investigation uses a self-organization (SO) approach to enable cooperative search and destruction of retaliating targets with swarms of homogeneous and heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs...

  14. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  15. Using Distance Sensors to Perform Collision Avoidance Maneuvres on Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, A.; Peres, D.; Santos, N.; Sebastião, P.; Souto, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. "Sense and Avoid" algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk's flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G). Some tests were made in order to evaluate the "Sense and Avoid" algorithm's overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and "Brake" mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  16. Possibilities of Use of UAVS for Technical Inspection of Buildings and Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian; Cellmer, Anna

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used in various sectors of the economy. This is due to the development of new technologies for acquiring and processing geospatial data. The paper presents the results of experiments using UAV, equipped with a high resolution digital camera, for a visual assessment of the technical condition of the building roof and for the inventory of energy infrastructure and its surroundings. The usefulness of digital images obtained from the UAV deck is presented in concrete examples. The use of UAV offers new opportunities in the area of technical inspection due to the detail and accuracy of the data, low operating costs and fast data acquisition.

  17. Global Characteristics of Porosity and Density Stratification Within the Lunar Crust from GRAIL Gravity and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Schmerr, Nicholas; Neumann, Gregory; Holmes, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is providing unprecedentedly high-resolution gravity data. The gravity signal in relation to topography decreases from 100 km to 30 km wavelength, equivalent to a uniform crustal density of 2450 kg/cu m that is 100 kg/cu m smaller than the density required at 100 km. To explain such frequency-dependent behavior, we introduce rock compaction models under lithostatic pressure that yield radially stratified porosity (and thus density) and examine the depth extent of porosity. Our modeling and analysis support the assertion that the crustal density must vary from surface to deep crust by up to 500 kg/cu m. We found that the surface density of mega regolith is around 2400 kg/cu m with an initial porosity of 10-20%, and this porosity is eliminated at 10-20 km depth due to lithostatic overburden pressure. Our stratified density models provide improved fits to both GRAIL primary and extended mission data.

  18. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

  19. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  20. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  1. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  2. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  3. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  4. EVALUATING THE ACCURACY OF DEM GENERATION ALGORITHMS FROM UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ruiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC. This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

  5. UAV Survey Data from Clifton Camp (ST56557330, Bristol, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This data was collected via low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle survey of an area of Clifton Camp (ST565557330, best known for its Iron Age promontory fort. The dataset comprises of metadata records, near-vertical photographs and a derived 3D polygonal mesh. This dataset has been constructed with two kinds of reuse in mind: Firstly, the area surveyed is culturally rich and underexplored; while some of the non-natural features detected by this survey can be identified, others cannot. This data is intended to inform future investigations of the site. Secondly, the survey methodologies employed and the structuring of the resulting dataset are intended to act as an exemplar, a standard method of creating survey data while prioritising open technologies, and of organising UAV survey datasets to ensure maximum re-usability.

  6. Analysis of a UAV that can Hover and Fly Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakıcı Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with level flight, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL and mode-changing capability is analysed. The platform design combines both multirotor and fixed-wing (FW conventional airplane structures and control surfaces; therefore, named as VTOL-FW. The aircraft is modelled using aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. The proposed method of control includes implementation of multirotor and airplane mode controllers and design of an algorithm to transition between modes in achieving smooth switching manoeuvres between VTOL and FW flight. Thus, VTOL-FW UAV’s flight characteristics are expected to be improved by enlarging operational flight envelope through enabling mode-transitioning, agile manoeuvres and increasing survivability. Experiments conducted in simulation and real world environments show that, VTOL-FW UAV has both multirotor and airplane characteristics with extra benefits in an enlarged flight envelope.

  7. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  8. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  9. Multisensor Equipped Uav/ugv for Automated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzdorfer, S.; Bobbe, M.; Becker, M.; Harms, H.; Bestmann, U.

    2017-08-01

    The usage of unmanned systems for exploring disaster scenarios has become more and more important in recent times as a supporting system for action forces. These systems have to offer a well-balanced relationship between the quality of support and additional workload. Therefore within the joint research project ANKommEn - german acronym for Automated Navigation and Communication for Exploration - a system for exploration of disaster scenarios is build-up using multiple UAV und UGV controlled via a central ground station. The ground station serves as user interface for defining missions and tasks conducted by the unmanned systems, equipped with different environmental sensors like cameras - RGB as well as IR - or LiDAR. Depending on the exploration task results, in form of pictures, 2D stitched orthophoto or LiDAR point clouds will be transmitted via datalinks and displayed online at the ground station or will be processed in short-term after a mission, e.g. 3D photogrammetry. For mission planning and its execution, UAV/UGV monitoring and georeferencing of environmental sensor data, reliable positioning and attitude information is required. This is gathered using an integrated GNSS/IMU positioning system. In order to increase availability of positioning information in GNSS challenging scenarios, a GNSS-Multiconstellation based approach is used, amongst others. The present paper focuses on the overall system design including the ground station and sensor setups on the UAVs and UGVs, the underlying positioning techniques as well as 2D and 3D exploration based on a RGB camera mounted on board the UAV and its evaluation based on real world field tests.

  10. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  11. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  12. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  13. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  14. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  15. Optimized UAV Communication Protocol Based on Prior Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sboui, Lokman; Rabah, Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt a new communication protocol between the UAV and fixed on-ground nodes. This protocol tends to reduce communication power consumption by stopping communication if the channel is not good to communicate (i.e. far nodes, obstacles, etc.) The communication is performed using the XBee 868M standard and Libelium wapsmotes. Our designed protocol is based on a new communication model that we propose in this paper. The protocole decides wether to communicate or not after compu...

  16. MULTISENSOR EQUIPPED UAV/UGV FOR AUTOMATED EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Batzdorfer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of unmanned systems for exploring disaster scenarios has become more and more important in recent times as a supporting system for action forces. These systems have to offer a well-balanced relationship between the quality of support and additional workload. Therefore within the joint research project ANKommEn – german acronym for Automated Navigation and Communication for Exploration – a system for exploration of disaster scenarios is build-up using multiple UAV und UGV controlled via a central ground station. The ground station serves as user interface for defining missions and tasks conducted by the unmanned systems, equipped with different environmental sensors like cameras – RGB as well as IR – or LiDAR. Depending on the exploration task results, in form of pictures, 2D stitched orthophoto or LiDAR point clouds will be transmitted via datalinks and displayed online at the ground station or will be processed in short-term after a mission, e.g. 3D photogrammetry. For mission planning and its execution, UAV/UGV monitoring and georeferencing of environmental sensor data, reliable positioning and attitude information is required. This is gathered using an integrated GNSS/IMU positioning system. In order to increase availability of positioning information in GNSS challenging scenarios, a GNSS-Multiconstellation based approach is used, amongst others. The present paper focuses on the overall system design including the ground station and sensor setups on the UAVs and UGVs, the underlying positioning techniques as well as 2D and 3D exploration based on a RGB camera mounted on board the UAV and its evaluation based on real world field tests.

  17. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  18. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E B ), ocimum canum (E C ) and ocimum sanctum (E S ). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E B is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution

  19. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  20. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Bermúdez i Badia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  1. APPLICATION OF SENSOR FUSION TO IMPROVE UAV IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC. We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  2. Application of Sensor Fusion to Improve Uav Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, S.; Fathollahi, F.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan) camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS) camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC). We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  3. Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the Classification of UAV Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gevaert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from UAVs. The features that are extracted from the point cloud and imagery have different statistical characteristics and can be considered as heterogeneous, which motivates the use of Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL for classification problems. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of applying MKL for the classification of heterogeneous features obtained from UAV data through a case study of an informal settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Results indicate that MKL can achieve a classification accuracy of 90.6%, a 5.2% increase over a standard single-kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM. A comparison of seven MKL methods indicates that linearly-weighted kernel combinations based on simple heuristics are competitive with respect to computationally-complex, non-linear kernel combination methods. We further underline the importance of utilizing appropriate feature grouping strategies for MKL, which has not been directly addressed in the literature, and we propose a novel, automated feature grouping method that achieves a high classification accuracy for various MKL methods.

  4. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  5. Rapid mapping of landslide disaster using UAV- photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, A. B.; Zayd, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems offered many advantages in several mapping applications such as slope mapping, geohazard studies, etc. This study utilizes UAV system for landslide disaster occurred in Jombang Regency, East Java. This study concentrates on type of rotor-wing UAV, that is because rotor wing units are stable and able to capture images easily. Aerial photograph were acquired in the form of strips which followed the procedure of acquiring aerial photograph where taken 60 photos. Secondary data of ground control points using GPS Geodetic and check points established using Total Station technique was used. The digital camera was calibrated using close range photogrammetric software and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the processing of digital images. All the aerial photographs were processed using digital photogrammetric software and the output in the form of orthophoto was produced. The final result shows a 1: 1500 scale orthophoto map from the data processing with SfM algorithm with GSD accuracy of 3.45 cm. And the calculated volume of contour line delineation of 10527.03 m3. The result is significantly different from the result of terrestrial methode equal to 964.67 m3 or 8.4% of the difference of both.

  6. Building Damage Extraction Triggered by Earthquake Using the Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Tang, H.

    2018-04-01

    When extracting building damage information, we can only determine whether the building is collapsed using the post-earthquake satellite images. Even the satellite images have the sub-meter resolution, the identification of slightly damaged buildings is still a challenge. As the complementary data to satellite images, the UAV images have unique advantages, such as stronger flexibility and higher resolution. In this paper, according to the spectral feature of UAV images and the morphological feature of the reconstructed point clouds, the building damage was classified into four levels: basically intact buildings, slightly damaged buildings, partially collapsed buildings and totally collapsed buildings, and give the rules of damage grades. In particular, the slightly damaged buildings are determined using the detected roof-holes. In order to verify the approach, we conduct experimental simulations in the cases of Wenchuan and Ya'an earthquakes. By analyzing the post-earthquake UAV images of the two earthquakes, the building damage was classified into four levels, and the quantitative statistics of the damaged buildings is given in the experiments.

  7. Automatic Hotspot and Sun Glint Detection in UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Terol, Damian; Hernandez-Lopez, David; Ballesteros, Rocio; Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego

    2017-10-15

    Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors. In particular, two main consequences are derived from the approach developed: (i) different areas of the images can be excluded since they contain sun reflection problems; (ii) the cartographic products obtained (e.g., digital terrain model, orthoimages) and the agronomical parameters computed (e.g., normalized vegetation index-NVDI) are improved since radiometric defects in pixels are not considered. Finally, an accuracy assessment was performed in order to analyse the error in the detection process, getting errors around 10 pixels for a ground sample distance (GSD) of 5 cm which is perfectly valid for agricultural applications. This error confirms that the precision in the detection of sun reflections can be guaranteed using this approach and the current low-cost UAV technology.

  8. Deep Learning Approach for Car Detection in UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Ammour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic solution to the problem of detecting and counting cars in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images. This is a challenging task given the very high spatial resolution of UAV images (on the order of a few centimetres and the extremely high level of detail, which require suitable automatic analysis methods. Our proposed method begins by segmenting the input image into small homogeneous regions, which can be used as candidate locations for car detection. Next, a window is extracted around each region, and deep learning is used to mine highly descriptive features from these windows. We use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN system that is already pre-trained on huge auxiliary data as a feature extraction tool, combined with a linear support vector machine (SVM classifier to classify regions into “car” and “no-car” classes. The final step is devoted to a fine-tuning procedure which performs morphological dilation to smooth the detected regions and fill any holes. In addition, small isolated regions are analysed further using a few sliding rectangular windows to locate cars more accurately and remove false positives. To evaluate our method, experiments were conducted on a challenging set of real UAV images acquired over an urban area. The experimental results have proven that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, both in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  9. BENCHMARKING THE OPTICAL RESOLVING POWER OF UAV BASED CAMERA SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meißner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  10. A NEW APPROACH TO FAST MOSAIC UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have been widely used to acquire high quality terrain images of the areas of interest, particularly when such a task could potentially risk human life or even impossible as the areas cannot be accessed easily by surveyors. Once the images have been obtained, traditional photogrammetric processing process can be used to establish a relative orientation model and then, absolute orientation model with the procedures of space resection and intersection. In many such applications, the geo- referenced images which are stitched together to represent the geospatial relationships for the feature objects are sufficient. A fast or near real-time processing approach for UAV images using GPS/INS data has being investigated for years. One beneficial application of such approach is the capability of quick production of geo-referenced images for various engineering or business activities, such as urban and road planning, the site selection of factories and bridges, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a new fast processing approach for the UAV images collected with an integrated GPS/INS/Vision system. The approach features that the corresponding points between images have been determined, and then coordinate transformation is carried out to implement image stitching. The accuracy of corresponding points normally affects the quality of stitched images, but the results of our experiments revealed that the image stitching errors were obvious even the accuracy of corresponding points was high. The stitching errors could be caused by the changes of surface elevation.

  11. Uav Positioning and Collision Avoidance Based on RSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are attracting more and more attention in both the research and industrial communities: indeed, the possibility to use them in a wide range of remote sensing applications makes them a very flexible and attractive solution in both civil and commercial cases (e.g. precision agriculture, security and control, monitoring of sites, exploration of areas difficult to reach). Most of the existing UAV positioning systems rely on the use of the GPS signal. Despite this can be a satisfactory solution in open environments where the GPS signal is available, there are several operating conditions of interest where it is unavailable or unreliable (e.g. close to high buildings, or mountains, in indoor environments). Consequently, a different approach has to be adopted in these cases. This paper considers the use ofWiFi measurements in order to obtain position estimations of the device of interest. More specifically, to limit the costs for the devices involved in the positioning operations, an approach based on radio signal strengths (RSS) measurements is considered. Thanks to the use of a Kalman filter, the proposed approach takes advantage of the temporal dynamic of the device of interest in order to improve the positioning results initially provided by means of maximum likelihood estimations. The considered UAVs are assumed to be provided with communication devices, which can allow them to communicate with each other in order to improve their cooperation abilities. In particular, the collision avoidance problem is examined in this work.

  12. Pricise Target Geolocation and Tracking Based on Uav Video Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, H. R.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasingly large number of applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from monitoring, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using an extended Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors, Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process. The results of this study compared with code-based ordinary GPS, indicate that RTK observation with proposed method shows more than 10 times improvement of accuracy in target geolocation.

  13. Kundalini Yoga, Yogi Tee und das Wassermannzeitalter: Bibliografische Einblicke in die Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization (3HO) des Yogi Bhajan

    OpenAIRE

    Laue, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Obwohl seit 40 Jahren im Westen aktiv, ist die Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization (3HO) des Yogi Bhajan (1929-2004) von der deutschen wie internationalen Forschung weitestgehend übersehen worden. Um dieser Forschungslücke entgegenzuwirken, verfasste ich 2003 meine religionswissenschaftlich begründete Magisterarbeit Darstellung und Quellen der 3HO Deutschland e.V. Aus dem Darstellungsteil entstand die 2007 im Münsteraner LIT-Verlag publizierte Monographie Kundalini Yoga, Yogi Tee und das Wasser...

  14. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    OpenAIRE

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-01-01

    Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC) in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has b...

  15. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in the seventeenth and eighteenth century it used book censorship to preserve ecclesiastical doctrine and its own power. In the nineteenth century the Roman Inquisition aimed to discredit noxious literature – and the dangerous ideas it contained – through its inclusion in the Index of Prohibited Books. In the twentieth century, when the Church’s secular power was fading, the Holy Office reacted against modernism thus intensifying its campaign against pernicious literature, seen as the main medium through which modernist ideas could infiltrate public opinion. During the papacy of Pius XI, in particular, the policies of the Holy Office mainly aimed to support the interventionism of the Holy See and its attempts to ‘catholicise’ public opinion and society. The Italian case renders a clear picture of a transformed Roman Inquisition: analysing the proceedings against Gabriele d’Annunzio (Opera omnia, 1928 and Mario Missiroli (Date a Cesare, 1929 this paper will demonstrate how the Roman Index and literary censorship stood out as the core of the Church’s relentless attempt to forge a ‘catholicised’ society between the two wars and to regain – through the forbiddance of authors and books closely linked to fascism – the political and social influence that Mussolini threatened to take-over before and in the aftermath of the Concordate of 1929.

  16. The Significant Role of the Intellect in Confronting Contemporary Global Challenges: The Taught of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Naghipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Islamic world is confronting constant challenges in terms of physical and spiritual, as a whole. Living in such challenging atmosphere persuades Muslims to develop proper strategies for handling ongoing crises in a way arguably compatible with the Islamic codes and practices, as well as the fast growing universal demands. This paper, based on the taught of the Holy Quran, aimed to finding out a modest approach to handling the contemporary challenges. The Islamic approach towards the historical challenges, such as the way in dealing with unbelievers and intellectuals of other religions, was of special interest in this paper. Deep analysis of selected verses of the Holy Quran reveals that paying full attention to the special requirements for every time and place and having precise understanding of different nations’ haracteristics; their values and way of thinking are among the most important factors of tackling challenges in every time. The Holy Quran teaches us that having rational and intellectual exchanges even with unbelievers are among the most important tools for the Muslims to overcome their challenges. In conclusion, Islam appreciates the role of the intellect and chooses a reasonable and convincing manner in confronting important challenges all over the time.

  17. PRECISE POSITIONING OF UAVS – DEALING WITH CHALLENGING RTK-GPS MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS DURING AUTOMATED UAV FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zimmermann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic GPS (global positioning system receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors. In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  18. Monitoring landslide dynamics using timeseries of UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, S. M.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides are worldwide occurring processes that can have large economic impact and sometimes result in fatalities. Multiple factors are important in landslide processes and can make an area prone to landslide activity. Human factors like drainage and removal of vegetation or land clearing are examples of factors that may cause a landslide. Other environmental factors such as topography and the shear strength of the slope material are more difficult to control. Triggering factors for landslides are typically heavy rainfall events or sometimes by earthquakes or under cutting processes by a river. The collection of data about existing landslides in a given area is important for predicting future landslides in that region. We have setup a monitoring program for landslide using cameras aboard Unmanned Airborne Vehicles. UAV with cameras are able to collect ultra-high resolution images and UAVs can be operated in a very flexible way, they just fit in the back of a car. Here, in this study we used Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to collect a time series of high-resolution images over landslides in France and Australia. The algorithm used to process the UAV images into OrthoMosaics and OrthoDEMs is Structure from Motion (SfM). The process generally results in centimeter precision in the horizontal and vertical direction. Such multi-temporal datasets enable the detection of landslide area, the leading edge slope, temporal patterns and volumetric changes of particular areas of the landslide. We measured and computed surface movement of the landslide using the COSI-Corr image correlation algorithm with ground validation. Our study shows the possibilities of generating accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs) of landslides using images collected with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The technique is robust and repeatable such that a substantial time series of datasets can be routinely collected. It is shown that a time-series of UAV images can be used to map landslide movements with

  19. Wetland Vegetation Integrity Assessment with Low Altitude Multispectral Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position's and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland's structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified ("D" PES Category) and that the condition is expected to

  20. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  1. Optimizing the presentation of UAV images in an attack helicopter cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.; Vries, S.C. de; Duistermaat, M.

    2006-01-01

    Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) will collaborate more directly with military manned aircraft. TNO Defence, Security and Safety investigated how to present UAV sensor images in a fighter aircraft cockpit in order to maximize target identification and flying performance. Ten military pilots

  2. A hybrid Radio-vision fault tolerant localization for mini UAV flying in swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latroch, Maamar; Abdelhafid, Omari; Koivo, Heikki N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discuss the localization of one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) when a failure of its GPS occurs and will propose a new solution based on the information collected by the swarm to localize it. we propose here an architecture for localization of a UAV with GPS signal failure in three...

  3. Unmanned aerial vehicles: The next big thing? The benefits and detriments of military and commercial UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    With law enforcement agencies around the world investing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) and small commercial drone ventures popping up like weeds, the debate on the morality of drone usage has intensified in the recent months. What are the advantages of UAVs? Are they worth the disadvantages?

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicles : The next big thing? The benefits and detriments of military and commercial UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    With law enforcement agencies around the world investing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) and small commercial drone ventures popping up like weeds, the debate on the morality of drone usage has intensified in the recent months. What are the advantages of UAVs? Are they worth

  5. UAV Swarm Tactics: An Agent-Based Simulation and Markov Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    research UAV platforms, namely the (a) Procerus Unicorn UAV and (b) modified Ritewing ZephyrII RC plane, for ongoing live-fly field experimentation of the...number of possible states would grow exponentially, but short excursions with baseline two-on-one models, as found in the literature, could provide

  6. Impact of Prior Flight Experience on Learning Predator UAV Operator Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    UAVs are becoming a mainstay of intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) information gathering, with the capability of supplying, in...indicators of UAV pilot skill, namely frequency and type of videogame playing, and experience with remote-controlled hobby aircraft. Experience with...indicator, artificial horizon, heading rate indicator, and engine revolutions per minute. The right monitor displays other useful information, such as a

  7. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Gustavo S C; Pereira, Guilherme A S; Pimenta, Luciano C A; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-11-02

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem's (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles' maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs.

  8. Automated geographic registration and radiometric correction for UAV-based mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University has been operating a large-scale, UAV-based, agricultural remote-sensing research project since 2015. To use UAV-based images in agricultural production, many high-resolution images must be mosaicked together to create an image of an agricultural field. Two key difficulties to s...

  9. Embedded, real-time UAV control for improved, image-based 3D scene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Liénard; Andre Vogs; Demetrios Gatziolis; Nikolay Strigul

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are already broadly employed for 3D modeling of large objects such as trees and monuments via photogrammetry. The usual workflow includes two distinct steps: image acquisition with UAV and computationally demanding postflight image processing. Insufficient feature overlaps across images is a common shortcoming in post-flight image...

  10. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.

    2016-04-07

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  11. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.; Shalaby, Mohamed; Passone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  12. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  13. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  14. Erosion protection Phytoreinforcement of SCARP steep slopes of the holy virgin’s DITCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darchiya Valentina Ivanovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion protection landscaping embedment of steep subsoil slopes is a time-sensitive issue of road construction and planning of recreational area that are often fit on a challenging picturesque terrain unsuitable for site development. The article provides the results of a 4-year experiment on landscaping and plant fixing of up to 4.5 m soil slopes with 1:1 and 2:1 grades; the experiment was carried out by the MGSU on the territory of a convent in the south of the Nizhniy Novgorod region. The site has slopes oriented towards all cardinals. At some places the slopes are bedimmed by trees. All these factors create a wide range of geo-ecological conditions for lawns. All the slopes are fixed with geo-fibrefill grids; slopes with 2:1 grade are strengthened by auxiliary grids made of reinforced metal bars, anchors and braces on the bottom of the Holy Moat. The paper recommends composition of grass plants as well as techniques to build up lawns suitable for various micro-climate conditions. It also advises the structure of multi-tier plant entity. The suggested methods are tested during a 3-year maintenance of slopes built for constant use.

  15. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  16. Loyalty and Disavowal in Holy Qur’an Descriptive linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kanani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the meaning of loyalty and disavowal from linguistic point of view, between the views of linguists, and the exegetes in the Lexicons and exegeses with analysis and debate. First of all, the researcher Indicates definition of loyalty as stated in the dictionaries, with bringing the examples from the Holy Qur’an and the views of the commentators about this issue, then analysis and discussion. Second, he defines Disavowal in the language, with a point of view from linguists, and interpreters, by analyzing and discussion the examples from the Noble Qur’an. Finally, it illustrates the application of the legal and practical concept of loyalty and disavowal, to enhance the significance of language. The importance of the current study is- according to researcher’s information- due to its doctrinal and sociological matter and nobody precede such a linguistic study of Loyalty. This research approaches the issue, using the method of descriptive and analytical, based on the description and analysis of the phenomenon.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LOW COST UAV PLATFORM FOR ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  18. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  19. Image-based tracking and sensor resource management for UAVs in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Ashwin; Chang, K. C.

    2010-04-01

    Coordination and deployment of multiple unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) requires a lot of human resources in order to carry out a successful mission. The complexity of such a surveillance mission is significantly increased in the case of an urban environment where targets can easily escape from the UAV's field of view (FOV) due to intervening building and line-of-sight obstruction. In the proposed methodology, we focus on the control and coordination of multiple UAVs having gimbaled video sensor onboard for tracking multiple targets in an urban environment. We developed optimal path planning algorithms with emphasis on dynamic target prioritizations and persistent target updates. The command center is responsible for target prioritization and autonomous control of multiple UAVs, enabling a single operator to monitor and control a team of UAVs from a remote location. The results are obtained using extensive 3D simulations in Google Earth using Tangent plus Lyapunov vector field guidance for target tracking.

  20. Design of Electric Patrol UAVs Based on a Dual Antenna System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China completed the construction of more than 1.15 million kilometers of transmission lines with conventional voltage levels spanning its vast territory in 2014. This large and complicated power grid structure relies mainly on manual operation and maintenance of lines. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs equipped with high-definition digital video cameras and cameras and GPS positioning systems can conduct autonomous patrols along the grid. However, the presence of electromagnetic fields around high-voltage transmission lines can affect the UAV’s magnetometer, resulting in a wrong heading and thus unsafe flight. In this paper, the traditional method of UAV heading calculation using a magnetometer was analyzed, and a novel method for calculating UAV heading based on dual antennas was proposed. Experimental data showed that the proposed method improves the anti-magnetic interference characteristics of UAVs and increases UAV security and stability for power inspection applications.

  1. An analysis of the development and application of plant protection UAV based on advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-hui; Wei, Neng; Quan, Zhi-cheng; Huang, Yu-rong

    2018-06-01

    The development and application of a number of advanced materials plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an important part of the comprehensive production of agricultural modernization. The paper is taken as an example of Guangxi No. 1 agricultural service aviation science and Technology Co., Ltd. This paper introduces the internal and external environment of the research and development of the plant protection UAV for the advanced materials of the company. The external environment focuses on the role of the plant protection UAV on the development of the agricultural mechanization; the internal environment focuses on the advantages of the UAV in technology research, market promotion and application, which is imperative. Finally, according to the background of the whole industry, we put forward some suggestions for the developing opportunities and challenges faced by plant protection UAV, hoping to proving some ideas for operators, experts and scholars engaged in agricultural industry.

  2. Establishing a disruptive new capability for NASA to fly UAV's into hazardous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Hon M.; Richards, Lance

    2015-05-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  3. Establishing a Disruptive New Capability for NASA to Fly UAV's into Hazardous Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Richards, Lance

    2015-01-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  4. UAV applications for thermodynamic profiling: Emphasis on ice fog research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Ware, Randolph

    2016-04-01

    Ice fog occurs often over the Arctic, cold climatic, and mountainous regions for about 30% of time where temperature (T) can go down to -10°C or below. Ice Nucleation (IN) and cooling processes play an important role by the controlling the intensity of ice fog conditions that affect aviation application, transportation, and local climate. Ice fog can also occur at T above -10°C but close to 0°C it occurs due to freezing of supercooled droplets that include an IN. To better document ice fog conditions, observations from the ice fog events of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol effects on Climate (ISDAC) project, Barrow, Alaska, Fog Remote Sensing And Modeling (FRAM) project Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, and the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) project, Heber City, Utah, were analyzed.. Measurements difficulties of small ice fog particles at cold temperatures and low-level flying restrictions prevent observations from aircraft within the surface boundary layer. However, unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be operated safely to measure IN number concentration, Relative Humidity with respect to ice (RHi), T, horizontal wind speed (Uh) and direction, and ice crystal spectra less than about 500 micron. Thermodynamic profiling by a Radiometrics Profiling Microwave Radiometer (PMWR) and Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was used to describe ice fog conditions in the vertical and its time development. In this presentation, ice fog characteristics and its thermodynamic environment will be presented using both ground-based and airborne platforms such as a UAV with new sensors. Some examples of measurements from the UAV for future research, and challenges related to both ice fog measurements and visibility parameterization will also be presented.

  5. An accelerated image matching technique for UAV orthoimage registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) drone with an attached non-metric camera has become a popular low-cost approach for collecting geospatial data. A well-georeferenced orthoimage is a fundamental product for geomatics professionals. To achieve high positioning accuracy of orthoimages, precise sensor position and orientation data, or a number of ground control points (GCPs), are often required. Alternatively, image registration is a solution for improving the accuracy of a UAV orthoimage, as long as a historical reference image is available. This study proposes a registration scheme, including an Accelerated Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (ABRISK) algorithm and spatial analysis of corresponding control points for image registration. To determine a match between two input images, feature descriptors from one image are compared with those from another image. A "Sorting Ring" is used to filter out uncorrected feature pairs as early as possible in the stage of matching feature points, to speed up the matching process. The results demonstrate that the proposed ABRISK approach outperforms the vector-based Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) approach where radiometric variations exist. ABRISK is 19.2 times and 312 times faster than SIFT for image sizes of 1000 × 1000 pixels and 4000 × 4000 pixels, respectively. ABRISK is 4.7 times faster than Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK). Furthermore, the positional accuracy of the UAV orthoimage after applying the proposed image registration scheme is improved by an average of root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.58 m for six test orthoimages whose spatial resolutions vary from 6.7 cm to 10.7 cm.

  6. Demonstrations of bio-inspired perching landing gear for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Mindy; Michael, Duncan M.; Pflueger, Jeffery B.; Sethi, Manik S.; Shimazu, Kelli N.; Anthony, Tatiana M.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and performance of two concepts of biologically-inspired landing-gear systems that enable bird-sized, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) to land, perch, and take-off from branchlike structures and/or ledges. The first concept follows the anatomy of birds that can grasp ahold of a branch and perch as tendons in their legs are tensioned. This design involves a gravity-activated, cable-driven, underactuated, graspingfoot mechanism. As the UAV lands, its weight collapses a four-bar linkage pulling a cable which curls two opposing, multi-segmented feet to grasp the landing target. Each foot is a single, compliant mechanism fabricated by simultaneouly 3D-printing a flexible thermo-plastic and a stiffer ABS plastic. The design is optimized to grasp structures over a range of shapes and sizes. Quasi-static and flight tests of this landing gear affixed to RC rotorcraft (24 cm to 550 cm in diameter) demonstrate that the aircraft can land, perch, and take-off from a tree branch, rectangular wood board, PVC pipe, metal hand rail, chair armrest, and in addition, a stone wall ledge. Stability tests show that perching is maintained under base and wind disturbances. The second design concept, inspired by roosting bats, is a two-material, 3D-printed hooking mechanism that enables the UAV to stably suspend itself from a wire or small-diameter branch. The design balances structural stiffness for support and flexibility for the perching process. A flight-test demonstrates the attaching and dis-engaging of a small, RC quadcopter from a suspended line.

  7. Use of UAVs for Remote Measurement of Vegetation Canopy Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Herrick, J.; Steele, C.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Chopping, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing with different sensors has proven useful for measuring vegetation canopy variables at scales ranging from landscapes down to individual plants. For use at landscape scales, such as desert grasslands invaded by shrubs, it is possible to use multi-angle imagery from satellite sensors, such as MISR and CHRIS/Proba, with geometric optical models to retrieve fractional woody plant cover. Vegetation community states can be mapped using visible and near infrared ASTER imagery at 15 m resolution. At finer scales, QuickBird satellite imagery with approximately 60 cm resolution and piloted aircraft photography with 25-80 cm resolution can be used to measure shrubs above a critical size. Tests conducted with the QuickBird data in the Jornada basin of southern New Mexico have shown that 87% of all shrubs greater than 2 m2 were detected whereas only about 29% of all shrubs less than 2 m2 were detected, even at these high resolutions. Because there is an observational gap between satellite/aircraft measurements and ground observations, we have experimented with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) producing digital photography with approximately 5 cm resolution. We were able to detect all shrubs greater than 2 m2, and we were able to map small subshrubs indicative of rangeland deterioration, as well as remnant grass patches, for the first time. None of these could be identified on the 60 cm resolution data. Additionally, we were able to measure canopy gaps, shrub patterns, percent bare soil, and vegetation cover over mixed rangeland vegetation. This approach is directly applicable to rangeland health monitoring, and it provides a quantitative way to assess shrub invasion over time and to detect the depletion or recovery of grass patches. Further, if the UAV images have sufficient overlap, it may be possible to exploit the stereo viewing capabilities to develop a digital elevation model from the orthophotos, with a potential for extracting canopy height. We envision two

  8. Modelling multi-rotor UAVs swarm deployment using virtual pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón; Rizo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs. This behaviour will be oriented towards emergency tasks. Their main goal will be to cover an area of the environment for later creating an ad-hoc communication network, that can be used to establish communications inside this zone. Although there are several papers on robotic deployment it is more difficult to find applications with UAV systems, mainly because of the existence of various problems that must be overcome including limitations in available sensory and on-board processing capabilities and low flight endurance. In addition, those behaviours designed for UAVs often have significant limitations on their ability to be used in real tasks, because they assume specific features, not easily applicable in a general way. Firstly, in this article the characteristics of the simulation environment will be presented. Secondly, a microscopic model for deployment and creation of ad-hoc networks, that implicitly includes stigmergy features, will be shown. Then, the overall swarm behaviour will be modeled, providing a macroscopic model of this behaviour. This model can accurately predict the number of agents needed to cover an area as well as the time required for the deployment process. An experimental analysis through simulation will be carried out in order to verify our models. In this analysis the influence of both the complexity of the environment and the stigmergy system will be discussed, given the data obtained in the

  9. UAV Communication Management and Coordination for Multitarget Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-26

    6.3 Weighted Trace Penalty 16 6.4 Results with WTP for ECTG 17 7 Multiple UAV Case 20 7.1 Extension of WTP 20 7.2 Coordinated sensor motion...growth by a weighted trace penalty ( WTP ) term, which is a product of the current covariancc trace and the minimum distance to observability (MDO) for a...Specifically, the terminal cost or ECTG term using the WTP has the form J(b) = JWTP(b) := iD(s, e) Tfc P\\ (6.1) where 7 is a positive constant, i is the

  10. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  11. Calculating e-flow using UAV and ground monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Zhang, C. B.; Yang, S. T.; Liu, C. M.; Xiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Shao, N. F.; Yu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3-5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements

  12. "Holy anorexia"-relevant or relic? Religiosity and anorexia nervosa among Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Pyry; Harrasova, Gulnara; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of "holy anorexia," religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ceramics Praises the Psalms.”The Holy Trinity” Church from Siret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ”The Holy Trinity” (”Sfânta Treime” church from Siret by tradition, should be the oldest monument in the form a clover of the religious architecture of Moldavia. By its architectural and decorative elements, the exterior of this church entirely foreshadows the artistic virtues of monuments from the time of Petru I Muşat. Therefore, the apses have a series of niches elongated at their edges with semicircular arches and decorated in tambourines with bricks. Values are plan and decoration items speaking about relations with the Byzantine-Balkan world. The outside consisting of rough gray-green stone of the monument is refreshed by a bright and harmonious scenery of ceramic ornaments made out of bricks, leg discs in the form of mushrooms and cruciform colored flowers. At the top of the monument, about two thirds of the height of the walls (from the pedestal upwards, there can be seen a frieze consisting of two rows of discs alternating with cruciform flowers. They range from the apses (the south side as well all the way up to the window of the narthex. The semicircular arches of brick niches are also sharpened by a row of discs alternating with cruciform flowers. The windows with the exception of the one of the northern apse are decorated at the top with one rectangular frame consisting of two rows of glazed discs and three cruciform flowers, all framed by glazed bricks (either plain or coloured. The same decoration can also be seen at the niche above the entrance door destined for the church icon. Above this frame, there can be seen a cornice made out of bricks arranged in a zig zag pattern. The continuous development and enrichment of the ceramic façade during the next century will lead to the finishing touches, in the reign of Stefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great, of a harmonious and original decorative.

  14. Unravelling the genome of Holy basil: an "incomparable" "elixir of life" of traditional Indian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kalra, Alok; Gupta, Vikrant; Khan, Feroz; Lal, Raj Kishori; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Parameswaran, Sriram; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Ramaswamy, Gopalakrishna; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2015-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum L. (O. tenuiflorum) family-Lamiaceae is an important component of Indian tradition of medicine as well as culture around the world, and hence is known as "Holy basil" in India. This plant is mentioned in the ancient texts of Ayurveda as an "elixir of life" (life saving) herb and worshipped for over 3000 years due to its healing properties. Although used in various ailments, validation of molecules for differential activities is yet to be fully analyzed, as about 80 % of the patents on this plant are on extracts or the plant parts, and mainly focussed on essential oil components. With a view to understand the full metabolic potential of this plant whole nuclear and chloroplast genomes were sequenced for the first time combining the sequence data from 4 libraries and three NGS platforms. The saturated draft assembly of the genome was about 386 Mb, along with the plastid genome of 142,245 bp, turning out to be the smallest in Lamiaceae. In addition to SSR markers, 136 proteins were identified as homologous to five important plant genomes. Pathway analysis indicated an abundance of phenylpropanoids in O. sanctum. Phylogenetic analysis for chloroplast proteome placed Salvia miltiorrhiza as the nearest neighbor. Comparison of the chemical compounds and genes availability in O. sanctum and S. miltiorrhiza indicated the potential for the discovery of new active molecules. The genome sequence and annotation of O. sanctum provides new insights into the function of genes and the medicinal nature of the metabolites synthesized in this plant. This information is highly beneficial for mining biosynthetic pathways for important metabolites in related species.

  15. An Ecological Approach to the Design of UAV Ground Control Station (GCS) Status Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Susan; Morphew, Ephimia; Shively, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Use of UAVs in military and commercial applications will continue to increase. However, there has been limited research devoted to UAV GCS design. The current study employed an ecological approach to interfac e design. Ecological Interface Design (EID) can be characterized as r epresenting the properties of a system, such that an operator is enco uraged to use skill-based behavior when problem solving. When more ef fortful cognitive processes become necessary due to unfamiliar situations, the application of EID philosophy supports the application of kn owledge-based behavior. With advances toward multiple UAV command and control, operators need GCS interfaces designed to support understan ding of complex systems. We hypothesized that use of EID principles f or the display of UAV status information would result in better opera tor performance and situational awareness, while decreasing workload. Pilots flew a series of missions with three UAV GCS displays of statu s information (Alphanumeric, Ecological, and Hybrid display format). Measures of task performance, Situational Awareness, and workload dem onstrated the benefits of using an ecological approach to designing U AV GCS displays. The application of ecological principles to the design of UAV GCSs is a promising area for improving UAV operations.

  16. Single and Multiple UAV Cyber-Attack Simulation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Y. Javaid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of ground, air and underwater unmanned vehicles (UGV, UAV and UUV has increased exponentially in the recent past with industries producing thousands of these unmanned vehicles every year.With the ongoing discussion of integration of UAVs in the US National Airspace, the need of a cost-effective way to verify the security and resilience of a group of communicating UAVs under attack has become very important. The answer to this need is a simulation testbed which can be used to simulate the UAV Network (UAVNet. One of these attempts is - UAVSim (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulation testbed developed at the University of Toledo. It has the capability of simulating large UAV networks as well as small UAV networks with large number of attack nodes. In this paper, we analyse the performance of the simulation testbed for two attacks, targeting single and multiple UAVs. Traditional and generic computing resource available in a regular computer laboratory was used. Various evaluation results have been presented and analysed which suggest the suitability of UAVSim for UAVNet attack and swarm simulation applications.

  17. Autonomous target tracking of UAVs based on low-power neural network hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Jin, Zhanpeng; Thiem, Clare; Wysocki, Bryant; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2014-05-01

    Detecting and identifying targets in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and videos have been challenging problems due to various types of image distortion. Moreover, the significantly high processing overhead of existing image/video processing techniques and the limited computing resources available on UAVs force most of the processing tasks to be performed by the ground control station (GCS) in an off-line manner. In order to achieve fast and autonomous target identification on UAVs, it is thus imperative to investigate novel processing paradigms that can fulfill the real-time processing requirements, while fitting the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constrained environment. In this paper, we present a new autonomous target identification approach on UAVs, leveraging the emerging neuromorphic hardware which is capable of massively parallel pattern recognition processing and demands only a limited level of power consumption. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on a micro-UAV platform (Parrot AR Drone) and the CogniMemTMneural network chip, for processing the video data acquired from a UAV camera on the y. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of incorporating emerging neuromorphic hardware into next-generation UAVs and their superior performance and power advantages towards the real-time, autonomous target tracking.

  18. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  19. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  20. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-02-11

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner.

  1. Recording animal vocalizations from a UAV: bat echolocation during roost re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepper, Laura N; Kinniry, Morgan

    2018-05-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are rising in popularity for wildlife monitoring, but direct recordings of animal vocalizations have not yet been accomplished, likely due to the noise generated by the UAV. Echolocating bats, especially Tadarida brasiliensis, are good candidates for UAV recording due to their high-speed, high-altitude flight. Here, we use a UAV to record the signals of bats during morning roost re-entry. We designed a UAV to block the noise of the propellers from the receiving microphone, and report on the characteristics of bioacoustic recordings from a UAV. We report the first published characteristics of echolocation signals from bats during group flight and cave re-entry. We found changes in inter-individual time-frequency shape, suggesting that bats may use differences in call design when sensing in complex groups. Furthermore, our first documented successful recordings of animals in their natural habitat demonstrate that UAVs can be important tools for bioacoustic monitoring, and we discuss the ethical considerations for such monitoring.

  2. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-12-02

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  3. Visual navigation of the UAVs on the basis of 3D natural landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) on the basis of onboard observations of natural landmarks including azimuth and elevation angles. It is assumed that UAV's cameras are able to capture the angular position of reference points and to measure the angles of the sight line. Such measurements involve the real position of UAV in implicit form, and therefore some of nonlinear filters such as Extended Kalman filter (EKF) or others must be used in order to implement these measurements for UAV control. Recently it was shown that modified pseudomeasurement method may be used to control UAV on the basis of the observation of reference points assigned along the UAV path in advance. However, the use of such set of points needs the cumbersome recognition procedure with the huge volume of on-board memory. The natural landmarks serving as such reference points which may be determined on-line can significantly reduce the on-board memory and the computational difficulties. The principal difference of this work is the usage of the 3D reference points coordinates which permits to determine the position of the UAV more precisely and thereby to guide along the path with higher accuracy which is extremely important for successful performance of the autonomous missions. The article suggests the new RANSAC for ISOMETRY algorithm and the use of recently developed estimation and control algorithms for tracking of given reference path under external perturbation and noised angular measurements.

  4. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-01-01

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner. PMID:29439447

  5. Study on the aerodynamic behavior of a UAV with an applied seeder for agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felismina, Raimundo; Silva, Miguel; Mateus, Artur; Malça, Cândida

    2017-06-01

    It is irrefutable that the use of Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Systems (UAVs) in agricultural tasks and on the analysis of health and vegetative conditions represents a powerful tool in modern agriculture. To contribute to the growth of the agriculture economic sector a seeder to be coupled to any type of UAV was previously developed and designed by the authors. This seeder allows for the deposition of seeds with positional accuracy, i.e., seeds are accurately deposited at pre-established distances between plants [1]. This work aims at analyzing the aerodynamic behavior of UAV/Seeder assembly to determine the suitable inclination - among 0°, 15° and 30° - for its takeoff and for its motion during the seeding operation and, in turn, to define the suitable flight plan that increases the batteries autonomy. For this the ANSYS® FLUENT computational tool was used to simulate a wind tunnel which has as principle the Navier-Stokes differential equations, that designates the fluid flow around the UAV/Seeder assembly. The aerodynamic results demonstrated that for take-off the UAV inclination of 30° is the aerodynamically most favorable position due to the lower aerodynamic drag during the climb. Concerning flying motion during the seeding procedure the UAV inclination of 0° is that which leads to lower UAV/Seeder frontal area and drag coefficient.

  6. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  7. Experiment on Uav Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Ict-Integrated Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Wakutsu, R.; Kato, T.; Wakaizumi, T.; Ooishi, T.; Matsuoka, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the 2016 fiscal year the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan started a program integrating construction and ICT in earthwork and concrete placing. The new program named "i-Construction" focusing on productivity improvement adopts such new technologies as UAV photogrammetry and TLS. We report a field experiment to investigate whether the procedures of UAV photogrammetry and TLS following the standards for "i-Construction" are feasible or not. In the experiment we measured an embankment of about 80 metres by 160 metres immediately after earthwork was done on the embankment. We used two sets of UAV and camera in the experiment. One is a larger UAV enRoute Zion QC730 and its onboard camera Sony α6000. The other is a smaller UAV DJI Phantom 4 and its dedicated onboard camera. Moreover, we used a terrestrial laser scanner FARO Focus3D X330 based on the phase shift principle. The experiment results indicate that the procedures of UAV photogrammetry using a QC730 with an α6000 and TLS using a Focus3D X330 following the standards for "i-Construction" would be feasible. Furthermore, the experiment results show that UAV photogrammetry using a lower price UAV Phantom 4 was unable to satisfy the accuracy requirement for "i-Construction." The cause of the low accuracy by Phantom 4 is under investigation. We also found that the difference of image resolution on the ground would not have a great influence on the measurement accuracy in UAV photogrammetry.

  8. Multi-UAV Flight using Virtual Structure Combined with Behavioral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kownacki Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementations of multi-UAV systems can be divided mainly into two different approaches, centralised system that synchronises positions of each vehicle by a ground station and an autonomous system based on decentralised control, which offers more flexibility and independence. Decentralisation of multi-UAV control entails the need for information sharing between all vehicles, what in some cases could be problematic due to a significant amount of data to be sent over the wireless network. To improve the reliability and the throughput of information sharing inside the formation of UAVs, this paper proposes an approach that combines virtual structure with a leader and two flocking behaviours. Each UAV has assigned different virtual migration point referenced to the leader's position which is simultaneously the origin of a formation reference frame. All migration points create together a virtual rigid structure. Each vehicle uses local behaviours of cohesion and repulsion respectively, to track its own assigned point in the structure and to avoid a collision with the previous UAV in the structure. To calculate parameters of local behaviours, each UAV should know position and attitude of the leader to define the formation reference frame and also the actual position of the previous UAV in the structure. Hence, information sharing can be based on a chain of local peer-to-peer communication between two consecutive vehicles in the structure. In such solution, the information about the leader could be sequentially transmitted from one UAV to another. Numerical simulations were prepared and carried out to verify the effectiveness of the presented approach. Trajectories recorded during those simulations show collective, coherence and collision-free flights of the formation created with five UAVs.

  9. The Adaption of the Idea of Divine Message in Both Old and New Testamnets and the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delara Nemati Pirali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   The way by which god communicates with human is considered as one of the most importatnt issues in the theological discussions of Abrahamic religions. According to the old testament teachings, the purpose of the inculcation of divine message is to notify god religion to B'nai Israel (children of Isreal through the chosen god servants and to establish a divine orders obliged based monotheistic society in the holy land. On the other hand, due to its specific understanding of human and divine message , the Christianity offers different concepts, ways and objectives. In this construe, the concept of divine message has been digressioned from its original definition and has been changed to the visualization of Allah (God within the shape of human aiming at complete exploration of divine attributes through making god to be attended among his servants and relasing them from the bound of god orders as well as purification them form inherent sins. In this idea, human is unable to promote himself without visualizing god. The holy Quran Kareem, determines divine message through methods similar to and adopted from those of old testament. The only difference is that in this definition the addressees of the divine message are not given groups of human and its purpose is to promote human being up to "god servant" level as well as to manifest divine attributes inside people by making them to be obliged to religion requirements and to be submit to the will of god. According to the teachings of these religions, the holy text of each of them has been guaranteed by god and their texts are reliable and are considered as complete proof.

  10. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpandian, T; Saha, K; Ravi, A K; Kumari, S S; Biswas, N R; Ghose, S

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature of the colors used and their toxicity to the eye upon exposure to them during celebration of Holi (our festival-of-colors). Color powders and formulations were procured at random in and around Delhi during the festival. The green/bluish-green colors reported with the higher incidence of ocular toxicity were subjected for further evaluation. Eyewash fluid collected from the patients exposed to the colors was also subjected for analysis. This study was further extended to evaluate the corneal penetration of malachite green using goat cornea in perfusion chamber. In 16/18 color samples collected, malachite green or 4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline was detected at different concentrations. In the eyewash fluid of four patients, HPLC estimation confirmed the presence of malachite green at concentrations of 1.3, 0.18, 3.5 and 5.4 microg in 250 ml which was responsible for its reported toxicity. The in vitrotrans-corneal penetration studies did not show any detectable amount of malachite green in effluent fluid-in vitro tissue retention studies revealed that increasing the contact time increases tissue concentration. After 2 min of exposure, the tissue concentration was significantly higher. To conclude, malachite green was extensively used in our festival of Holi and has caused severe ocular irritation with epithelial defect upon exposure, though it did not penetrate through the cornea-further in vitro and in vivo studies are required on colors used in Holi.

  11. Effects of Recitation of Holy Quran on Anxiety of Women before Cesarean Section: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members and experimental group (50 members. Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001, but not in the control group.(P=0.98 Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002.Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.

  12. Brief communication: Landslide motion from cross correlation of UAV-derived morphological attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, Maria V.; Mills, Jon P.; Moore, Phil; Miller, Pauline E.; Chambers, Jonathan E.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide observations of high spatio-temporal resolution to enable operational landslide monitoring. In this research, the construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthomosaics from UAV imagery is achieved using structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric procedures. The study examines the additional value that the morphological attribute of openness, amongst others, can provide to surface deformation analysis. Image-cross-correlation functions and DEM subtraction techniques are applied to the SfM outputs. Through the proposed integrated analysis, the automated quantification of a landslide's motion over time is demonstrated, with implications for the wider interpretation of landslide kinematics via UAV surveys.

  13. Evaluation of resampling applied to UAV imagery for weed detection using OBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, I.; Peña Barragán, José Manuel; Torres Sánchez, Jorge; López Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Los vehículos aéreos no tripulados (UAVs) son una tecnología emergente en el estudio de parámetros agrícolas por sus características y por portar sensores en diferente rango espectral. En este trabajo se ha detectado y cartografiado rodales de malas hierbas en fase temprana mediante análisis OBIA para elaborar mapas que optimicen el tratamiento herbicida localizado. Se ha aplicado resampling (resampleo) sobre imágenes tomadas en campo desde un UAV (UAV-I) para crear una nueva imagen con disti...

  14. Development of a variable stability, modular UAV airframe for local research purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monk, John S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available /DPSS Wind tunnel Test CAD Patterns &Moulds Future partners Manufacture XDM 1 Auto pilot spec. A/P design Univ. Stellenbosch A/P manufacture A/P update Manufacture UAVs 1&2 Integrate XM 2D Structural Design A/P integrate Iron Bird... Manufacture XDM 2 Slide 30 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za UAV Systems Integration Laboratory Servos UAV Flight SimulatorIron Bird (XDM) Motors and Controllers Looms Wind Tunnel? Control algorithms Flight models Atmospheric...

  15. Geometry correction Algorithm for UAV Remote Sensing Image Based on Improved Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruian; Liu, Nan; Zeng, Beibei; Chen, Tingting; Yin, Ninghao

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the disadvantage of current geometry correction algorithm for UAV remote sensing image, a new algorithm is proposed. Adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) and RBF neural network are introduced into this algorithm. And combined with the geometry correction principle for UAV remote sensing image, the algorithm and solving steps of AGA-RBF are presented in order to realize geometry correction for UAV remote sensing. The correction accuracy and operational efficiency is improved through optimizing the structure and connection weight of RBF neural network separately with AGA and LMS algorithm. Finally, experiments show that AGA-RBF algorithm has the advantages of high correction accuracy, high running rate and strong generalization ability.

  16. UAV Control on the Basis of 3D Landmark Bearing-Only Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-11-27

    The article presents an approach to the control of a UAV on the basis of 3D landmark observations. The novelty of the work is the usage of the 3D RANSAC algorithm developed on the basis of the landmarks' position prediction with the aid of a modified Kalman-type filter. Modification of the filter based on the pseudo-measurements approach permits obtaining unbiased UAV position estimation with quadratic error characteristics. Modeling of UAV flight on the basis of the suggested algorithm shows good performance, even under significant external perturbations.

  17. Solar Cell to Support Perpetual Flight of High Altitude Long Endurance UAV ITB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqmanul Hakim, Muhammad; Silitonga, Faber Y.; Rosid, Nurhayyan H.; Mochammad Agoes Moelyadi, Ing., Dr.

    2018-04-01

    Research on a High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently being conducted at Bandung Institute of Technology to reach the flight duration needed and to get the solution of today’s challenges, minimizing pollution. Besides the good aerodynamic efficiency needed, energy resource is now becoming important. The energy resource must have a good endurance, easy to get, and of course, less pollution. Discussion in this paper is about the analysis of power needed by HALE UAV while takeoff and cruise flight conditions, and then determine the amount of solar cell and battery needed by the UAV.

  18. Positional quality assessment of orthophotos obtained from sensors onboard multi-rotor UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-11-26

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart.

  19. Increasing the UAV data value by an OBIA methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedrero, Angel; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Rodriguez-Esparragon, Dionisio; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there has been a noteworthy increment of using images registered by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in different remote sensing applications. Sensors boarded on UAVs has lower operational costs and complexity than other remote sensing platforms, quicker turnaround times as well as higher spatial resolution. Concerning this last aspect, particular attention has to be paid on the limitations of classical algorithms based on pixels when they are applied to high resolution images. The objective of this study is to investigate the capability of an OBIA methodology developed for the automatic generation of a digital terrain model of an agricultural area from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and multispectral images registered by a Parrot Sequoia multispectral sensor board on a eBee SQ agricultural drone. The proposed methodology uses a superpixel approach for obtaining context and elevation information used for merging superpixels and at the same time eliminating objects such as trees in order to generate a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the analyzed area. Obtained results show the potential of the approach, in terms of accuracy, when it is compared with a DTM generated by manually eliminating objects.

  20. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.