WorldWideScience

Sample records for uav systems engineering

  1. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  2. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, civil engineering structures are periodically surveyed by qualified technicians (i.e. alpinist) operating visual inspection using heavy mechanical pods. This method is far to be safe, not only for civil engineering structures monitoring staff, but also for users. Due to the unceasing traffic increase, making diversions or closing lanes on bridge becomes more and more difficult. New inspection methods have to be found. One of the most promising technique is to develop inspection method using images acquired by a dedicated monitoring system operating around the civil engineering structures, without disturbing the traffic. In that context, the use of images acquired with an UAV, which fly around the structures is of particular interest. The UAV can be equipped with different vision system (digital camera, infrared sensor, video, etc.). Nonetheless, detection of small distresses on images (like cracks of 1 mm or less) depends on image quality, which is sensitive to internal parameters of the UAV (vibration modes, video exposure times, etc.) and to external parameters (turbulence, bad illumination of the scene, etc.). Though progresses were made at UAV level and at sensor level (i.e. optics), image deterioration is still an open problem. These deteriorations are mainly represented by motion blur that can be coupled with out-of-focus blur and observation noise on acquired images. In practice, deteriorations are unknown if no a priori information is available or dedicated additional instrumentation is set-up at UAV level. Image restoration processing is therefore required. This is a difficult problem [1-3] which has been intensively studied over last decades [4-12]. Image restoration can be addressed by following a blind approach or a myopic one. In both cases, it includes two processing steps that can be implemented in sequential or alternate mode. The first step carries out the identification of the blur impulse response and the second one makes use of this

  3. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  4. RECONNAISSANCE MICRO UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Gabrlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of the Uranus UAV. This quad-rotor flying robot was created to extend the abilities of the hitherto developed with airborne missions. The first part deals with the mathematical model of the robot. Next, the control system is designed, and the proposed hardware as well as the implemented software solution are presented. For integration into the robotic system, a new communication protocol was created and is described here too.

  5. Dragon Drone UAV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-02

    TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dragon Drone UAV System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A E R O S Y S T E M S BAI’s Dragon Drone ...the hundreds. BAI’s Dragon Drone system is the result of combining new ideas and emerging technologies with the in-depth knowl- edge gained from real

  6. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  7. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  8. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  9. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  10. SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin Martínez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms This thesis describes the optimization of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at X-band and its integration into an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) of type octocopter. For such optimization the SAR system functionality was extended from singlepol to fulpol and it has been optimized at hardware level in order to improve its quality against noise figure. After its integration into the octocopter platform, its features has been used in order to ...

  11. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  12. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Itkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air. An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery. The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  13. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  14. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    UAVs (Raven, Wasp, and Puma) do not advertise any payload capability, the Tier I operators that Team Bravo contacted claimed small payload...www.ncca.navy.mil/services/inflation.cfm (accessed February 2011). Net Resources International. "Javelin Anti- Armour Missile." Army-Technology.com. 2011. http

  15. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  16. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  17. UAV Swarm Operational Risk Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    are detected, clear monitoring is required to track and identify the possible intentions of inbound UAVs. And when a target is identified, enough...armed UAVs (Davis et al. 2014). Although manufacturers in the U.S. and Israel dominate the global UAV market (approximately 75 percent share between

  18. A system of UAV application in indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported on this ......In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported...... on this topic. This paper presents a detailed study on several UAV systems and UAV scheduling systems. It is followed by a proposed system of UAV application in indoor environment, which comprises components of UAV system addressed in detail; focused on scheduler as the heart of operations. Consequently, system...... architecture of UAV scheduling system is presented and the framework of scheduler component is included. Scheduler component works in a phased manner to provide a systematic abstraction and achieve an efficient computation time. This study serves as a reference guide for UAV application in indoor environment....

  19. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  20. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2018-02-12

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  1. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  2. Current development of UAV sense and avoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhahir, A.; Razali, A.; Mohd Ajir, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now gaining high interests from civil and commercialised market, the automatic sense and avoid (SAA) system is currently one of the essential features in research spotlight of UAV. Several sensor types employed in current SAA research and technology of sensor fusion that offers a great opportunity in improving detection and tracking system are presented here. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of SAA system development in general, as well as the current challenges facing UAV researchers and designers.

  3. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Zin Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  4. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  5. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  6. Application Possibility of Smartphone as Payload for Photogrammetric Uav System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE), which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  8. Radar sensing via a Micro-UAV-borne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco; Rodi Vetrella, Amedeo; Fasano, Giancarmine

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the miniaturization of flight control systems and payloads has contributed to a fast and widespread diffusion of micro-UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle). While micro-UAV can be a powerful tool in several civil applications such as environmental monitoring and surveillance, unleashing their full potential for societal benefits requires augmenting their sensing capability beyond the realm of active/passive optical sensors [1]. In this frame, radar systems are drawing attention since they allow performing missions in all-weather and day/night conditions and, thanks to the microwave ability to penetrate opaque media, they enable the detection and localization not only of surface objects but also of sub-surface/hidden targets. However, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging represents still a new frontier, since it is much more than a matter of technology miniaturization or payload installation, which can take advantage of the newly developed ultralight systems. Indeed, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging entails scientific challenges in terms of electromagnetic modeling and knowledge of flight dynamics and control. As a consequence, despite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a traditional remote sensing tool, its adaptation to micro-UAV is an open issue and so far only few case studies concerning the integration of SAR and UAV technologies have been reported worldwide [2]. In addition, only early results concerning subsurface imaging by means of an UAV-mounted radar are available [3]. As a contribution to radar imaging via autonomous micro-UAV, this communication presents a proof-of-concept experiment. This experiment represents the first step towards the development of a general methodological approach that exploits expertise about (sub-)surface imaging and aerospace systems with the aim to provide high-resolution images of the surveyed scene. In details, at the conference, we will present the results of a flight campaign carried out by using a single radar

  9. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment....

  10. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  11. Semiautonomous Avionics-and-Sensors System for a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar

    2006-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) autonomous or remotely controlled pilotless aircraft have been recently thrust into the spotlight for military applications, for homeland security, and as test beds for research. In addition to these functions, there are many space applications in which lightweight, inexpensive, small UAVS can be used e.g., to determine the chemical composition and other qualities of the atmospheres of remote planets. Moreover, on Earth, such UAVs can be used to obtain information about weather in various regions; in particular, they can be used to analyze wide-band acoustic signals to aid in determining the complex dynamics of movement of hurricanes. The Advanced Sensors and Electronics group at Langley Research Center has developed an inexpensive, small, integrated avionics-and-sensors system to be installed in a UAV that serves two purposes. The first purpose is to provide flight data to an AI (Artificial Intelligence) controller as part of an autonomous flight-control system. The second purpose is to store data from a subsystem of distributed MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors. Examples of these MEMS sensors include humidity, temperature, and acoustic sensors, plus chemical sensors for detecting various vapors and other gases in the environment. The critical sensors used for flight control are a differential- pressure sensor that is part of an apparatus for determining airspeed, an absolute-pressure sensor for determining altitude, three orthogonal accelerometers for determining tilt and acceleration, and three orthogonal angular-rate detectors (gyroscopes). By using these eight sensors, it is possible to determine the orientation, height, speed, and rates of roll, pitch, and yaw of the UAV. This avionics-and-sensors system is shown in the figure. During the last few years, there has been rapid growth and advancement in the technological disciplines of MEMS, of onboard artificial-intelligence systems, and of smaller, faster, and

  12. Parametric analysis of a down-scaled turbo jet engine suitable for drone and UAV propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessley, G. Jims John; Chauhan, Swati

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the need for downscaling gas turbine engines for UAV and drone propulsion. Also, the procedure for downscaling and the parametric analysis of a downscaled engine using Gas Turbine Simulation Program software GSP 11 is presented. The need for identifying a micro gas turbine engine in the thrust range of 0.13 to 4.45 kN to power UAVs and drones weighing in the range of 4.5 to 25 kg is considered and in order to meet the requirement a parametric analysis on the scaled down Allison J33-A-35 Turbojet engine is performed. It is evident from the analysis that the thrust developed by the scaled engine and the Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption TSFC depends on pressure ratio, mass flow rate of air and Mach number. A scaling factor of 0.195 corresponding to air mass flow rate of 7.69 kg/s produces a thrust in the range of 4.57 to 5.6 kN while operating at a Mach number of 0.3 within the altitude of 5000 to 9000 m. The thermal and overall efficiency of the scaled engine is found to be 67% and 75% respectively for a pressure ratio of 2. The outcomes of this analysis form a strong base for further analysis, design and fabrication of micro gas turbine engines to propel future UAVs and drones.

  13. BENCHMARKING THE OPTICAL RESOLVING POWER OF UAV BASED CAMERA SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meißner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  14. System Identification and Verification of Rotorcraft UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Zachary M.

    The task of a controls engineer is to design and implement control logic. To complete this task, it helps tremendously to have an accurate model of the system to be controlled. Obtaining a very accurate system model is not a trivial one, as much time and money is usually associated with the development of such a model. A typical physics based approach can require hundreds of hours of flight time. In an iterative process the model is tuned in such a way that it accurately models the physical system's response. This process becomes even more complicated for unstable and highly non-linear systems such as the dynamics of rotorcraft. An alternate approach to solving this problem is to extract an accurate model by analyzing the frequency response of the system. This process involves recording the system's responses for a frequency range of input excitations. From this data, an accurate system model can then be deduced. Furthermore, it has been shown that with use of the software package CIFER® (Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses), this process can both greatly reduce the cost of modeling a dynamic system and produce very accurate results. The topic of this thesis is to apply CIFER® to a quadcopter to extract a system model for the flight condition of hover. The quadcopter itself is comprised of off-the-shelf components with a Pixhack flight controller board running open source Ardupilot controller logic. In this thesis, both the closed and open loop systems are identified. The model is next compared to dissimilar flight data and verified in the time domain. Additionally, the ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) motor/rotor subsystem, which is comprised of all the vehicle's actuators, is also identified. This process required the development of a test bench environment, which included a GUI (Graphical User Interface), data pre and post processing, as well as the augmentation of the flight controller source code. This augmentation of code allowed for

  15. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  16. UAV Flight Control Based on RTX System Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Duan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes RTX and Matlab UAV flight control system simulation platform based on the advantages and disadvantages of Windows and real-time system RTX. In the simulation platform, we set the RTW toolbox configuration and modify grt_main.c in order to make simulation platform endowed with online parameter adjustment, fault injection. Meanwhile, we develop the interface of the system simulation platform by CVI, thus it makes effective and has good prospects in application. In order to improve the real-time performance of simulation system, the current computer of real-time simulation mostly use real-time operating system to solve simulation model, as well as dual- framework containing in Host and target machine. The system is complex, high cost, and generally used for the control and half of practical system simulation. For the control system designers, they expect to design control law at a computer with Windows-based environment and conduct real-time simulation. This paper proposes simulation platform for UAV flight control system based on RTX and Matlab for this demand.

  17. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  18. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  19. Design of Electric Patrol UAVs Based on a Dual Antenna System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China completed the construction of more than 1.15 million kilometers of transmission lines with conventional voltage levels spanning its vast territory in 2014. This large and complicated power grid structure relies mainly on manual operation and maintenance of lines. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs equipped with high-definition digital video cameras and cameras and GPS positioning systems can conduct autonomous patrols along the grid. However, the presence of electromagnetic fields around high-voltage transmission lines can affect the UAV’s magnetometer, resulting in a wrong heading and thus unsafe flight. In this paper, the traditional method of UAV heading calculation using a magnetometer was analyzed, and a novel method for calculating UAV heading based on dual antennas was proposed. Experimental data showed that the proposed method improves the anti-magnetic interference characteristics of UAVs and increases UAV security and stability for power inspection applications.

  20. Next Generation UAV Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, UAVs used in environmental monitoring mostly collect low spectral resolution imagery, capable of retrieving canopy greenness or properties related water...

  1. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  2. LUNA: low-flying UAV-based forest monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Pereira, Luísa; Pinto, Glória; Alves, Artur; Barros, Antonio; Boogert, Frans-Joost; Cambra, Sílvia; de Jesus, Cláudia; Frankenbach, Silja; Mesquita, Raquel; Serôdio, João; Martins, José; Almendra, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The LUNA project is aiming to develop an information system for precision forestry and, in particular, the monitoring of eucalypt plantations that is first and foremost based on multi-spectral imagery acquired using low-flying uav's. The presentation will focus on the first phase of image acquisition, processing and analysis for a series of pot experiments addressing main threats for early-stage eucalypt plantations in Portugal, i.e. acute , chronic and cyclic hydric stress, nutrient stress, fungal infections and insect plague attacks. The imaging results will be compared with spectroscopic measurements as well as with eco-physiological and plant morphological measurements. Furthermore, the presentation will show initial results of the project's second phase, comprising field tests in existing eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal.

  3. A Robust H∞ Controller for an UAV Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of a robust H∞ controller for an UAV to track all types of manoeuvres in the presence of noisy environment. A robust inner-outer loop strategy is implemented. To design the H∞ robust controller in the inner loop, H∞ control methodology is used. The two controllers that conform the outer loop are designed using the H∞ Loop Shaping technique. The reference vector used in the control architecture formed by vertical velocity, true airspeed, and heading angle, suggests a nontraditional way to pilot the aircraft. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme works well despite the presence of noise and uncertainties, so the control system satisfies the requirements.

  4. The System Design of a Global Communications System for Military and Commercial use Utilizing High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    This thesis proposes the design of the UAV-LMDS communication system for military and commercial use. The UAV-LMDS system is a digital, wireless communication system that provides service using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flying at 60,000 ft. acting as communication hubs. This thesis provides background information on UAV-LMDS system elements, a financial analysis, theory, link budgets, system component design and implementation issues. To begin the design, we develop link budgets t...

  5. a Three-Dimensional Simulation and Visualization System for Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Qu, Y.; Cui, T.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays UAVs has been widely used for large-scale surveying and mapping. Compared with manned aircraft, UAVs are more cost-effective and responsive. However, UAVs are usually more sensitive to wind condition, which greatly influences their positions and orientations. The flight height of a UAV is relative low, and the relief of the terrain may result in serious occlusions. Moreover, the observations acquired by the Position and Orientation System (POS) are usually less accurate than those acquired in manned aerial photogrammetry. All of these factors bring in uncertainties to UAV photogrammetry. To investigate these uncertainties, a three-dimensional simulation and visualization system has been developed. The system is demonstrated with flight plan evaluation, image matching, POS-supported direct georeferencing, and ortho-mosaicing. Experimental results show that the presented system is effective for flight plan evaluation. The generated image pairs are accurate and false matches can be effectively filtered. The presented system dynamically visualizes the results of direct georeferencing in three-dimensions, which is informative and effective for real-time target tracking and positioning. The dynamically generated orthomosaic can be used in emergency applications. The presented system has also been used for teaching theories and applications of UAV photogrammetry.

  6. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secure Utilization of Beacons and UAVs in Emergency Response Systems for Building Fire Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Jung-In; Song, Jinseok

    2017-09-25

    An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose a monitoring and emergency response method for buildings by utilizing beacons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an IoT security platform. In order to demonstrate the practicability of our method, we also implement a proof of concept prototype, which we call the UAV-EMOR (UAV-assisted Emergency Monitoring and Response) system. Our UAV-EMOR system provides the following novel features: (1) secure communications between UAVs, smart sensors, the control server and a smartphone app for security managers; (2) enhanced coordination between smart sensors and indoor/outdoor UAVs to expand real-time monitoring coverage; and (3) beacon-aided rescue and building evacuation.

  8. System Considerations and Challendes in 3d Mapping and Modeling Using Low-Cost Uav Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the last few years, low-cost UAV systems have been acknowledged as an affordable technology for geospatial data acquisition that can meet the needs of a variety of traditional and non-traditional mapping applications. In spite of its proven potential, UAV-based mapping is still lacking in terms of what is needed for it to become an acceptable mapping tool. In other words, a well-designed system architecture that considers payload restrictions as well as the specifications of the utilized direct geo-referencing component and the imaging systems in light of the required mapping accuracy and intended application is still required. Moreover, efficient data processing workflows, which are capable of delivering the mapping products with the specified quality while considering the synergistic characteristics of the sensors onboard, the wide range of potential users who might lack deep knowledge in mapping activities, and time constraints of emerging applications, are still needed to be adopted. Therefore, the introduced challenges by having low-cost imaging and georeferencing sensors onboard UAVs with limited payload capability, the necessity of efficient data processing techniques for delivering required products for intended applications, and the diversity of potential users with insufficient mapping-related expertise needs to be fully investigated and addressed by UAV-based mapping research efforts. This paper addresses these challenges and reviews system considerations, adaptive processing techniques, and quality assurance/quality control procedures for achievement of accurate mapping products from these systems.

  9. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  10. A MICRO-UAV SYSTEM FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hormigo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin.Works has developed a complete micro-UAV system with the purpose of supporting forest management activities. The aircraft is based on a winged-body design spanning 1.8 m with a maximum take-off weight of 2 kg, and can carry out missions lasting up to 2 h at a cruise speed of about 60 km/h. The corresponding ground station ensures the mission planning functions, real-time flight monitoring and visualization, and serves also as a real-time and post-flight data exploitation platform. A particular emphasis is placed on image processing techniques applied to two operational concepts: a fire detection service and a forest mapping service. The real-time operations related to fire detection consist on object tracking and geo-referencing functions, which can be operated by a user directly over the video stream, enabling the quick estimation of the 3D location (latitude, longitude, altitude of suspected fires. The post-flight processing consists of extracting valuable knowledge from the payload data, in particular tree coverage maps, orthophoto mosaics and Digital Surface Models (DSMs, which can be used for further forest characterization such as wood and cork volume estimation. The system is currently entering initial operations, with expanded operations expected during Q3 2013.

  11. Flight route Designing and mission planning Of power line inspecting system Based On multi-sensor UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Xie; Zhengjun, Liu; Zhiquan, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain various information of power facilities such as spatial location, geometry, images data and video information in the infrared and ultraviolet band and so on, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) power line inspecting system needs to integrate a variety of sensors for data collection. Low altitude and side-looking imaging are required for UAV flight to ensure sensors to acquire high-quality data and device security. In this paper, UAV power line inspecting system is deferent from existing ones that used in Surveying and Mapping. According to characteristics of UAV for example equipped multiple sensor, side-looking imaging, working at low altitude, complex terrain conditions and corridor type flight, this paper puts forward a UAV power line inspecting scheme which comprehensively considered of the UAV performance, sensor parameters and task requirements. The scheme is finally tested in a region of Guangdong province, and the preliminary results show that the scheme is feasible

  12. Gimbal system configurations and line-of-sight control techniques for small UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rick; Mooty, Greg; Hilkert, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The proliferation of small Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in the past decade has been driven, in part, by the diverse applications that various industries have found for these platforms. Originally, these applications were predominately military in nature but now include law enforcement/security, environmental monitoring/remote sensing, agricultural surveying, movie making and others. Many of these require sensors/payloads such as cameras, laser pointers/ illuminators/rangefinders and other systems that must be pointed and/or stabilized and therefore require a precision miniature gimbal or other means to control their line-of-sight (LOS). Until now, these markets have been served by traditional/larger gimbals; however, the latest class of small UAVs demands much smaller gimbals while maintaining high-performance. The limited size and weight of these gimbaled devices result in design challenges unique to the small-gimbal design field. In the past five years, Ascendant Engineering Solutions has engaged in designing, analyzing and building several small-gimbal systems to meet these challenges and has undertaken a number of trade studies to investigate techniques to achieve optimal performance within the inherent limitations mentioned above. These have included investigating various gimbal configurations, feedback sensors such as gyros, IMUs and encoders, drive train configurations, control system techniques, packaging and interconnect, as well as technology such as fast-steering mirrors and image-stabilization algorithms. This paper summarizes the results of these trade studies, attempts to identify inherent trends and limitations in the various design approaches and techniques, and discusses some practical issues such as test and verification.

  13. Modelling and Analysis of Vibrations in a UAV Helicopter with a Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nicolás Marichal Plasencia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the nature and damping of unwanted vibrations on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV helicopters are important tasks when images from on-board vision systems are to be obtained. In this article, the authors model a UAV system, generate a range of vibrations originating in the main rotor and design a control methodology in order to damp these vibrations. The UAV is modelled using VehicleSim, the vibrations that appear on the fuselage are analysed to study their effects on the on-board vision system by using Simmechanics software. Following this, the authors present a control method based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS to achieve satisfactory damping results over the vision system on board.

  14. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  15. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  16. Design and Testing of a Combustor for a Turbo-Ramjet Engine for UAV and Missile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    CA, September 1999. 6. Al- Namani , S . M., Development of Shrouded Turbojet to Form a Turboramjet for Future Missile Applications, Master’s Thesis...Turbo- ramjet Engine for UAV and Missile Applications 6. AUTHOR( S ) Ross H. Piper III 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S

  17. Magnetic profiling of the San Andreas Fault using a dual magnetometer UAV aerial survey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, J. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Masongsong, E. V.; Yang, J.; Medina, H. R.; Moon, S.; Davis, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic survey methods using planes are more time-effective than hand-held methods, but can be far more expensive per unit area unless large areas are covered. The availability of low cost UAVs and low cost, lightweight fluxgate magnetometers (FGMs) allows, with proper offset determination and stray fields correction, for low-cost magnetic surveys. Towards that end, we have developed a custom multicopter UAV for magnetic mapping using a dual 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer system: the GEOphysical Drone Enhanced Survey Instrument (GEODESI). A high precision sensor measures the UAV's position and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) and is recorded using a custom Arduino data processing system. The two FGMs (in-board and out-board) are placed on two ends of a vertical 1m boom attached to the base of the UAV. The in-board FGM is most sensitive to stray fields from the UAV and its signal is used, after scaling, to clean the signal of the out-board FGM from the vehicle noise. The FGMs record three orthogonal components of the magnetic field in the UAV body coordinates which are then transformed into a north-east-down coordinate system using a rotation matrix determined from the roll-pitch-yaw attitude data. This ensures knowledge of the direction of all three field components enabling us to perform inverse modeling of magnetic anomalies with greater accuracy than total or vertical field measurements used in the past. Field tests were performed at Dragon's Back Pressure Ridge in the Carrizo Plain of California, where there is a known crossing of the San Andreas Fault. Our data and models were compared to previously acquired LiDAR and hand-held magnetometer measurements. Further tests will be carried out to solidify our results and streamline our processing for educational use in the classroom and student field training.

  18. Two-UAV Intersection Localization System Based on the Airborne Optoelectronic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guanbing; Liu, Jinghong; Song, Yueming; Zuo, Yujia

    2017-01-06

    To address the limitation of the existing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) photoelectric localization method used for moving objects, this paper proposes an improved two-UAV intersection localization system based on airborne optoelectronic platforms by using the crossed-angle localization method of photoelectric theodolites for reference. This paper introduces the makeup and operating principle of intersection localization system, creates auxiliary coordinate systems, transforms the LOS (line of sight, from the UAV to the target) vectors into homogeneous coordinates, and establishes a two-UAV intersection localization model. In this paper, the influence of the positional relationship between UAVs and the target on localization accuracy has been studied in detail to obtain an ideal measuring position and the optimal localization position where the optimal intersection angle is 72.6318°. The result shows that, given the optimal position, the localization root mean square error (RMS) will be 25.0235 m when the target is 5 km away from UAV baselines. Finally, the influence of modified adaptive Kalman filtering on localization results is analyzed, and an appropriate filtering model is established to reduce the localization RMS error to 15.7983 m. Finally, An outfield experiment was carried out and obtained the optimal results: σ B = 1.63 × 10 - 4 ( ° ) , σ L = 1.35 × 10 - 4 ( ° ) , σ H = 15.8 ( m ) , σ s u m = 27.6 ( m ) , where σ B represents the longitude error, σ L represents the latitude error, σ H represents the altitude error, and σ s u m represents the error radius.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Fully Autonomous UAV's Navigator Based on Omni-directional Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Kasaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are the subject of an increasing interest in many applications . UAVs are seeing more widespread use in military, scenic, and civilian sectors in recent years. Autonomy is one of the major advantages of these vehicles. It is then necessary to develop particular sensor in order to provide efficient navigation functions. The helicopter has been stabilized with visual information through the control loop. Omni directional vision can be a useful sensor for this propose. It can be used as the only sensor or as complementary sensor. In this paper , we propose a novel method for path planning on an UAV based on electrical potential .We are using an omni directional vision system for navigating and path planning.

  20. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett

    2007-09-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges

  1. Integrating UAV Flight outputs in Esri's CityEngine for semi-urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Sandric, Ionut

    2016-04-01

    One of the most pervasive technologies of recent years, which has crossed over into consumer products due to its lowering prince, is the UAV, commonly known as drones. Besides its ever-more accessible prices and growing functionality, what is truly impressive is the drastic reduction in processing time, from days to ours: from the initial flight preparation to the final output. This paper presents such a workflow and goes further by integrating the outputs into another growing technology: 3D. The software used for this purpose is Esri's CityEngine, which was developed for modeling 3D urban environments using existing 2D GIS data and computer generated architecture (CGA) rules, instead of modeling each feature individually. A semi-urban areas was selected for this study and captured using the E-Bee from Parrot. The output point cloud elevation from the E-Bee flight was transformed into a raster in order to be used as an elevation surface in CityEngine, and the mosaic raster dataset was draped over this surface. In order to model the buildings in this area CGA rules were written using the building footprints, as inputs, in the form of Feature Classes. The extrusion heights for the buildings were also extracted from the point cloud, and realistic textures were draped over the 3D building models. Finally the scene was shared as a 3D web-scene which can be accessed by anyone through a link, without any software besides an internet browser. This can serve as input for Smart City development through further analysis for urban ecology Keywords: 3D, drone, CityEngine, E-Bee, Esri, scene, web-scene

  2. failure analysis of a uav flight control system using markov analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure analysis of a flight control system proposed for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied using Markov Analysis (MA). It was perceived that understanding of the number of failure states and the probability of being in those state are of paramount importance in order to ...

  3. On the throughput of cognitive radio MIMO systems assisted with UAV relays

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the achievable rates of a cognitive radio MIMO system assisted by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi

  4. Development of a Data Acquisition System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Donald Joseph

    Aircraft system identification techniques are developed for fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The use of a designed flight experiment with measured system inputs/outputs can be used to derive aircraft stability derivatives. This project set out to develop a methodology to support an experiment to model pitch damping in the longitudinal short-period mode of a UAV. A Central Composite Response Surface Design was formed using angle of attack and power levels as factors to test for the pitching moment coefficient response induced by a multistep pitching maneuver. Selecting a high-quality data acquisition platform was critical to the success of the project. This system was designed to support fixed wing research through the addition of a custom air data vane capable of measuring angle of attack and sideslip, as well as an airspeed sensor. A Pixhawk autopilot system serves as the core and modification of the device firmware allowed for the integration of custom sensors and custom RC channels dedicated to performing system identification maneuvers. Tests were performed on all existing Pixhawk sensors to validate stated uncertainty values. The air data system was calibrated in a low speed wind tunnel and dynamic performance was verified. The assembled system was then installed in a commercially available UAV known as an Air Titan FPV in order to test the Pixhawk's automated flight maneuvers and determine the final performance of each sensor. Flight testing showed all the critical sensors produced acceptable data for further research. The Air Titan FPV airframe was found to be very flexible and did not lend itself well to accurate measurement of inertial properties. This realization prohibited the construction of the required math models for longitudinal dynamics. It is recommended that future projects using the developed methods choose an aircraft with a more rigid airframe.

  5. Design of uav robust autopilot based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohand Achour Touat

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  This paper is devoted to the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems to the robust control of the UAV longitudinal motion. The adaptive neore-fuzzy inference system model needs to be trained by input/output data. This data were obtained from the modeling of a ”crisp” robust control system. The synthesis of this system is based on the separation theorem, which defines the structure and parameters of LQG-optimal controller, and further - robust optimization of this controller, based on the genetic algorithm. Such design procedure can define the rule base and parameters of fuzzyfication and defuzzyfication algorithms of the adaptive neore-fuzzy inference system controller, which ensure the robust properties of the control system. Simulation of the closed loop control system of UAV longitudinal motion with adaptive neore-fuzzy inference system controller demonstrates high efficiency of proposed design procedure.

  6. Design of rapid prototype of UAV line-of-sight stabilized control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Liting; Li, Yinlong; Yu, Fei; Lin, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    The line-of-sight (LOS) stable platform is the most important technology of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), which can reduce the effect to imaging quality from vibration and maneuvering of the aircraft. According to the requirement of LOS stability system (inertial and optical-mechanical combined method) and UAV's structure, a rapid prototype is designed using based on industrial computer using Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Windows RTX to exchange information. The paper shows the control structure, and circuit system including the inertial stability control circuit with gyro and voice coil motor driven circuit, the optical-mechanical stability control circuit with fast-steering-mirror (FSM) driven circuit and image-deviation-obtained system, outer frame rotary follower, and information-exchange system on PC. Test results show the stability accuracy reaches 5μrad, and prove the effectiveness of the combined line-of-sight stabilization control system, and the real-time rapid prototype runs stable.

  7. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr_3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A small-sized UAV airborne sensor system was developed. • Three radioactive models were chosen to simulate the Fukushima accident. • Both the air and ground radiation were considered in the models. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values were given. • The sensor system is able to monitor in serious nuclear accidents.

  8. Cooperative Monocular-Based SLAM for Multi-UAV Systems in GPS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Juan-Carlos; Munguia, Rodrigo; Guerra, Edmundo; Grau, Antoni

    2018-04-26

    This work presents a cooperative monocular-based SLAM approach for multi-UAV systems that can operate in GPS-denied environments. The main contribution of the work is to show that, using visual information obtained from monocular cameras mounted onboard aerial vehicles flying in formation, the observability properties of the whole system are improved. This fact is especially notorious when compared with other related visual SLAM configurations. In order to improve the observability properties, some measurements of the relative distance between the UAVs are included in the system. These relative distances are also obtained from visual information. The proposed approach is theoretically validated by means of a nonlinear observability analysis. Furthermore, an extensive set of computer simulations is presented in order to validate the proposed approach. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed system is able to provide a good position and orientation estimation of the aerial vehicles flying in formation.

  9. Design of Power Cable UAV Intelligent Patrol System Based on Adaptive Kalman Filter Fuzzy PID Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patrol UAV has poor aerial posture stability and is largely affected by anthropic factors, which lead to some shortages such as low power cable tracking precision, captured image loss and inconvenient temperature measurement, etc. In order to solve these disadvantages, this article puts forward a power cable intelligent patrol system. The core innovation of the system is a 360° platform. This collects the position information of power cables by using far infrared sensors and carries out real-time all-direction adjustment of UAV lifting platform through the adaptive Kalman filter fuzzy PID control algorithm, so that the precise tracking of power cables is achieved. An intelligent patrol system is established to detect the faults more accurately, so that a high intelligence degree of power cable patrol system is realized.

  10. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  11. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  12. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  13. Real-Time Reliability Verification for UAV Flight Control System Supporting Airworthiness Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the real-time reliability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system and comply with the airworthiness certification standard, we proposed a model-based integration framework for modeling and verification of time property. Combining with the advantages of MARTE, this framework uses class diagram to create the static model of software system, and utilizes state chart to create the dynamic model. In term of the defined transformation rules, the MARTE model could be transformed to formal integrated model, and the different part of the model could also be verified by using existing formal tools. For the real-time specifications of software system, we also proposed a generating algorithm for temporal logic formula, which could automatically extract real-time property from time-sensitive live sequence chart (TLSC). Finally, we modeled the simplified flight control system of UAV to check its real-time property. The results showed that the framework could be used to create the system model, as well as precisely analyze and verify the real-time reliability of UAV flight control system.

  14. Budget Uav Systems for the Prospection of - and Medium-Scale Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, W.; Hanus, K.

    2016-06-01

    One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer) grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make prospection highly

  15. BUDGET UAV SYSTEMS FOR THE PROSPECTION OF SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SCALE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ostrowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make

  16. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-12-17

    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  17. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  18. Mobile 3d Mapping with a Low-Cost Uav System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, F.; Klonowski, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this contribution it is shown how an UAV system can be built at low costs. The components of the system, the equipment as well as the control software are presented. Furthermore an implemented programme for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution are described. The main focus of this contribution is on the generation of 3D point clouds from digital imagery. For this web services and free software solutions are presented which automatically generate 3D point clouds from arbitrary image configurations. Possibilities of georeferencing are described whereas the achieved accuracy has been determined. The presented workflow is finally used for the acquisition of 3D geodata. On the example of a landfill survey it is shown that marketable products can be derived using a low-cost UAV.

  19. Design and implementation for integrated UAV multi-spectral inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, X.; Yan, F.

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the working efficiency of the transmission line inspection and reduce the labour intensity of the inspectors, this paper presents an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) inspection system architecture for the transmission line inspection. In this document, the light-duty design for different inspection equipment and processing terminals is completed. It presents the reference design for the information-processing terminal, supporting the inspection and interactive equipment accessing, and obtains all performance indicators of the inspection information processing through the tests. Practical application shows that the UAV inspection system supports access and management of different types of mainstream fault detection equipment, and can implement the independent diagnosis of the detected information to generate inspection reports in line with industry norms, which can meet the fast, timely, and efficient requirements for the power line inspection work.

  20. Development of a UAV-LiDAR System with Application to Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Turner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Light Detecting and Ranging (UAV-LiDAR system and an accompanying workflow to produce 3D point clouds. UAV systems provide an unrivalled combination of high temporal and spatial resolution datasets. The TerraLuma UAV-LiDAR system has been developed to take advantage of these properties and in doing so overcome some of the current limitations of the use of this technology within the forestry industry. A modified processing workflow including a novel trajectory determination algorithm fusing observations from a GPS receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a High Definition (HD video camera is presented. The advantages of this workflow are demonstrated using a rigorous assessment of the spatial accuracy of the final point clouds. It is shown that due to the inclusion of video the horizontal accuracy of the final point cloud improves from 0.61 m to 0.34 m (RMS error assessed against ground control. The effect of the very high density point clouds (up to 62 points per m2 produced by the UAV-LiDAR system on the measurement of tree location, height and crown width are also assessed by performing repeat surveys over individual isolated trees. The standard deviation of tree height is shown to reduce from 0.26 m, when using data with a density of 8 points perm2, to 0.15mwhen the higher density data was used. Improvements in the uncertainty of the measurement of tree location, 0.80 m to 0.53 m, and crown width, 0.69 m to 0.61 m are also shown.

  1. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  2. Comparison of Uncalibrated Rgbvi with Spectrometer-Based Ndvi Derived from Uav Sensing Systems on Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareth, G.; Bolten, A.; Gnyp, M. L.; Reusch, S.; Jasper, J.

    2016-06-01

    The development of UAV-based sensing systems for agronomic applications serves the improvement of crop management. The latter is in the focus of precision agriculture which intends to optimize yield, fertilizer input, and crop protection. Besides, in some cropping systems vehicle-based sensing devices are less suitable because fields cannot be entered from certain growing stages onwards. This is true for rice, maize, sorghum, and many more crops. Consequently, UAV-based sensing approaches fill a niche of very high resolution data acquisition on the field scale in space and time. While mounting RGB digital compact cameras to low-weight UAVs (modified version of the Yara N-Sensor. The latter is a well-established tractor-based hyperspectral sensor for crop management and is available on the market since a decade. It was modified for this study to fit the requirements of UAV-based data acquisition. Consequently, we focus on three objectives in this contribution: (1) to evaluate the potential of the uncalibrated RGBVI for monitoring nitrogen status in winter wheat, (2) investigate the UAV-based performance of the modified Yara N-Sensor, and (3) compare the results of the two different UAV-based sensing approaches for winter wheat.

  3. Development of an Effective System Identification and Control Capability for Quad-copter UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    In recent years, with the promise of extensive commercial applications, the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has dramatically increased as witnessed by publications and mushrooming research and educational programs. Over the years, multi-copter aircraft have been chosen as a viable configuration for small-scale VTOL UAVs in the form of quad-copters, hexa-copters and octo-copters. Compared to the single main rotor configuration such as the conventional helicopter, multi-copter airframes require a simpler feedback control system and fewer mechanical parts. These characteristics make these UAV platforms, such as quad-copter which is the main emphasis in this dissertation, a rugged and competitive candidate for many applications in both military and civil areas. Because of its configuration and relative size, the small-scale quad-copter UAV system is inherently very unstable. In order to develop an effective control system through simulation techniques, obtaining an accurate dynamic model of a given quad-copter is imperative. Moreover, given the anticipated stringent safety requirements, fault tolerance will be a crucial component of UAV certification. Accurate dynamic modeling and control of this class of UAV is an enabling technology and is imperative for future commercial applications. In this work, the dynamic model of a quad-copter system in hover flight was identified using frequency-domain system identification techniques. A new and unique experimental system, data acquisition and processing procedure was developed catering specifically to the class of electric powered multi-copter UAV systems. The Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER RTM) software package, developed by US Army Aviation Development Directorate -- AFDD, was utilized along with flight tests to develop dynamic models of the quad-copter system. A new set of flight tests were conducted and the predictive capability of the dynamic models were successfully validated

  4. Using infrared HOG-based pedestrian detection for outdoor autonomous searching UAV with embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanhua; Mei, Yanying; Chu, Hongyu; Chang, Zhiyuan; He, Yuxuan; Zhan, Huayi

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection (PD) is an important application domain in computer vision and pattern recognition. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a major field of research in recent years. In this paper, an algorithm for a robust pedestrian detection method based on the combination of the infrared HOG (IR-HOG) feature and SVM is proposed for highly complex outdoor scenarios on the basis of airborne IR image sequences from UAV. The basic flow of our application operation is as follows. Firstly, the thermal infrared imager (TAU2-336), which was installed on our Outdoor Autonomous Searching (OAS) UAV, is used for taking pictures of the designated outdoor area. Secondly, image sequences collecting and processing were accomplished by using high-performance embedded system with Samsung ODROID-XU4 and Ubuntu as the core and operating system respectively, and IR-HOG features were extracted. Finally, the SVM is used to train the pedestrian classifier. Experiment show that, our method shows promising results under complex conditions including strong noise corruption, partial occlusion etc.

  5. Direct Georeferencing of a Pushbroom, Lightweight Hyperspectral System for Mini-UAV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jaud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imagery has proven its potential in many research applications, especially in the field of environmental sciences. Currently, hyperspectral imaging is generally performed by satellite or aircraft platforms, but mini-UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle platforms (<20 kg are now emerging. On such platforms, payload restrictions are critical, so sensors must be selected according to stringent specifications. This article presents the integration of a light pushbroom hyperspectral sensor onboard a multirotor UAV, which we have called Hyper-DRELIO (Hyperspectral DRone for Environmental and LIttoral Observations. This article depicts the system design: the UAV platform, the imaging module, the navigation module, and the interfacing between the different elements. Pushbroom sensors offer a better combination of spatial and spectral resolution than full-frame cameras. Nevertheless, data georectification has to be performed line by line, the quality of direct georeferencing being limited by mechanical stability, good timing accuracy, and the resolution and accuracy of the proprioceptive sensors. A georegistration procedure is proposed for geometrical pre-processing of hyperspectral data. The specifications of Hyper-DRELIO surveys are described through two examples of surveys above coastal or inland waters, with different flight altitudes. This system can collect hyperspectral data in VNIR (Visible and Near InfraRed domain above small study sites (up to about 4 ha with both high spatial resolution (<10 cm and high spectral resolution (1.85 nm and with georectification accuracy on the order of 1 to 2 m.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Miniature Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor for UAV Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiclana, Branden Mark

    This thesis compares the performance of an engine/fuel tank based propulsion system to a motor/battery based propulsion system of equal total mass. The results show that the endurance of the engine/fuel system at the same thrust output is approximately 5 times greater than that of the motor/battery system. This is a direct result of the fact that the specific energy of the fuel is 20 times that of the lithium-polymer batteries used to power the motor. A method is also developed to account for the additional benefits of fuel consumption (and hence weight reduction) over the course of the flight. Accounting for this effect can increase endurance exponentially. Taken together, the results also demonstrate the dramatic performance improvements that are possible simply by replacing motor/battery systems with engine/fuel systems on small unmanned air vehicles.

  7. Achievable Rates of UAV-Relayed Cooperative Cognitive Radio MIMO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the achievable rate of an uplink MIMO cognitive radio system where the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi-access channel through the same unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The SU message is then forwarded from the primary BS to the secondary network with a certain incentive reward as a part of the cooperation protocol between both networks. A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to exploit the PU free eigenmodes. We analyze two scenarios in which the UAV relay gain matrix is either fixed or optimized. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting power budget, interference, and relay power constraints. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain of our proposed scheme with respect to various problem parameters. We also highlight the effect of UAV altitude on the SU and PU rates. Finally, when the relay matrix is optimized, we show that the PU rate is remarkably enhanced and that the SU rate is only improved at high power regime.

  8. Achievable Rates of UAV-Relayed Cooperative Cognitive Radio MIMO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-04-19

    We study the achievable rate of an uplink MIMO cognitive radio system where the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi-access channel through the same unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The SU message is then forwarded from the primary BS to the secondary network with a certain incentive reward as a part of the cooperation protocol between both networks. A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to exploit the PU free eigenmodes. We analyze two scenarios in which the UAV relay gain matrix is either fixed or optimized. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting power budget, interference, and relay power constraints. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain of our proposed scheme with respect to various problem parameters. We also highlight the effect of UAV altitude on the SU and PU rates. Finally, when the relay matrix is optimized, we show that the PU rate is remarkably enhanced and that the SU rate is only improved at high power regime.

  9. On the throughput of cognitive radio MIMO systems assisted with UAV relays

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-07-20

    We analyze the achievable rates of a cognitive radio MIMO system assisted by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi-access channel through the same UAV relay. The SU message is then forwarded from the primary BS to the secondary network with a certain incentive reward as a part of the cooperation protocol between both networks. We propose a special linear precoding scheme to enable the SU to exploit the PU free eigenmodes. We, also, present the expression of the power maximizing both primary and secondary rates under power budget, relay power, and interference constraints. In the numerical results, we evaluate the PU and SU rates of proposed scheme with respect to various problem parameters. We also highlight the effect of the UAV altitude on the SU and PU rates. Finally, we show that the relay matrix variation affects both rates that reach their peaks at different values of the matrix.

  10. Research for new UAV capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  11. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  12. Simulated minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) for a real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with HPGe and LaBr_3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    An automatic real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and lanthanum bromide (LaBr_3) detectors (NH-UAV) was developed to precisely obtain small-scope nuclide information in major nuclear accidents. The specific minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) calculation method for NH-UAV in the atmospheric environment was deduced in this study for a priori evaluation and quantification of the suitability of NH-UAV in the Fukushima nuclear accident, where the MDAC values of this new equipment were calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of radioactive source term size and activity concentration on the MDAC values were analyzed to assess the detection performance of NH-UAV in more realistic environments. Finally, the MDAC values were calculated at different shielding thicknesses of the HPGe detector to improve the detection capabilities of the HPGe detector, and the relationship between the MDAC and the acquisition time of the system was deduced. The MDAC calculation method and data results in this study may be used as a reference for in-situ radioactivity measurement of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system (NH-UAV) was developed. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values are given. • NH-UAV is able to monitor major nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima accident. • The source term size can influence the detection sensitivity of the system. • The HPGe detector possesses measurement thresholds on activity concentration.

  13. The UAV take-off and landing system used for small areas of mobile vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Yu; Duanmu, Qing-Duo; Wu, Bo-Qi

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize an UAV formation cluster system based on the current GPS and the fault and insufficiency of Beidou integrated navigation system in strong jamming environment. Due to the impact of the compass on the plane crash, navigation system error caused by the mobile area to help reduce the need for large landing sites and not in the small fast moving area to achieve the reality of the landing. By using Strapdown inertial and all-optical system to form Composite UAV flight control system, the photoelectric composite strapdown inertial coupling is realized, and through the laser and microwave telemetry link compound communication mechanism, using all-optical strapdown inertial and visual navigation system to solve the deviation of take-off and landing caused by electromagnetic interference, all-optical bidirectional data link realizes two-way position correction of landing site and aircraft, thus achieves the accurate recovery of UAV formation cluster in the mobile narrow area which the traditional navigation system can't realize. This system is a set of efficient unmanned aerial vehicle Group Take-off/descending system, which is suitable for many tasks, and not only realizes the reliable continuous navigation under the complex electromagnetic interference environment, moreover, the intelligent flight and Take-off and landing of unmanned aerial vehicles relative to the fast moving and small recovery sites in complex electromagnetic interference environment can not only improve the safe operation rate of unmanned aerial vehicle, but also guarantee the operation safety of the aircraft, and the more has important social value for the application foreground of the aircraft.

  14. COMPARISON OF UNCALIBRATED RGBVI WITH SPECTROMETER-BASED NDVI DERIVED FROM UAV SENSING SYSTEMS ON FIELD SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bareth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of UAV-based sensing systems for agronomic applications serves the improvement of crop management. The latter is in the focus of precision agriculture which intends to optimize yield, fertilizer input, and crop protection. Besides, in some cropping systems vehicle-based sensing devices are less suitable because fields cannot be entered from certain growing stages onwards. This is true for rice, maize, sorghum, and many more crops. Consequently, UAV-based sensing approaches fill a niche of very high resolution data acquisition on the field scale in space and time. While mounting RGB digital compact cameras to low-weight UAVs (< 5 kg is well established, the miniaturization of sensors in the last years also enables hyperspectral data acquisition from those platforms. From both, RGB and hyperspectral data, vegetation indices (VIs are computed to estimate crop growth parameters. In this contribution, we compare two different sensing approaches from a low-weight UAV platform (< 5 kg for monitoring a nitrogen field experiment of winter wheat and a corresponding farmers’ field in Western Germany. (i A standard digital compact camera was flown to acquire RGB images which are used to compute the RGBVI and (ii NDVI is computed from a newly modified version of the Yara N-Sensor. The latter is a well-established tractor-based hyperspectral sensor for crop management and is available on the market since a decade. It was modified for this study to fit the requirements of UAV-based data acquisition. Consequently, we focus on three objectives in this contribution: (1 to evaluate the potential of the uncalibrated RGBVI for monitoring nitrogen status in winter wheat, (2 investigate the UAV-based performance of the modified Yara N-Sensor, and (3 compare the results of the two different UAV-based sensing approaches for winter wheat.

  15. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  16. Development and Evaluation of a UAV-Photogrammetry System for Precise 3D Environmental Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mozhdeh; Sohn, Gunho; Théau, Jérôme; Menard, Patrick

    2015-10-30

    The specific requirements of UAV-photogrammetry necessitate particular solutions for system development, which have mostly been ignored or not assessed adequately in recent studies. Accordingly, this paper presents the methodological and experimental aspects of correctly implementing a UAV-photogrammetry system. The hardware of the system consists of an electric-powered helicopter, a high-resolution digital camera and an inertial navigation system. The software of the system includes the in-house programs specifically designed for camera calibration, platform calibration, system integration, on-board data acquisition, flight planning and on-the-job self-calibration. The detailed features of the system are discussed, and solutions are proposed in order to enhance the system and its photogrammetric outputs. The developed system is extensively tested for precise modeling of the challenging environment of an open-pit gravel mine. The accuracy of the results is evaluated under various mapping conditions, including direct georeferencing and indirect georeferencing with different numbers, distributions and types of ground control points. Additionally, the effects of imaging configuration and network stability on modeling accuracy are assessed. The experiments demonstrated that 1.55 m horizontal and 3.16 m vertical absolute modeling accuracy could be achieved via direct geo-referencing, which was improved to 0.4 cm and 1.7 cm after indirect geo-referencing.

  17. Development of autonomous controller system of high speed UAV from simulation to ready to fly condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-02-01

    The development of autonomous controller system that is specially used in our high speed UAV, it’s call RKX-200EDF/TJ controlled vehicle needs to be continued as a step to mastery and to developt control system of LAPAN’s satellite launching rocket. The weakness of the existing control system in this high speed UAV needs to be repaired and replaced using the autonomous controller system. Conversion steps for ready-to-fly system involved controlling X tail fin, adjusting auto take off procedure by adding X axis sensor, procedure of way points reading and process of measuring distance and heading to the nearest way point, developing user-friendly ground station, and adding tools for safety landing. The development of this autonomous controller system also covered a real flying test in Pandanwangi, Lumajang in November 2016. Unfortunately, the flying test was not successful because the booster rocket was blown right after burning. However, the system could record the event and demonstrated that the controller system had worked according to plan.

  18. Lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System and a Novel Photogrammetric Processing Chain for UAV-based Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Anders, Niels; Iqbal, Shahzad; Wenting, Philip; Becker, Rolf; Kooistra, Lammert

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System (HYMSY) and a novel processing chain for UAV based mapping. The HYMSY consists of a custom pushbroom spectrometer (range 450-950nm, FWHM 9nm, ~20 lines/s, 328 pixels/line), a consumer camera (collecting 16MPix raw image every 2 seconds), a GPS-Inertia Navigation System (GPS-INS), and synchronization and data storage units. The weight of the system at take-off is 2.0kg allowing us to mount it on a relatively small octocopter. The novel processing chain exploits photogrammetry in the georectification process of the hyperspectral data. At first stage the photos are processed in a photogrammetric software producing a high-resolution RGB orthomosaic, a Digital Surface Model (DSM), and photogrammetric UAV/camera position and attitude at the moment of each photo. These photogrammetric camera positions are then used to enhance the internal accuracy of GPS-INS data. These enhanced GPS-INS data are then used to project the hyperspectral data over the photogrammetric DSM, producing a georectified end product. The presented photogrammetric processing chain allows fully automated georectification of hyperspectral data using a compact GPS-INS unit while still producingin UAV use higher georeferencing accuracy than would be possible using the traditional processing method. During 2013, we have operated HYMSY on 150+ octocopter flights at 60+ sites or days. On typical flight we have produced for a 2-10ha area: a RGB orthoimagemosaic at 1-5cm resolution, a DSM in 5-10cm resolution, and hyperspectral datacube at 10-50cm resolution. The targets have mostly consisted of vegetated targets including potatoes, wheat, sugar beets, onions, tulips, coral reefs, and heathlands,. In this poster we present the Hyperspectral Mapping System and the photogrammetric processing chain with some of our first mapping results.

  19. JOINT PROCESSING OF UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM DATA FOR VERY HIGH RESOLUTION CITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Both unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS are important techniques for surveying and mapping. In recent years, the UAV technology has seen tremendous interest, both in the mapping community and in many other fields of application. Carrying off-the shelf digital cameras, the UAV can collect high quality aerial optical images for city modeling using photogrammetric techniques. In addition, a MMS can acquire high density point clouds of ground objects along the roads. The UAV, if operated in an aerial mode, has difficulties in acquiring information of ground objects under the trees and along façades of buildings. On the contrary, the MMS collects accurate point clouds of objects from the ground, together with stereo images, but it suffers from system errors due to loss of GPS signals, and also lacks the information of the roofs. Therefore, both technologies are complementary. This paper focuses on the integration of UAV images, MMS point cloud data and terrestrial images to build very high resolution 3D city models. The work we will show is a practical modeling project of the National University of Singapore (NUS campus, which includes buildings, some of them very high, roads and other man-made objects, dense tropical vegetation and DTM. This is an intermediate report. We present work in progress.

  20. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis on ALUDRA SR-10 UAV with parachute recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saim, R.; Mohd, S.; Shamsudin, S. S.; Zulkifli, M. F.; Omar, Z.; Subari@Rahmat, Z.; Masrom, M. F. Mohd; Zaki, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In an operation, belly landing is mostly applied as recovery method especially on research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) such as Aludra SR-10. This type of landing method may encounter tough landing on hard soil and gravel which create high impact load on the aircraft. The impact may cause structural or system damage which costly to be repaired. Nowadays, Parachute Recovery System (PRS) recently used in numerous different tasks such as landing purpose to replace belly landing technique. Parachute use in this system to slow down flying or falling UAV to a safe landing by opening the canopy to increase aerodynamic drag. This paper was described the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis on ALUDRA SR-10 model with two different conditions i.e. the UAV equipped with and without parachute in order to identify the changes of aerodynamic characteristics. This simulation studies using solid models of aircraft and hemisphere parachute and was carried out by using ANSYS 16.0 Fluent under steady and turbulent flow and was modelled using the k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model. This simulation was limited to determine the drag force and drag coefficient. The obtained result showed that implementation of parachute increase 0.25 drag coefficient of the aircraft that is from 0.93 to 1.18. Subsequent to the reduction of descent rate caused by the parachute, the drag force of the aircraft increase by 0.76N. These increasing of drag force of the aircraft will produce lower terminal velocity which is expected to reduce the impact force on the aircraft during landing.

  1. Feasibility study of a novel miniaturized spectral imaging system architecture in UAV surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong; Cui, Hushan; Huang, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    The spectral imaging technology is able to analysis the spectral and spatial geometric character of the target at the same time. To break through the limitation brought by the size, weight and cost of the traditional spectral imaging instrument, a miniaturized novel spectral imaging based on CMOS processing has been introduced in the market. This technology has enabled the possibility of applying spectral imaging in the UAV platform. In this paper, the relevant technology and the related possible applications have been presented to implement a quick, flexible and more detailed remote sensing system.

  2. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  3. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UAV Controller Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moltajaei Farid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ANFIS is combining a neural network with a fuzzy system results in a hybrid neuro-fuzzy system, capable of reasoning and learning in an uncertain and imprecise environment. In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is employed to control an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV.  First, autopilots structure is defined, and then ANFIS controller is applied, to control UAVs lateral position. The results of ANFIS and PID lateral controllers are compared, where it shows the two controllers have similar results. ANFIS controller is capable to adaptation in nonlinear conditions, while PID has to be tuned to preserves proper control in some conditions. The simulation results generated by Matlab using Aerosim Aeronautical Simulation Block Set, which provides a complete set of tools for development of six degree-of-freedom. Nonlinear Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle model with ANFIS controller is simulated to verify the capability of the system. Moreover, the results are validated by FlightGear flight simulator.

  5. Systemic Approach to Elevation Data Acquisition for Geophysical Survey Alignments in Hilly Terrains Using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study is about systematic approach to photogrammetric survey that is applicable in the extraction of elevation data for geophysical surveys in hilly terrains using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The outcome will be to acquire high-quality geophysical data from areas where elevations vary by locating the best survey lines. The study area is located at the proposed construction site for the development of a water reservoir and related infrastructure in Kampus Pauh Putra, Universiti Malaysia Perlis. Seismic refraction surveys were carried out for the modelling of the subsurface for detailed site investigations. Study were carried out to identify the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) produced from an UAV. At 100 m altitude (flying height), over 135 overlapping images were acquired using a DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter. All acquired images were processed for automatic 3D photo-reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan digital photogrammetric software, which was applied to all photogrammetric stages. The products generated included a 3D model, dense point cloud, mesh surface, digital orthophoto, and DEM. In validating the accuracy of the produced DEM, the coordinates of the selected ground control point (GCP) of the survey line in the imaging area were extracted from the generated DEM with the aid of Global Mapper software. These coordinates were compared with the GCPs obtained using a real-time kinematic global positioning system. The maximum percentage of difference between GCP’s and photogrammetry survey is 13.3 %. UAVs are suitable for acquiring elevation data for geophysical surveys which can save time and cost.

  6. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  7. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  8. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peter Christiansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35–0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0–300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS and the Point Cloud Library (PCL. Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  9. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Skovsen, Søren; Gislum, René

    2017-11-23

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35-0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0-300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  10. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  11. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  12. Corn and sorghum phenotyping using a fixed-wing UAV-based remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Murray, Seth C.; Rooney, William L.; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Pugh, N. Ace; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Zhang, Dongyan; Thomasson, J. Alex

    2016-05-01

    Recent development of unmanned aerial systems has created opportunities in automation of field-based high-throughput phenotyping by lowering flight operational cost and complexity and allowing flexible re-visit time and higher image resolution than satellite or manned airborne remote sensing. In this study, flights were conducted over corn and sorghum breeding trials in College Station, Texas, with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) carrying two multispectral cameras and a high-resolution digital camera. The objectives were to establish the workflow and investigate the ability of UAV-based remote sensing for automating data collection of plant traits to develop genetic and physiological models. Most important among these traits were plant height and number of plants which are currently manually collected with high labor costs. Vegetation indices were calculated for each breeding cultivar from mosaicked and radiometrically calibrated multi-band imagery in order to be correlated with ground-measured plant heights, populations and yield across high genetic-diversity breeding cultivars. Growth curves were profiled with the aerial measured time-series height and vegetation index data. The next step of this study will be to investigate the correlations between aerial measurements and ground truth measured manually in field and from lab tests.

  13. A Sliding Mode LCO Regulation Strategy for Dual-Parallel Underactuated UAV Systems Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramos-Pedroza

    2015-01-01

    careful algebraic manipulation in the regulation error system development, along with innovative design of the sliding surface. A detailed model of the UAV LCO dynamics is utilized, and a rigorous analysis is provided to prove asymptotic regulation of the pitching and plunging displacements. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the control law.

  14. UAV telemetry communications using ZigBee protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siregar, I.; Yasir, M.

    2017-10-01

    Wireless communication has been widely used in various fields or disciplines such as agriculture, health, engineering, military, and aerospace so as to support the work in that field. The communication technology is typically used for controlling devices and data monitoring. One development of wireless communication is the widely used telemetry system used to reach areas that cannot be reached by humans using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or unmanned aircraft. In this paper we discuss the design of telemetry system in UAV using ZigBee protocol. From the test obtained the system can work well with visualization displays without pause is 20 data per second with a maximum data length of 120 characters.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application to the structural health assessment of large civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Carlo A.; Rabuffetti, Angelo S.; Chiarelli, Gian P.; Brambilla, Giovanni; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the structural assessment of an existing Thermal Power Plant (TPP) located near Pristina, focusing on the cooling tower and the flue gas stack, which are the main structures of the TPP. Scope of the work was the evaluation of the actual conditions of the structures and to identify the eventual repair measures in order to guarantee a safe and reliable operation of the TPP in view of the extension of its operational lifetime for the next 30 years. With this aim, a sequence of different activities was performed, like: a topographic survey to compare the actual geometrical configuration with the design one, an investigation of the material properties, an in depth visual inspection in order to detect any visible existing damage. Due to the very high elevations of the constructions and to the lack of appropriate structures aimed to their inspections and maintenance, this activity could not be performed without using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This resulted the safest, most economical and less time-consuming solution identified to map the surface damage in the reinforced concrete elements of these large structures including zones that could not be inspected because out of reach by other means.

  16. Development of a UAV system for VNIR-TIR acquisitions in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misopolinos, L.; Zalidis, Ch.; Liakopoulos, V.; Stavridou, D.; Katsigiannis, P.; Alexandridis, T. K.; Zalidis, G.

    2015-06-01

    Adoption of precision agriculture techniques requires the development of specialized tools that provide spatially distributed information. Both flying platforms and airborne sensors are being continuously evolved to cover the needs of plant and soil sensing at affordable costs. Due to restrictions in payload, flying platforms are usually limited to carry a single sensor on board. The aim of this work is to present the development of a vertical take-off and landing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) system for the simultaneous acquisition of high resolution vertical images at the visible, near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths. A system was developed that has the ability to trigger two cameras simultaneously with a fully automated process and no pilot intervention. A commercial unmanned hexacopter UAV platform was optimized to increase reliability, ease of operation and automation. The designed systems communication platform is based on a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor running Linux OS with custom developed drivers in an efficient way, while keeping the cost and weight to a minimum. Special software was also developed for the automated image capture, data processing and on board data and metadata storage. The system was tested over a kiwifruit field in northern Greece, at flying heights of 70 and 100m above the ground. The acquired images were mosaicked and geo-corrected. Images from both flying heights were of good quality and revealed unprecedented detail within the field. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated along with the thermal image in order to provide information on the accurate location of stressors and other parameters related to the crop productivity. Compared to other available sources of data, this system can provide low cost, high resolution and easily repeatable information to cover the requirements of precision agriculture.

  17. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Truls; Scheeren, Bert; Peters, Wouter; Chen, Huilin

    2018-05-01

    We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ˜ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ˜ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N = 146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb). The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4) at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical profile measurements in the early morning hours. Besides

  18. Hankel Matrix Correlation Function-Based Subspace Identification Method for UAV Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong She

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification problem of closed-loop subspace model, we propose a zero space projection method based on the estimation of correlation function to fill the block Hankel matrix of identification model by combining the linear algebra with geometry. By using the same projection of related data in time offset set and LQ decomposition, the multiplication operation of projection is achieved and dynamics estimation of the unknown equipment system model is obtained. Consequently, we have solved the problem of biased estimation caused when the open-loop subspace identification algorithm is applied to the closed-loop identification. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In final, the practicability of the identification algorithm is verified by hardware test of UAV servo system in real environment.

  19. A Robust H ∞ Controller for an UAV Flight Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J; Dormido, R; Dormido, S; Gómez, J P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of a robust H ∞ controller for an UAV to track all types of manoeuvres in the presence of noisy environment. A robust inner-outer loop strategy is implemented. To design the H ∞ robust controller in the inner loop, H ∞ control methodology is used. The two controllers that conform the outer loop are designed using the H ∞ Loop Shaping technique. The reference vector used in the control architecture formed by vertical velocity, true airspeed, and heading angle, suggests a nontraditional way to pilot the aircraft. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme works well despite the presence of noise and uncertainties, so the control system satisfies the requirements.

  20. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  2. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  3. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  4. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  5. SIMULATION OF INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM ERRORS AT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FROM UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shults

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accuracy determination of the UAV position using INS at aerial photography can be resolved in two different ways: modelling of measurement errors or in-field calibration for INS. The paper presents the results of INS errors research by mathematical modelling. In paper were considered the following steps: developing of INS computer model; carrying out INS simulation; using reference data without errors, estimation of errors and their influence on maps creation accuracy by UAV data. It must be remembered that the values of orientation angles and the coordinates of the projection centre may change abruptly due to the influence of the atmosphere (different air density, wind, etc.. Therefore, the mathematical model of the INS was constructed taking into account the use of different models of wind gusts. For simulation were used typical characteristics of micro electromechanical (MEMS INS and parameters of standard atmosphere. According to the simulation established domination of INS systematic errors that accumulate during the execution of photographing and require compensation mechanism, especially for orientation angles. MEMS INS have a high level of noise at the system input. Thanks to the developed model, we are able to investigate separately the impact of noise in the absence of systematic errors. According to the research was found that on the interval of observations in 5 seconds the impact of random and systematic component is almost the same. The developed model of INS errors studies was implemented in Matlab software environment and without problems can be improved and enhanced with new blocks.

  6. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  7. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  8. A Novel System for Correction of Relative Angular Displacement between Airborne Platform and UAV in Target Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system and method for correction of relative angular displacements between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and its onboard strap-down photoelectric platform to improve localization accuracy. Because the angular displacements have an influence on the final accuracy, by attaching a measuring system to the platform, the texture image of platform base bulkhead can be collected in a real-time manner. Through the image registration, the displacement vector of the platform relative to its bulkhead can be calculated to further determine angular displacements. After being decomposed and superposed on the three attitude angles of the UAV, the angular displacements can reduce the coordinate transformation errors and thus improve the localization accuracy. Even a simple kind of method can improve the localization accuracy by 14.3%.

  9. THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A UAV BASED MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Tsai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real-time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. This study develops a Direct Georeferencing (DG based fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV photogrammetric platform where an Inertial Navigation System (INS/Global Positioning System (GPS integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS system is implemented to provide the DG capability of the platform. The performance verification indicates that the proposed platform can capture aerial images successfully. A flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using Ground Control Points (GCP. The preliminary results illustrate that horizontal DG positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m with 300 m flight height. The positioning accuracy in the z axis is less than 10 m. Such accuracy is good for near real-time disaster relief. The DG ready function of proposed platform guarantees mapping and positioning capability even in GCP free environments, which is very important for rapid urgent response for disaster relief. Generally speaking, the data processing time for the DG module, including POS solution generalization, interpolation, Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOP generation, and feature point measurements, is less than one hour.

  10. The Performance Analysis of a Uav Based Mobile Mapping System Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. L.; Chiang, K. W.; Lo, C. F.; Ch, C. H.

    2013-08-01

    To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real-time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. This study develops a Direct Georeferencing (DG) based fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric platform where an Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS) system is implemented to provide the DG capability of the platform. The performance verification indicates that the proposed platform can capture aerial images successfully. A flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using Ground Control Points (GCP). The preliminary results illustrate that horizontal DG positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m with 300 m flight height. The positioning accuracy in the z axis is less than 10 m. Such accuracy is good for near real-time disaster relief. The DG ready function of proposed platform guarantees mapping and positioning capability even in GCP free environments, which is very important for rapid urgent response for disaster relief. Generally speaking, the data processing time for the DG module, including POS solution generalization, interpolation, Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOP) generation, and feature point measurements, is less than one hour.

  11. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  12. Online UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential asset for military and law enforcement operations. In particular their use for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks has been growing due to the quick developments in the areal systems themselves, sensor technology, and image processing

  13. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  14. Classification of Maize in Complex Smallholder Farming Systems Using UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hall

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Yield estimates and yield gap analysis are important for identifying poor agricultural productivity. Remote sensing holds great promise for measuring yield and thus determining yield gaps. Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are commonly characterized by small field size, intercropping, different crop species with similar phenologies, and sometimes high cloud frequency during the growing season, all of which pose real challenges to remote sensing. Here, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system based on a quadcopter equipped with two consumer-grade cameras was used for the delineation and classification of maize plants on smallholder farms in Ghana. Object-oriented image classification methods were applied to the imagery, combined with measures of image texture and intensity, hue, and saturation (IHS, in order to achieve delineation. It was found that the inclusion of a near-infrared (NIR channel and red–green–blue (RGB spectra, in combination with texture or IHS, increased the classification accuracy for both single and mosaic images to above 94%. Thus, the system proved suitable for delineating and classifying maize using RGB and NIR imagery and calculating the vegetation fraction, an important parameter in producing yield estimates for heterogeneous smallholder farming systems.

  15. Mini-UAV based sensory system for measuring environmental variables in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Joossen, Guillaume; Sanz, David; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2015-02-02

    This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV). The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover). The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor.

  16. Mini-UAV Based Sensory System for Measuring Environmental Variables in Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV. The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover. The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor.

  17. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andersen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ∼ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ∼ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N  =  146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb. The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4 at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s−1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical

  18. Optomechanical systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kasunic, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Covers the fundamental principles behind optomechanical design This book emphasizes a practical, systems-level overview of optomechanical engineering, showing throughout how the requirements on the optical system flow down to those on the optomechanical design. The author begins with an overview of optical engineering, including optical fundamentals as well as the fabrication and alignment of optical components such as lenses and mirrors. The concepts of optomechanical engineering are then applied to the design of optical systems, including the structural design of mechanical and optical co

  19. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  20. Systems Engineering Workshops | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops Systems Engineering Workshops The Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop is a biennial topics relevant to systems engineering and the wind industry. The presentations and agendas are available for all of the Systems Engineering Workshops: The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

  1. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  2. Systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system

  3. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  4. SKA aperture array verification system: electromagnetic modeling and beam pattern measurements using a micro UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lera Acedo, E.; Bolli, P.; Paonessa, F.; Virone, G.; Colin-Beltran, E.; Razavi-Ghods, N.; Aicardi, I.; Lingua, A.; Maschio, P.; Monari, J.; Naldi, G.; Piras, M.; Pupillo, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present the electromagnetic modeling and beam pattern measurements of a 16-elements ultra wideband sparse random test array for the low frequency instrument of the Square Kilometer Array telescope. We discuss the importance of a small array test platform for the development of technologies and techniques towards the final telescope, highlighting the most relevant aspects of its design. We also describe the electromagnetic simulations and modeling work as well as the embedded-element and array pattern measurements using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle system. The latter are helpful both for the validation of the models and the design as well as for the future instrumental calibration of the telescope thanks to the stable, accurate and strong radio frequency signal transmitted by the UAV. At this stage of the design, these measurements have shown a general agreement between experimental results and numerical data and have revealed the localized effect of un-calibrated cable lengths in the inner side-lobes of the array pattern.

  5. A Simple Aerial Photogrammetric Mapping System Overview and Image Acquisition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenang Anurogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photogrammetry is one of the Alternative technologies for more detailed data, real time, fast and cheaper. Nowadays, many photogrammetric mapping methods have used UAV / unmanned drones or drones to retrieve and record data from an object in the earth. The application of drones in the field of geospatial science today is in great demand because of its relatively easy operation and relatively affordable cost compared to satellite systems especially high - resolution satellite imagery.  This research aims to determine the stage or overview of data retrieval process with DJI Phantom 4 (multi - rotor quad - copter drone with processing using third party software. This research also produces 2 - dimensional high resolution image data on the research area. Utilization of third party software (Agisoft PhotoScan making it easier to acquire and process aerial photogrammetric data. The results of aerial photogrammetric recording with a flying altitude of 70 meters obtained high resolution images with a spatial resolution of 2 inches / pixels.

  6. Optical and acoustical UAV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christnacher, Frank; Hengy, Sébastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Naz, Pierre; Schertzer, Stéphane; Schmitt, Gwenael

    2016-10-01

    Recent world events have highlighted that the proliferation of UAVs is bringing with it a new and rapidly increasing threat for national defense and security agencies. Whilst many of the reported UAV incidents seem to indicate that there was no terrorist intent behind them, it is not unreasonable to assume that it may not be long before UAV platforms are regularly employed by terrorists or other criminal organizations. The flight characteristics of many of these mini- and micro-platforms present challenges for current systems which have been optimized over time to defend against the traditional air-breathing airborne platforms. A lot of programs to identify cost-effective measures for the detection, classification, tracking and neutralization have begun in the recent past. In this paper, lSL shows how the performance of a UAV detection and tracking concept based on acousto-optical technology can be powerfully increased through active imaging.

  7. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  8. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  9. Systems Engineering Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of the fundamentals and principles of Systems Engineering (SE). This includes understanding the processes that are used to assist the engineer in a successful design, build and implementation of solutions. The context of this presentation will be to describe the involvement of SE throughout the life-cycle of a project from cradle to grave. Due to the ever growing number of complex technical problems facing our world, a Systems Engineering approach is desirable for many reasons. The interdisciplinary technical structure of current systems, technical processes representing System Design, Technical Management and Product Realization are instrumental in the development and integration of new technologies into mainstream applications. This tutorial will demonstrate the application of SE tools to these types of problems..

  10. Longitudinal And Lateral Dynamic System Modeling Of A Fixed-Wing UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pann Nu Wai Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents work completed for flight characteristics mathematical model of an aircraft are the focus. To construct the mathematical model type of UAV and flying mode quality must be chosen firstly.Longitudinal command hold outputs and lateral outputs slide slip velocity yaw rate heading angle and roll angle must be considered to control the desired flight conditions.

  11. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  12. Systems engineering and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Benjamin S

    2010-01-01

    For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. A total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being--beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.

  13. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf; Chen, Yunfei; Zhao, Nan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dobbins, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  14. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf

    2018-01-23

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  15. An evaluation of a UAV guidance system with consumer grade GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abigail Stella

    Remote sensing has been demonstrated an important tool in agricultural and natural resource management and research applications, however there are limitations that exist with traditional platforms (i.e., hand held sensors, linear moves, vehicle mounted, airplanes, remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and satellites). Rapid technological advances in electronics, computers, software applications, and the aerospace industry have dramatically reduced the cost and increased the availability of remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing imagery vary in spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions and are available from numerous providers. Appendix A presented results of a test project that acquired high-resolution aerial photography with a RPV to map the boundary of a 0.42 km2 fire area. The project mapped the boundaries of the fire area from a mosaic of the aerial images collected and compared this with ground-based measurements. The project achieved a 92.4% correlation between the aerial assessment and the ground truth data. Appendix B used multi-objective analysis to quantitatively assess the tradeoffs between different sensor platform attributes to identify the best overall technology. Experts were surveyed to identify the best overall technology at three different pixel sizes. Appendix C evaluated the positional accuracy of a relatively low cost UAV designed for high resolution remote sensing of small areas in order to determine the positional accuracy of sensor readings. The study evaluated the accuracy and uncertainty of a UAV flight route with respect to the programmed waypoints and of the UAV's GPS position, respectively. In addition, the potential displacement of sensor data was evaluated based on (1) GPS measurements on board the aircraft and (2) the autopilot's circuit board with 3-axis gyros and accelerometers (i.e., roll, pitch, and yaw). The accuracies were estimated based on a 95% confidence interval or similar methods. The

  16. AERIAL IMAGES FROM AN UAV SYSTEM: 3D MODELING AND TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION IN A PARK AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment: it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes. Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  17. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  18. Systems Safety and Engineering Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Systems Safety and Engineering Division conducts engineering, research, and analysis to improve transportation safety, capacity, and resiliency. We provide...

  19. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Report No. SERC-2017-TR-110 Date: August 8, 2017 Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric... Engineering Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-110 Update: August 8, 2017 Principal Investigator: Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of Technology Co...Evangelista Sponsor: U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

  20. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  2. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  3. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  4. Pengembangan Sistem Navigasi Otomatis Pada UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle dengan GPS(Global Positioning System Waypoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV adalah salah satu wahana tanpa awak di udara yang mana dapat terbang tanpa pilot, menggunakan gaya aerodinamik untuk menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift, dapat terbang secara autonomous atau dioperasikan dengan radio kontrol. UAV digunakan untuk berbagai keperluan baik di lingkup militer maupun sipil. Pada tugas akhir ini dirancang dan direalisasikan pengembangan sistem navigasi otomatis pada UAV dengan GPS waypoint. Sistem ini menggunakan kontrol manual dan autopilot. Pada mode manual, pengguna secara manual mengendalikan pergerakan pesawat melalui radio kontroler sedangkan pada mode autopilot pesawat dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroler Arduino Mega 2560 yang mengolah data-data sensor IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit yang didalamnya terdapat gyroscope dan accelerometer, GPS dan barometric altimeter sehingga dapat terbang secara otomatis dengan sesuai waypoint GPS yang dimasukkan. Mikrokontroler menerima dan menolah data dari sensor dan menghasilkan keluaran untuk menggerakkan servo aktuator. Pengolahan data dari sensor menggunakan kontrol PID (Proportional Integral Derivative. Pesawat akan terkoneksi dengan ground station melalui perangkat telemetri untuk mengirimkan data penerbangan ke darat. Sistem navigasi ini diharapkan dapat secara tepat mengarahkan pesawat menuju satu titik atau lebih dengan toleransi kesalahan ≤ 30 meter pada ketinggian 30-100 meter. Selain itu pesawat diharapkan dapat terbang dengan radius ± 2 km dari ground station. Hasil dari pengujian dapat dilaksanakan kontrol manual dan otomatis pada UAV melalui 5 channel (aileron, elevator, throttle, rudder dan saklar. Distorsi pada kontrol manual diminimalisir dengan memperbesar faktor pembagi sinyal PWM sebesar 50μs-100μs. Kontrol otomatis dapat menstabilkan sikap pesawat di udara (sudut roll 45° dan sudut pitch 30° Setting Kp 1,2 dan Ki 0,01, setting Kp navigasi GPS 0,2 Ki 0,01 dan Kd 4 dengan sudut roll maksimal 15°.

  5. Estimating spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes from high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a UAV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-05-19

    aerodynamic and radiometric temperature) that depends on the surface-to-air temperature gradient yielded the best agreement with EC measurements. This study showed that the applied UAV system equipped with a dual-camera set-up allows for the acquisition of thermal imagery with high spatial and temporal resolution that illustrates the small-scale heterogeneity of thermal surface properties. The UAV-based thermal imagery therefore provides the means for analysing patterns of LST and other surface properties with a high level of detail that cannot be obtained by traditional remote sensing methods.

  6. CO-REGISTRATION OF DSMs GENERATED BY UAV AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach for the co-registration of Digital Surface Models (DSMs derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS is proposed. Specifically, a wavelet-based feature descriptor for matching surface keypoints on the 2.5D DSMs is developed. DSMs are useful in wide-scope of various applications such as 3D building modelling and reconstruction, cultural heritage, urban and environmental planning, aircraft navigation/path routing, accident and crime scene reconstruction, mining as well as, topographic map revision and change detection. For these listed applications, it is not uncommon that there will be a need for automatically aligning multi-temporal DSMs which may have been acquired from multiple sensors, with different specifications over a period of time, and may have various overlaps. Terrestrial laser scanners usually capture urban facades in an accurate manner; however this is not the case for building roof structures. On the other hand, vertical photography from UAVs can capture the roofs. Therefore, the automatic fusion of UAV and laser-scanning based DSMs is addressed here as it serves various geospatial applications.

  7. Automotive systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Winner, Hermann (eds.) [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    2013-06-01

    Innovative state-of-the-art book. Presents brand new results of a joint workshop in the field of automotive systems engineering. Recommendable to students for further reading even though not a primary text book. This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as ''automotive systems engineering''. These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  8. Engineering Elegant Systems: Postulates, Principles, and Hypotheses of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Definition: System Engineering is the engineering discipline which integrates the system functions, system environment, and the engineering disciplines necessary to produce and/or operate an elegant system; Elegant System - A system that is robust in application, fully meeting specified and adumbrated intent, is well structured, and is graceful in operation. Primary Focus: System Design and Integration: Identify system couplings and interactions; Identify system uncertainties and sensitivities; Identify emergent properties; Manage the effectiveness of the system. Engineering Discipline Integration: Manage flow of information for system development and/or operations; Maintain system activities within budget and schedule. Supporting Activities: Process application and execution.

  9. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  10. Framework for systems engineering research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a framework is proposed to perform systems engineering research within South Africa. It is proposed that within the reference of the National Research Foundation (NRF) classification of research, systems engineering is a Field...

  11. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  12. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  13. Differential GNSS and Vision-Based Tracking to Improve Navigation Performance in Cooperative Multi-UAV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Rodi Vetrella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous navigation of micro-UAVs is typically based on the integration of low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS-based inertial and magnetic sensors to stabilize and control the flight. The resulting navigation performance in terms of position and attitude accuracy may not suffice for other mission needs, such as the ones relevant to fine sensor pointing. In this framework, this paper presents a cooperative UAV navigation algorithm that allows a chief vehicle, equipped with inertial and magnetic sensors, a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, and a vision system, to improve its navigation performance (in real time or in the post processing phase exploiting formation flying deputy vehicles equipped with GPS receivers. The focus is set on outdoor environments and the key concept is to exploit differential GPS among vehicles and vision-based tracking (DGPS/Vision to build a virtual additional navigation sensor whose information is then integrated in a sensor fusion algorithm based on an Extended Kalman Filter. The developed concept and processing architecture are described, with a focus on DGPS/Vision attitude determination algorithm. Performance assessment is carried out on the basis of both numerical simulations and flight tests. In the latter ones, navigation estimates derived from the DGPS/Vision approach are compared with those provided by the onboard autopilot system of a customized quadrotor. The analysis shows the potential of the developed approach, mainly deriving from the possibility to exploit magnetic- and inertial-independent accurate attitude information.

  14. Developing systems engineers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available will have rendered him incapable of dealing with the majority of problems that will face him.” (Quoted in [12]). UP has applied the SPICES model, proposed by Harden et al. [12], for developing their medical curriculum. Some aspects of the model... are useful to developing systems engineers and will be considered in SE terms at a relevant level of detail. The SPICES model is contrasted against traditional medical curriculum approaches in TABLE 1. These are two extremes on a continuum. Traditional...

  15. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  16. Attitude Control of a Single Tilt Tri-Rotor UAV System: Dynamic Modeling and Each Channel's Nonlinear Controllers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juing-Shian Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.

  17. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  18. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  19. Study of Scramjet Engine System

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction The scramjet engine for the single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane has been studied in the ramjet propulsion research division. The problems of the scramjet are (1) combustion, (2) light structure, (3) startability of the inlet, (4) integration of engines, and (5) cooling. The construction of the cooling system is important for the scramjet engine, because of high heat flux during operation. Cooling is not only a problem for the engine itself, but also for the airframe. ...

  20. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  1. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  2. Design of infrared imaging birefringent interferometers for small-UAVs and handheld scanning systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging from unmanned aerial vehicles arouses a growing interest, as well for agriculture management as pollution monitoring or security purposes. Most of current instruments are in the visible or near infrared spectral range, but the midwave or longwave infrared may also be interesting. Among the available solutions for compact imaging spectrometers in this spectral range, static imaging Fourier transform spectrometers are well adapted, thanks to the absence of moving part, a 2D snapshot imaging, which can be useful for image registration, and a high flux collection efficiency. To reach a high compactness compliant with small UAVs, birefringent interferometers are good candidates. Indeed, they can be roughly seen as a plate which comes in front of the camera lens. We propose here firstly to expose the design rules of such instruments in the midwave or longwave infrared. The first point is about the material: highly birefringent uniaxial crystals materials are not so common in this spectral domain. For MWIR spectral imagers, TeO2 or YVO4 can be used. For LWIR instruments, current materials, like ZnGeP2 or AgGaS2 are available, but their birefringence is not so high. Calomel is a promising way, but not still available. The second point consists in defining the type of interferometer, like Savart interferometer, Wollaston interferometer, or other designs. To help this choice, we have developed a software tool to calculate the propagation of plane waves in a stack of birefringent plates. This allows us to choose the optimal assembly of the plates to reach the required spectral resolution. We will then present experimental results obtained with a MWIR prototype. This prototype, called SIBI,, works in the [3.7µm-4.8µm] spectral domain (or [2050cm 1-2700cm 1]), with a spectral resolution about 13cm 1. A first ground campaign was led in June 2015, on Mount Etna (Italy). This campaign was useful to emphasize the assets and drawbacks of this instrument

  3. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleijpen, Ric (H. M. A.); Voogt, Vincent; Zwamborn, Peter; van den Oever, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to the sensor community. The detection, classification and identification chain can take advantage of different sensor technologies. Apart from the signatures used by radar and electro-optical sensor systems, the UAV also emits RF signals. These RF signatures can be split in intentional signals for communication with the operator and un-intentional RF signals emitted by the UAV. These unintentional or spurious RF emissions are very weak but could be used to discriminate potential UAV detections from false alarms. The goal of this research was to assess the potential of exploiting spurious emissions in the classification and identification chain of mini-UAVs. It was already known that spurious signals are very weak, but the focus was on the question whether the emission pattern could be correlated to the behaviour of the UAV. In this paper experimental examples of spurious RF emission for different types of mini-UAVs and their correlation with the electronic circuits in the UAVs will be shown

  4. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  5. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  6. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  7. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  8. Power systems engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, U G

    1972-01-01

    Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics investigates the application of mathematical aids, particularly the techniques of resource planning, to some of the technical-economic problems of power systems engineering. Topics covered include the process of engineering design and the use of computers in system design and operation; power system planning and operation; time scales and computation in system operation; and load prediction and generation capacity. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by outlining the stages in the synthesis of designs (or operating states) for engineerin

  9. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design of civil engineering structures has been noted. Protecting ci vil ... R despite disturbing forces such as wind gusts, changes in ambient temperature, etc .. Brief History of ... frequency regulation, boiler control for steam generation, electric.

  10. Systems engineering and integration as a foundation for mission engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Beam, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper investigates the emerging term mission engineering through the framework of systems engineering and systems integration. Systems engineering concepts, processes, and methodologies are extrapolated for use in conjunction with a systems integration, life-cycle based framework to effect mission engineering. The specific systems engineering concepts of measures of effectiveness, performance and suitability are recommended as fou...

  11. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2018-01-23

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  12. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  13. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  14. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Bermúdez i Badia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  15. A NEW APPROACH TO FAST MOSAIC UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have been widely used to acquire high quality terrain images of the areas of interest, particularly when such a task could potentially risk human life or even impossible as the areas cannot be accessed easily by surveyors. Once the images have been obtained, traditional photogrammetric processing process can be used to establish a relative orientation model and then, absolute orientation model with the procedures of space resection and intersection. In many such applications, the geo- referenced images which are stitched together to represent the geospatial relationships for the feature objects are sufficient. A fast or near real-time processing approach for UAV images using GPS/INS data has being investigated for years. One beneficial application of such approach is the capability of quick production of geo-referenced images for various engineering or business activities, such as urban and road planning, the site selection of factories and bridges, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a new fast processing approach for the UAV images collected with an integrated GPS/INS/Vision system. The approach features that the corresponding points between images have been determined, and then coordinate transformation is carried out to implement image stitching. The accuracy of corresponding points normally affects the quality of stitched images, but the results of our experiments revealed that the image stitching errors were obvious even the accuracy of corresponding points was high. The stitching errors could be caused by the changes of surface elevation.

  16. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  17. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  18. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  19. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  20. MECHATRONICS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Roli, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators is presented. The contribution proposes mathematical modelling, control and simulation of a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a three-links manipulator. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed...

  1. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    of possible contract winners including Scan Eagle, Silver Fox, Wasp, Coyote and the USMC Tier I winner Dragon Eye. Technical data for these UAVs are...Neptune’s engine and avionics are placed above the waterline and the airframe is sealed for flotation as well as providing corrosion/water intrusion

  2. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  3. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  4. Engineering Information System (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    be availabe and usefu for creating powerful tailored contro and mangeen functions. Mode and Framwork Wirth further elaboration of the EIS portio of...control data and activities of the engineering process. The EIM is a conceptual model of administrative and electroic design information. It records...of the access opeations are derived from the instance variable name and type. An attribute conceptually holds one or more instances of a basic type

  5. System dynamics for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is ideal for mechanical engineering students preparing to enter the workforce during a time of rapidly accelerating technology, where they will be challenged to join interdisciplinary teams. It explains system dynamics using analogies familiar to the mechanical engineer while introducing new content in an intuitive fashion. The fundamentals provided in this book prepare the mechanical engineer to adapt to continuous technological advances with topics outside traditional mechanical engineering curricula by preparing them to apply basic principles and established approaches to new problems. This book also: ·         Reinforces the connection between the subject matter and engineering reality ·         Includes an instructor pack with the online publication that describes in-class experiments with minimal preparation requirements ·         Provides content dedicated to the modeling of modern interdisciplinary technological subjects, including opto-mechanical systems, high...

  6. Systems Engineering a Naval Railgun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bean, John; Shebalin, Paul; Solitario, William

    2006-01-01

    ... to a viable acquisition program. The detailed formulation and application of the railgun systems engineering process will be defined by government acquisition agents and the selected private sector contractors in accordance with United States (US...

  7. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  8. KESS: Knowledge Engineering Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.

    1987-01-01

    KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...

  9. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  10. Automatic UAV Image Geo-Registration by Matching UAV Images to Georeferenced Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the fast development of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles. As an alternative to traditional image acquisition methods, UAVs bridge the gap between terrestrial and airborne photogrammetry and enable flexible acquisition of high resolution images. However, the georeferencing accuracy of UAVs is still limited by the low-performance on-board GNSS and INS. This paper investigates automatic geo-registration of an individual UAV image or UAV image blocks by matching the UAV image(s with a previously taken georeferenced image, such as an individual aerial or satellite image with a height map attached or an aerial orthophoto with a DSM (digital surface model attached. As the biggest challenge for matching UAV and aerial images is in the large differences in scale and rotation, we propose a novel feature matching method for nadir or slightly tilted images. The method is comprised of a dense feature detection scheme, a one-to-many matching strategy and a global geometric verification scheme. The proposed method is able to find thousands of valid matches in cases where SIFT and ASIFT fail. Those matches can be used to geo-register the whole UAV image block towards the reference image data. When the reference images offer high georeferencing accuracy, the UAV images can also be geolocalized in a global coordinate system. A series of experiments involving different scenarios was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that our approach achieves not only decimeter-level registration accuracy, but also comparable global accuracy as the reference images.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  12. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  13. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  14. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  15. a Precise, Low-Cost Rtk Gnss System for Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfhuber, W.; Buchholz, M.

    2011-09-01

    High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1-3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance), and farming (precision farming) as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.). The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin - and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project in the area of

  16. A PRECISE, LOW-COST RTK GNSS SYSTEM FOR UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stempfhuber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1–3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance, and farming (precision farming as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.. The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin – and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project

  17. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  18. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  19. Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, A; Vale, Zita

    2011-01-01

    "Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems" provides an overview and original analysis of new developments and advances in several areas of computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence have become the road-map for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences (such as physics, chemistry and biology) and engineering, environmental, life and social sciences. The contributions are written by international experts, who provide up-to-date aspects of the topics discussed and present recent, original insights into their own experien

  20. UAV magnetometry in mineral exploration and infrastructure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Parvar, K.; Burns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic surveys are critical tools in mineral exploration and UAVs have the potential to carry magnetometers. UAV surveys can offer higher spatial resolution than traditional airborne surveys, and higher coverage than terrestrial surveys. However, the main advantage is their ability to sense the magnetic field in 3-D, while most airborne or terrestrial surveys are restricted to 2-D acquisition. This study compares UAV magnetic data from two different UAVs (JIB drone, DJI Phantom 2) and three different magnetometers (GEM GSPM35, Honeywell HMR2300, GEM GST-19). The first UAV survey was conducted using a JIB UAV with a GSPM35 flying at 10-15 m above ground. The survey's goal was to detect intrusive Rhyolite bodies for primary mineral exploration. The survey resulted in a better understanding of the validity/resolution of UAV data and led to improved knowledge about the geological structures in the area. The results further drove the design of a following terrestrial survey. Comparing the UAV data with an available airborne survey (upward continued to 250 m) reveals that the UAV data has superior spatial resolution, but exhibits a higher noise level. The magnetic anomalies related to the Rhyolite intrusions is about 109 nT and translates into an estimated depth of approximately 110 meters. The second survey was conducted using an in-house developed UAV magnetometer system equipped with a DJI Phantom 2 and a Honeywell HMR2300 fluxgate magnetometer. By flying the sensor in different altitudes, the vertical and horizontal gradients can be derived leading to full 3-D magnetic data volumes which can provide improved constraints for source depth/geometry characterization. We demonstrate that a buried steam pipeline was detectable with the UAV magnetometer system and compare the resulting data with a terrestrial survey using a GEM GST-19 Proton Precession Magnetometer.

  1. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  2. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available engineering screening methodology that could be used to screen potential systems engineers. According to their design, this can be achieved by defining a system engineering profile according to specific psychological attributes, and using this profile...

  3. Engineering Multiagent Systems - Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In the first part I look at a theater performance by artistic director Troels Christian Jakobsen as a multiagent system. It is designed as a self-organising critical system using a framework where within its borders but without a script there is real interaction between the elements of the perfor......In the first part I look at a theater performance by artistic director Troels Christian Jakobsen as a multiagent system. It is designed as a self-organising critical system using a framework where within its borders but without a script there is real interaction between the elements...... of the performance. In the second part I discuss the ideas behind my recent monograph on propositional attitudes and inconsistency tolerance. Natural language sentences are parsed using a categorial grammar and correctness of arguments are decided using a paraconsistent logic. In the third part I present...

  4. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques

  5. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  6. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  7. Systems Engineering Management Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-03-10

    hls -iii-rit. -miiiirme 4 --tandnirdized hle iil*ri oa;iu ’ -enperfrm)a- -yýfefi ~lall uitm l--im eniai~ atar n which will lumPremiiieuiea -. v-imli m...with standard component/part selection. and de- tile total system requirements stated in the Sys- tailed functional and physical interfaces: eval- tern...system survivability requirAent. As physical , interface, time, environment, use of these facility requirements are bei developed, standard perts; and

  8. Computer systems and software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The High Technologies Laboratory (HTL) was established in the fall of 1982 at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Research conducted at the High Tech Lab is focused upon computer systems and software engineering. There is a strong emphasis on the interrelationship of these areas of technology and the United States' space program. In Jan. of 1987, NASA Headquarters announced the formation of its first research center dedicated to software engineering. Operated by the High Tech Lab, the Software Engineering Research Center (SERC) was formed at the University of Houston Clear Lake. The High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center promotes cooperative research among government, industry, and academia to advance the edge-of-knowledge and the state-of-the-practice in key topics of computer systems and software engineering which are critical to NASA. The center also recommends appropriate actions, guidelines, standards, and policies to NASA in matters pertinent to the center's research. Results of the research conducted at the High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center have given direction to many decisions made by NASA concerning the Space Station Program.

  9. Object Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    practically impossible where the original SMEs are unavailable or lack perfect recall. 7. Capture the precious and transient logic behind this...complex system. References 1. FITCH, J. Exploiting Decision-to-Requirements Traceability, briefing to NDIA CMMI Conference, November, 2009 2

  10. Systems Security Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-22

    environment that contains network- borne cybersecurity threats, an argument may be made that the firewall increases overall system functionality by reserving...the number of administered devices. This approach to security analysis is at once old and new. In the early days of eCommerce , security

  11. Introducing Model-Based System Engineering Transforming System Engineering through Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Web  Presentation...Software  .....................................................  20   Figure  6.  Published   Web  Page  from  Data  Collection...the  term  Model  Based  Engineering  (MBE),  Model  Driven  Engineering  ( MDE ),  or  Model-­‐Based  Systems  

  12. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  13. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  14. Security systems engineering overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.)

  15. Security systems engineering overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  16. Systems engineering at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

  17. Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    0 Workshop Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop of the system engineering model. In the middle of the model is optimization, metric tracking &M model, capital cost model, and balance of station. Systems engineering represents a holistic

  18. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations

  19. Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Diebner, Hans H.; Tsuda, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yukiharu

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is add...

  20. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  1. a Uav-Based Low-Cost Stereo Camera System for Archaeological Surveys - Experiences from Doliche (turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubeck, K.; Prinz, T.

    2013-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying archaeological sites is becoming more and more common due to their advantages in rapidity of data acquisition, cost-efficiency and flexibility. One possible usage is the documentation and visualization of historic geo-structures and -objects using UAV-attached digital small frame cameras. These monoscopic cameras offer the possibility to obtain close-range aerial photographs, but - under the condition that an accurate nadir-waypoint flight is not possible due to choppy or windy weather conditions - at the same time implicate the problem that two single aerial images not always meet the required overlap to use them for 3D photogrammetric purposes. In this paper, we present an attempt to replace the monoscopic camera with a calibrated low-cost stereo camera that takes two pictures from a slightly different angle at the same time. Our results show that such a geometrically predefined stereo image pair can be used for photogrammetric purposes e.g. the creation of digital terrain models (DTMs) and orthophotos or the 3D extraction of single geo-objects. Because of the limited geometric photobase of the applied stereo camera and the resulting base-height ratio the accuracy of the DTM however directly depends on the UAV flight altitude.

  2. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  3. Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Howard S

    2008-01-01

    The Third Edition of Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management enables readers to manage the design, development, and engineering of systems effectively and efficiently. The book both defines and describes the essentials of project and systems engineering management and, moreover, shows the critical relationship and interconnection between project management and systems engineering. The author's comprehensive presentation has proven successful in enabling both engineers and project managers to understand their roles, collaborate, and quickly grasp and apply all the basic princip

  4. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  5. The engineering of cybernetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through "The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey," and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework.

  6. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  7. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  8. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  9. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  10. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  11. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  12. B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    of four small circles on the top view in front of the cockpit and on the bottom view engine bay doors. This air data system has no standard pitot ...Skantze, General, Air Force, Source Selection Advisory Board Chairman Erich Smith, Vought, Test Engineer, Systems Engineer, Chief engineer Henry

  13. failure analysis of a uav flight control system using markov analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Tree Analysis (FTA), Dependence Diagram Analysis. (DDA) and Markov Analysis (MA) are the most widely-used methods of probabilistic safety and reliability analysis for airborne system [1]. Fault trees analysis is a backward failure searching ..... [4] Christopher Dabrowski and Fern Hunt Markov Chain.

  14. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

  15. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  16. Developing stochastic model of thrust and flight dynamics for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhai, Chandra

    This thesis presents a stochastic thrust model and aerodynamic model for small propeller driven UAVs whose power plant is a small electric motor. First a model which relates thrust generated by a small propeller driven electric motor as a function of throttle setting and commanded engine RPM is developed. A perturbation of this model is then used to relate the uncertainty in throttle and engine RPM commanded to the error in the predicted thrust. Such a stochastic model is indispensable in the design of state estimation and control systems for UAVs where the performance requirements of the systems are specied in stochastic terms. It is shown that thrust prediction models for small UAVs are not a simple, explicit functions relating throttle input and RPM command to thrust generated. Rather they are non-linear, iterative procedures which depend on a geometric description of the propeller and mathematical model of the motor. A detailed derivation of the iterative procedure is presented and the impact of errors which arise from inaccurate propeller and motor descriptions are discussed. Validation results from a series of wind tunnel tests are presented. The results show a favorable statistical agreement between the thrust uncertainty predicted by the model and the errors measured in the wind tunnel. The uncertainty model of aircraft aerodynamic coefficients developed based on wind tunnel experiment will be discussed at the end of this thesis.

  17. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  18. A High Performance System With Explicit Incorporation of ATC Regulations to Generate Contingency Plans for UAVs with Lost Communication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a comprehensive and systematic contingency plan generation framework to deal with lost communication in UAVs. ATC regulations are explicitly incorporated...

  19. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  20. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  1. Investigation of Capabilities and Technologies Supporting Rapid UAV Launch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    on these aircraft tends to limit their overall aerodynamic efficiency during flight, resulting in lower top speeds and more limited ranges than compa...this problem, a retaining pin was added to the lever-arm that engages a mechanism that is, essentially, a car -door lock [38]. This locking system, which...12.81 DROK 10A/50W 9-32V 12V/24V to 5V Car DC Voltage Con- verter Regulator Power Sup- ply,Waterproof Amazon DROK 10A/50W 9-32V 12V/24V to 5V Car DC

  2. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4 + D) Technology TM , a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4 + D Technology TM for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4 + D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in

  3. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  4. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Research Tasks: 48, 118, 141, 157, 170 Report No. SERC-2018-TR-103 Transforming Systems Engineering through...Model-Centric Engineering Technical Report SERC-2018-TR-103 February 28, 2018 Principal Investigator Dr. Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of...Systems Engineering Research Center This material is based upon work supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the

  5. Impact of Prior Flight Experience on Learning Predator UAV Operator Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    UAVs are becoming a mainstay of intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) information gathering, with the capability of supplying, in...indicators of UAV pilot skill, namely frequency and type of videogame playing, and experience with remote-controlled hobby aircraft. Experience with...indicator, artificial horizon, heading rate indicator, and engine revolutions per minute. The right monitor displays other useful information, such as a

  6. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  7. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  8. A framework for systems engineering research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses a framework which is proposed to perform systems engineering research within South Africa and the necessity for hybrid research methods in systems engineering....

  9. ENGINEERING OF UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENT LEARNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy M. Trembach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article issues of engineering intelligent tutoring systems of University with adaptation are considered. The article also dwells on some modern approaches to engineering of information systems. It shows the role of engineering e-learning devices (systems in system engineering. The article describes the basic principles of system engineering and these principles are expanded regarding to intelligent information systems. The structure of intelligent learning systems with adaptation of the individual learning environments based on services is represented in the article.

  10. A robust two-way switching control system for remote piloting and stabilization of low-cost quadrotor UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Vivani, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two control logics and an attitude estimator for UAV stabilization and remote piloting, that are as robust as possible to physical parameters variation and to other external disturbances. Moreover, they need to be implemented on low-cost micro-controllers, in order to be attractive for commercial drones. As an example, possible applications of the two switching control logics could be area surveillance and facial recognition by means of a camera mounted on the drone: the high computational speed logic is used to reach the target, when the high-stability one is activated, in order to complete the recognition tasks.

  11. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-24

    contrast to the Exdrone is the more conventional, and more Spartan, Pointer UAV. Designed by Paul McCready, PhD., the engineer who designed the “ Gossamer ... Albatross ”, the first human powered aircraft to cross the English Channel, the Pointer UAV’s design reflects an engineering philosophy predicated on

  12. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  13. A Synthetic Teammate for UAV Applications: A Prospective Look

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gluck, Kevin A; Ball, Jerry T; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael A; Lyon, Don R; Cooke, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    This report describes current progress and future plans for research and development in synthetic teammates for applications in training, analysis, and system design for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations...

  14. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rapid expansion of available UAV types and increased mission capability (payload, flight duration, and system cost reductions) offers wide range of potential...

  15. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  16. A method of fast mosaic for massive UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ren; Sun, Min; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of UAV technology, UAVs are used widely in multiple fields such as agriculture, forest protection, mineral exploration, natural disaster management and surveillances of public security events. In contrast of traditional manned aerial remote sensing platforms, UAVs are cheaper and more flexible to use. So users can obtain massive image data with UAVs, but this requires a lot of time to process the image data, for example, Pix4UAV need approximately 10 hours to process 1000 images in a high performance PC. But disaster management and many other fields require quick respond which is hard to realize with massive image data. Aiming at improving the disadvantage of high time consumption and manual interaction, in this article a solution of fast UAV image stitching is raised. GPS and POS data are used to pre-process the original images from UAV, belts and relation between belts and images are recognized automatically by the program, in the same time useless images are picked out. This can boost the progress of finding match points between images. Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is improved so that parallel computing can be applied to shorten the time of global optimization notably. Besides traditional mosaic result, it can also generate superoverlay result for Google Earth, which can provide a fast and easy way to show the result data. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a fast mosaic system of massive UAV images is developed, which is fully automated and no manual interaction is needed after original images and GPS data are provided. A test using 800 images of Kelan River in Xinjiang Province shows that this system can reduce 35%-50% time consumption in contrast of traditional methods, and increases respond speed of UAV image processing rapidly.

  17. Development of maintenance engineering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Department of JMTR project has developed the Maintenance Engineering System which evaluates the aging tendency of the facilities. The system is used for the repair plan and the replace period of parts, components, equipments or facilities. The system has the data-base which consists of the check data, the inspection data, the trouble data and the repair data at the JMTR since the virgin criticality. The system is utilized maintenance works and concludes the maintenance procedures for the failure components, equipments and facilities. This system has the following characteristics. (1) Anybody can operate the system as easily as word processor. (2) Data are put into by man-machine-interface. (3) The data sheets are with light color and the recognizable arrangements. (4) The system is cost-efficient using commercial personal computers and applications. The research card and the layouts of the input data sheet had been formatted. Data has been begun to be put into the system and to check its functions. The result demonstrates that the system is available for preventive maintenance at the JMTR. (author)

  18. The application of micro UAV in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Bukari, Saifullizan Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura

    2017-10-01

    In every outstanding construction project, there is definitely have an effective construction management. Construction management allows a construction project to be implemented according to plan. Every construction project must have a progress development works that is usually created by the site engineer. Documenting the progress of works is one of the requirements in construction management. In a progress report it is necessarily have a visual image as an evidence. The conventional method used for photographing on the construction site is by using common digital camera which is has few setback comparing to Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Besides, site engineer always have a current issues involving limitation of monitoring on high reach point and entire view of the construction site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise review of Micro UAV technology in monitoring the progress on construction site through visualization approach. The aims of this study are to replace the conventional method of photographing on construction site using Micro UAV which can portray the whole view of the building, especially on high reach point and allows to produce better images, videos and 3D model and also facilitating site engineer to monitor works in progress. The Micro UAV was flown around the building construction according to the Ground Control Points (GCPs) to capture images and record videos. The images taken from Micro UAV have been processed generate 3D model and were analysed to visualize the building construction as well as monitoring the construction progress work and provides immediate reliable data for project estimation. It has been proven that by using Micro UAV, a better images and videos can give a better overview of the construction site and monitor any defects on high reach point building structures. Not to be forgotten, with Micro UAV the construction site progress is more efficiently tracked and kept on the schedule.

  19. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  20. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weed, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    This monograph asks should the U.S. Army alter its current UAV acquisition strategy for maneuver brigades from one in which limited numbers of high capability systems are acquired, in favor of another that fields a large quantity...

  1. Security Research on Engineering Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Engine engineering database system is an oriented C AD applied database management system that has the capability managing distributed data. The paper discusses the security issue of the engine engineering database management system (EDBMS). Through studying and analyzing the database security, to draw a series of securi ty rules, which reach B1, level security standard. Which includes discretionary access control (DAC), mandatory access control (MAC) and audit. The EDBMS implem ents functions of DAC, ...

  2. Security Engineering FY17 Systems Aware Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    Security Engineering – FY17 Systems Aware Cybersecurity Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-114 December 7 2017 Principal Investigator: Dr...December 7, 2017 Copyright © 2017 Stevens Institute of Technology, Systems Engineering Research Center The Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC...supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD

  3. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  4. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  5. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  6. 23rd International Conference on Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zydek, Dawid; Chmaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    This collection of proceedings from the International Conference on Systems Engineering, Las Vegas, 2014 is orientated toward systems engineering, including topics like aerospace, power systems, industrial automation and robotics, systems theory, control theory, artificial intelligence, signal processing, decision support, pattern recognition and machine learning, information and communication technologies, image processing, and computer vision as well as its applications. The volume’s main focus is on models, algorithms, and software tools that facilitate efficient and convenient utilization of modern achievements in systems engineering.

  7. Screening candidate systems engineers: exploratory results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available systems engineers for further development. Data were collected on personality, cognition, values and competence on 21 SE competencies using four computerised assessments. We report on the cognitive style distribution of the participating engineers...

  8. Integrated engineering system for nuclear facilities building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Futami, F.; Yasuda, S.; Ohtomo, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the construction of buildings for nuclear facilities in Japan, construction companies are generally in charge of the building engineering work, coordinating with plant engineering. An integrated system for buildings (PROMOTE: PROductive MOdeling system for Total nuclear Engineering) described here is a building engineering system including the entire life cycle of buildings for nuclear facilities. A Three-dimensional (3D) building model (PRO-model) is to be in the core of the system (PROMOTE). Data sharing in the PROMOTE is also done with plant engineering systems. By providing these basic technical foundations, PROMOTE is oriented toward offering rational, highquality engineering for the projects. The aim of the system is to provide a technical foundation in building engineering. This paper discusses the characteristics of buildings for nuclear facilities and the outline of the PROMOTE. (author)

  9. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  10. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments’s LTE (long-term evolution, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area’s that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision, RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  11. Advances in communication systems and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from participants in the 2007 International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Topics covered include communications theory, communications protocols, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, electronics, power engineering, control engineering, signal processing, and industrial applications. The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in communication systems and electrical engineering and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on communication systems a

  12. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  13. Evapotranspiration from UAV Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Hoffmann Munk

    and is thus of importance in both hydrological, agricultural and atmospheric sciences. Still today, accurate measurements of ET are not achieved easily. The state-of the-art method to measure ET, the eddy covariance method, is associated with uncertainties and its footprint, though at the order of around 1...... hectare, varies much with the atmospheric stability and wind conditions. Indirect measurements of ET are obtained with satellite imagery, as a residual of the surface energy balance. Satellite images provide spatially distributed measurements, however high resolution satellite products provide footprints...... of measurements and thus new understandings of ET and its inferred parameters such as crop water stress and heat fluxes in the surface energy balance. However, UAV data collection is a new measuring method and the lightweight sensors are novel instrumentations. Workflows for processing UAV data, and the data...

  14. Multi‐angular observations of vegetation indices from UAV cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobejano-Paz, Veronica; Wang, Sheng; Jakobsen, Jakob

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are found as an alternative to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry, which can be used to obtain environmental data or as a complementary solution to other methods (Nex and Remondino, 2014). Although UAVs have coverage limitations, they have better resolution...... (Berni et al., 2009), hyper spectral camera (Burkart et al., 2015) and photometric elevation mapping sensor (Shahbazi et al., 2015) among others. Therefore, UAVs can be used in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, archeology, architecture, environment and traffic monitoring (Nex and Remondino, 2014......). In this study, the UAV used is a hexacopter s900 equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and two cameras; a digital RGB photo camera and a multispectral camera (MCA), with a resolution of 5472 x 3648 pixels and 1280 x 1024 pixels, respectively. In terms of applications, traditional methods using...

  15. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  16. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  17. Optimization of a Turboprop UAV for Maximum Loiter and Specific Power Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a genuine code was developed for optimization of selected parameters of a turboprop engine for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) by employing elitist genetic algorithm. First, preliminary sizing of a UAV and its turboprop engine was done, by the code in a given mission profile. Secondly, single and multi-objective optimization were done for selected engine parameters to maximize loiter duration of UAV or specific power of engine or both. In single objective optimization, as first case, UAV loiter time was improved with an increase of 17.5% from baseline in given boundaries or constraints of compressor pressure ratio and burner exit temperature. In second case, specific power was enhanced by 12.3% from baseline. In multi-objective optimization case, where previous two objectives are considered together, loiter time and specific power were increased by 14.2% and 9.7% from baseline respectively, for the same constraints.

  18. Environmental Restoration Project - Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1998-06-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes relevant Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) management processes and shows how they implement systems engineering. The objective of this SEMP is to explain and demonstrate how systems engineering is being approached and implemented in the ER Project. The application of systems engineering appropriate to the general nature and scope of the project is summarized in Section 2.0. The basic ER Project management approach is described in Section 3.0. The interrelation and integration of project practices and systems engineering are outlined in Section 4.0. Integration with sitewide systems engineering under the Project Hanford Management Contract is described in Section 5.0

  19. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  20. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  1. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  2. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  3. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  4. Industrial biosystems engineering and biorefinery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin

    2008-06-01

    The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs for science, technology and professionals by the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE builds upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This paper discussed the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework and methodologies of this new discipline as well as its challenges and future development.

  5. An Experimental Study on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of Maple-Seed-Inspired UAV Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Ning, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    Due to the auto-rotating trait of maple seeds during falling down process, flow characteristics of rotating maple seeds have been studied by many researchers in recent years. In the present study, an experimental investigation was performed to explore maple-seed-inspired UAV propellers for improved aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances. Inspired by the auto-rotating trait of maple seeds, the shape of a maple seed is leveraged for the planform design of UAV propellers. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the maple-seed-inspired propellers are examined in great details, in comparison with a commercially available UAV propeller purchased on the market (i.e., a baseline propeller). During the experiments, in addition to measuring the aerodynamic forces generated by the maple-seed-inspired propellers and the baseline propeller, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to quantify the unsteady flow structures in the wakes of the propellers. The aeroacoustic characteristics of the propellers are also evaluated by leveraging an anechoic chamber available at the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. The research work is supported by National Science Foundation under Award Numbers of OSIE-1064235.

  6. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Acquisition Activities Karen Holness, Assistant Professor, NPS Update on the Department of the Navy Systems Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford...systems engineering toolkit . Having a common analysis tool that is easy to use would support the feedback of observed system performance trends from the

  7. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ''as is'' condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ''to be'' configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively

  8. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  9. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  10. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samantha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire, Melissa; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a narrow design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  11. USING DISTANCE SENSORS TO PERFORM COLLISION AVOIDANCE MANEUVRES ON UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raimundo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. “Sense and Avoid” algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk’s flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G. Some tests were made in order to evaluate the “Sense and Avoid” algorithm’s overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and “Brake” mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  12. Using Distance Sensors to Perform Collision Avoidance Maneuvres on Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, A.; Peres, D.; Santos, N.; Sebastião, P.; Souto, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. "Sense and Avoid" algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk's flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G). Some tests were made in order to evaluate the "Sense and Avoid" algorithm's overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and "Brake" mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  13. A mini-UAV VTOL Platform for Surveying Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Rawat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss implementation of a mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV vertical take-off and landing (VTOL platform for surveying activities related to highway construction. Recent advances in sensor and communication technologies have allowed scaling sizes of unmanned aerial platforms, and explore them for tasks that are economical and safe over populated or inhabited areas. In highway construction the capability of mini-UAVs to survey in hostile and/or hardly accessible areas can greatly reduce human risks. The project focused on developing a cost effective, remotely controlled, fuel powered mini-UAV VTOL (helicopter platform with certain payload capacity and configuration and demonstrated its use in surveying and monitoring activities required for highway planning and construction. With an on-board flight recorder global positioning system (GPS device, memory storage card, telemetry, inertial navigation sensors, and a video camera the mini-UAV can record flying coordinates and relay live video images to a remote ground receiver and surveyor. After all necessary integration and flight tests were done the mini-UAV helicopter was tested to operate and relay video from the areas where construction was underway. The mini-UAV can provide a platform for a range of sensors and instruments that directly support the operational requirements of transportation sector.

  14. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  15. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  16. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  17. Systems Engineering Analysis for Office Space Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT by James E. Abellana September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Diana Angelis Second Reader: Walter E. Owen...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James E. Abellana 7...of the systems engineering method, this thesis develops a multicriteria decision-making framework applicable to space allocation decisions for

  18. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required upgraded suspension, engine, and steering Mattracks or wheels Imbalance in cupola required motorized...liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission, improved suspension and frame for an increased armor capability, 1,800- 4,400 lb payload and GVW 18,000...space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel engine, higher capacity transmission, air induction system and exhaust systems. Lessons

  19. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  20. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  1. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  2. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  3. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  4. Complex engineering systems science meets technology

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    Every time that we take money out of an ATM, surf the internet or simply turn on a light switch, we enjoy the benefits of complex engineered systems. Systems like power grids and global communication networks are so ubiquitous in our daily lives that we usually take them for granted, only noticing them when they break down. But how do such amazing technologies and infrastructures come to be what they are? How are these systems designed? How do distributed networks work? How are they made to respond rapidly in 'real time'? And as the demands that we place on these systems become increasingly complex, are traditional systems-engineering practices still relevant? This volume examines the difficulties that arise in creating highly complex engineered systems and new approaches that are being adopted. Topics addressed range from the formal representation and classification of distributed networked systems to revolutionary engineering practices inspired by biological evolution. By bringing together the latest resear...

  5. The characteristics of mechanical engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, R

    1977-01-01

    The Characteristics of Mechanical Engineering Systems focuses on the characteristics that must be considered when designing a mechanical engineering system. Mechanical systems are presented on the basis of component input-output relationships, paying particular attention to lumped-parameter problems and the interrelationships between lumped components or """"black-boxes"""" in an engineering system. Electric motors and generators are treated in an elementary manner, and the principles involved are explained as far as possible from physical and qualitative reasoning. This book is comprised of

  6. Visualizing systems engineering data with Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, R; Vinzant, A.

    1998-01-01

    Systems Engineers are required to deal with complex sets of data. To be useful, the data must be managed effectively, and presented in meaningful terms to a wide variety of information consumers. Two software patterns are presented as the basis for exploring the visualization of systems engineering data. The Model, View, Controller pattern defines an information management system architecture. The Entity, Relation, Attribute pattern defines the information model. MVC Views then form the basis for the user interface between the information consumer and the MVC Controller/Model combination. A Java tool set is described for exploring alternative views into the underlying complex data structures encountered in systems engineering

  7. Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light of Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    systems engineering process models (Blanchard & Fabrycky, 1990) and the majority of engineering design education (Dym et al., 2005). The waterfall model ...Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford Whitcomb, Systems Engineering Professor, NPS Corina White, Systems Engineering Research Associate, NPS...Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. He teaches and conducts research in the design of enterprise systems, systems modeling , and system

  8. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  9. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  10. Software And Systems Engineering Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    RSKM 2004 COSO Enterprise RSKM Framework 2006 ISO/IEC 16085 Risk Management Process 2008 ISO/IEC 12207 Software Lifecycle Processes 2009 ISO/IEC...1 Software And Systems Engineering Risk Management John Walz VP Technical and Conferences Activities, IEEE Computer Society Vice-Chair Planning...Software & Systems Engineering Standards Committee, IEEE Computer Society US TAG to ISO TMB Risk Management Working Group Systems and Software

  11. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  12. Contemporary issues in systems science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, M; Weijnen, M

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.

  13. Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning by Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Alhammadi, H. Y.; Romagnoli, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach in teaching the final-year course Process Systems Engineering. Students are given ownership of the course by transferring to them the responsibility of learning. A project-based group environment stimulates learning while solving a real engineering problem. We discuss postgraduate student involvement and how…

  14. Pragmatic electrical engineering systems and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Systems and Instruments is about some of the non-energy parts of electrical systems, the parts that control things and measure physical parameters. The primary topics are control systems and their characterization, instrumentation, signals, and electromagnetic compatibility. This text features a large number of completely worked examples to aid the reader in understanding how the various principles fit together.While electric engineers may find this material useful as a review, engineers in other fields can use this short lecture text as a modest introduction

  15. Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Murray-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control. 

  16. Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheil, C.M.; Pelaccio, D.G.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump

  17. OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Systems Engineering Management Plan (OCRWM SEMP) specifies the technical management approach for the development of the waste management system, and specifies the approach for the development of each of the system elements -- the waste acceptance system, the transportation system, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system, which includes site characterization activity. The SEMP also delineates how systems engineering will be used by OCRWM to describe the system development process; it identifies responsibilities for its implementation, and specifies the minimum requirements for systems engineering. It also identifies the close interrelationship of system engineering and licensing processes. This SEMP, which is a combined OCRWM and M ampersand O SEMP, is part of the top-level program documentation and is prepared in accordance with the direction provided in the Program Management System Manual (PMSM). The relationship of this document to other top level documents in the CRWMS document hierarchy is defined in the PMSM. A systems engineering management plan for each project, which specifies the actions to be taken in implementing systems engineering at the project level, shall be prepared by the respective project managers. [''Program'' refers to the CRWMS-wide activity and ''project'' refers to that level responsible for accomplishing the specific activities of that segment of the program.] The requirements for the project level SEMPs are addressed in Section 4.2.2.2. They represent the minimum set of requirements, and do not preclude the broadening of systems engineering activities to meet the specific needs of each project

  18. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-12-10

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

  19. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools

  20. Multimodal UAV detection: study of various intrusion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengy, Sebastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Franck; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Rassy, Oussama; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular and affordable the last years for professional and private consumer market, with varied capacities and performances. Recent events showed that illicit or hostile uses constitute an emergent, quickly evolutionary threat. Recent developments in UAV technologies tend to bring autonomous, highly agile and capable unmanned aerial vehicles to the market. These UAVs can be used for spying operations as well as for transporting illicit or hazardous material (smuggling, flying improvised explosive devices). The scenario of interest concerns the protection of sensitive zones against the potential threat constituted by small drones. In the recent past, field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small FMCW RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics and RADAR was applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°), optical sensors were used for sequentially identification. The localization results have been compared to the ground truth data to estimate the efficiency of each detection system. Seven-microphone acoustic arrays allow single source localization. The mean azimuth and elevation estimation error has been measured equal to 1.5 and -2.5 degrees respectively. The FMCW radar allows tracking of multiple UAVs by estimating their range, azimuth and motion speed. Both technologies can be linked to the electro-optical system for final identification of the detected object.

  1. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes

  2. System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA faces many systems engineering challenges as it seeks to conduct exploration and science missions concurrently. One such challenge is implementing a repeatable...

  3. Framework to investigate emergence in system engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available System Engineering is the process of identifying, implementing and maintaining solutions to real world problems. Some problems tend to be messy with no single solution or set of effective and accurate requirements, often resulting in implementation...

  4. Mini-Uav LIDAR for Power Line Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G. E.; Zhou, M.; Li, C. R.; Wu, H. H.; Li, W.; Meng, F. R.; Zhou, C. C.; Ma, L.

    2017-09-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) recently are in rapid advancement, meanwhile portable and flexible mini-UAV-borne laser scanners have been a hot research field, especially for the complex terrain survey in the mountains and other areas. This study proposes a power line inspection system solution based on mini-UAV-borne LIDAR system-AOEagle, developed by Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which mounted on a Multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle for complex terrain survey according to real test. Furthermore, the point cloud data was explored to validate its applicability for power line inspection, in terms of corridor and line laser point clouds; deformation detection of power towers, etc. The feasibility and advantages of AOEagle have been demonstrated by the promising results based on the real-measured data in the field of power line inspection.

  5. Applying systems engineering in the civil engineering industry : an analysis of systems engineering projects of a Dutch water board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R. S. (Robin); Vromen, R. M.(Rick); Boes, J. (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    The past decade, practice and literature have shown an increasing interest in Systems Engineering (SE) in the civil engineering industry. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent SE is applied in six civil engineering SE projects of a Dutch water board. The projects were analysed using a

  6. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  7. SUSI 62 A ROBUST AND SAFE PARACHUTE UAV WITH LONG FLIGHT TIME AND GOOD PAYLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Thamm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many research areas in the geo-sciences (erosion, land use, land cover change, etc. or applications (e.g. forest management, mining, land management etc. there is a demand for remote sensing images of a very high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to the high costs of classic aerial photo campaigns, the use of a UAV is a promising option for obtaining the desired remote sensed information at the time it is needed. However, the UAV must be easy to operate, safe, robust and should have a high payload and long flight time. For that purpose, the parachute UAV SUSI 62 was developed. It consists of a steel frame with a powerful 62 cm3 2- stroke engine and a parachute wing. The frame can be easily disassembled for transportation or to replace parts. On the frame there is a gimbal mounted sensor carrier where different sensors, standard SLR cameras and/or multi-spectral and thermal sensors can be mounted. Due to the design of the parachute, the SUSI 62 is very easy to control. Two different parachute sizes are available for different wind speed conditions. The SUSI 62 has a payload of up to 8 kg providing options to use different sensors at the same time or to extend flight duration. The SUSI 62 needs a runway of between 10 m and 50 m, depending on the wind conditions. The maximum flight speed is approximately 50 km/h. It can be operated in a wind speed of up to 6 m/s. The design of the system utilising a parachute UAV makes it comparatively safe as a failure of the electronics or the remote control only results in the UAV coming to the ground at a slow speed. The video signal from the camera, the GPS coordinates and other flight parameters are transmitted to the ground station in real time. An autopilot is available, which guarantees that the area of investigation is covered at the desired resolution and overlap. The robustly designed SUSI 62 has been used successfully in Europe, Africa and Australia for scientific projects and also for

  8. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  9. Engineering management of large scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  10. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  11. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  12. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson , II, F. C

    2006-01-01

    .... There is an overarching USN plan for UAVs, but I propose an emphasis should be placed on the close range or tactical UAVs that will directly complement battle space management, increase situational...

  13. Collaborative UAV Exploration of Hostile Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luotsinen, Linus J; Gonzalez, Avelino J; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2004-01-01

    .... UAVs can be lost or significantly damaged during the exploration process. Although employing multiple UAVs can increase the chance of success, their efficiency depends on the collaboration strategies used...

  14. Systems Engineering Assessment & Workforce Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    Government or its technical domains. Other fields, such as culinary and healthcare, have also identified these emerging and growing issues (Calhoun...et al. (2009). "The Art and Science of Systems Engineering." Systems Research Forum 3(2): 81-100. Shenhar, A. and B. Sauser, Eds. (2009). Systems

  15. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  16. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  17. UAV Mission Optimization through Hybrid-Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Philip Scott

    Hybrid-electric powertrain leverages the superior range of petrol based systems with the quiet and emission free benefits of electric propulsion. The major caveat to hybrid-electric powertrain in an airplane is that it is inherently heavier than conventional petroleum powertrain due mostly to the low energy density of battery technology. The first goal of this research is to develop mission planning code to match powertrain components for a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to complete a standard surveillance mission within a set of user input parameters. The second goal is to promote low acoustic profile loitering through mid-flight engine starting. The two means by which midmission engine starting will be addressed is through reverse thrust from the propeller and a servo actuated gear to couple and decouple the engine and motor. The mission planning code calculates the power required to complete a mission and assists the user in sourcing powertrain components including the propeller, motor, battery, motor controller, engine and fuel. Reverse thrust engine starting involves characterizing an off the shelf variable pitch propeller and using its torque coefficient to calculate the advance ratio required to provide sufficient torque and speed to start an engine. Geared engine starting works like the starter in a conventional automobile. A servo actuated gear will couple the motor to the engine to start it and decouple once the engine has started. Reverse thrust engine starting was unsuccessful due to limitations of available off the shelf variable pitch propellers. However, reverse thrust engine starting could be realized through a custom larger diameter propeller. Geared engine starting was a success, though the system was unable to run fully as intended. Due to counter-clockwise crank rotation of the engine and the right-hand threads on the crankshaft, cranking the engine resulted in the nut securing the engine starter gear to back off as the engine cranked

  18. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor systems engineering. Fourth edition, Volume Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-01-01

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new materials on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: the systems concept, design decisions, and information tools; energy transport; reactor fuel management and energy cost considerations; environmental effects of nuclear power and waste management; nuclear reactor safety and regulation; power reactor systems; plant operations; and advanced plants and the future

  19. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LOW COST UAV PLATFORM FOR ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  20. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  1. Establishing a disruptive new capability for NASA to fly UAV's into hazardous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Hon M.; Richards, Lance

    2015-05-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  2. Establishing a Disruptive New Capability for NASA to Fly UAV's into Hazardous Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Richards, Lance

    2015-01-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  3. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance

  4. Requirements engineering for software and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Solid requirements engineering has increasingly been recognized as the key to improved, on-time and on-budget delivery of software and systems projects. This book provides practical teaching for graduate and professional systems and software engineers. It uses extensive case studies and exercises to help students grasp concepts and techniques. With a focus on software-intensive systems, this text provides a probing and comprehensive review of recent developments in intelligent systems, soft computing techniques, and their diverse applications in manufacturing. The second edition contains 100% revised content and approximately 30% new material

  5. Human engineering in mobile radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; McMahon, J.; Motl, G.

    1988-01-01

    To a large degree, mobile radwaste systems are replacing installed plant systems at US nuclear plants due to regulatory obsolescence, high capital and maintenance costs, and increased radiation exposure. Well over half the power plants in the United States now use some sort of mobile system similar to those offered by LN Technologies Corporation. Human engineering is reflected in mobile radwaste system design due to concerns about safety, efficiency, and cost. The radwaste services business is so competitive that vendors must reflect human engineering in several areas of equipment design in order to compete. The paper discusses radiation exposure control, contamination control, compact components, maintainability, operation, and transportability

  6. High-Fidelity Solar Power Income Modeling for Solar-Electric UAVs: Development and Flight Test Based Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Oettershagen, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Solar power models are a crucial element of solar-powered UAV design and performance analysis. During the conceptual design phase, their accuracy directly relates to the accuracy of the predicted performance metrics and thus the final design characteristics of the solar-powered UAV. Likewise, during the operations phase of a solar-powered UAV accurate solar power income models are required to predict and assess the solar power system performance. However, the existing literature on solar-powe...

  7. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  8. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  9. Current Hitachi knowledge engineering systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, S; Maeda, A; Masuishi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    In order to bring the knowledge engineering technology up to the practical phase, Hitachi has provided several knowledge engineering system products, including expert system building tools, knowledge acquisition tools, and many kinds of stand-alone and build-in expert systems in both the business and process control fields. In this review article, an overview of Hitachi{prime}s recent knowledge systems is described, which includes a trend analysis on recent market recognition. In addition, to introduce the Hitachi{prime}s current activities, a new product, a user interface building tool, and a new method of tuning fuzzy membership functions using a neuro-computing algorithm are also described. Furthermore, it is pointed out that not only practical tools and methodologies, but also a practical development team, including a planning section, a cooperating expert, a user section, and experienced knowledge engineers, is needed to achieve practical expert systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Advances in reliability and system engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents original studies describing the latest research and developments in the area of reliability and systems engineering. It helps the reader identifying gaps in the current knowledge and presents fruitful areas for further research in the field. Among others, this book covers reliability measures, reliability assessment of multi-state systems, optimization of multi-state systems, continuous multi-state systems, new computational techniques applied to multi-state systems and probabilistic and non-probabilistic safety assessment.

  11. Study on Practical Application of Turboprop Engine Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnostic System Using Fuzzy-Neuro Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong; Kim, Keunwoo

    2013-03-01

    The Neural Networks is mostly used to engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measuring performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base performance model and artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks. Each real engine performance model, which is named as the base performance model that can simulate a new engine performance, is inversely made using its performance test data. Therefore the condition monitoring of each engine can be more precisely carried out through comparison with measuring performance data. The proposed diagnostic system identifies firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, and then quantifies faults of the identified components using Neural Networks leaned by fault learning data base obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the measuring performance data of the faulted components, the FFBP (Feed Forward Back Propagation) is used. In order to user's friendly purpose, the proposed diagnostic program is coded by the GUI type using MATLAB.

  12. NVESTIGATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING LICENSURE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim BARADAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, engineers are legally required to register to a "licensure" system, which is founded on education and experience criteria and administered by a government body, to use the "engineer" title and offer professional services to the public. In today's globalized world, international alliances such as FEANI, APEC and EMF award engineers with European, APEC and International Professional engineer titles within a framework of mutual recognition of qualifications enabling them to practice outside their own country. This article examines such international licensure systems, particularly their administration processes and registration criteria, and discusses how current licensure procedures in Turkey should be revamped in case of joining an international alliance such as European Union.

  13. The art and science of Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Longrew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work are collected years of experience and the work of systems engineering, and debates centered in the industry leadership, of engineer and instructors around the world. A recurrent issue in this experiences and discussions is that community used a lot of terms and titles more diffused with the aim of achieve an agreement toward a common comprehension of this area of knowledge. Besides, it does not matter how are divided the functions and responsibilities among teams, the obligatoriness is ensure that this be clears and are run as a functional whole. The goal is provide a wide definition of systems engineer, described the characteristics of behave of highly effective engineered, and make explicit the expectations of the same.

  14. User engineering: A new look at system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    User Engineering is a new System Engineering perspective responsible for defining and maintaining the user view of the system. Its elements are a process to guide the project and customer, a multidisciplinary team including hard and soft sciences, rapid prototyping tools to build user interfaces quickly and modify them frequently at low cost, and a prototyping center for involving users and designers in an iterative way. The main consideration is reducing the risk that the end user will not or cannot effectively use the system. The process begins with user analysis to produce cognitive and work style models, and task analysis to produce user work functions and scenarios. These become major drivers of the human computer interface design which is presented and reviewed as an interactive prototype by users. Feedback is rapid and productive, and user effectiveness can be measured and observed before the system is built and fielded. Requirements are derived via the prototype and baselined early to serve as an input to the architecture and software design.

  15. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. K. Schaffner; K. S White

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management

  16. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  17. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  18. Experimental determination of the heat transfer coefficient for the optimal design of the cooling system of a PEM fuel cell placed inside the fuselage of an UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Jorge; Renau, Jordi; Lozano, Antonio; Miralles, José; Martín, Jesús; Sánchez, Fernando; Barreras, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to calculate the heat transfer coefficients needed for the further design of the optimal cooling system of a high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) stack that will be incorporated to the powerplant of a light unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of reaching an altitude of 10,000 m. Experiments are performed in two rectangular tunnels, for three different form factors, in experimental conditions as close as possible to the actual ones in the HT-PEMFC stack. For the calculations, all the relevant thermal processes are considered (i.e., convection and radiation). Different parameters are measured, such as air mass flow rate, inlet and outlet air temperatures, and wall temperatures for bipolar plates and endplates. Different numerical models are fitted revealing the influence of the diverse relevant non-dimensional groups on the Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficients calculated for the air cooling flow vary from 8 to 44 W m"−"2 K"−"1. Results obtained at sea level are extrapolated for a flight ceiling of 10 km. The flow section is optimized as a function of the power required to cool the stack down to the temperature recommended by the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) manufacturer using a numerical code specifically developed for this purpose. - Highlights: • Heat transfer coefficients to refrigerate a HT-PEMFC stack are calculated. • Experiments are performed in 2 wind tunnels, for 3 form factors and real conditions. • The calculated heat transfer coefficient varies from 8 to 44 W m"−"2 K"−"1. • Results at sea level are suitably extrapolated for a target altitude of 10 km. • Flow area is optimized as a function of the power required to cool the stack down.

  19. An initial bibliometric analysis and mapping of systems engineering research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, Rudolph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Systems engineering is still a growing field that depends on continuous research to develop and mature. Research in systems engineering is difficult and the classic approaches for other engineering disciplines may not be sufficient. Additional...

  20. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ayers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  1. Integrated Control System Engineering Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile ASTEC Advanced Speech Technology Experimental Configuration BA Body Axis BCIU Bus Control Interface Unit BMU Bus...support nreeded to tie an ASTEC speech recognition system into the DIGISYN fJcility and support an FIGR experiment designed to investigate the voice...information passed to the PDP computer consisted of integers which represented words or phrases recognized by the ASTEC recognition system. An interface

  2. DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Polat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  3. DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, N.; Uysal, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  4. OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program for the safe and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To achieve this objective, the OCRWM is developing an integrated waste-management system consisting of three elements: the transportation system, the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS). The development of such a system requires management of many diverse disciplines that are involved in research, siting, design, licensing, and external interactions. The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe how the systems-engineering process will be implemented in the development of the waste-management system. Systems engineering will be used by the OCRWM to manage, integrate, and document all aspects of the technical development of the waste-management system and its system elements to ensure that the requirements of the waste-management program are met. It will be applied to all technical activities of the OCRWM program. It will be used by the OCRWM to specify the sequence of technical activities necessary to define the requirements the waste-management system must satisfy, to develop the waste-management system, to relate system elements to each other, and to determine how the waste-management system can be optimized to most effectively satisfy the requirements. Furthermore, systems engineering will be used in the management of Program activities at the program, program-element, and project levels by specifying procedures, studies, reviews, and documentation requirements. 9 refs., 1 fig

  5. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  6. Cognitive systems engineering in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Bisantz, Ann M; Fairbanks, Rollin J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Engineering for Better Health Care Systems, Ann M. Bisantz, Rollin J. Fairbanks, and Catherine M. BurnsThe Role of Cognitive Engineering in Improving Clinical Decision Support, Anne Miller and Laura MilitelloTeam Cognitive Work Analysis as an Approach for Understanding Teamwork in Health Care, Catherine M. BurnsCognitive Engineering Design of an Emergency Department Information System, Theresa K. Guarrera, Nicolette M. McGeorge, Lindsey N. Clark, David T. LaVergne, Zachary A. Hettinger, Rollin J. Fairbanks, and Ann M. BisantzDisplays for Health Care Teams: A Conceptual Framework and Design Methodology, Avi ParushInformation Modeling for Cognitive Work in a Health Care System, Priyadarshini R. PennathurSupport for ICU Clinician Cognitive Work through CSE, Christopher Nemeth, Shilo Anders, Jeffrey Brown, Anna Grome, Beth Crandall, and Jeremy PamplinMatching Cognitive Aids and the "Real Work" of Health Care in Support of Surgical Microsystem Teamwork, Sarah Henrickson Parker and Shawna J. PerryEngageme...

  7. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  8. Engineering education as a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating problem-solving orientations that emerge within students' thinking as they progress through an engineering curriculum. It is proposed that the traditional engineering education model, while analytically rigorous, is characterised by properties that, although necessary, are insufficient for preparing students to address complex issues of the twenty-first century. A Synthesis and Design Studio model for engineering education is proposed, which maintains the necessary rigor of analysis within a uniquely complex yet sufficiently structured learning environment.

  9. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and engine...

  10. Systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagt, Cees M J

    2013-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is based on systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering and is now also applied in industry. Industrial use of systems metabolic engineering focuses on strain and process optimization. Since ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs are key in an industrial setting, the use of effective and robust methods in systems metabolic engineering is becoming very important. Major improvements in the field of proteomics and metabolomics have been crucial in the development of genome-wide approaches in strain and process development. This is accompanied by a rapid increase in DNA sequencing and synthesis capacity. These developments enable the use of systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting. Industrial systems metabolic engineering can be defined as the combined use of genome-wide genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to modify strains or processes. This approach has become very common since the technology for generating large data sets of all levels of the cellular processes has developed quite fast into robust, reliable, and affordable methods. The main challenge and scope of this mini review is how to translate these large data sets in relevant biological leads which can be tested for strain or process improvements. Experimental setup, heterogeneity of the culture, and sample pretreatment are important issues which are easily underrated. In addition, the process of structuring, filtering, and visualization of data is important, but also, the availability of a genetic toolbox and equipment for medium/high-throughput fermentation is a key success factor. For an efficient bioprocess, all the different components in this process have to work together. Therefore, mutual tuning of these components is an important strategy.

  11. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  12. Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-07-01

    A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.

  13. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  14. Data Gathering and Energy Transfer Dilemma in UAV-Assisted Flying Access Network for IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Sara; Sabir, Essaid; Elbiaze, Halima; Sadik, Mohamed

    2018-05-11

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as an alternative solution to assist wireless networks, thanks to numerous advantages they offer in comparison to terrestrial fixed base stations. For instance, a UAV can be used to embed a flying base station providing an on-demand nomadic access to network services. A UAV can also be used to wirelessly recharge out-of-battery ground devices. In this paper, we aim to deal with both data collection and recharging depleted ground Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices through a UAV station used as a flying base station. To extend the network lifetime, we present a novel use of UAV with energy harvesting module and wireless recharging capabilities. However, the UAV is used as an energy source to empower depleted IoT devices. On one hand, the UAV charges depleted ground IoT devices under three policies: (1) low-battery first scheme; (2) high-battery first scheme; and (3) random scheme. On the other hand, the UAV station collects data from IoT devices that have sufficient energy to transmit their packets, and in the same phase, the UAV exploits the Radio Frequency (RF) signals transmitted by IoT devices to extract and harvest energy. Furthermore, and as the UAV station has a limited coverage time due to its energy constraints, we propose and investigate an efficient trade-off between ground users recharging time and data gathering time. Furthermore, we suggest to control and optimize the UAV trajectory in order to complete its travel within a minimum time, while minimizing the energy spent and/or enhancing the network lifetime. Extensive numerical results and simulations show how the system behaves under different scenarios and using various metrics in which we examine the added value of UAV with energy harvesting module.

  15. Data Gathering and Energy Transfer Dilemma in UAV-Assisted Flying Access Network for IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arabi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have emerged as an alternative solution to assist wireless networks, thanks to numerous advantages they offer in comparison to terrestrial fixed base stations. For instance, a UAV can be used to embed a flying base station providing an on-demand nomadic access to network services. A UAV can also be used to wirelessly recharge out-of-battery ground devices. In this paper, we aim to deal with both data collection and recharging depleted ground Internet-of-Things (IoT devices through a UAV station used as a flying base station. To extend the network lifetime, we present a novel use of UAV with energy harvesting module and wireless recharging capabilities. However, the UAV is used as an energy source to empower depleted IoT devices. On one hand, the UAV charges depleted ground IoT devices under three policies: (1 low-battery first scheme; (2 high-battery first scheme; and (3 random scheme. On the other hand, the UAV station collects data from IoT devices that have sufficient energy to transmit their packets, and in the same phase, the UAV exploits the Radio Frequency (RF signals transmitted by IoT devices to extract and harvest energy. Furthermore, and as the UAV station has a limited coverage time due to its energy constraints, we propose and investigate an efficient trade-off between ground users recharging time and data gathering time. Furthermore, we suggest to control and optimize the UAV trajectory in order to complete its travel within a minimum time, while minimizing the energy spent and/or enhancing the network lifetime. Extensive numerical results and simulations show how the system behaves under different scenarios and using various metrics in which we examine the added value of UAV with energy harvesting module.

  16. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  17. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  18. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  19. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  20. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-02-11

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner.

  1. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-01-01

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner. PMID:29439447

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  3. Engineering of complex systems: The impact of systems engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludze, Ave-Klutse Kodzo Paaku

    The "true" impact or value of systems engineering to an organization unfortunately appears not to have been well-studied and understood. The principles of systems engineering are highly encouraged by NASA at all levels, and most practitioners, both internal and external to NASA, intuitively "believe" it adds some value to the development of complex systems by producing them faster, better and cheaper. This research, in trying to fill a gap that exists in the systems engineering literature, analyzes data collected within NASA and other sources external to NASA (INCOSE) for comparisons. Analyses involving a number of case studies performed on selected NASA projects are presented to draw attention to the impact systems engineering had or could have had on these projects. This research clearly shows that systems engineering does add value to projects within and outside NASA. The research results further demonstrate that systems engineering has been beneficial not only to NASA but also to organizations within which INCOSE members work. It was determined, however, that systems engineering does not operate in a vacuum and may not always guarantee success through mere application. During this research, it was discovered that the lack of or inadequate application of systems engineering in the development of complex systems may result in cost overruns, poor technical performance, project delays, and in some cases unmitigated risk with disastrous consequences including the loss of life and property. How much is saved (in terms of cost, schedule) or improved (in terms of technical performance) as a result of its implementation may never be known precisely, but by indirectly measuring its value or impact on a project, percentages of project budget spent on systems engineering activities and any schedule reductions or performance enhancements realized could be determined. According to this research, systems engineering is not a waste of time and resources; in most cases, it is

  4. Metasynthetic computing and engineering of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Longbing

    2015-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview and introduction to the concepts, methodologies, analysis, design and applications of metasynthetic computing and engineering. The author: Presents an overview of complex systems, especially open complex giant systems such as the Internet, complex behavioural and social problems, and actionable knowledge discovery and delivery in the big data era. Discusses ubiquitous intelligence in complex systems, including human intelligence, domain intelligence, social intelligence, network intelligence, data intelligence and machine intelligence, and their synergy thro

  5. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  6. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  7. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  8. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  9. Engineering design of systems models and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Buede, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    The ideal introduction to the engineering design of systems-now in a new edition. The Engineering Design of Systems, Second Edition compiles a wealth of information from diverse sources to provide a unique, one-stop reference to current methods for systems engineering. It takes a model-based approach to key systems engineering design activities and introduces methods and models used in the real world. Features new to this edition include: * The addition of Systems Modeling Language (SysML) to several of the chapters, as well as the introduction of new terminology * Additional material on partitioning functions and components * More descriptive material on usage scenarios based on literature from use case development * Updated homework assignments * The software product CORE (from Vitech Corporation) is used to generate the traditional SE figures and the software product MagicDraw UML with SysML plugins (from No Magic, Inc.) is used for the SysML figures This book is designed to be an introductory reference ...

  10. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  11. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  12. The engineering of microprocessor systems guidelines on system development

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    The Engineering of Microprocessor Systems: Guidelines on System Development provides economical and technical guidance for use when incorporating microprocessors in products or production processes and assesses the alternatives that are available. This volume is part of Project 0251 undertaken by The Electrical Research Association, which aims to give managers and development engineers advice and comment on the development process and the hardware and software needed to support the engineering of microprocessor systems. The results of Phase 1 of the five-phase project are contained in this fir

  13. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  14. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  15. System Engineering of Photonic Systems for Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Pryor, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics in space systems requires tight integration with the spacecraft systems to ensure accurate operation. This requires some detailed and specific system engineering to properly incorporate the photonics into the spacecraft architecture and to guide the spacecraft architecture in supporting the photonics devices. Recent research in product focused, elegant system engineering has led to a system approach which provides a robust approach to this integration. Focusing on the mission application and the integration of the spacecraft system physics incorporation of the photonics can be efficiently and effectively accomplished. This requires a clear understanding of the driving physics properties of the photonics device to ensure proper integration with no unintended consequences. The driving physics considerations in terms of optical performance will be identified for their use in system integration. Keywords: System Engineering, Optical Transfer Function, Optical Physics, Photonics, Image Jitter, Launch Vehicle, System Integration, Organizational Interaction

  16. An Ecological Approach to the Design of UAV Ground Control Station (GCS) Status Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Susan; Morphew, Ephimia; Shively, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Use of UAVs in military and commercial applications will continue to increase. However, there has been limited research devoted to UAV GCS design. The current study employed an ecological approach to interfac e design. Ecological Interface Design (EID) can be characterized as r epresenting the properties of a system, such that an operator is enco uraged to use skill-based behavior when problem solving. When more ef fortful cognitive processes become necessary due to unfamiliar situations, the application of EID philosophy supports the application of kn owledge-based behavior. With advances toward multiple UAV command and control, operators need GCS interfaces designed to support understan ding of complex systems. We hypothesized that use of EID principles f or the display of UAV status information would result in better opera tor performance and situational awareness, while decreasing workload. Pilots flew a series of missions with three UAV GCS displays of statu s information (Alphanumeric, Ecological, and Hybrid display format). Measures of task performance, Situational Awareness, and workload dem onstrated the benefits of using an ecological approach to designing U AV GCS displays. The application of ecological principles to the design of UAV GCSs is a promising area for improving UAV operations.

  17. A cylinder pressure based engine management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truscott, A.; Noble, A. [Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd. (United Kingdom); Mueller, R.; Hart, M.; Kroetz, G.; Eickhoff, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany); Cavalloni, C.; Gnielka, M. [Kistler Instrumente AG (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Worldwide demands on fuel economy and lower emissions from automotive vehicles have led to stringent requirements in the development of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Cylinder Pressure based Engine Management Systems (CPEMS) provide a way forward in EMS technology by combining intelligent control algorithms with innovative sensing techniques. The full utilisation of model-based control and diagnostics to provide improvements in cost, efficiency, emissions and comfort requires the close monitoring of engine conditions. This is made possible with the advent of new inexpensive sensor materials that can withstand the harsh environment of the combustion chamber. AENEAS is a collaborative project undertaken by Ricardo, DaimlerChrysler and Kistler, with financial support from the European Commission and the Swiss Government, aimed at demonstrating the major benefits of CPEMS technology. This paper describes the application of CPEMS technology to a spark ignition (SI) engine. It describes how the combination of model based algorithms, incorporating physical principles, and cylinder pressure sensing can provide an effective means of engine control and diagnostics. Results are presented to demonstrate the benefits of this new technology. (author)

  18. Industrial Adoption of Model-Based Systems Engineering: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Apoorv

    As design teams are becoming more globally integrated, one of the biggest challenges is to efficiently communicate across the team. The increasing complexity and multi-disciplinary nature of the products are also making it difficult to keep track of all the information generated during the design process by these global team members. System engineers have identified Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as a possible solution where the emphasis is placed on the application of visual modeling methods and best practices to systems engineering (SE) activities right from the beginning of the conceptual design phases through to the end of the product lifecycle. Despite several advantages, there are multiple challenges restricting the adoption of MBSE by industry. We mainly consider the following two challenges: a) Industry perceives MBSE just as a diagramming tool and does not see too much value in MBSE; b) Industrial adopters are skeptical if the products developed using MBSE approach will be accepted by the regulatory bodies. To provide counter evidence to the former challenge, we developed a generic framework for translation from an MBSE tool (Systems Modeling Language, SysML) to an analysis tool (Agent-Based Modeling, ABM). The translation is demonstrated using a simplified air traffic management problem and provides an example of a potential quite significant value: the ability to use MBSE representations directly in an analysis setting. For the latter challenge, we are developing a reference model that uses SysML to represent a generic infusion pump and SE process for planning, developing, and obtaining regulatory approval of a medical device. This reference model demonstrates how regulatory requirements can be captured effectively through model-based representations. We will present another case study at the end where we will apply the knowledge gained from both case studies to a UAV design problem.

  19. Systems Engineering as a tool; Verktoeyet Systems Engineering : struktur fra start til maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Randi

    2002-07-01

    Systems engineering integrates all types of specialists and disciplines into teams that try to create a structured development process from concept via production to operation. The idea is that by using systems engineering, projects can be completed efficiently and successfully. It is important that the individual participant in a project understands that he or she works within a system and that there is a need for skill, comprehensiveness and communication. Systems engineering comprises system design, computer aided design, cybernetics and mecatronics. The article describes the use of systems engineering in a student project in which a heat pump will be used to utilize the energy potential of ground water primarily to heat the visitors' area in a mine museum in Kongsberg, Norway.

  20. Engineering Education as a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating…

  1. Practice-based systems engineering programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available the required system engineering competencies is introduced. A practice-based approach is presented as part of the solution, including the roles of universities, students and industry within this approach. Finally we elaborate on a proposed curriculum for a...

  2. Multi-UAV Flight using Virtual Structure Combined with Behavioral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kownacki Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementations of multi-UAV systems can be divided mainly into two different approaches, centralised system that synchronises positions of each vehicle by a ground station and an autonomous system based on decentralised control, which offers more flexibility and independence. Decentralisation of multi-UAV control entails the need for information sharing between all vehicles, what in some cases could be problematic due to a significant amount of data to be sent over the wireless network. To improve the reliability and the throughput of information sharing inside the formation of UAVs, this paper proposes an approach that combines virtual structure with a leader and two flocking behaviours. Each UAV has assigned different virtual migration point referenced to the leader's position which is simultaneously the origin of a formation reference frame. All migration points create together a virtual rigid structure. Each vehicle uses local behaviours of cohesion and repulsion respectively, to track its own assigned point in the structure and to avoid a collision with the previous UAV in the structure. To calculate parameters of local behaviours, each UAV should know position and attitude of the leader to define the formation reference frame and also the actual position of the previous UAV in the structure. Hence, information sharing can be based on a chain of local peer-to-peer communication between two consecutive vehicles in the structure. In such solution, the information about the leader could be sequentially transmitted from one UAV to another. Numerical simulations were prepared and carried out to verify the effectiveness of the presented approach. Trajectories recorded during those simulations show collective, coherence and collision-free flights of the formation created with five UAVs.

  3. A fast and mobile system for registration of low-altitude visual and thermal aerial images using multiple small-scale UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyanejad, Saeed; Rinner, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    The use of multiple small-scale UAVs to support first responders in disaster management has become popular because of their speed and low deployment costs. We exploit such UAVs to perform real-time monitoring of target areas by fusing individual images captured from heterogeneous aerial sensors. Many approaches have already been presented to register images from homogeneous sensors. These methods have demonstrated robustness against scale, rotation and illumination variations and can also cope with limited overlap among individual images. In this paper we focus on thermal and visual image registration and propose different methods to improve the quality of interspectral registration for the purpose of real-time monitoring and mobile mapping. Images captured by low-altitude UAVs represent a very challenging scenario for interspectral registration due to the strong variations in overlap, scale, rotation, point of view and structure of such scenes. Furthermore, these small-scale UAVs have limited processing and communication power. The contributions of this paper include (i) the introduction of a feature descriptor for robustly identifying corresponding regions of images in different spectrums, (ii) the registration of image mosaics, and (iii) the registration of depth maps. We evaluated the first method using a test data set consisting of 84 image pairs. In all instances our approach combined with SIFT or SURF feature-based registration was superior to the standard versions. Although we focus mainly on aerial imagery, our evaluation shows that the presented approach would also be beneficial in other scenarios such as surveillance and human detection. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of the other two methods in case of multiple image pairs.

  4. Systems engineering approach for future automotive microcontroller solutions; Systems-Engineering-Ansatz zur Entwicklung zukuenftiger Mikrocontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgert, J.; Turski, K.; Vollhardt, S. [NEC Electronics Europe, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    In the future, microcontrollers used in automotive applications will have to meet escalating demands from different areas. For this reason, NEC Electronics (Europe) regards the concept of Systems Engineering as the key to handling the development of the complex system vehicle. This article describes how the Systems Engineering approach is applied to the development of new microcontrollers. The example used is the development platform for NEC's upcoming gateway product. (orig.)

  5. Improving Aerospace Engineering Students' Achievements by an Open Aero Control Experiment Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, QingHua; Zhang, WeiHua; Huang, ZheZhi; Dong, RongHua

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aero control experiment apparatus (ACEA) for use in aerospace control practical courses. The ACEA incorporates a systematic multihierarchy learning and teaching method, and was designed to improve aerospace engineering students' understanding of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control systems. It offers a…

  6. Execution Of Systems Integration Principles During Systems Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    application utilized a paper-based approach to systems design. The customer directed utilization of an SE Waterfall process model . These new...regarding requirements, stakeholders, testing, and system boundaries. Additionally, this thesis discusses use of systems architecture frameworks and models ...and the consistent use of model - based systems engineering throughout development. Lastly, it proposes formal methods language for improving models

  7. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of...

  8. Enhancing Readiness of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System via Use of Simulation Modeling and Contract Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasal, Omer

    1999-01-01

    ...) test system of the Turkish Army Command are the failure to address life cycle cost (LCC) considerations during financial resource allocations and the absence of contract reliability incentives...

  9. Morphogenetic Engineering Toward Programmable Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Michel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Generally, spontaneous pattern formation phenomena are random and repetitive, whereas elaborate devices are the deterministic product of human design. Yet, biological organisms and collective insect constructions are exceptional examples of complex systems that are both self-organized and architectural.   This book is the first initiative of its kind toward establishing a new field of research, Morphogenetic Engineering, to explore the modeling and implementation of “self-architecturing” systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the programmability and computational abilities of self-organization, properties that are often underappreciated in complex systems science—while, conversely, the benefits of self-organization are often underappreciated in engineering methodologies.   Altogether, the aim of this work is to provide a framework for and examples of a larger class of “self-architecturing” systems, while addressing fundamental questions such as   > How do biological organisms carry out morphog...

  10. Electronic ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, L W

    1980-11-20

    Mechanical ignition adjustment devices are sensitive to many effects, for example breakage, faults due to manufacturing tolerances, play in the linkage and the effect of a dirty or corrosive environment. It is therefore the purpose of the invention to provide an electronic ignition system which avoids the disadvantages of a mechanical system. The invention provides adjustment of the ignition point, which gives advance of the ignition timing with increasing speed. An output signal is formed, which supersedes the signal supplied by the electronic control system, so that the ignition is advanced. This also occurs with a larger crankshaft angle before top dead centre of the engine. The electronic control system combines with a source of AC time signals which has a generator as electrical transmitter and a DC battery and ignition coil. The rotor of the electrical generator is driven synchronised with the engine. Structural and functional details of the transistor control circuits are given in 5 patent claims.

  11. Uav-Mapping - a User Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS) for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  12. UAV-MAPPING – A USER REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  13. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  14. Systems engineering real estate development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Elena; Titarenko, Boris; Stepanov, Vitaliy

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, real estate development has accumulated a wealth of experience in implementing major projects, which requires comprehension and systematization. The scientific instrument of system engineering is studied in the article and is substantively interpreted with reference to real estate development projects. The most perspective approaches and models are substantiated, allowing strategically to plan the life cycle of the project as a whole, and also to solve the engineering butt problems of the project. The relevance of further scientific studies of regularities and specifics of the life cycle of real estate development projects conducted at the Moscow State University of Economics and Management at the ISTA department is shown.

  15. Principles of e-learning systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Lester

    2008-01-01

    The book integrates the principles of software engineering with the principles of educational theory, and applies them to the problems of e-learning development, thus establishing the discipline of E-learning systems engineering. For the first time, these principles are collected and organised into the coherent framework that this book provides. Both newcomers to and established practitioners in the field are provided with integrated and grounded advice on theory and practice. The book presents strong practical and theoretical frameworks for the design and development of technology-based mater

  16. The systems engineering overview and process (from the Systems Engineering Management Guide, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The past several decades have seen the rise of large, highly interactive systems that are on the forward edge of technology. As a result of this growth and the increased usage of digital systems (computers and software), the concept of systems engineering has gained increasing attention. Some of this attention is no doubt due to large program failures which possibly could have been avoided, or at least mitigated, through the use of systems engineering principles. The complexity of modern day weapon systems requires conscious application of systems engineering concepts to ensure producible, operable and supportable systems that satisfy mission requirements. Although many authors have traced the roots of systems engineering to earlier dates, the initial formalization of the systems engineering process for military development began to surface in the mid-1950s on the ballistic missile programs. These early ballistic missile development programs marked the emergence of engineering discipline 'specialists' which has since continued to grow. Each of these specialties not only has a need to take data from the overall development process, but also to supply data, in the form of requirements and analysis results, to the process. A number of technical instructions, military standards and specifications, and manuals were developed as a result of these development programs. In particular, MILSTD-499 was issued in 1969 to assist both government and contractor personnel in defining the systems engineering effort in support of defense acquisition programs. This standard was updated to MIL-STD499A in 1974, and formed the foundation for current application of systems engineering principles to military development programs.

  17. Pilot Dependence on Imperfect Diagnostic Automation in Simulated UAV Flights: An Attentional Visual Scanning Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickens, Christopher; Dixon, Stephen; Goh, Juliana; Hammer, Ben

    2005-01-01

    An unmanned air vehicle (UAV) simulation was designed to reveal the effects of imperfectly reliable diagnostic automation a monitor of system health parameters on pilot attention, as the latter was assessed via visual scanning...

  18. Output Feedback Tracking Control of an Underactuated Quad-Rotor UAV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, DongBin; Burg, Timothy; Xian, Bin; Dawson, Darren

    2006-01-01

    ...) using output feedback (OFB). Specifically, an observer is designed to estimate the velocities and an output feedback controller is designed for a nonlinear UAV system in which only position and angles are measurable...

  19. Systems Engineering Management Training at Naval Air Systems Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebel, James

    2000-01-01

    Within the past few years, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) has undergone several major changes including an engineering reorganization from a matrix organization to an Integrated Program Team/Competency Aligned Organization (IPT/CAO...

  20. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, C. R. (Chris R.); Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  1. Development of a variable stability, modular UAV airframe for local research purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monk, John S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available /DPSS Wind tunnel Test CAD Patterns &Moulds Future partners Manufacture XDM 1 Auto pilot spec. A/P design Univ. Stellenbosch A/P manufacture A/P update Manufacture UAVs 1&2 Integrate XM 2D Structural Design A/P integrate Iron Bird... Manufacture XDM 2 Slide 30 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za UAV Systems Integration Laboratory Servos UAV Flight SimulatorIron Bird (XDM) Motors and Controllers Looms Wind Tunnel? Control algorithms Flight models Atmospheric...

  2. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to ignition systems for internal combustion engines; in particular, these are used in the engines of modern small motorcycles, where power is supplied by means of a so-called flywheel magneto, so that there is no need for an additional battery. The invention will prevent back-kicking. This is achieved by the following means: in the right direction of rotation of the internal combustion engine, due to an axial magnetic unsymmetry of the rotor, a voltage component that can switch the electronic switch will occur only in one of the two parts of the control winding at the point of ignition. In the wrong direction of rotation, on the other hand, this voltage component will only occur in the other part of the control winding and will act in direction on a diode connected in parallel to this part of the winding.

  3. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  4. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  5. Study on the aerodynamic behavior of a UAV with an applied seeder for agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felismina, Raimundo; Silva, Miguel; Mateus, Artur; Malça, Cândida

    2017-06-01

    It is irrefutable that the use of Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Systems (UAVs) in agricultural tasks and on the analysis of health and vegetative conditions represents a powerful tool in modern agriculture. To contribute to the growth of the agriculture economic sector a seeder to be coupled to any type of UAV was previously developed and designed by the authors. This seeder allows for the deposition of seeds with positional accuracy, i.e., seeds are accurately deposited at pre-established distances between plants [1]. This work aims at analyzing the aerodynamic behavior of UAV/Seeder assembly to determine the suitable inclination - among 0°, 15° and 30° - for its takeoff and for its motion during the seeding operation and, in turn, to define the suitable flight plan that increases the batteries autonomy. For this the ANSYS® FLUENT computational tool was used to simulate a wind tunnel which has as principle the Navier-Stokes differential equations, that designates the fluid flow around the UAV/Seeder assembly. The aerodynamic results demonstrated that for take-off the UAV inclination of 30° is the aerodynamically most favorable position due to the lower aerodynamic drag during the climb. Concerning flying motion during the seeding procedure the UAV inclination of 0° is that which leads to lower UAV/Seeder frontal area and drag coefficient.

  6. Integration and framing between system engineering, enterprise engineering and whole of society

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, Louwrence D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available with the semantic theoretical constructs of systems levels of Boulding’s General Systems Theory. The construct of systems hierarchy levels addresses the progression from complicated engineered levels to the complexity of human interaction with engineered... predicates in: • A theory of the systems engineering process (Doeben-Henisch, et al., 2008) (Erasmus & Doeben-Henisch, 2011a) • A theory of systems engineering management (SEMBASE) (Erasmus & Doeben-Henisch, 2011b). In the structuralist programme...

  7. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  8. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  9. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  10. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  11. DIDACTIC ENGINEERING: DESIGNING NEW GENERATION LEARNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail K. Nuriyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article deals with the organisation of training activities in the man-made environment. Didactic engineering is seen as a methodology within which problems of didactics are solved with application of pedagogical, psychological, engineering methods. It is obvious that in order to implement the training of future engineers in a competence-based format (according to educational standard a new type of teaching system is needed, with new capacities (properties. These systems should set each student towards the development of professionally significant (key abilities, taking into account his/her psychological characteristics; ensure training on the verge of permissible difficulties (developing training, and thereby achieve rapid development of key skills, through his/her zone of “immediate development”; to diagnose the quality of possession of a competence in the academic sense. For the objectivity and reliability of assessment of the level and depth of learned knowledge it is necessary to generate this evaluation in a metric format. As a result, we created a didactic system, which combines all the listed properties and the properties of classical systems. This allowed us to construct a new generation of didactic systems. Materials and Methods: the research is based on a systematic analysis of the activity of an engineer; on models of “zones of immediate development” by L. S. Vygotsky; on “developmental education” by L. N. Zankova; on the use of pedagogical and psychological patterns as well as taxonomic methods, didactic engineering, theory of probability and mathematical statistics. Results: constructed is a model for training engineers in the metric format of competence, which envisages a rapid development of students project and constructive abilit ies based on their knowledge learned. Discussion and Conclusions: the parameters defining the probability of engineer’s success have been described; the taxonomic scale

  12. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  13. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper.

  14. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper

  15. Engineering embedded systems physics, programs, circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Hintenaus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like ...

  16. UAV MONITORING FOR ENVIROMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands’ institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB and Infrarred Red Green (NIR. First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  17. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  18. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  19. Real-time UAV trajectory generation using feature points matching between video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Younggi; Song, Jeongheon; Han, Dongyeob

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance mission. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the generation of UAV trajectory using a video image matching system based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and Preemptive RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus). Video image matching to find matching points is one of the most important steps for the accurate generation of UAV trajectory (sequence of poses in 3D space). We used the SURF algorithm to find the matching points between video image sequences, and removed mismatching by using the Preemptive RANSAC which divides all matching points to outliers and inliers. The inliers are only used to determine the epipolar geometry for estimating the relative pose (rotation and translation) between image sequences. Experimental results from simulated video image sequences showed that our approach has a good potential to be applied to the automatic geo-localization of the UAVs system

  20. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    of drones, UAVs have also started to be used for attack missions in counterterrorism operations. In this study, it is aimed to determine whether UAVs are appropriate assets that can be used in counterterrorism operations. The study starts by examining the term terrorism and counterterrorism and discusses the role of the Air and Space Power in counterterrorism operations. After proposing that UAVs are appropriate assets for counterterrorism operations, it continues by explaining types and common usage concepts of UAVs. The advantages and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward from the counterterrorism operations' perspectives. It finally examines the utilization of UAVs in counterterrorism operations. In this context, as much as obtained from open sources, countries' roadmaps, usage concepts, experience, and current structure are examined to determine whether UAVs are appropriate assets in counterterrorism operations. When the advantages of UAVs and the disadvantages of manned systems are analyzed, other findings of our survey will show us that UAVs will be increasingly used in counterterrorism operations

  2. Combustion pressure-based engine management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.; Hart, M. [DaimlerChrysler, Stuttart (Germany); Truscott, A.; Noble, A. [Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Kroetz, G.; Richter, C. [DaimlerChrysler, Munchen (Germany); Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instruments AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    In order to fulfill future emissions and OBD regulations, whilst meeting increasing demands for driveability and refinement, new technologies for SI engines have to be found in terms of sensors and algorithms for engine control units. One promising way, explored in the AENEAS collaborative project between DaimlerChrysler, Kistler, Ricardo and the European Commission, is to optimize the behavior of the system by using in-cylinder measurements and analysing them with modern control algorithms. In this paper a new engine management system based on combustion pressure sensing is presented. The pressure sensor is designed to give a reliable and accurate signal of the full pressure trace during a working cycle. With the application of new technologies low cost manufacturing appears to be achievable, so that an application in mass production can be considered. Furthermore, model-based algorithms were developed to allow optimal control of the engine based on the in-cylinder measurements. The algorithms incorporate physical principles to improve efficiency, emissions and to reduce the parameterisation effort. In the paper, applications of the combustion pressure signal for air mass estimation, knock detection, ignition control cam phase detection and diagnosis are discussed. (author)

  3. Exploration Medical Cap Ability System Engineering Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K.; Mindock, J.

    2018-01-01

    Deep Space Gateway and Transport missions will change the way NASA currently practices medicine. The missions will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The ExMC Systems Engineering team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is using Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) to accomplish its integrative goals. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between vehicle and the medical system, and directly supports the transition of Earth-reliant ISS operations to the Earth-independent operations envisioned for Mars. This talk will discuss how ExMC is using MBSE to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. How MBSE is being used to integrate across disciplines and NASA Centers will also be described. The medical system being discussed in this talk is one system within larger habitat systems. Data generated within the medical system will be inputs to other systems and vice versa. This talk will also describe the next steps in model development that include: modeling the different systems that comprise the larger system and interact with the medical system, understanding how the various systems work together, and

  4. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  7. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  8. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  9. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel project systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the WHC Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices to enhance the WHC engineering management of the SNF Project. The scope of the SEMP encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project. This implementation applies to, and is tailored to the needs of the SNF project and all its subprojects, including all current and future subprojects

  11. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  12. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  13. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  14. Applying Product Configuration Systems in Engineering Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde

    This Ph.D. thesis looks into the application of configuration systems in engineering companies, and how configuration systems can be used to support business processes in engineering companies. Often the motivation stated by researchers and practitioners is, that a configuration project...... and sustain competitive advantage” (Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997, pp.509) This question has puzzled academics and preoccupied managers for the last century. Yet, it seems there is still no consensus regarding the meaning of strategy, and how strategy works. Type in the word “strategy” on Amazon.co.uk and 76......,133 books apply. Type it in on Google scholar and 8,580,000 homepages apply3. Obviously, strategy is an important subject. However, the subject also seems to be difficult to perceive. Although this thesis is not about strategy, or strategizing, I would like to pursue the definition of strategy one step...

  15. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  16. ASSESSING CHANGES IN POTATO CANOPY CAUSED BY LATE BLIGHT IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION SYSTEMS THROUGH UAV-BASED PUSHBROOM IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. D. Franceschini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution. This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  17. Assessing Changes in Potato Canopy Caused by Late Blight in Organic Production Systems Through Uav-Based Pushbroom Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M. H. D.; Bartholomeus, H.; van Apeldoorn, D.; Suomalainen, J.; Kooistra, L.

    2017-08-01

    Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum) under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution). This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm) are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  18. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently

  19. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently.

  20. Agile Systems Engineering-Kanban Scheduling Subsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Community Programs, derived an initial methodology for evaluating software-related MPTs that might be applicable in systems engineering through surveys...was also conducted using a different simulation tool (SIMIO) as a reference. Appendix A provides a short white paper on the methodology and the...resource and task assignment, and the Incremental Commitment Spiral Model (ICSM) to manage constantly changing risks, clarifying objectives and

  1. Materials to Engineer the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    alone (Lysate), or with GM-CSF and lysate (GM+Lys), and 14 days later 200,000 NT1 cells were injected into the mammary pad. Mice survival was...followed over time. Fig. 2. Therapeutic vaccination against NT1 transplantable tumors. NT1 cells (200,000) were injected into the mammary...Engineer the Immune System David Mooney Harvard College Cambridge, MA 02136 Dendritic cells , GM-CSF, CpG, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) The

  2. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  3. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  4. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  5. Design of UAV (Diseño de un UAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Estévez, José María

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto se ha diseñado un dron, un vehículo aéreo no tripulado (UAV en sus siglas inglesas). El propósito de este proyecto es empezar el diseño desde cero hasta poder vender el dron y que sea rentable. Han sido calculados los parámetros necesarios para comenzar el diseño. Se ha comprobado si todas las partes del UAV son capaces de resistir un impacto contra el suelo durante su uso, y se ha buscado la forma más óptima de conseguir los materiales, así de cómo fabricar ciertas partes y ...

  6. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  7. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  8. The Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958, and its Marshall Space Flight Center was founded in 1960, as space-related work was transferred from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, where Marshall is located. With this heritage, Marshall contributes almost 50 years of systems engineering experience with human-rated launch vehicles and scientific spacecraft to fulfill NASA's mission exploration and discovery. These complex, highly specialized systems have provided vital platforms for expanding the knowledge base about Earth, the solar system, and cosmos; developing new technologies that also benefit life on Earth; and opening new frontiers for America's strategic space goals. From Mercury and Gemini, to Apollo and the Space Shuttle, Marshall's systems engineering expertise is an unsurpassed foundational competency for NASA and the nation. Current assignments comprise managing Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; developing environmental control and life support systems and coordinating science operations on the International Space Station; and a number of exploration-related responsibilities. These include managing and performing science missions, such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter slated to launch for the Moon in April 2009, to developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and integrating the vehicle stack in house, as well as designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle and contributing to the development of the Altair Lunar Lander and an International Lunar Network with communications nodes and other infrastructure.

  9. Towards systems metabolic engineering in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzhans, Jan-Philipp; Luttermann, Tobias; Geier, Martina; Kalinowski, Jörn; Friehs, Karl

    2017-11-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is firmly established as a host for the production of recombinant proteins, frequently outperforming other heterologous hosts. Already, a sizeable amount of systems biology knowledge has been acquired for this non-conventional yeast. By applying various omics-technologies, productivity features have been thoroughly analyzed and optimized via genetic engineering. However, challenging clonal variability, limited vector repertoire and insufficient genome annotation have hampered further developments. Yet, in the last few years a reinvigorated effort to establish P. pastoris as a host for both protein and metabolite production is visible. A variety of compounds from terpenoids to polyketides have been synthesized, often exceeding the productivity of other microbial systems. The clonal variability was systematically investigated and strategies formulated to circumvent untargeted events, thereby streamlining the screening procedure. Promoters with novel regulatory properties were discovered or engineered from existing ones. The genetic tractability was increased via the transfer of popular manipulation and assembly techniques, as well as the creation of new ones. A second generation of sequencing projects culminated in the creation of the second best functionally annotated yeast genome. In combination with landmark physiological insights and increased output of omics-data, a good basis for the creation of refined genome-scale metabolic models was created. The first application of model-based metabolic engineering in P. pastoris showcased the potential of this approach. Recent efforts to establish yeast peroxisomes for compartmentalized metabolite synthesis appear to fit ideally with the well-studied high capacity peroxisomal machinery of P. pastoris. Here, these recent developments are collected and reviewed with the aim of supporting the establishment of systems metabolic engineering in P. pastoris. Copyright © 2017. Published

  10. Doppler Effect-Based Automatic Landing Procedure for UAV in Difficult Access Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Kelner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, almost unrestricted access to low-lying areas of airspace creates an opportunity to use unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially those capable of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL, in transport services. UAVs become increasingly popular for transporting postal items over small, medium, and large distances. It is forecasted that, in the near future, VTOL UAVs with a high take-off weight will also deliver goods to very distant and hard-to-reach locations. Therefore, UAV navigation plays a very important role in the process of carrying out transport services. At present, during the flight phase, drones make use of the integrated global navigation satellite system (GNSS and the inertial navigation system (INS. However, the inaccuracy of GNSS + INS makes it unsuitable for landing and take-off, necessitating the guidance of a human UAV operator during those phases. Available navigation systems do not provide sufficiently high positioning accuracy for an UAV. For this reason, full automation of the landing approach is not possible. This paper puts forward a proposal to solve this problem. The authors show the structure of an autonomous system and a Doppler-based navigation procedure that allows for automatic landing approaches. An accuracy evaluation of the developed solution for VTOL is made on the basis of simulation studies.

  11. Omnidirectional vision applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) attitude and heading estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Mondragon, Ivan F.; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an aircraft attitude and heading estimator using catadioptric images as a principal sensor for UAV or as a redundant system for IMU (Inertial Measure Unit) and gyro sensors. First, we explain how the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras is used for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then, we use appearance images to obtain a visual co...

  12. Software Engineering and Swarm-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Pena, Joaquin; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss two software engineering aspects in the development of complex swarm-based systems. NASA researchers have been investigating various possible concept missions that would greatly advance future space exploration capabilities. The concept mission that we have focused on exploits the principles of autonomic computing as well as being based on the use of intelligent swarms, whereby a (potentially large) number of similar spacecraft collaborate to achieve mission goals. The intent is that such systems not only can be sent to explore remote and harsh environments but also are endowed with greater degrees of protection and longevity to achieve mission goals.

  13. Engineering systems for novel automation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    Modern automation methods of Optimal Control, or for state reconstruction or parameter identification, require a discrete dynamic path model. This is established among others by time and location discretisation of a system of partial differential equations. The digital wave filter principle is paricularly suitable for this purpose, since the numeric stability of the derived algorithms can be easily guaranteed, and their robustness as to effects of word length limitations can be proven. This principle is also particularly attractive in that it can be excellently integrated into currently existing engineering systems for instrumentation and control. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Engineering redox balance through cofactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of systems engineering: An acquisition agent perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niken, A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a descriptive case study on the application of systems engineering and systems engineering management at Armscor. The report also covers the investigation into development methods used and the how the requirements changes...

  16. Application of systems engineering: An acquisition agent perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niken, A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a descriptive case study on the application of systems engineering and systems engineering management at Armscor. The report also covers the investigation into development methods used and the how the requirements changes...

  17. Grid Integration Science, NREL Power Systems Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-25

    This report highlights journal articles published in 2016 by researchers in the Power Systems Engineering Center. NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center published 47 journal and magazine articles in the past year, highlighting recent research in grid modernization.

  18. Fundamentals of electric power engineering engineering from electromagnetics to power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ceraolo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    At the basis of many sectors of engineering, electrical engineering deals with electricity phenomena involved in the transfer of energy and power. Professionals requiring a refresher course in this interdisciplinary branch need look no further than Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering, which imparts tools and trade tricks to remembering basic concepts and grasping new developments. Even established engineers must supplement their careers with an invigorated knowledge base, and this comprehensive resource helps non-electrical engineers amass power system information quickly.

  19. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  20. Low emission turbo compound engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk,; Carl, T [Denver, IA

    2011-05-31

    A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.