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Sample records for uav coffee project

  1. RAVEN-2: Around-The-World UAV Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burleigh, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The Raven around-the-world UAV project is part of an on-going effort to build up a significant European capability in the design, construction and operation of large UAVs and manned reconnaissance aircraft...

  2. The application of micro UAV in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Bukari, Saifullizan Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura

    2017-10-01

    In every outstanding construction project, there is definitely have an effective construction management. Construction management allows a construction project to be implemented according to plan. Every construction project must have a progress development works that is usually created by the site engineer. Documenting the progress of works is one of the requirements in construction management. In a progress report it is necessarily have a visual image as an evidence. The conventional method used for photographing on the construction site is by using common digital camera which is has few setback comparing to Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Besides, site engineer always have a current issues involving limitation of monitoring on high reach point and entire view of the construction site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise review of Micro UAV technology in monitoring the progress on construction site through visualization approach. The aims of this study are to replace the conventional method of photographing on construction site using Micro UAV which can portray the whole view of the building, especially on high reach point and allows to produce better images, videos and 3D model and also facilitating site engineer to monitor works in progress. The Micro UAV was flown around the building construction according to the Ground Control Points (GCPs) to capture images and record videos. The images taken from Micro UAV have been processed generate 3D model and were analysed to visualize the building construction as well as monitoring the construction progress work and provides immediate reliable data for project estimation. It has been proven that by using Micro UAV, a better images and videos can give a better overview of the construction site and monitor any defects on high reach point building structures. Not to be forgotten, with Micro UAV the construction site progress is more efficiently tracked and kept on the schedule.

  3. Uav Photogrammetry: a Practical Solution for Challenging Mapping Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatseresht, M.; Hashempour, A. H.; Hasanlou, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed huge attentions to application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in aerial mapping since a decade ago. Though, it has several advantages for handling time/cost/quality issues, there are a dozen of challenges in working with UAVs. In this paper, we; as the Robotic Photogrammetry Research Group (RPRG), will firstly review these challenges then show its advantages in three special practical projects. For each project, we will share our experiences through description of the UAV specifications, flight settings and processing steps. At the end, we will illustrate final result of each project and show how this technology could make unbelievable benefits to clients including 3D city realistic model in decimetre level, ultra high quality map production in several centimetre level, and accessing to a high risk and rough relief area for mapping aims.

  4. Project Sekwa: A variable stability, blended-wing-body, research UAV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available of flying wing and Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) platforms. The main objective of the project was to investigate the advantages and pitfalls of relaxing the longitudinal stability criteria on a Blended-Wing-Body UAV. The project was also aimed at expanding...

  5. The New Evolution for SIA Rotorcraft UAV Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntong Qi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent research on the design, implement, and testing of a new small-scaled rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (RUAV system—ServoHeli-40. A turbine-powered UAV weighted less than 15 kg was designed, and its major components were tested at the Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shenyang, China. The aircraft was designed to reach a top speed of more than 20 mps, flying a distance of more than 10 kilometers, and it is going to be used as a test-bed for experimentally evaluating advanced control methodologies dedicated on improving the maneuverability, reliability, as well as autonomy of RUAV. Sensors and controller are all onboard. The full system has been tested successfully in the autonomous mode using the multichannel active modeling controller. The results show that in a real windy environment the rotorcraft UAV can follow the trajectory which was assigned by the ground control station exactly, and the new control method is obviously more effective than the one in the past year's research.

  6. Research and Practice of Uav Remote Sensing in the Monitoring and Management of Construction Projects in Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Gan, Z.; Zhong, L.; Deng, L.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of UAV remote sensing in the monitoring and management of construction projects in riparian areas through the case study of embankment construction projects' monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. A three-step approach is proposed to address the problem: data acquisition with UAV, data processing, and monitoring information extraction. The results of the case study demonstrate that UAV remote sensing is capable of providing fast and accurate measurements and calculations for the needs of monitoring of riparian constructions.

  7. RESEARCH AND PRACTICE OF UAV REMOTE SENSING IN THE MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN RIPARIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of UAV remote sensing in the monitoring and management of construction projects in riparian areas through the case study of embankment construction projects’ monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. A three-step approach is proposed to address the problem: data acquisition with UAV, data processing, and monitoring information extraction. The results of the case study demonstrate that UAV remote sensing is capable of providing fast and accurate measurements and calculations for the needs of monitoring of riparian constructions.

  8. Using UAVs to Conduct Student-led Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Recreational drones can inspire students to initiate research projects. These "toys" have a low cost (Arduino board, SABEL collects temperature, humidity, and GPS position. This presentation will provide examples of student-led investigations, instructions for building the SABEL sensor package, and the status of the new e-book compilation of student-focused activities using recreational drones to pursue science, math, engineering, and technology research investigations.

  9. Turning Farmers into Business Partners through Value Co-Creation Projects. Insights from the Coffee Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Candelo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the empowerment of low-power, vulnerable stakeholders of global, complex supply chains as one effective strategy to increase value co-creation and to moderate the vulnerabilities that threaten supply chain resilience. Previous scholars have indicated the necessity of investigating the concept of value co-creation further by including various stakeholder perspectives and suggesting systems of evaluation. This research thus focuses on low-power smallholder farmers within the coffee supply chain by qualitatively evaluating the effectiveness of value co-creation projects. The study also analyzes the extent of development and the nature of empowerment initiatives designed conjointly by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs and coffee roasters that are addressed to farmers. The mixed qualitative methodology includes a literature review, interviews, focus groups, and content analysis of 20 value co-creation projects conducted in various developing and emerging coffee-producing countries. The research proposes a theoretical framework employed to conduct focus groups with Brazilian coffee farmers. This framework empirically demonstrates that these farmers are in the process of becoming business partners of the coffee supply chain thanks to various empowerment initiatives, common to most of the analyzed projects, that appear to moderate specific vulnerabilities of the coffee supply chain and therefore benefit supply chain resilience.

  10. Reprocessing Close Range Terrestrial and Uav Photogrammetric Projects with the Dbat Toolbox for Independent Verification and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Börlin, N.

    2017-11-01

    Photogrammetry has recently seen a rapid increase in many applications, thanks to developments in computing power and algorithms. Furthermore with the democratisation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), close range photogrammetry has seen more and more use due to the easier capability to acquire aerial close range images. In terms of photogrammetric processing, many commercial software solutions exist in the market that offer results from user-friendly environments. However, in most commercial solutions, a black-box approach to photogrammetric calculations is often used. This is understandable in light of the proprietary nature of the algorithms, but it may pose a problem if the results need to be validated in an independent manner. In this paper, the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) developed for Matlab was used to reprocess some photogrammetric projects that were processed using the commercial software Agisoft Photoscan. Several scenarios were experimented on in order to see the performance of DBAT in reprocessing terrestrial and UAV close range photogrammetric projects in several configurations of self-calibration setting. Results show that DBAT managed to reprocess PS projects and generate metrics which can be useful for project verification.

  11. REPROCESSING CLOSE RANGE TERRESTRIAL AND UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROJECTS WITH THE DBAT TOOLBOX FOR INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murtiyoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has recently seen a rapid increase in many applications, thanks to developments in computing power and algorithms. Furthermore with the democratisation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, close range photogrammetry has seen more and more use due to the easier capability to acquire aerial close range images. In terms of photogrammetric processing, many commercial software solutions exist in the market that offer results from user-friendly environments. However, in most commercial solutions, a black-box approach to photogrammetric calculations is often used. This is understandable in light of the proprietary nature of the algorithms, but it may pose a problem if the results need to be validated in an independent manner. In this paper, the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT developed for Matlab was used to reprocess some photogrammetric projects that were processed using the commercial software Agisoft Photoscan. Several scenarios were experimented on in order to see the performance of DBAT in reprocessing terrestrial and UAV close range photogrammetric projects in several configurations of self-calibration setting. Results show that DBAT managed to reprocess PS projects and generate metrics which can be useful for project verification.

  12. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  13. The use of UAVs to monitor archeological sites: the case study of Choirokoitia within the PROTHEGO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, K.

    2017-09-01

    PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu). PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology for the management of sites and world heritage monuments located throughout Europe, using specialized remote sensing techniques. Τhe methodology will include the 395 monuments of UNESCO in Europe, with case studies conducted in 4 UNESCO sites in England, Spain, Italy and Cyprus. For the Cyprus case study in Choirokoitia, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used to monitor and assess the risk from natural hazards on the archaeological site to evaluate cultural heritage sites deformation. The UAVs were flown over the study area to produce time-series data, including orthoimages, 3D models and digital elevation models of the Choirokoitia site in order to identify changes in the area caused by natural hazards.

  14. Comparing data of terrestrial LiDAR and UAV (photogrammetric) in the context of the project "SedAlp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Judith; Wegner, Kerstin; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Becht, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The project "SedAlp" (Sediment management in Alpine basins: integrating sediment continuum, risk mitigation and hydropower) concentrates on problems and approaches related to sediment transfer in the alpine region and is embedded in the European transnational cooperation program "Alpine Space". The catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt contributes the German part to this project on behalf of the Bavarian Environment Agency and in collaboration with the Authority of Water Resources Weilheim. The area of interest is the river Isar between the Sylvenstein reservoir and the city of Bad Tölz, Bavaria, Germany. The main aim of the activities is to quantify the transfer of sediments from the tributary catchments to the river Isar, specifically in light of the fact that the construction of the Sylvenstein reservoir in the mid 1950ies has created a barrier to longitudinal sediment transfer, thus heavily impacting the sediment budget and morphodynamics of the Isar reaches downstream. Moreover, the further development of artificially inserted gravel deposits and the effect of dismantling reinforcement structures at the river banks need investigation. Therefore, the dynamics of alluvial fans and gravel bars in the areas of confluence of tributary torrents are monitored using multitemporal surveys with terrestrial laserscanners and drone-based imagery. The latter is used both for the generation of high-resolution digital elevation models and for the mapping of changes in comparison to historical aerial photos. This study focuses on a comparison of TLS and UAV-based photogrammetric digital elevation models in order to highlight advantages and disadvantages of the two methods in relation to the SedAlp-specific research problems. It is shown that UAV-based elevation models are highly accurate alternatives to TLS-based models; due to their favourable acquisition geometry with respect to the topography in floodplain areas, and their large areal coverage, their use is seen as

  15. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the first 15K coffee microarray, a new tool for discovering candidate genes correlated to agronomic and quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Isabelle; Bardil, Amélie; Gomez, Aureliano Bombarely; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Fuentes, Ivanna; Mueller, Lukas; Joët, Thierry; Pot, David; Foucrier, Séverine; Dussert, Stéphane; Leroy, Thierry; Journot, Laurent; de Kochko, Alexandre; Campa, Claudine; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe; Bertrand, Benoit

    2011-01-05

    Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  16. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta. Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics. This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid, drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  17. Monitoring ground deformation of cultural heritage sites using UAVs and geodetic techniques: the case study of Choirokoitia, JPI PROTHEGO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Danezis, Chris; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Lymperopoulou, Efstathia

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the integrated methods using UAVs and geodetic techniques to monitor ground deformation within the Choirokoitia UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cyprus. The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. The study is conducted under the PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) project, which is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu) and through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. The field measurements collected at the Choirokoitia site will be later compared with SAR data to verify micro-movements in the area to monitor potential geo-hazards. The site is located on a steep hill, which makes it vulnerable to rock falls and landslides.

  18. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3. ... might increase the risk of experiencing serious or life-threatening side effects such as high blood pressure, ...

  19. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  20. FEASIBILITY COMPARISON OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AND 3D-POINT CLOUDS FORMED FROM UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV-BASED IMAGERY USED FOR 3D PROJECTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rilskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New, innovative methods of aerial surveys have changed the approaches to information provision of projecting dramatically for the last 15 years. Nowadays there are at least two methods that claim to be the most efficient way for collecting geospatial data intended for projecting – the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR data and photogrammetrically processed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based aerial imagery, forming 3D point clouds. But these materials are not identical to each other neither in precision, nor in completeness.Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR is normally being performed using manned aircrafts. LIDAR data are very precise, they allow us to achieve data about relief even overgrown with vegetation, or to collect laser reflections from wires, metal constructions and poles. UAV surveys are normally being performed using frame digital cameras (lightweight, full-frame, or mid-size. These cameras form images that are being processed using 3D photogrammetric software in automatic mode that allows one to generate 3D point cloud, which is used for building digital elevation models, surfaces, orthomosaics, etc.All these materials are traditionally being used for making maps and GIS data. LIDAR data have been popular in design work. Also there have been some attempts to use for the same purpose 3D-point clouds, formed by photogrammetric software from images acquired from UAVs.After comparison of the datasets from these two different types of surveying (surveys were made simultaneously on the same territory, it became possible to define some specific, typical for LIDAR or imagery-based 3D data. It can be mentioned that imagery-based 3D data (3D point clouds, formed in automatic mode using photogrammetry, are much worse than LIDAR data – both in terms of precision and completeness.The article highlights these differences and makes attempts at explaining the origin of these differences. 

  1. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  2. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  4. The Pocket-4-Life project, bioavailability and beneficial properties of the bioactive compounds of espresso coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee: study protocol for a randomized cross-over trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Martini, Daniela; Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Background Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, phenolic compounds (mainly chlorogenic acids), trigonelline, and diterpenes. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic diseases, but the impact of coffee dosage on markers of cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. Moreover, the pool of coffee-derived circulating metabolites and the contribution of each metabolite to disease prevention still ne...

  5. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  7. The Pocket-4-Life project, bioavailability and beneficial properties of the bioactive compounds of espresso coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee: study protocol for a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Martini, Daniela; Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-11-09

    Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, phenolic compounds (mainly chlorogenic acids), trigonelline, and diterpenes. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic diseases, but the impact of coffee dosage on markers of cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. Moreover, the pool of coffee-derived circulating metabolites and the contribution of each metabolite to disease prevention still need to be evaluated in real-life settings. The aim of this study will be to define the bioavailability and beneficial properties of coffee bioactive compounds on the basis of different levels of consumption, by using an innovative experimental design. The contribution of cocoa-based products containing coffee to the pool of circulating metabolites and their putative bioactivity will also be investigated. A three-arm, crossover, randomized trial will be conducted. Twenty-one volunteers will be randomly assigned to consume three treatments in a random order for 1 month: 1 cup of espresso coffee/day, 3 cups of espresso coffee/day, and 1 cup of espresso coffee plus 2 cocoa-based products containing coffee twice per day. The last day of each treatment, blood and urine samples will be collected at specific time points, up to 24 hours following the consumption of the first product. At the end of each treatment the same protocol will be repeated, switching the allocation group. Besides the bioavailability of the coffee/cocoa bioactive compounds, the effect of the coffee/cocoa consumption on several cardiometabolic risk factors (anthropometric measures, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitric oxide, blood lipids, fasting indices of glucose/insulin metabolism, DNA damage, eicosanoids, and nutri-metabolomics) will be investigated. Results will provide information on the bioavailability of the main groups of phytochemicals in coffee and on their modulation by the level

  8. Assessing UAVs in Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration within a Heterogeneous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouze, G.; Neely, H.; Morgan, C.; Kustas, W. P.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Cope, D.; Yang, C.; Thomasson, A.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne and satellite remote sensing methods have been developed to provide ET estimates across entire management fields. However, airborne-based ET is not particularly cost-effective and satellite-based ET provides insufficient spatial/temporal information. ET estimations through remote sensing are also problematic where soils are highly variable within a given management field. Unlike airborne/satellite-based ET, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based ET has the potential to increase the spatial and temporal detail of these measurements, particularly within a heterogeneous soil landscape. However, it is unclear to what extent UAVs can model ET. The overall goal of this project was to assess the capability of UAVs in modeling ET across a heterogeneous landscape. Within a 20-ha irrigated cotton field in Central Texas, low-altitude UAV surveys were conducted throughout the growing season over two soil types. UAVs were equipped with thermal and multispectral cameras to obtain canopy temperature and NDVI, respectively. UAV data were supplemented simultaneously with ground-truth measurements such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and plant height. Both remote sensing and ground-truth parameters were used to model ET using a Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model. UAV-based estimations of ET and other energy balance components were validated against energy balance measurements obtained from nearby eddy covariance towers that were installed within each soil type. UAV-based ET fluxes were also compared with airborne and satellite (Landsat 8)-based ET fluxes collected near the time of the UAV survey.

  9. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  10. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  11. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  12. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  13. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  14. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  15. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  16. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  17. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  18. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  19. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  20. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  1. Online UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential asset for military and law enforcement operations. In particular their use for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks has been growing due to the quick developments in the areal systems themselves, sensor technology, and image processing

  2. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  3. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  4. Automated geographic registration and radiometric correction for UAV-based mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University has been operating a large-scale, UAV-based, agricultural remote-sensing research project since 2015. To use UAV-based images in agricultural production, many high-resolution images must be mosaicked together to create an image of an agricultural field. Two key difficulties to s...

  5. A mini-UAV VTOL Platform for Surveying Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Rawat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss implementation of a mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV vertical take-off and landing (VTOL platform for surveying activities related to highway construction. Recent advances in sensor and communication technologies have allowed scaling sizes of unmanned aerial platforms, and explore them for tasks that are economical and safe over populated or inhabited areas. In highway construction the capability of mini-UAVs to survey in hostile and/or hardly accessible areas can greatly reduce human risks. The project focused on developing a cost effective, remotely controlled, fuel powered mini-UAV VTOL (helicopter platform with certain payload capacity and configuration and demonstrated its use in surveying and monitoring activities required for highway planning and construction. With an on-board flight recorder global positioning system (GPS device, memory storage card, telemetry, inertial navigation sensors, and a video camera the mini-UAV can record flying coordinates and relay live video images to a remote ground receiver and surveyor. After all necessary integration and flight tests were done the mini-UAV helicopter was tested to operate and relay video from the areas where construction was underway. The mini-UAV can provide a platform for a range of sensors and instruments that directly support the operational requirements of transportation sector.

  6. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  7. Evapotranspiration from UAV Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Hoffmann Munk

    and is thus of importance in both hydrological, agricultural and atmospheric sciences. Still today, accurate measurements of ET are not achieved easily. The state-of the-art method to measure ET, the eddy covariance method, is associated with uncertainties and its footprint, though at the order of around 1...... hectare, varies much with the atmospheric stability and wind conditions. Indirect measurements of ET are obtained with satellite imagery, as a residual of the surface energy balance. Satellite images provide spatially distributed measurements, however high resolution satellite products provide footprints...... of measurements and thus new understandings of ET and its inferred parameters such as crop water stress and heat fluxes in the surface energy balance. However, UAV data collection is a new measuring method and the lightweight sensors are novel instrumentations. Workflows for processing UAV data, and the data...

  8. RECONNAISSANCE MICRO UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Gabrlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of the Uranus UAV. This quad-rotor flying robot was created to extend the abilities of the hitherto developed with airborne missions. The first part deals with the mathematical model of the robot. Next, the control system is designed, and the proposed hardware as well as the implemented software solution are presented. For integration into the robotic system, a new communication protocol was created and is described here too.

  9. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  10. Research for new UAV capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  11. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  12. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  13. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  14. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  15. Dragon Drone UAV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-02

    TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dragon Drone UAV System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A E R O S Y S T E M S BAI’s Dragon Drone ...the hundreds. BAI’s Dragon Drone system is the result of combining new ideas and emerging technologies with the in-depth knowl- edge gained from real

  16. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  17. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  18. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  19. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  20. Optical and acoustical UAV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christnacher, Frank; Hengy, Sébastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Naz, Pierre; Schertzer, Stéphane; Schmitt, Gwenael

    2016-10-01

    Recent world events have highlighted that the proliferation of UAVs is bringing with it a new and rapidly increasing threat for national defense and security agencies. Whilst many of the reported UAV incidents seem to indicate that there was no terrorist intent behind them, it is not unreasonable to assume that it may not be long before UAV platforms are regularly employed by terrorists or other criminal organizations. The flight characteristics of many of these mini- and micro-platforms present challenges for current systems which have been optimized over time to defend against the traditional air-breathing airborne platforms. A lot of programs to identify cost-effective measures for the detection, classification, tracking and neutralization have begun in the recent past. In this paper, lSL shows how the performance of a UAV detection and tracking concept based on acousto-optical technology can be powerfully increased through active imaging.

  1. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  2. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  3. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  4. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  5. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  6. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson , II, F. C

    2006-01-01

    .... There is an overarching USN plan for UAVs, but I propose an emphasis should be placed on the close range or tactical UAVs that will directly complement battle space management, increase situational...

  7. Collaborative UAV Exploration of Hostile Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luotsinen, Linus J; Gonzalez, Avelino J; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2004-01-01

    .... UAVs can be lost or significantly damaged during the exploration process. Although employing multiple UAVs can increase the chance of success, their efficiency depends on the collaboration strategies used...

  8. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  9. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  10. UAV Swarm Operational Risk Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    are detected, clear monitoring is required to track and identify the possible intentions of inbound UAVs. And when a target is identified, enough...armed UAVs (Davis et al. 2014). Although manufacturers in the U.S. and Israel dominate the global UAV market (approximately 75 percent share between

  11. Acquisition and Processing Protocols for Uav Images: 3d Modeling of Historical Buildings Using Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Koehl, M.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Freville, T.

    2017-08-01

    Photogrammetry has seen an increase in the use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for both large and smaller scale cartography. The use of UAVs is also advantageous because it may be used for tasks requiring quick response, including in the case of the inspection and monitoring of buildings. The objective of the project is to study the acquisition and processing protocols which exist in the literature and to adapt them for UAV projects. This implies a study on the calibration of the sensors, flight planning, comparison of software solutions, data management, and analysis on the different products of a UAV project. Two historical buildings of the city of Strasbourg were used as case studies: a part of the Rohan Palace façade and the St-Pierre-le-Jeune Catholic church. In addition, a preliminary test was performed on the Josephine Pavilion. Two UAVs were used in this research; namely the Sensefly Albris and the DJI Phantom 3 Professional. The experiments have shown that the calibration parameters tend to be unstable for small sensors. Furthermore, the dense matching of images remains a particular problem to address in a close range photogrammetry project, more so in the presence of noise on the images. Data management in cases where the number of images is high is also very important. The UAV is nevertheless a suitable solution for the surveying and recording of historical buildings because it is able to take images from points of view which are normally inaccessible to classical terrestrial techniques.

  12. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  13. Omnidirectional vision applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) attitude and heading estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Mondragon, Ivan F.; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an aircraft attitude and heading estimator using catadioptric images as a principal sensor for UAV or as a redundant system for IMU (Inertial Measure Unit) and gyro sensors. First, we explain how the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras is used for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then, we use appearance images to obtain a visual co...

  14. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  15. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  16. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  17. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    UAVs (Raven, Wasp, and Puma) do not advertise any payload capability, the Tier I operators that Team Bravo contacted claimed small payload...www.ncca.navy.mil/services/inflation.cfm (accessed February 2011). Net Resources International. "Javelin Anti- Armour Missile." Army-Technology.com. 2011. http

  18. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  19. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  20. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    considered. Fundamental cost driver analysis was also performed. System development plans were drafted in order to determine where the technological and programmatic critical paths lay. As a result of this effort, UAVs were to be able to provide far more surveillance time and intelligence information per mission while reducing the high cost of support activities. This technology was intended to create unmatched global capabilities to observe and preempt terrorist and weapon of mass destruction (WMD) activities. Various DOE laboratory and contractor personnel and facilities could have been used to perform detailed engineering, fabrication, assembly and test operations including follow-on operational support. Unfortunately, none of the results will be used in the near-term or mid-term future. NGIS UMS and SNL felt that the technical goals for the project were accomplished. NGIS UMS was quite pleased with the results of analysis and design although it was disappointing to all that the political realities would not allow use of the results. Technology and system designs evaluated under this CRADA had previously never been applied to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Based upon logistic support cost predictions, because the UAVs would not have had to refuel as often, forward basing support costs could have been reduced due to a decrease in the number and extent of support systems and personnel being required to operate UAVs in remote areas. Basic application of the advanced propulsion and power approach is well understood and industry now understands the technical, safety, and political issues surrounding implementation of these strategies. However, the overall economic impact was not investigated. The results will not be applied/implemented. No near-term benefit to industry or the taxpayer will be encountered as a result of these studies.

  1. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  2. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  3. Design of UAV (Diseño de un UAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Estévez, José María

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto se ha diseñado un dron, un vehículo aéreo no tripulado (UAV en sus siglas inglesas). El propósito de este proyecto es empezar el diseño desde cero hasta poder vender el dron y que sea rentable. Han sido calculados los parámetros necesarios para comenzar el diseño. Se ha comprobado si todas las partes del UAV son capaces de resistir un impacto contra el suelo durante su uso, y se ha buscado la forma más óptima de conseguir los materiales, así de cómo fabricar ciertas partes y ...

  4. The coffee agroforestry system. Its importance for the agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Abelardo Ponce Vaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of coffee growing, Ecuador is characterized by planting two main commercial species of Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee, and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta coffee, where small production units and agroforestry systems predominate. To overcome the low national production, which constitutes the central problem of coffee growing in the country, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, promoted the project «Reactivation of the Ecuadorian coffee industry», which contributes to food security and nutrition with integral approach. In these circumstances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador. The proposal is born from the agro-economic diagnosis «case study», from the situation of the Coffee Production Units, from the Association of Peasants «Juntos Lucharemos» from the La Unión parish of the Jipijapa county, province of Manabí, in which they settled Main contributions to the agro-alimentary and nutritional security coming from the coffee agroforestry systems, this allowed to analyze characteristics related to the object of study. Based on the research results, gaps in national consumption needs were detected. This proposal contributed to articulate and promote the reactivation of coffee growing on agroecological bases, in harmony with the dimensions of sustainability in order to protect and conserve biodiversity and the coffee forest.

  5. UAV measurements of aerosol properties at the Cyprus institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitola, Kimmo; Sciare, Jean; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Argyrides, Marios; Vouterakos, Panagiotis; Antoniou, Panyiota; Apostolou, Apostolos; Savvides, Constantinos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Biskos, George; Gao, Ru-Shan; Murphy, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Bingemer, Heinz; Mocnik, Grisa

    2017-04-01

    discrete altitudes and not only during the ascend and descend periods. The POPS measures the particle size distribution in the range of 140-3000 nm diameter within 14 size channels. The POPS was successfully compared to another OPC (MetOne, model 212 profiler) on separate flights during the same day with coinciding results. The routine flights will continue for a year, once or twice a week, targeting different air mass origins and synoptic conditions. The aim is to build a comprehensive dataset by merging atmospheric data measured both by UAVs and ground-based in situ observations obtained 1) at the Agia Marina Xyliatou remote station (500m asl) and 2) at the free troposphere Troodos altitude station (1800m asl). This project received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) project BACCHUS under grant agreement no. 603445 and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ACTRIS-2 under grant agreement No 654109.

  6. Evaluation of the International coffee market conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FISAKOVA O.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes analysis of coffee market and its conditions for coffee companies. Also, coffee export amounts and prices are compared and analyzed. Statistics were collected over few last years to present accurate research

  7. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  8. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  9. Radioactivity in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.; Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Rongoni, A.; Saetta, D.

    2013-01-01

    This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210 Po and natural gamma emitters as 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137 Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210 Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10 -2 Bq kg -1 . 40 K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, indicators of 226 Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg -1 . 228 Ac, 228 Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 212 Pb, 224 Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg -1 . 208 Tl, 224 Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg -1 . In all samples, the artificial 137 Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg -1 ). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210 Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 208 Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 208 Tl respectively. (author)

  10. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  11. 75 FR 7471 - Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company, Respondent; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2354-10] Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint February 3, 2010. Take notice that on December 14, 2009, as amended on January 8, 2010, Chandra Coffee and Rabun...

  12. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    a commercial UAV. Our results show that path loss exponents decrease as the UAV moves up, approximating freespace propagation for horizontal ranges up to tens of kilometers at UAV heights around 100m. Our findings support the need of heightdependent parameters for describing the propagation channel for UAVs...

  13. Mini UAV as an improvised air threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, K.J. de; Wiel, R.A.N. van de

    2013-01-01

    The use of UAVs for military and law enforcement purposes is increasing dramatically. Simultaneously, possible opponents are also developing UAV capabilities that they may deploy for their purposes. For example, a terrorist may deploy a commercially available model airplane or multicopter with an

  14. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  15. SLIC superpixels for object delineation UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelinck, Sophie Charlotte; Bennett, R.M.; Gerke, Markus; Koeva, M.N.; Yang, M.Y.; Vosselman, G.; Stachniss, C.; Förstner, W.; Schneider, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with

  16. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  17. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  18. POTENTIAL OF UAV-BASED LASER SCANNER AND MULTISPECTRAL CAMERA DATA IN BUILDING INSPECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mader

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional building inspection of bridges, dams or large constructions in general is rather time consuming and often cost expensive due to traffic closures and the need of special heavy vehicles such as under-bridge inspection units or other large lifting platforms. In consideration that, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV will be more reliable and efficient as well as less expensive and simpler to operate. The utilisation of UAVs as an assisting tool in building inspections is obviously. Furthermore, light-weight special sensors such as infrared and thermal cameras as well as laser scanner are available and predestined for usage on unmanned aircraft systems. Such a flexible low-cost system is realized in the ADFEX project with the goal of time-efficient object exploration, monitoring and damage detection. For this purpose, a fleet of UAVs, equipped with several sensors for navigation, obstacle avoidance and 3D object-data acquisition, has been developed and constructed. This contribution deals with the potential of UAV-based data in building inspection. Therefore, an overview of the ADFEX project, sensor specifications and requirements of building inspections in general are given. On the basis of results achieved in practical studies, the applicability and potential of the UAV system in building inspection will be presented and discussed.

  19. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  20. APPLICATION OF SENSOR FUSION TO IMPROVE UAV IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC. We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  1. Application of Sensor Fusion to Improve Uav Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, S.; Fathollahi, F.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan) camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS) camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC). We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  2. Multisensor Equipped Uav/ugv for Automated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzdorfer, S.; Bobbe, M.; Becker, M.; Harms, H.; Bestmann, U.

    2017-08-01

    The usage of unmanned systems for exploring disaster scenarios has become more and more important in recent times as a supporting system for action forces. These systems have to offer a well-balanced relationship between the quality of support and additional workload. Therefore within the joint research project ANKommEn - german acronym for Automated Navigation and Communication for Exploration - a system for exploration of disaster scenarios is build-up using multiple UAV und UGV controlled via a central ground station. The ground station serves as user interface for defining missions and tasks conducted by the unmanned systems, equipped with different environmental sensors like cameras - RGB as well as IR - or LiDAR. Depending on the exploration task results, in form of pictures, 2D stitched orthophoto or LiDAR point clouds will be transmitted via datalinks and displayed online at the ground station or will be processed in short-term after a mission, e.g. 3D photogrammetry. For mission planning and its execution, UAV/UGV monitoring and georeferencing of environmental sensor data, reliable positioning and attitude information is required. This is gathered using an integrated GNSS/IMU positioning system. In order to increase availability of positioning information in GNSS challenging scenarios, a GNSS-Multiconstellation based approach is used, amongst others. The present paper focuses on the overall system design including the ground station and sensor setups on the UAVs and UGVs, the underlying positioning techniques as well as 2D and 3D exploration based on a RGB camera mounted on board the UAV and its evaluation based on real world field tests.

  3. MULTISENSOR EQUIPPED UAV/UGV FOR AUTOMATED EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Batzdorfer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of unmanned systems for exploring disaster scenarios has become more and more important in recent times as a supporting system for action forces. These systems have to offer a well-balanced relationship between the quality of support and additional workload. Therefore within the joint research project ANKommEn – german acronym for Automated Navigation and Communication for Exploration – a system for exploration of disaster scenarios is build-up using multiple UAV und UGV controlled via a central ground station. The ground station serves as user interface for defining missions and tasks conducted by the unmanned systems, equipped with different environmental sensors like cameras – RGB as well as IR – or LiDAR. Depending on the exploration task results, in form of pictures, 2D stitched orthophoto or LiDAR point clouds will be transmitted via datalinks and displayed online at the ground station or will be processed in short-term after a mission, e.g. 3D photogrammetry. For mission planning and its execution, UAV/UGV monitoring and georeferencing of environmental sensor data, reliable positioning and attitude information is required. This is gathered using an integrated GNSS/IMU positioning system. In order to increase availability of positioning information in GNSS challenging scenarios, a GNSS-Multiconstellation based approach is used, amongst others. The present paper focuses on the overall system design including the ground station and sensor setups on the UAVs and UGVs, the underlying positioning techniques as well as 2D and 3D exploration based on a RGB camera mounted on board the UAV and its evaluation based on real world field tests.

  4. Estimation and Extrapolation of Tree Parameters Using Spectral Correlation between UAV and Pléiades Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Abdollahnejad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest technological advances in space-borne imagery have significantly enhanced the acquisition of high-quality data. With the availability of very high-resolution satellites, such as Pléiades, it is now possible to estimate tree parameters at the individual level with high fidelity. Despite innovative advantages on high-precision satellites, data acquisition is not yet available to the public at a reasonable cost. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the practical advantage of data acquisition at a higher spatial resolution than that of satellites. This study is divided into two main parts: (1 we describe the estimation of basic tree attributes, such as tree height, crown diameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, and stem volume derived from UAV data based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms; and (2 we consider the extrapolation of the UAV data to a larger area, using correlation between satellite and UAV observations as an economically viable approach. Results have shown that UAVs can be used to predict tree characteristics with high accuracy (i.e., crown projection, stem volume, cross-sectional area (CSA, and height. We observed a significant relation between extracted data from UAV and ground data with R2 = 0.71 for stem volume, R2 = 0.87 for height, and R2 = 0.60 for CSA. In addition, our results showed a high linear relation between spectral data from the UAV and the satellite (R2 = 0.94. Overall, the accuracy of the results between UAV and Pléiades was reasonable and showed that the used methods are feasible for extrapolation of extracted data from UAV to larger areas.

  5. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  6. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  7. Evaluation of physiological changes in coffee seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out at three locations with different vegetation in Nigeria between 1996 and 1998 to determine the physiological changes in coffee intercropped with maize, cassava and plantain. There were four intercropping treatments comprising coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and ...

  8. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  9. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  10. EMERGENCY RADIATION SURVEY DEVICE ONBOARD THE UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bogatov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation survey device (RSD on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10–7 – 10–1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

  11. Low complexity video encoding for UAV inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Zhang, Ruo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present several methods for fast integer motion estimation of videos recorded aboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Different from related work, the field depth is not considered to be consistent. The novel methods designed for low complexity MV prediction in H.264/AVC and anal......In this work we present several methods for fast integer motion estimation of videos recorded aboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Different from related work, the field depth is not considered to be consistent. The novel methods designed for low complexity MV prediction in H.264/AVC...... for UAV infrared (IR) video are also provided....

  12. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  13. Air Force UAVs: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...opening phases of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. By Thomas P. Ehrhard a miTchEll insTiTuTE sTudy July 2010 Air Force UAVs The Secret History

  14. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  15. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  17. Evaluation of the Quality of Action Cameras with Wide-Angle Lenses in Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-06-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  18. [Coffee can protect against disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie

    2012-09-24

    A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.

  19. UAV applications for thermodynamic profiling: Emphasis on ice fog research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Ware, Randolph

    2016-04-01

    Ice fog occurs often over the Arctic, cold climatic, and mountainous regions for about 30% of time where temperature (T) can go down to -10°C or below. Ice Nucleation (IN) and cooling processes play an important role by the controlling the intensity of ice fog conditions that affect aviation application, transportation, and local climate. Ice fog can also occur at T above -10°C but close to 0°C it occurs due to freezing of supercooled droplets that include an IN. To better document ice fog conditions, observations from the ice fog events of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol effects on Climate (ISDAC) project, Barrow, Alaska, Fog Remote Sensing And Modeling (FRAM) project Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, and the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) project, Heber City, Utah, were analyzed.. Measurements difficulties of small ice fog particles at cold temperatures and low-level flying restrictions prevent observations from aircraft within the surface boundary layer. However, unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be operated safely to measure IN number concentration, Relative Humidity with respect to ice (RHi), T, horizontal wind speed (Uh) and direction, and ice crystal spectra less than about 500 micron. Thermodynamic profiling by a Radiometrics Profiling Microwave Radiometer (PMWR) and Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was used to describe ice fog conditions in the vertical and its time development. In this presentation, ice fog characteristics and its thermodynamic environment will be presented using both ground-based and airborne platforms such as a UAV with new sensors. Some examples of measurements from the UAV for future research, and challenges related to both ice fog measurements and visibility parameterization will also be presented.

  20. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  1. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  2. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the additional Options available to the operational commander in charge of conducting 'presence and monitoring' missions with the introduction of an armed capability on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs...

  3. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  4. Aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for micro uav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for Micro UAV that has ability of autonomous flight. The most important goal of our proposed method is the reducing the processing cost for fully automatic reconstruction of DSM from a large amount of image obtained from Micro UAV. For this goal, we have developed automatic corresponding point generation procedure using feature point tracking algorithm considering position and attitude information, which obtained from onboard GPS-IMU integrated on Micro UAV. In addition, we have developed the automatic exterior orientation and registration procedure from the automatic generated corresponding points on each image and position and attitude information from Micro UAV. Moreover, in order to reconstruct precise DSM, we have developed the area base matching process which considering edge information. In this paper, we describe processing flow of our automatic aerial photogrammetry. Moreover, the accuracy assessment is also described. Furthermore, some application of automatic reconstruction of DSM will be desired.

  5. Cycloidal Propulsion for UAV VTOL Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boschma, James

    1998-01-01

    .... This propulsion concept holds significant promise for adaptation to UAV VTOL operations. Thrust levels demonstrated were substantially higher than achievable by the best screw type propellers, and approximately equal to those of high end helicopters...

  6. Climate and Pest-Driven Geographic Shifts in Global Coffee Production: Implications for Forest Cover, Biodiversity and Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. We project areas suitable for future coffee cultivation based on several climate scenarios and expected responses of the coffee berry borer, a principle pest of coffee crops. We show that the global climatically-suitable area will suffer marked shifts from some current major centres of cultivation. Most areas will be suited to Robusta coffee, demand for which could be met without incurring forest encroachment. The cultivation of Arabica, which represents 70% of consumed coffee, can also be accommodated in the future, but only by incurring some natural forest loss. This has corresponding implications for carbon storage, and is likely to affect areas currently designated as priority areas for biodiversity. Where Arabica coffee does encroach on natural forests, we project average local losses of 35% of threatened vertebrate species. The interaction of climate and coffee berry borer greatly influences projected outcomes. PMID:26177201

  7. SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin Martínez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    SAR system development for UAV multicopter platforms This thesis describes the optimization of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at X-band and its integration into an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) of type octocopter. For such optimization the SAR system functionality was extended from singlepol to fulpol and it has been optimized at hardware level in order to improve its quality against noise figure. After its integration into the octocopter platform, its features has been used in order to ...

  8. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  9. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  10. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  11. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  12. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Itkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air. An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery. The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  13. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  14. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Birsen Yılmaz; Nilüfer Acar-Tek; Saniye Sözlü

    2017-01-01

    Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this con...

  15. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf; Chen, Yunfei; Zhao, Nan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dobbins, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  16. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  17. Evaluation and development of unmanned aircraft (UAV) for UDOT needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research involved the use of high-resolution aerial photography obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to aid UDOT in monitoring and documenting State Roadway structures and associated issues. Using geo-referenced UAV high resolution aeria...

  18. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf

    2018-01-23

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  19. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  20. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  1. From random process to chaotic behavior in swarms of UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalie , Martin; Danoy , Grégoire; Chaumette , Serge; Bouvry , Pascal

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) applications have seen an important increase in the last decade for both military and civilian applications ranging from fire and high seas rescue to military surveillance and target detection. While this technology is now mature for a single UAV, new methods are needed to operate UAVs in swarms, also referred to as fleets. This work focuses on the mobility management of one single autonomous swarm of UAVs which mission is to cover a giv...

  2. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  4. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, R.; Voogt, V.; Zwamborn, P.; Oever, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to

  5. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tožička

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs.

  6. Evidence from The Rwandan Coffee Sector.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the coffee value chain and to promote the production of speciality coffee. A research team ... exporters and the installation of several parchment mills by companies ..... use a Simple linear regression model was used to explain the total quantity.

  7. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  8. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  9. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  10. Good news for coffee addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.

  11. Multiple UAV Cooperation for Wildfire Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongjie

    Wildfires have been a major factor in the development and management of the world's forest. An accurate assessment of wildfire status is imperative for fire management. This thesis is dedicated to the topic of utilizing multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively monitor a large-scale wildfire. This is achieved through wildfire spreading situation estimation based on on-line measurements and wise cooperation strategy to ensure efficiency. First, based on the understanding of the physical characteristics of the wildfire propagation behavior, a wildfire model and a Kalman filter-based method are proposed to estimate the wildfire rate of spread and the fire front contour profile. With the enormous on-line measurements from on-board sensors of UAVs, the proposed method allows a wildfire monitoring mission to benefit from on-line information updating, increased flexibility, and accurate estimation. An independent wildfire simulator is utilized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Second, based on the filter analysis, wildfire spreading situation and vehicle dynamics, the influence of different cooperation strategies of UAVs to the overall mission performance is studied. The multi-UAV cooperation problem is formulated in a distributed network. A consensus-based method is proposed to help address the problem. The optimal cooperation strategy of UAVs is obtained through mathematical analysis. The derived optimal cooperation strategy is then verified in an independent fire simulation environment to verify its effectiveness.

  12. An evaluation of a UAV guidance system with consumer grade GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abigail Stella

    Remote sensing has been demonstrated an important tool in agricultural and natural resource management and research applications, however there are limitations that exist with traditional platforms (i.e., hand held sensors, linear moves, vehicle mounted, airplanes, remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and satellites). Rapid technological advances in electronics, computers, software applications, and the aerospace industry have dramatically reduced the cost and increased the availability of remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing imagery vary in spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions and are available from numerous providers. Appendix A presented results of a test project that acquired high-resolution aerial photography with a RPV to map the boundary of a 0.42 km2 fire area. The project mapped the boundaries of the fire area from a mosaic of the aerial images collected and compared this with ground-based measurements. The project achieved a 92.4% correlation between the aerial assessment and the ground truth data. Appendix B used multi-objective analysis to quantitatively assess the tradeoffs between different sensor platform attributes to identify the best overall technology. Experts were surveyed to identify the best overall technology at three different pixel sizes. Appendix C evaluated the positional accuracy of a relatively low cost UAV designed for high resolution remote sensing of small areas in order to determine the positional accuracy of sensor readings. The study evaluated the accuracy and uncertainty of a UAV flight route with respect to the programmed waypoints and of the UAV's GPS position, respectively. In addition, the potential displacement of sensor data was evaluated based on (1) GPS measurements on board the aircraft and (2) the autopilot's circuit board with 3-axis gyros and accelerometers (i.e., roll, pitch, and yaw). The accuracies were estimated based on a 95% confidence interval or similar methods. The

  13. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box. 1176, Addis .... cultivation region of Ethiopian coffee by elemental analysis. ... health regulatory limits of the metals in coffee to provide guideline information on the .... Procedures tested for digestion of roasted coffee samples. No.

  15. How Competitive is the Dutch Coffee market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); F. Verboven

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWorld coffee bean prices have shown large fluctuations during the past years. Consumer prices for roasted coffee, in contrast, have varied considerably less. This article investigates whether the weak relationship between coffee bean and consumer prices can be explained by a lack of

  16. Automatic UAV Image Geo-Registration by Matching UAV Images to Georeferenced Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the fast development of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles. As an alternative to traditional image acquisition methods, UAVs bridge the gap between terrestrial and airborne photogrammetry and enable flexible acquisition of high resolution images. However, the georeferencing accuracy of UAVs is still limited by the low-performance on-board GNSS and INS. This paper investigates automatic geo-registration of an individual UAV image or UAV image blocks by matching the UAV image(s with a previously taken georeferenced image, such as an individual aerial or satellite image with a height map attached or an aerial orthophoto with a DSM (digital surface model attached. As the biggest challenge for matching UAV and aerial images is in the large differences in scale and rotation, we propose a novel feature matching method for nadir or slightly tilted images. The method is comprised of a dense feature detection scheme, a one-to-many matching strategy and a global geometric verification scheme. The proposed method is able to find thousands of valid matches in cases where SIFT and ASIFT fail. Those matches can be used to geo-register the whole UAV image block towards the reference image data. When the reference images offer high georeferencing accuracy, the UAV images can also be geolocalized in a global coordinate system. A series of experiments involving different scenarios was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that our approach achieves not only decimeter-level registration accuracy, but also comparable global accuracy as the reference images.

  17. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  18. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  19. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  3. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  4. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  5. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  6. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  7. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C. (Concepción); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A.I. (Ana Isabel); Bravo, J. (Jimena); Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  8. LUNA: low-flying UAV-based forest monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Pereira, Luísa; Pinto, Glória; Alves, Artur; Barros, Antonio; Boogert, Frans-Joost; Cambra, Sílvia; de Jesus, Cláudia; Frankenbach, Silja; Mesquita, Raquel; Serôdio, João; Martins, José; Almendra, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The LUNA project is aiming to develop an information system for precision forestry and, in particular, the monitoring of eucalypt plantations that is first and foremost based on multi-spectral imagery acquired using low-flying uav's. The presentation will focus on the first phase of image acquisition, processing and analysis for a series of pot experiments addressing main threats for early-stage eucalypt plantations in Portugal, i.e. acute , chronic and cyclic hydric stress, nutrient stress, fungal infections and insect plague attacks. The imaging results will be compared with spectroscopic measurements as well as with eco-physiological and plant morphological measurements. Furthermore, the presentation will show initial results of the project's second phase, comprising field tests in existing eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal.

  9. Dynamics of the international coffee market and instrumental in price formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Candéa Sá Barreto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study's main general objective of studying the behavior of coffee beans on the international market. Empirical analysis uses econometric tool as a model of simultaneous equations using least squares in a three-stage annual data base extending over the period 1964 / 65-2014 / 15. The results suggest that the factors that affect the production of coffee beans are the actual prices and the planted area. However, demand is affected by the growth of the world economy. The price simulations for the period 2014/15 - 2020/21 indicate that a yearly growth (GDP of 2.1% there is a tendency of small high price to 3.6% moderate rise in the price of coffee until 2018/19 and a stronger growth trend of prices from 2019/20 and a growth of 4.7% a high coffee prices trend in grain on the international market. Thus the tendency of the projections 3 and the key market factors continue to favor the maintenance of current high coffee prices. For the full period 1964/65 to 2014/15 there is a moderate relationship between coffee prices and the stock. It follows that the results obtained with the scenarios developed in this work can be useful to rethink measures to recover income from coffee producing countries

  10. Geotechnologies for the Characterization of Specialty Coffee Environments of Mantiqueira de Minas in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Lacerda, M. P. C.; Borém, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region's tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the "terroirs" where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region's coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality were evaluated. The results

  11. GEOTECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECIALTY COFFEE ENVIRONMENTS OF MANTIQUEIRA DE MINAS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region’s tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the “terroirs” where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region’s coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality

  12. The Practical Application of Uav-Based Photogrammetry Under Economic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, M.; Siegrist, E.; Eisenbeiss, H.; Demir, N.

    2011-09-01

    test data from a project featuring an area of interest within the practical range for mini UAVs. While flight planning and flight operation are already quite efficient processes, the bottlenecks identified are mainly related to image processing. Although we used specific software for image processing, the identified gaps in the processing chain today are valid for most commercial photogrammetric software systems on the market. An outlook proposing improvements for a practicable workflow applicable in projects in private economy will be given.

  13. Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Stewart, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers, using electromyography and questionnaire survey techniques. Nicaraguan researchers were involved in the study so that they could gain hands-on experience with ergonomics research and applications, and eventually be the specialists conducting ergonomics interventions in Nicaraguan workplaces. Coffee harvesting activities were studied individually and physical hazards were identified accordingly. The results showed decreased muscle loading on the erector spinae muscle and improved comfort reporting in the back region compared to the commonly used baskets. This fulfils the design objective of a newly developed bag that was used in the intervention to reduce physical workload on the coffee harvesting workers. Workers' opinion survey results showed some issues related to the size of the new bag and the lumbar-shoulder belt mechanism. This information can be used in the modification of the bag in the next design. Key players in the process have been identified. Stimulating ergonomics activities in developing countries is suggested by many experts. This study provided an example from coffee workers in Nicaragua. Commonly used job evaluation procedures and physical load quantification methods were used. Ergonomics researchers and practitioners in developing countries may do similar projects on their own in the future.

  14. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be

  15. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  16. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  17. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  18. The Way Ahead For Maritime UAVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    of possible contract winners including Scan Eagle, Silver Fox, Wasp, Coyote and the USMC Tier I winner Dragon Eye. Technical data for these UAVs are...Neptune’s engine and avionics are placed above the waterline and the airframe is sealed for flotation as well as providing corrosion/water intrusion

  19. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  20. Interactive Cadastral Boundary Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Höfle, B.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are evolving as an alternative tool to acquire land tenure data. UAVs can capture geospatial data at high quality and resolution in a cost-effective, transparent and flexible manner, from which visible land parcel boundaries, i.e., cadastral boundaries are delineable. This delineation is to no extent automated, even though physical objects automatically retrievable through image analysis methods mark a large portion of cadastral boundaries. This study proposes (i) a methodology that automatically extracts and processes candidate cadastral boundary features from UAV data, and (ii) a procedure for a subsequent interactive delineation. Part (i) consists of two state-of-the-art computer vision methods, namely gPb contour detection and SLIC superpixels, as well as a classification part assigning costs to each outline according to local boundary knowledge. Part (ii) allows a user-guided delineation by calculating least-cost paths along previously extracted and weighted lines. The approach is tested on visible road outlines in two UAV datasets from Germany. Results show that all roads can be delineated comprehensively. Compared to manual delineation, the number of clicks per 100 m is reduced by up to 86 %, while obtaining a similar localization quality. The approach shows promising results to reduce the effort of manual delineation that is currently employed for indirect (cadastral) surveying.

  1. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  2. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  3. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleijpen, Ric (H. M. A.); Voogt, Vincent; Zwamborn, Peter; van den Oever, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to the sensor community. The detection, classification and identification chain can take advantage of different sensor technologies. Apart from the signatures used by radar and electro-optical sensor systems, the UAV also emits RF signals. These RF signatures can be split in intentional signals for communication with the operator and un-intentional RF signals emitted by the UAV. These unintentional or spurious RF emissions are very weak but could be used to discriminate potential UAV detections from false alarms. The goal of this research was to assess the potential of exploiting spurious emissions in the classification and identification chain of mini-UAVs. It was already known that spurious signals are very weak, but the focus was on the question whether the emission pattern could be correlated to the behaviour of the UAV. In this paper experimental examples of spurious RF emission for different types of mini-UAVs and their correlation with the electronic circuits in the UAVs will be shown

  4. JOINT PROCESSING OF UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM DATA FOR VERY HIGH RESOLUTION CITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Both unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS are important techniques for surveying and mapping. In recent years, the UAV technology has seen tremendous interest, both in the mapping community and in many other fields of application. Carrying off-the shelf digital cameras, the UAV can collect high quality aerial optical images for city modeling using photogrammetric techniques. In addition, a MMS can acquire high density point clouds of ground objects along the roads. The UAV, if operated in an aerial mode, has difficulties in acquiring information of ground objects under the trees and along façades of buildings. On the contrary, the MMS collects accurate point clouds of objects from the ground, together with stereo images, but it suffers from system errors due to loss of GPS signals, and also lacks the information of the roofs. Therefore, both technologies are complementary. This paper focuses on the integration of UAV images, MMS point cloud data and terrestrial images to build very high resolution 3D city models. The work we will show is a practical modeling project of the National University of Singapore (NUS campus, which includes buildings, some of them very high, roads and other man-made objects, dense tropical vegetation and DTM. This is an intermediate report. We present work in progress.

  5. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Magnetically modified spent coffee grounds for dyes removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Svobodová, Barbora; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 234, č. 2 (2012), s. 345-350 ISSN 1438-2377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : coffee grounds * magnetic fluid * adsorption * dyes * magnetic solid-phase extraction Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2012

  7. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  8. Brazilian Coffee Production as Function of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A. M. H. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Pereira, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the Brazilian Government the actual area of coffee production in the country is close to 2.25 million hectares. The sector involves 290.000 of farmers with a production of 44 million of 60 Kg bags in 2015. The Arabica Coffee specie is cultivated in the country where the climate condition are characterized by a year mean temperatures between 18°C and 22°C. Temperatures higher than 33°C can cause abortion of flowers during the spring season and reduce the production while lower than 18°C can be affected by frost during winter when the minimum temperature can be lower than 2°C in the shelter. For a better quality of the final product the winter, between July and August, must be dry with rainfall lower than 50 mm/month. The Ministry of Agriculture defines those conditions for the Official Coffee Climatic Risk Zoning. In 2002, a partnership with the British Embassy and 2 Brazilian institutions, i. e. the State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa, published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002). This study was based on the PRECIS/Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model future projections. The crop simulations indicated a decrease in the grain production due to temperature rise. Later in 2012, a new study was developed in cooperation with the World Bank to evaluate the future of nine main commodities in Brazil under climate change, including the Arabica coffee. The worst scenario considering any mitigation and adaptation action indicated that the two most affected crops would be the soybean and coffee, with a reduction of 22% and 6.7 % in the yield respectively. Field surveys to evaluate the historical spatial dynamic and migration of Arabica coffee cultivated areas confirmed the results of the previous studies and indicated a recent increase in the search for cooler altitude areas to plant coffee. Also the field observations

  9. The performances of coffee processors and coffee market in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuševa Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of coffee processors and coffee market in Serbia based on the market concentration analysis, profitability analysis, and profitability determinants analysis. The research was based on the sample of 40 observations of coffee processing companies divided into two groups: large and small coffee processors. The results indicate that two large coffee processors have dominant market share. Even though the Serbian coffee market is an oligopolistic, profitability analysis indicates that small coffee processors have a significant better profitability ratio than large coffee processors. Furthermore, results show that profitability ratio is positively related to the inventory turnover and negatively related to the market share.

  10. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  11. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  12. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers processed at CPU gained about TZS 1350/kg as coffee improvement gain. Coffee production ... explored, keeping in mind the theories put forth in the theoretical ... Information used in the gross margin analysis encompass total coffee ...

  13. Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Andueza, S. (Susana); Vila, M.A. (María A.); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción)

    2007-01-01

    Espresso coffee is a polyphasic beverage in which the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics obviously depend on both the selection of ground roasted coffee and the technical conditions of the percolation process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the coffee/water ratio on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of espresso coffee. Furthermore, the influence of botanical varieties (Arabica and Robusta) and the type of roast (conventional and torrefacto) on the selec...

  14. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  15. Teaching UAVs to Race Using UE4Sim

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2017-08-19

    Automating the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in diverse scenarios has gained much attention in the recent years. However, teaching UAVs to fly in challenging environments remains an unsolved problem, mainly due to the lack of data for training. In this paper, we develop a photo-realistic simulator that can afford the generation of large amounts of training data (both images rendered from the UAV camera and its controls) to teach a UAV to autonomously race through challenging tracks. We train a deep neural network to predict UAV controls from raw image data for the task of autonomous UAV racing. Training is done through imitation learning enabled by data augmentation to allow for the correction of navigation mistakes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network (when sufficient data augmentation is used) outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flies more consistently than many human pilots.

  16. Teaching UAVs to Race Using UE4Sim

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Casser, Vincent; Smith, Neil; Michels, Dominik L.; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Automating the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in diverse scenarios has gained much attention in the recent years. However, teaching UAVs to fly in challenging environments remains an unsolved problem, mainly due to the lack of data for training. In this paper, we develop a photo-realistic simulator that can afford the generation of large amounts of training data (both images rendered from the UAV camera and its controls) to teach a UAV to autonomously race through challenging tracks. We train a deep neural network to predict UAV controls from raw image data for the task of autonomous UAV racing. Training is done through imitation learning enabled by data augmentation to allow for the correction of navigation mistakes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network (when sufficient data augmentation is used) outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flies more consistently than many human pilots.

  17. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  18. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.

  19. Furan in roasted, ground and brewed coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczyńska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Majewska, Ewa; Tarnowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the world. The annual coffee production in 2010, 2014 and 2016 was 8.1, 9.0 and 9.3 million tons respectively. There are more than 100 coffee species, but only two of them: Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) have gained commercial importance. During roasting of green coffee beans not only desirable compounds are formed, that exert positive influence on the taste and flavour of coffee, but also small quantities of undesirable ones. Furan (C4H4O) is one of the latter. Furan is a volatile compound (boiling temp. of 31.4 oC) formed during thermal processing of food. The toxicity of furan has been well documented and it is classified as “possible human carcinogen” (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for furan formation during food processing. It can be formed from carbohydrates, amino acids by their thermal degradation or thermal re-arrangement and by oxidation of ascorbic acid and polyunsaturated acids and carotenoids. High concentrations of furan have been reported in coffee, baked and roasted food and in food subjected to preserving in cans and jars. Furan levels in brewed coffee are typically near or below 120 μg/L, but it can approach thousands μg/kg in roasted whole beans or ground coffee. The highest concentration of furan in roasted coffee reaches the level of 7000 μg/kg. Taking into account that coffee is the most popular hot drink, it becomes the main contributor to furan exposure from dietary sources for adults. In this article the published scientific papers concerned with the presence of furan in roasted non-brewed and brewed coffee have been reviewed. The formation mechanisms and occurrence of furan in coffee and the harmful influence of furan on the consumer health have been discussed.

  20. Coffee: The magical bean for liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Ryan D; Brahmbhatt, Mihir; Tahan, Asli C; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Coffee has long been recognized as having hepatoprotective properties, however, the extent of any beneficial effect is still being elucidated. Coffee appears to reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, reduce advancement of fibrotic disease in a variety of chronic liver diseases, and perhaps reduce ability of hepatitis C virus to replicate. This review aims to catalog the evidence for coffee as universally beneficial across a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, as well as spotlight opportunit...

  1. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA; ROXANA SARBU; ELENA CONDREA

    2014-01-01

    The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many...

  2. The Little Book on CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaw, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This little book shows JavaScript developers how to build superb web applications with CoffeeScript, the remarkable little language that's gaining considerable interest. Through example code, this guide demonstrates how CoffeeScript abstracts JavaScript, providing syntactical sugar and preventing many common errors. You'll learn CoffeeScript's syntax and idioms step by step, from basic variables and functions to complex comprehensions and classes. Written by Alex MacCaw, author of JavaScript Web Applications (O'Reilly), with contributions from CoffeeScript creator Jeremy Ashkenas, this book

  3. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  4. Uav-Based 3d Urban Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpook, Wuttichai; Tan, Yumin; Liu, Huaqing; Zhao, Binbin; He, Lingfeng

    2018-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing can be used to make three-dimensions (3D) mapping with great flexibility, besides the ability to provide high resolution images. In this paper we propose a quick-change detection method on UAV images by combining altitude from Digital Surface Model (DSM) and texture analysis from images. Cases of UAV images with and without georeferencing are both considered. Research results show that the accuracy of change detection can be enhanced with georeferencing procedure, and the accuracy and precision of change detection on UAV images which are collected both vertically and obliquely but without georeferencing also have a good performance.

  5. Next Generation UAV Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, UAVs used in environmental monitoring mostly collect low spectral resolution imagery, capable of retrieving canopy greenness or properties related water...

  6. Air Force UAV’s: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... The Secret History 2 Air Force UAVs: The Secret History2 air Force uaVs: The secret history Has any airplane in the past decade captured the public

  7. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  8. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  9. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  10. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  11. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  12. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, G W; Abbott, R D; Petrovitch, H; Morens, D M; Grandinetti, A; Tung, K H; Tanner, C M; Masaki, K H; Blanchette, P L; Curb, J D; Popper, J S; White, L R

    The projected expansion in the next several decades of the elderly population at highest risk for Parkinson disease (PD) makes identification of factors that promote or prevent the disease an important goal. To explore the association of coffee and dietary caffeine intake with risk of PD. Data were analyzed from 30 years of follow-up of 8004 Japanese-American men (aged 45-68 years) enrolled in the prospective longitudinal Honolulu Heart Program between 1965 and 1968. Incident PD, by amount of coffee intake (measured at study enrollment and 6-year follow-up) and by total dietary caffeine intake (measured at enrollment). During follow-up, 102 men were identified as having PD. Age-adjusted incidence of PD declined consistently with increased amounts of coffee intake, from 10.4 per 10,000 person-years in men who drank no coffee to 1.9 per 10,000 person-years in men who drank at least 28 oz/d (Pcoffee sources (P=.03 for trend). Consumption of increasing amounts of coffee was also associated with lower risk of PD in men who were never, past, and current smokers at baseline (P=.049, P=.22, and P=.02, respectively, for trend). Other nutrients in coffee, including niacin, were unrelated to PD incidence. The relationship between caffeine and PD was unaltered by intake of milk and sugar. Our findings indicate that higher coffee and caffeine intake is associated with a significantly lower incidence of PD. This effect appears to be independent of smoking. The data suggest that the mechanism is related to caffeine intake and not to other nutrients contained in coffee. JAMA. 2000;283:2674-2679.

  13. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  14. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  15. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  17. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  18. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  19. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  20. UAV Based Agricultural Planning and Landslide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yaprak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV tools has become widespread in map production, land surveying, landslide, erosion monitoring, monitoring of agricultural activities, aerial crop surveying, forest fire detection and monitoring operations. In this study, GEO 2 UAV manufactured by TEKNOMER equipped with SONY A6000 camera has been used. The flight plan have been performed with 100 m altitude, with 80% longitudinal and 60% side overlapping. Ground Control Points (GCPs have been observed with Topcon and Trimble GNSS geodetic receivers. Recorded GNSS signals have been processed with LGO V.8.4 software to get sensitive location information. 985 photos have been taken for the 344 hectares the agricultural area. 291 photos have been taken for 50 hectares the landslide area. All photos were processed by PIX4D software. For the agricultural area, 25 GCPs and for the landslide area, 8 GCPs have been included in the evaluation. 3D images were produced with pixel matching algorithms. As a result, the RMS evaluation was obtained as ±0.054 m for the agricultural area and as ±0.018 m for the landslide area. UAV images have indisputable contributions to the management of catastrophes such as landslides and earthquakes, and it is impossible to make terrestrial measurements in areas where disaster impact continues.

  1. UAV magnetometry in mineral exploration and infrastructure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Parvar, K.; Burns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic surveys are critical tools in mineral exploration and UAVs have the potential to carry magnetometers. UAV surveys can offer higher spatial resolution than traditional airborne surveys, and higher coverage than terrestrial surveys. However, the main advantage is their ability to sense the magnetic field in 3-D, while most airborne or terrestrial surveys are restricted to 2-D acquisition. This study compares UAV magnetic data from two different UAVs (JIB drone, DJI Phantom 2) and three different magnetometers (GEM GSPM35, Honeywell HMR2300, GEM GST-19). The first UAV survey was conducted using a JIB UAV with a GSPM35 flying at 10-15 m above ground. The survey's goal was to detect intrusive Rhyolite bodies for primary mineral exploration. The survey resulted in a better understanding of the validity/resolution of UAV data and led to improved knowledge about the geological structures in the area. The results further drove the design of a following terrestrial survey. Comparing the UAV data with an available airborne survey (upward continued to 250 m) reveals that the UAV data has superior spatial resolution, but exhibits a higher noise level. The magnetic anomalies related to the Rhyolite intrusions is about 109 nT and translates into an estimated depth of approximately 110 meters. The second survey was conducted using an in-house developed UAV magnetometer system equipped with a DJI Phantom 2 and a Honeywell HMR2300 fluxgate magnetometer. By flying the sensor in different altitudes, the vertical and horizontal gradients can be derived leading to full 3-D magnetic data volumes which can provide improved constraints for source depth/geometry characterization. We demonstrate that a buried steam pipeline was detectable with the UAV magnetometer system and compare the resulting data with a terrestrial survey using a GEM GST-19 Proton Precession Magnetometer.

  2. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  3. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  4. Saving coffee | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... These orange patches, caused by a microscopic fungus that eats away at the ... 70% of coffee trees in Central America and Mexico were affected. ... broca, in Spanish) exclusively eats the fruit of coffee trees, and its life cycle is ...

  5. PROCESSING UAV AND LIDAR POINT CLOUDS IN GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s methods of acquiring Earth surface data, namely lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery, non-selectively collect or generate large amounts of points. Point clouds from different sources vary in their properties such as number of returns, density, or quality. We present a set of tools with applications for different types of points clouds obtained by a lidar scanner, structure from motion technique (SfM, and a low-cost 3D scanner. To take advantage of the vertical structure of multiple return lidar point clouds, we demonstrate tools to process them using 3D raster techniques which allow, for example, the development of custom vegetation classification methods. Dense point clouds obtained from UAV imagery, often containing redundant points, can be decimated using various techniques before further processing. We implemented and compared several decimation techniques in regard to their performance and the final digital surface model (DSM. Finally, we will describe the processing of a point cloud from a low-cost 3D scanner, namely Microsoft Kinect, and its application for interaction with physical models. All the presented tools are open source and integrated in GRASS GIS, a multi-purpose open source GIS with remote sensing capabilities. The tools integrate with other open source projects, specifically Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL, Point Cloud Library (PCL, and OpenKinect libfreenect2 library to benefit from the open source point cloud ecosystem. The implementation in GRASS GIS ensures long term maintenance and reproducibility by the scientific community but also by the original authors themselves.

  6. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish......Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  7. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  8. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  9. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...... a number of coffees. Often, the term power is used to analyse such value chain interactions, but we argue that the term coordination better opens up these interactions for exploration and analysis. What emerges is a coordination of quality. Through touring and tasting, issues emerge and differences...

  10. A system of UAV application in indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported on this ......In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported...... on this topic. This paper presents a detailed study on several UAV systems and UAV scheduling systems. It is followed by a proposed system of UAV application in indoor environment, which comprises components of UAV system addressed in detail; focused on scheduler as the heart of operations. Consequently, system...... architecture of UAV scheduling system is presented and the framework of scheduler component is included. Scheduler component works in a phased manner to provide a systematic abstraction and achieve an efficient computation time. This study serves as a reference guide for UAV application in indoor environment....

  11. Vision-IMU based collaborative control of a blind UAV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogervorst, R.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Wopereis, Han Willem; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Position estimation of UAVs is usually done using onboard sensors such as GPS and camera. However, in certain practical situations, the measurements of both the GPS and the onboard camera of the UAV might not always be available or reliable. This paper investigates the possibility to overcome

  12. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  13. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi Ee Shan; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea can...

  14. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  15. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation.

  16. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE (UAV IN THE ROMANIAN AIRSPACE. AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the last decade the unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV field has evolved in terms of the sub-branches established in the aerospace industry. At national level the UAV market is still in its infancy but acknowledges an upward trend in the implementation and use of UAVs in civilian and military missions. The achievements of the past decade confirms that Romanian specialists are able to conceive, design and build UAVs at a technological and operational level comparable to the one achieved by large international producers creating the prerequisites of developing a sub-sector for the national aeronautic industry. The current article aims at providing an overview of all activities related to the conception, manufacturing, testing, improving, operating UAVs as these activities evolved within the national airspace filed with brief references to the missions and legislation in this area.

  17. Weed detection by UAV with camera guided landing sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmann, Mads

    UAVs gain more and more currency in agriculture, as they allow for inspection of even remote areas of farmland. Measurements of weed occurrence in fields is one branch of this growing field of research. A problem with UAVs is that they have a limited energy capacity: Consequently, after a short...... flight, they must return to the farm to charge. By installing a landing platform in the field it is possible to have charging facilities close to the area where the UAV is used, providing greater opportunity for autonomous flight in distant fields. A landing platform in the field will also allow...... for greater computing capacity, whereby collected images can be processed and appropriate actions can be taken. The present study uses an entry level UAV with a Pixhawk controller and a GPS specified with an accuracy of 2.5m, meaning that the GPS alone is not sufficient to coordinate the UAV landing. Using...

  18. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2018-02-12

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  19. Flocking of quad-rotor UAVs with fuzzy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Yanhui

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs. In order to improve the airspace utilization, a more compact configuration called quasi e-lattice is constructed to guarantee the compact flight of the quad-rotor UAVs. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  1. Spices Coffee : Innovation Strategy To Increase Quality On Powder Coffee Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).

  2. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  3. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Routing Multiple UAVs under Flight Range and Service Time Window Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAYA, Murat; SEVİNÇ, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Recently using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either for military or civilian purposes is getting popularity. However, UAVs have their own limitations which require adopted approaches to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) promised by the applications depending on effective use of UAVs. One of the important limitations of the UAVs encounter is the flight range. Most of the time, UAVs have very scarce energy resources and, thus, they have relatively short flight ranges. Besides, for the appl...

  4. UAV Research at NASA Langley: Towards Safe, Reliable, and Autonomous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are fundamental components in several aspects of research at NASA Langley, such as flight dynamics, mission-driven airframe design, airspace integration demonstrations, atmospheric science projects, and more. In particular, NASA Langley Research Center (Langley) is using UAVs to develop and demonstrate innovative capabilities that meet the autonomy and robotics challenges that are anticipated in science, space exploration, and aeronautics. These capabilities will enable new NASA missions such as asteroid rendezvous and retrieval (ARRM), Mars exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), pollution measurements in historically inaccessible areas, and the integration of UAVs into our everyday lives all missions of increasing complexity, distance, pace, and/or accessibility. Building on decades of NASA experience and success in the design, fabrication, and integration of robust and reliable automated systems for space and aeronautics, Langley Autonomy Incubator seeks to bridge the gap between automation and autonomy by enabling safe autonomous operations via onboard sensing and perception systems in both data-rich and data-deprived environments. The Autonomy Incubator is focused on the challenge of mobility and manipulation in dynamic and unstructured environments by integrating technologies such as computer vision, visual odometry, real-time mapping, path planning, object detection and avoidance, object classification, adaptive control, sensor fusion, machine learning, and natural human-machine teaming. These technologies are implemented in an architectural framework developed in-house for easy integration and interoperability of cutting-edge hardware and software.

  5. SKYLARK - A crossbow-launched micro scale cheap UAV for close aerial surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Marius PANAIT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Close air support of ground troops especially in densely populated, urban environments has an ever increasing prevalence in the modern warfare. Counter-terrorism activities as well as land-based “surgical strikes” impose a set of special requirements on all the used weapons and equipment so as to minimize weight, cost and complexity and maximize efficiency. Small scale UAVs are in service with all the armed forces around the globe; micro UAVs are emerging as the ground troop close support preferred solution. Endurance and range of these devices is regularly small to very small, and their speed is low. Their small size makes them virtually un-targetable if somewhat still detectable. A new generation of micro-drones is proposed, with a higher speed (up to 350 km/h ground speed averaged and automatic recovery system. Project SKYLARK consists of a reusable minimal micro-UAV featuring a portable micro-USB camera and an aerodynamically assisted timer-based recovery system.

  6. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of smartphone via Bluetooth while flying on a drone, and could project vector content, text, and perform laser based tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of battery. The MEMS mirror based LiDAR system allows for ondemand ranging of points or areas within the FoR without altering the UAV's position. Increasing the LRF ranging frequency and stabilizing the pointing of the laser beam by utilizing the onboard inertial sensors and the camera are additional goals of the next design.

  7. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  8. Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Giving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs the possibility to manipulate objects vastly extends the range of possible applications. This applies to rotary wing UAVs in particular, where their capability of hovering enables a suitable position for in-flight manipulation. Their manipulation skills must be suitable for primarily natural, partially known environments, where UAVs mostly operate. We have developed an on-board object extraction method that calculates information necessary for autonomous grasping of objects, without the need to provide the model of the object’s shape. A local map of the work-zone is generated using depth information, where object candidates are extracted by detecting areas different to our floor model. Their image projections are then evaluated using support vector machine (SVM classification to recognize specific objects or reject bad candidates. Our method builds a sparse cloud representation of each object and calculates the object’s centroid and the dominant axis. This information is then passed to a grasping module. Our method works under the assumption that objects are static and not clustered, have visual features and the floor shape of the work-zone area is known. We used low cost cameras for creating depth information that cause noisy point clouds, but our method has proved robust enough to process this data and return accurate results.

  9. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  10. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e., tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC, was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV-based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e., 30, 50 and 70 m produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  11. MONITORING PHENOLOGY OF FLOODPLAIN GRASSLAND AND HERBACEOUS VEGETATION WITH UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. van Iersel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects, which aim at improved flood safety and increased ecological value, have resulted in more heterogeneous vegetation. However, they also resulted in increasing hydraulic roughness, which leads to higher flood water levels during peak discharges. Due to allowance of vegetation development and succession, both ecological and hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain change more rapidly over time. Monitoring of floodplain vegetation has become essential to document and evaluate the changing floodplain characteristics and associated functioning. Extraction of characteristics of low vegetation using single-epoch remote sensing data, however, remains challenging. The aim of this study was to (1 evaluate the performance of multi-temporal, high-spatial-resolution UAV imagery for extracting temporal vegetation height profiles of grassland and herbaceous vegetation in floodplains and (2 to assess the relation between height development and NDVI changes. Vegetation height was measured six times during one year in 28 field plots within a single floodplain. UAV true-colour and false-colour imagery of the floodplain were recorded coincidently with each field survey. We found that: (1 the vertical accuracy of UAV normalized digital surface models (nDSMs is sufficiently high to obtain temporal height profiles of low vegetation over a growing season, (2 vegetation height can be estimated from the time series of nDSMs, with the highest accuracy found for combined imagery from February and November (RMSE = 29-42 cm, (3 temporal relations between NDVI and observed vegetation height show different hysteresis behaviour for grassland and herbaceous vegetation. These results show the high potential of using UAV imagery for increasing grassland and herbaceous vegetation classification accuracy.

  12. Applications of UAVs to Measurement and Monitoring of Anthropogenic Contamination of an Urban Wildlife Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, E.; Valencia, D.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) has seen unprecedented growth in diverse research areas due to advances in UAV hardware and reduced total operating costs. These developments have given environmental investigators a new aerial data acquisition technique that can be used to not only survey large areas of terrain in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner but can be used to gather previously almost unattainable air quality data. Vertically resolved profiles of air pollutant data can be readily constructed. This project's goal is to produce a time resolved (seasonal) aerial survey of a 150-acre section from a 1300-acre ecologically diverse park of bottomland forests, wetlands and prairies. This ecosystem provides abundant habitats for a diverse wildlife community. This section was chosen due to its close proximity to the city landfill located 0.5 miles due north from the chosen section. The process of collecting UAV aerial images at a constant altitude of ( 200ft) on a bi-monthly basis (for a period of 6 months) has commenced. The UAV has been fitted with a custom made mount to secure an Ultrafine Particle (UFP) counter; this is providing information on UFP levels over the study area as a proxy for airborne particle inputs to the site. Sediment samples will be taken from several runoff ponds within the survey area to evaluate possible anthropogenic contamination of the park . Post processing imaging software, DroneDeploy, is being used to create an orthomosaic, topographic surface and 3D model that can be integrated with GIS platforms to create a comprehensive and cohesive multi-layered data set. Data sets of this nature will provide information on temporally constrained sources of runoff material to the pond areas in the preserve.

  13. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2018-04-18

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC), was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e. 30, 50 and 70 m) produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  14. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC EVALUATION OF MULTI-TEMPORAL FIXED WING UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gülch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System by Germatics, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. Investigations have been performed to improve the image quality estimates by the PAMS software and extend it to whole images. This gives the user a reliable basis when deciding on rejecting images with low quality for the follow-up process. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was first to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. In a second stage the results are compared to GPS measurements on the ground. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for

  15. Fostering corporate sustainability in the Mexican coffee industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Munguia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – At the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (COP 21 in Paris, 195 governments reached an agreement pivotal not only for countries but also for companies. The Paris Agreement makes it impossible to practice business as usual. The transition to a low-carbon coffee industry could be achieved by fostering corporate sustainability. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of how to adopt the principles of Paris Agreement by enhancing the corporate sustainability of a Mexican coffee-roaster company using the inventory phase of the life cycle assessment tool. Design/methodology/approach – The data collection process followed the requirements of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System Handbook, developed by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability in the European Commission Joint Research Centre, and data on packaging materials and energy production were drawn from a commercially available database in the LCA software SimaPro. Findings – Compiling data on the energy of the firm’s material flows in a firm revealed opportunities to improve energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the inventory analysis can be used to evaluate the specific environmental impacts of the coffee-roasting process at this Mexican coffee company. Data compilation activities for energy flows identified the need to install liquefied petroleum gas measuring devices and individual measuring devices for electricity consumption in different areas of the coffee plant. It is recommended that, while implementing this option, the company also develop an energy management program to achieve energy efficiency. Practical implications – The inventory data in this case study permit comparisons of the current state of the system studied and its possible future states and offer stakeholders relevant information on resource use. Similarly, the project

  16. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  17. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  18. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  19. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  20. Remote sensing from UAVs for hydrological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    compared to other technologies: compared to field based techniques, remote sensing with UAVs is a non-destructive technique, less time consuming, ensures a reduced time between acquisition and interpretation of data and gives the possibility to access remote and unsafe areas. Compared to full...... will be able to record the spectral signatures of water and land surfaces with a pixel resolution of around 15 cm, whereas the thermal camera will sense water and land surface temperature with a resolution of 40 cm. Post-processing of data from the thermal camera will allow retrieving vegetation and soil...

  1. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  2. What is more addictive : cannabis or coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Hili, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The answer is coffee. Coffee is drunk by around 80% of Americans. The large numbers call for extensive studies on the effect of this drug on the brain. Caffeine is a stimulant. It has a similar molecular structure to adenosine, a chemical linked to us feeling tired. Caffeine binds to adenosine and stops it from working. Coffee does not wake you up but makes your body forget it is tired. Taking that espresso in the morning makes your body increase the number of receptors to caffeine in the bra...

  3. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.

  4. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  5. Slic Superpixels for Object Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Bennett, R.; Gerke, M.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with image analysis methods to improve existing mapping procedures that are cost, time and labor intensive and of little reproducibility. This study investigates a superpixel approach, namely simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC), in terms of its applicability to UAV data. The approach is investigated in terms of its applicability to high-resolution UAV orthoimages and in terms of its ability to delineate object outlines of roads and roofs. Results show that the approach is applicable to UAV orthoimages of 0.05 m GSD and extents of 100 million and 400 million pixels. Further, the approach delineates the objects with the high accuracy provided by the UAV orthoimages at completeness rates of up to 64 %. The approach is not suitable as a standalone approach for object delineation. However, it shows high potential for a combination with further methods that delineate objects at higher correctness rates in exchange of a lower localization quality. This study provides a basis for future work that will focus on the incorporation of multiple methods for an interactive, comprehensive and accurate object delineation from UAV data. This aims to support numerous application fields such as topographic and cadastral mapping.

  6. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  7. Optimal trajectory planning for a UAV glider using atmospheric thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabo, Wilson B.

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Glider (UAV glider) uses atmospheric energy in its different forms to remain aloft for extended flight durations. This UAV glider's aim is to extract atmospheric thermal energy and use it to supplement its battery energy usage and increase the mission period. Given an infrared camera identified atmospheric thermal of known strength and location; current wind speed and direction; current battery level; altitude and location of the UAV glider; and estimating the expected altitude gain from the thermal, is it possible to make an energy-efficient based motivation to fly to an atmospheric thermal so as to achieve UAV glider extended flight time? For this work, an infrared thermal camera aboard the UAV glider takes continuous forward-looking ground images of "hot spots". Through image processing a candidate atmospheric thermal strength and location is estimated. An Intelligent Decision Model incorporates this information with the current UAV glider status and weather conditions to provide an energy-based recommendation to modify the flight path of the UAV glider. Research, development, and simulation of the Intelligent Decision Model is the primary focus of this work. Three models are developed: (1) Battery Usage Model, (2) Intelligent Decision Model, and (3) Altitude Gain Model. The Battery Usage Model comes from the candidate flight trajectory, wind speed & direction and aircraft dynamic model. Intelligent Decision Model uses a fuzzy logic based approach. The Altitude Gain Model requires the strength and size of the thermal and is found a priori.

  8. Flight safety measurements of UAVs in congested airspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Describing spatial safety status is crucial for high-density air traffic involving multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in a complex environment. A probabilistic approach is proposed to measure safety situation in congested airspace. The occupancy distribution of the airspace is represented with conflict probability between spatial positions and UAV. The concept of a safety envelope related to flight performance and response time is presented first instead of the conventional fixed-size protected zones around aircraft. Consequently, the conflict probability is performance-dependent, and effects of various UAVs on safety can be distinguished. The uncertainty of a UAV future position is explicitly accounted for as Brownian motion. An analytic approximate algorithm for the conflict probability is developed to decrease the computational consumption. The relationship between safety and flight performance are discussed for different response times and prediction intervals. To illustrate the applications of the approach, an experiment of three UAVs in formation flight is performed. In addition, an example of trajectory planning is simulated for one UAV flying over airspace where five UAVs exist. The validation of the approach shows its potential in guaranteeing flight safety in highly dynamic environment.

  9. A method of fast mosaic for massive UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ren; Sun, Min; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of UAV technology, UAVs are used widely in multiple fields such as agriculture, forest protection, mineral exploration, natural disaster management and surveillances of public security events. In contrast of traditional manned aerial remote sensing platforms, UAVs are cheaper and more flexible to use. So users can obtain massive image data with UAVs, but this requires a lot of time to process the image data, for example, Pix4UAV need approximately 10 hours to process 1000 images in a high performance PC. But disaster management and many other fields require quick respond which is hard to realize with massive image data. Aiming at improving the disadvantage of high time consumption and manual interaction, in this article a solution of fast UAV image stitching is raised. GPS and POS data are used to pre-process the original images from UAV, belts and relation between belts and images are recognized automatically by the program, in the same time useless images are picked out. This can boost the progress of finding match points between images. Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is improved so that parallel computing can be applied to shorten the time of global optimization notably. Besides traditional mosaic result, it can also generate superoverlay result for Google Earth, which can provide a fast and easy way to show the result data. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a fast mosaic system of massive UAV images is developed, which is fully automated and no manual interaction is needed after original images and GPS data are provided. A test using 800 images of Kelan River in Xinjiang Province shows that this system can reduce 35%-50% time consumption in contrast of traditional methods, and increases respond speed of UAV image processing rapidly.

  10. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  11. The use of UAVs for monitoring land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2017-10-01

    Land degradation is one of the causes of desertification of drylands in the Mediterranean. UAVs can be used to monitor and document the various variables that cause desertification in drylands, including overgrazing, aridity, vegetation loss, etc. This paper examines the use of UAVs and accompanying sensors to monitor overgrazing, vegetation stress and aridity in the study area. UAV images can be used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) to examine the changes in microtopography as well as ortho-photos were used to detect changes in vegetation patterns. The combined data of the digital elevation models and the orthophotos can be used to identify the mechanisms for desertification in the study area.

  12. Current development of UAV sense and avoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhahir, A.; Razali, A.; Mohd Ajir, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now gaining high interests from civil and commercialised market, the automatic sense and avoid (SAA) system is currently one of the essential features in research spotlight of UAV. Several sensor types employed in current SAA research and technology of sensor fusion that offers a great opportunity in improving detection and tracking system are presented here. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of SAA system development in general, as well as the current challenges facing UAV researchers and designers.

  13. Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0203 Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization Kamran Mohseni UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Final Report 05/23/2016...AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0090 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...studied a dynamic data driven (DDD) approach to operation of a heterogeneous team of unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs ) or micro/miniature aerial

  14. Uav-Mapping - a User Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS) for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  15. UAV-MAPPING – A USER REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  16. VISION BASED OBSTACLE DETECTION IN UAV IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Badrloo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and preventing incidence with obstacles is crucial in UAV navigation and control. Most of the common obstacle detection techniques are currently sensor-based. Small UAVs are not able to carry obstacle detection sensors such as radar; therefore, vision-based methods are considered, which can be divided into stereo-based and mono-based techniques. Mono-based methods are classified into two groups: Foreground-background separation, and brain-inspired methods. Brain-inspired methods are highly efficient in obstacle detection; hence, this research aims to detect obstacles using brain-inspired techniques, which try to enlarge the obstacle by approaching it. A recent research in this field, has concentrated on matching the SIFT points along with, SIFT size-ratio factor and area-ratio of convex hulls in two consecutive frames to detect obstacles. This method is not able to distinguish between near and far obstacles or the obstacles in complex environment, and is sensitive to wrong matched points. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, this research calculates the dist-ratio of matched points. Then, each and every point is investigated for Distinguishing between far and close obstacles. The results demonstrated the high efficiency of the proposed method in complex environments.

  17. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  18. Estimating the Rut Depth by UAV Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Nevalainen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rut formation during forest operations is an undesirable phenomenon. A methodology is being proposed to measure the rut depth distribution of a logging site by photogrammetric point clouds produced by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The methodology includes five processing steps that aim at reducing the noise from the surrounding trees and undergrowth for identifying the trails. A canopy height model is produced to focus the point cloud on the open pathway around the forest machine trail. A triangularized ground model is formed by a point cloud filtering method. The ground model is vectorized using the histogram of directed curvatures (HOC method to produce an overall ground visualization. Finally, a manual selection of the trails leads to an automated rut depth profile analysis. The bivariate correlation (Pearson’s r between rut depths measured manually and by UAV photogrammetry is r = 0.67 . The two-class accuracy a of detecting the rut depth exceeding 20 cm is a = 0.65 . There is potential for enabling automated large-scale evaluation of the forestry areas by using autonomous drones and the process described.

  19. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  20. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Alzheimer's disease (CBS 2012), dementia (Health news 2012) and ... the effects of coffee on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance as ..... mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. ... transporter family: Structure, function and tissue-.

  1. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein

  2. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  3. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  4. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  6. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  7. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  8. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  9. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, T

    1992-11-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.

  11. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  12. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  13. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  14. Development of a Data Acquisition System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Donald Joseph

    Aircraft system identification techniques are developed for fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The use of a designed flight experiment with measured system inputs/outputs can be used to derive aircraft stability derivatives. This project set out to develop a methodology to support an experiment to model pitch damping in the longitudinal short-period mode of a UAV. A Central Composite Response Surface Design was formed using angle of attack and power levels as factors to test for the pitching moment coefficient response induced by a multistep pitching maneuver. Selecting a high-quality data acquisition platform was critical to the success of the project. This system was designed to support fixed wing research through the addition of a custom air data vane capable of measuring angle of attack and sideslip, as well as an airspeed sensor. A Pixhawk autopilot system serves as the core and modification of the device firmware allowed for the integration of custom sensors and custom RC channels dedicated to performing system identification maneuvers. Tests were performed on all existing Pixhawk sensors to validate stated uncertainty values. The air data system was calibrated in a low speed wind tunnel and dynamic performance was verified. The assembled system was then installed in a commercially available UAV known as an Air Titan FPV in order to test the Pixhawk's automated flight maneuvers and determine the final performance of each sensor. Flight testing showed all the critical sensors produced acceptable data for further research. The Air Titan FPV airframe was found to be very flexible and did not lend itself well to accurate measurement of inertial properties. This realization prohibited the construction of the required math models for longitudinal dynamics. It is recommended that future projects using the developed methods choose an aircraft with a more rigid airframe.

  15. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  16. SUSI 62 A ROBUST AND SAFE PARACHUTE UAV WITH LONG FLIGHT TIME AND GOOD PAYLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Thamm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many research areas in the geo-sciences (erosion, land use, land cover change, etc. or applications (e.g. forest management, mining, land management etc. there is a demand for remote sensing images of a very high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to the high costs of classic aerial photo campaigns, the use of a UAV is a promising option for obtaining the desired remote sensed information at the time it is needed. However, the UAV must be easy to operate, safe, robust and should have a high payload and long flight time. For that purpose, the parachute UAV SUSI 62 was developed. It consists of a steel frame with a powerful 62 cm3 2- stroke engine and a parachute wing. The frame can be easily disassembled for transportation or to replace parts. On the frame there is a gimbal mounted sensor carrier where different sensors, standard SLR cameras and/or multi-spectral and thermal sensors can be mounted. Due to the design of the parachute, the SUSI 62 is very easy to control. Two different parachute sizes are available for different wind speed conditions. The SUSI 62 has a payload of up to 8 kg providing options to use different sensors at the same time or to extend flight duration. The SUSI 62 needs a runway of between 10 m and 50 m, depending on the wind conditions. The maximum flight speed is approximately 50 km/h. It can be operated in a wind speed of up to 6 m/s. The design of the system utilising a parachute UAV makes it comparatively safe as a failure of the electronics or the remote control only results in the UAV coming to the ground at a slow speed. The video signal from the camera, the GPS coordinates and other flight parameters are transmitted to the ground station in real time. An autopilot is available, which guarantees that the area of investigation is covered at the desired resolution and overlap. The robustly designed SUSI 62 has been used successfully in Europe, Africa and Australia for scientific projects and also for

  17. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  18. Coffee harvest management by manipulation of coffee flowering with plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...

  19. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    other large food service organizations. The policy of adjusting the amount of R&G coffee used in brewing recipes according to consumer preferences , as...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee- like

  20. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  1. HIL Tuning of UAV for Exploration of Risky Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Melita

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the latest results of an HIL architecture, optimized to develop and test UAV platforms are presented. This architecture has been used to realize the different devices involved in the navigation and stability control of the Volcan UAV, a plane designed to operate in volcanic environments. The proposed architecture is strongly modular and flexible and allows the development of avionic hardware and software, testing and tuning the involved algorithms with non-destructive trials. A flight simulator (X-Plane with a suitable plane model and plug-in, has been adopted to simulate the UAV dynamics. The flight simulator, interfaced with the real electronic boards, allows an easy tuning of all the control parameters and data collecting for test and validation. The effectiveness of adopted methodology was confirmed by several flight tests performed subsequently by using the designed avionic modules on the real UAV.

  2. A Stepped Frequency CW SAR for Lightweight UAV Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A stepped-frequency continuous wave (SF-CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with frequency-agile waveforms and real-time intelligent signal processing algorithms, is proposed for operation from a lightweight UAV platform...

  3. Small VTOL UAV Acoustics Measurement and Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interest in civilian use of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) capability has increased greatly in recent years, and is...

  4. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  5. A Synthetic Teammate for UAV Applications: A Prospective Look

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gluck, Kevin A; Ball, Jerry T; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael A; Lyon, Don R; Cooke, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    This report describes current progress and future plans for research and development in synthetic teammates for applications in training, analysis, and system design for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations...

  6. Adaptive Levels of Autonomy (ALOA) for UAV Supervisory Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Rubin; Leen, Michael; Goldberg, Dan; Chiu, Michael

    2005-01-01

    .... To demonstrate the architecture and LOA implementation, we designed a prototype Multi-UAV Control Station Emulator research test bed, by building on existing ORCA-developed software components...

  7. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  8. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Zin Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  9. Multi‐angular observations of vegetation indices from UAV cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobejano-Paz, Veronica; Wang, Sheng; Jakobsen, Jakob

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are found as an alternative to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry, which can be used to obtain environmental data or as a complementary solution to other methods (Nex and Remondino, 2014). Although UAVs have coverage limitations, they have better resolution...... (Berni et al., 2009), hyper spectral camera (Burkart et al., 2015) and photometric elevation mapping sensor (Shahbazi et al., 2015) among others. Therefore, UAVs can be used in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, archeology, architecture, environment and traffic monitoring (Nex and Remondino, 2014......). In this study, the UAV used is a hexacopter s900 equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and two cameras; a digital RGB photo camera and a multispectral camera (MCA), with a resolution of 5472 x 3648 pixels and 1280 x 1024 pixels, respectively. In terms of applications, traditional methods using...

  10. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rapid expansion of available UAV types and increased mission capability (payload, flight duration, and system cost reductions) offers wide range of potential...

  11. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss on the hei......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...... on the height of the UAV, which is derived from actual measurements, and a real-world cellular network layout and configuration. The results indicate that interference is the dominant factor limiting the cellular coverage for UAVs in the downlink: outage level increases from 4.2% at 1.5 m height to 51.7% at 120...

  12. Pathloss Measurements and Modeling for UAVs Connected to Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2017-01-01

    . The measurements were conducted in an operating LTE network (850 MHz), using a commercial cell phone, placed inside the frame of the UAV. Trials were conducted for UAV flying at 5 different heights measured above ground level (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100m) and a pathloss regression line was obtained from results. Then......This paper assess field measurements, as part of the investigation of the suitability of cellular networks for providing connectivity to UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Evaluation is done by means of field measurements obtained in a rural environment in Denmark with an airbone UAV......, downlink (DL) SINR levels obtained during flight measurements are also presented. An important result obtained from the measurents reveal that there is a height-related DL SINR degradation. Three main sources of uncertainty on the pathloss model that could be responsible for the SINR degradation are also...

  13. Multidepot UAV Routing Problem with Weapon Configuration and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianren Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent wars, there is an increasing trend that unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are utilized to conduct military attacking missions. In this paper, we investigate a novel multidepot UAV routing problem with consideration of weapon configuration in the UAV and the attacking time window of the target. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed to jointly optimize three kinds of decisions: the weapon configuration strategy in the UAV, the routing strategy of target, and the allocation strategy of weapons to targets. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS algorithm is proposed for solving the problem, which is tested by randomly generated instances covering the small, medium, and large sizes. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed ALNS algorithm.

  14. Coastal Ecosystem Assessment, Development and Creation of a Policy Tool using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for: A Case Study of Western Puerto Rico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Barreto, J.; Pillich, J.; Aponte Bermúdez, L. D.; Torres Pagan, G.

    2017-12-01

    This project utilizes low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based systems for different applications, such as low-altitude (high resolution) aerial photogrammetry for aerial analysis of vegetation, reconstruction of beach topography and mapping coastal erosion to understand, and estimated ecosystem values. As part of this work, five testbeds coastal sites, designated as the Caribbean Littoral Aerial Surveillance System (CLASS), were established. The sites are distributed along western Puerto Rico coastline where population and industry (tourism) are very much clustered and dense along the coast. Over the past year, rapid post-storm deployment of UAV surveying has been successfully integrated into the CLASS sites, specifically at Rincon (Puerto Rico), where coastal erosion has raised the public and government concern over the past decades. A case study is presented here where we collected aerial photos before and after the swells caused by Hurricane Mathew (October 2016). We merged the point cloud obtained from the UAV photogrammetric assessment with topo-bathymetric data, to get a complete beach topography. Using the rectified and georeferenced UAV orthophotos, we identified the maximum wave runup for the pre-swell and post-swell events. Also, we used numerical modeling (X-Beach) to simulate the rate-of-change dynamics of the coastal zones and compare the model results to observed values (including multiple historic shoreline positions). In summary, our project has accomplished the first milestone which is the Development and Implementation of an Effective Shoreline Monitoring Program using UAVs. The activities of the monitoring program have enabled the collection of crucial data for coastal mapping along Puerto Rico's shorelines with emphasis on coastal erosion hot spots zones and ecosystem values. Our results highlight the potential of the synergy between UAVs, photogrammetry, and Geographic Information Systems to provide faster and low-cost reliable

  15. Restoring the Power Projection Capabilities of the U.S. Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    stealthy UAVs; swarms of small, expendable UAVs; and robotic sensors on the surface. The idea is to spread sensors across a number of different...powered exoskeleton , also known as the Talon Project • Develop swarming and autonomous unmanned vehicles a David Ochmanek, Peter A. Wilson, Brenna

  16. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  17. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  18. Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Karki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea spp is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’ and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both

  19. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  20. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  1. Contour Detection for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Crommelinck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost solution for the acquisition of high-resolution data. The potential of high-resolution UAV imagery to create and update cadastral maps is being increasingly investigated. Existing procedures generally involve substantial fieldwork and many manual processes. Arguably, multiple parts of UAV-based cadastral mapping workflows could be automated. Specifically, as many cadastral boundaries coincide with visible boundaries, they could be extracted automatically using image analysis methods. This study investigates the transferability of gPb contour detection, a state-of-the-art computer vision method, to remotely sensed UAV images and UAV-based cadastral mapping. Results show that the approach is transferable to UAV data and automated cadastral mapping: object contours are comprehensively detected at completeness and correctness rates of up to 80%. The detection quality is optimal when the entire scene is covered with one orthoimage, due to the global optimization of gPb contour detection. However, a balance between high completeness and correctness is hard to achieve, so a combination with area-based segmentation and further object knowledge is proposed. The localization quality exhibits the usual dependency on ground resolution. The approach has the potential to accelerate the process of general boundary delineation during the creation and updating of cadastral maps.

  2. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  3. Rancang Bangun Prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV dengan Tiga Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Rasyid Hadi Saputra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle atau yang biasa dikenal dengan istilah UAV  merupakan sebuah sistem penerbangan/ pesawat tanpa pilot yang berada di dalam pesawat tersebut. UAV dapat dikendalikan dengan menggunakan remote dari jarak jauh, diprogram dengan perintah tertentu, atau bahkan dengan sistem pengendalian otomatis yang lebih kompleks. Aplikasi dari teknologi UAV pun beragam mulai dari tugas militer hingga pengamatan udara. Dalam penelitian ini, sebuah UAV akan dikembangkan dengan tiga buah rotor dan satu buah motor servo di bagian belakang UAV. Perancangan model menggunakan software CATIA dengan batasan dimensi (panjang × lebar maksimum 75 × 75 cm dan massa < 2 kg. Analisis struktur rangka dilakukan untuk menguji kekuatan rangka ketika terbang dan membawa beban, dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga dan kriteria kegagalan Von-Misses. Dalam proses pengerjaan, rancangan dari CATIA dan analisis yang telah dilakukan dalam perancangan tersebut akan digunakan. Hasil yang didapat berupa UAV yang memiliki struktur rangka dengan defleksi maksimum 3,67 mm pada rangka tengah yang berbahan acrylic. Dalam pengujian di lapangan, UAV dapat melakukan gerak roll, pitch, dan yaw yang dikendalikan melalui remote control. Waktu operasi maksimum yang dapat dilakukan adalah selama 7 menit 43 detik.

  4. UAVs: Holy Grail for Intel, Panacea for RSTA, or Much Ado about Nothing? UAVs for the Operational Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Roy

    1998-01-01

    ..., operational, and tactical objectives. UAVs have supported military operations including the Vietnam War, the 1983 Israeli War, the Gulf War and most recently the United Nations Peace Keeping Operation in Bosnia, to name a few. Although U.S...

  5. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weed, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    This monograph asks should the U.S. Army alter its current UAV acquisition strategy for maneuver brigades from one in which limited numbers of high capability systems are acquired, in favor of another that fields a large quantity...

  6. Object Georeferencing in UAV-Based SAR Terrain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabowski Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radars (SAR allow to obtain high resolution terrain images comparable with the resolution of optical methods. Radar imaging is independent on the weather conditions and the daylight. The process of analysis of the SAR images consists primarily of identifying of interesting objects. The ability to determine their geographical coordinates can increase usability of the solution from a user point of view. The paper presents a georeferencing method of the radar terrain images. The presented images were obtained from the SAR system installed on board an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The system was developed within a project under acronym WATSAR realized by the Military University of Technology and WB Electronics S.A. The source of the navigation data was an INS/GNSS system integrated by the Kalman filter with a feed-backward correction loop. The paper presents the terrain images obtained during flight tests and results of selected objects georeferencing with an assessment of the accuracy of the method.

  7. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  8. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  9. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  10. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  11. Accuracy Investigation of Creating Orthophotomaps Based on Images Obtained by Applying Trimble-UX5 UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlotov, Volodymyr; Hunina, Alla; Siejka, Zbigniew

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this work is to confirm the possibility of making largescale orthophotomaps applying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Trimble- UX5. A planned altitude reference of the studying territory was carried out before to the aerial surveying. The studying territory has been marked with distinctive checkpoints in the form of triangles (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.2 m). The checkpoints used to precise the accuracy of orthophotomap have been marked with similar triangles. To determine marked reference point coordinates and check-points method of GNSS in real-time kinematics (RTK) measuring has been applied. Projecting of aerial surveying has been done with the help of installed Trimble Access Aerial Imaging, having been used to run out the UX5. Aerial survey out of the Trimble UX5 UAV has been done with the help of the digital camera SONY NEX-5R from 200m and 300 m altitude. These aerial surveying data have been calculated applying special photogrammetric software Pix 4D. The orthophotomap of the surveying objects has been made with its help. To determine the precise accuracy of the got results of aerial surveying the checkpoint coordinates according to the orthophotomap have been set. The average square error has been calculated according to the set coordinates applying GNSS measurements. A-priori accuracy estimation of spatial coordinates of the studying territory using the aerial surveying data have been calculated: mx=0.11 m, my=0.15 m, mz=0.23 m in the village of Remeniv and mx=0.26 m, my=0.38 m, mz=0.43 m in the town of Vynnyky. The accuracy of determining checkpoint coordinates has been investigated using images obtained out of UAV and the average square error of the reference points. Based on comparative analysis of the got results of the accuracy estimation of the made orthophotomap it can be concluded that the value the average square error does not exceed a-priori accuracy estimation. The possibility of applying Trimble UX5 UAV for making large

  12. The Impact of Market Reform Programmes on Coffee Prices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (ICA) and liberalization of coffee marketing in Tanzania on coffee prices. The motivation for this ... indirect effects of market reforms on the level of prices, their variance ..... This strategy could be achieved through dedicated support to farmers to ...

  13. Assessment of metals in roasted indigenous coffee varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of metals in roasted indigenous coffee varieties of Ethiopia. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... values and drinking two cups of coffee is safe for an adult person and free from the risks of Cd and Pb toxicity.

  14. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food ... the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration ... involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level.

  15. A REDUNDANT GNSS-INS LOW-COST UAV NAVIGATION SOLUTION FOR PROFESSIONAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Navarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m – which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  16. a Redundant Gnss-Ins Low-Cost Uav Navigation Solution for Professional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J.; Parés, M. E.; Colomina, I.; Bianchi, G.; Pluchino, S.; Baddour, R.; Consoli, A.; Ayadi, J.; Gameiro, A.; Sekkas, O.; Tsetsos, V.; Gatsos, T.; Navoni, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m - which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  17. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  18. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments’s LTE (long-term evolution, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area’s that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision, RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  19. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  20. Investigation on the extractability of melanoidins in portioned espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, C.; Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model ...

  1. The coffee-time challenge

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The challenge to identify the LEP events displayed on coffee tables in Restaurant 1 (Bulletin 02-03/2010) sparked interest among readers who do not have the opportunity to see them . Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 Table 13, Table 14, Table 15, Table 16       We have therefore decided to open the challenge to these readers by displaying the events on the web. We are also extending the deadline accordingly to 2 March. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, Voyage to the Heart of Matter, for the correct identification of all 16 events.  Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There wi...

  2. A coffee-time challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Can you tell a Z from a WW? The Bulletin is offering a prize for deciphering LEP events on show in Restaurant No. 1.   If you’ve been to the coffee areas in Restaurant 1 you’ve probably noticed the ‘LEP event’ table tops, installed for the symposium and exhibition ‘From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics’. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, ‘Voyage to the Heart of Matter’, for the correct identification of all 16 events. Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There will be a draw on 19 January to pick the winner from entries that correctl...

  3. Exploring Naval Tactics with UAVs in an Island Complex Using Agent-Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalis, Vasileios

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) at sea are undisputed. The amount and speed of the incoming information from a UAV, combined with its maneuverability and time-on-task capability, are assets to any navy...

  4. Development Situation, Trend and Countermeasure of Consumer-level UAV Market in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the status of Chinese consumer-level UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle market. According to the main problems in Chinese consumer-level UAV market, the author analyses the trends of Chinese consumer-level UAV market. Then, the author put forward some suggestions to develop Chinese consumer-level UAV market. In 21st century, the research and development expenditure presents the explosive growth in Chinese consumer-level UAV market. From the year of 2012, DJI released their first consumer-level UAV product. Amazon, Facebook, Google and other companies have announced their entry into the UAV market. In 2016, Huawei also announced that it will enter the UAV market.

  5. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  6. Perception-based Co-evolutionary Reinforcement Learning for UAV Sensor Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenji, Hamid

    2003-01-01

    .... A Perception-based reasoning approach based on co-evolutionary reinforcement learning was developed for jointly addressing sensor allocation on each individual UAV and allocation of a team of UAVs...

  7. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  8. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their

  9. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  10. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales

  11. The structural changes in the Mexican coffee sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padron, Benigno Rodriguez; Burger, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the structural changes which have been present since the economic clauses of the International Coffee Agreements have no longer been in effect. It studies the elements that modified the coffee policy over time. It also investigates the main characteristics of the entire coffee

  12. Diversification and Labor Market Effects of the Mexican Coffee Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how coffee-producing households responded to the low coffee prices prevailing around 2003. We provide theory on differential responses in regions dedicated to coffee growing, compared to more diversified or better accessible regions. We show how labor market effects can explain

  13. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  14. Color stability of restorative materials in response to Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days. Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable). The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.

  15. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  16. Analisis Customer Segment, Channels, Dan Customer Relationship Dalam Pembentukan Value Proposition Di Starbucks Coffee (Studi Kasus Pada Starbucks Coffee Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmanisa, Aisy; Wilopo,; Sanawiri, Brillyanes

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand and explain; How to Starbucks Coffee create value proposition for their customer? How to Starbucks Coffee segmented the customer, to create the value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build and choose the channels to grab the customer and create value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build a customer relationship and create value proposition from the process? .This reaserch uses primery data descriptive analysis method with fenomelogy kualitative o...

  17. Spatial distribution of the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella) in an organic coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field in formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scalon, João Domingos; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Freitas, Gabriela Alves; DEX/UFLA; Avelar, Maria Betania Lopes; DEX/UFLA; Zacarias, Mauricio Sérgio; EPAMIG/EcoCentro

    2011-01-01

    Coffee production has been one of the economy pillars of many tropical countries. Unfortunately, this crop is susceptible to infestation by the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842)) which causes severe damage to coffee plantations with losses that may reach 80% of the total production. In recent years, researchers have been trying to develop practices for minimizing the use of pesticides in the coffee-leaf-miner control. It is well known that the un...

  18. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  19. Multiple Event Localization in a Sparse Acoustic Sensor Network Using UAVs as Data Mules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the events to arrive in different orders at the sensors. Consequently , simple rules to group the ToAs from an event at different sensors, such as...a Microhard radio to forward the ToAs to the mule-UAV. Two Procerus Unicorn UAVs were used with different payloads. The imaging- UAV was equipped

  20. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  1. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  2. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  3. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  4. Hankel Matrix Correlation Function-Based Subspace Identification Method for UAV Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong She

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification problem of closed-loop subspace model, we propose a zero space projection method based on the estimation of correlation function to fill the block Hankel matrix of identification model by combining the linear algebra with geometry. By using the same projection of related data in time offset set and LQ decomposition, the multiplication operation of projection is achieved and dynamics estimation of the unknown equipment system model is obtained. Consequently, we have solved the problem of biased estimation caused when the open-loop subspace identification algorithm is applied to the closed-loop identification. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In final, the practicability of the identification algorithm is verified by hardware test of UAV servo system in real environment.

  5. Briu: A Coffee Roasting Startup

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the German coffee market and its appropriateness as a new market to enter for the startup Company Briu. The company has been continuously growing since its initial start. The Chilean Coffee startup has since then looked for new markets opportunities in Europe. Their favored market is Germany. The research conducted in this paper is supposed to reveal the market its suitability for the company its expansion. The following key areas are assessed in order ...

  6. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  7. A Real Options Analysis of Coffee Planting in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Quoc; Tauer, Loren W.

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam grew from an insignificant to the world’s second largest coffee producer during the 1990s. To understand this growth, this paper examines Vietnamese coffee growers’ investment decisions using real options theory. The study finds that producers, with variable costs of 19 cents/lb and total cost of 29.3 cents/lb, would enter coffee production at a coffee price of 47 cents/lb and exit at a coffee price of 14 cents/lb. Most Vietnamese growers appear to be sufficiently efficient to continu...

  8. [Coffee can be beneficial for patients with liver diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander

    2014-10-20

    Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Consequently, it is important to consider the impact of coffee on health and disease. A daily intake of at least three cups of coffee is likely to have beneficial health effects, especially in patients at risk of liver diseases. Coffee has been associated with decreased liver inflammation, prevention of cirrhosis, reduced steatosis and lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is not yet possible to make clear recommendations, but coffee can likely be included as part of a healthy diet for patients with liver diseases.

  9. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  10. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System and a Novel Photogrammetric Processing Chain for UAV-based Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Anders, Niels; Iqbal, Shahzad; Wenting, Philip; Becker, Rolf; Kooistra, Lammert

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System (HYMSY) and a novel processing chain for UAV based mapping. The HYMSY consists of a custom pushbroom spectrometer (range 450-950nm, FWHM 9nm, ~20 lines/s, 328 pixels/line), a consumer camera (collecting 16MPix raw image every 2 seconds), a GPS-Inertia Navigation System (GPS-INS), and synchronization and data storage units. The weight of the system at take-off is 2.0kg allowing us to mount it on a relatively small octocopter. The novel processing chain exploits photogrammetry in the georectification process of the hyperspectral data. At first stage the photos are processed in a photogrammetric software producing a high-resolution RGB orthomosaic, a Digital Surface Model (DSM), and photogrammetric UAV/camera position and attitude at the moment of each photo. These photogrammetric camera positions are then used to enhance the internal accuracy of GPS-INS data. These enhanced GPS-INS data are then used to project the hyperspectral data over the photogrammetric DSM, producing a georectified end product. The presented photogrammetric processing chain allows fully automated georectification of hyperspectral data using a compact GPS-INS unit while still producingin UAV use higher georeferencing accuracy than would be possible using the traditional processing method. During 2013, we have operated HYMSY on 150+ octocopter flights at 60+ sites or days. On typical flight we have produced for a 2-10ha area: a RGB orthoimagemosaic at 1-5cm resolution, a DSM in 5-10cm resolution, and hyperspectral datacube at 10-50cm resolution. The targets have mostly consisted of vegetated targets including potatoes, wheat, sugar beets, onions, tulips, coral reefs, and heathlands,. In this poster we present the Hyperspectral Mapping System and the photogrammetric processing chain with some of our first mapping results.

  12. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  13. UAV Based Imaging for Crop, Weed and Disease Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize the physiolog......Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize...... the physiological status of the vegetation. UAV imagery may be divided into three steps (1) spectral characterization of the targets of interest, (2) flight and image acquisition and (3) image processing and interpretation. The overall aims of this study were to improve knowledge in all three steps associated...... with UAV-based remote sensing for practical use in agriculture and to contribute to the incipient research on UAV based remote sensing for agricultural applications. Three case studies were performed to (1) Characterize the spectral signatures of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and creeping thistle (Cirsium...

  14. Multimodal UAV detection: study of various intrusion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengy, Sebastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Franck; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Rassy, Oussama; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular and affordable the last years for professional and private consumer market, with varied capacities and performances. Recent events showed that illicit or hostile uses constitute an emergent, quickly evolutionary threat. Recent developments in UAV technologies tend to bring autonomous, highly agile and capable unmanned aerial vehicles to the market. These UAVs can be used for spying operations as well as for transporting illicit or hazardous material (smuggling, flying improvised explosive devices). The scenario of interest concerns the protection of sensitive zones against the potential threat constituted by small drones. In the recent past, field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small FMCW RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics and RADAR was applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°), optical sensors were used for sequentially identification. The localization results have been compared to the ground truth data to estimate the efficiency of each detection system. Seven-microphone acoustic arrays allow single source localization. The mean azimuth and elevation estimation error has been measured equal to 1.5 and -2.5 degrees respectively. The FMCW radar allows tracking of multiple UAVs by estimating their range, azimuth and motion speed. Both technologies can be linked to the electro-optical system for final identification of the detected object.

  15. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  16. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  17. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  18. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  19. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for Kona coffee authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X

    2009-06-01

    Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.

  1. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data......” that are “real” from “models” that are “simulations” has to be refined in the area of field investigations, in order to utilize UAVs to make a revolution in data and understanding about the terrestrial habitats. However, this is not straightforward, and the presentation will line up the obstacles for using UAVs...

  2. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  3. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans. PMID:29671781

  4. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru; He, Yong

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874⁻1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  5. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingquan Chu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI. The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  6. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  7. Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Zoran; Maksimović, Stevan; Georgijević, Dragutin

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.

  8. Mini-Uav LIDAR for Power Line Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G. E.; Zhou, M.; Li, C. R.; Wu, H. H.; Li, W.; Meng, F. R.; Zhou, C. C.; Ma, L.

    2017-09-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) recently are in rapid advancement, meanwhile portable and flexible mini-UAV-borne laser scanners have been a hot research field, especially for the complex terrain survey in the mountains and other areas. This study proposes a power line inspection system solution based on mini-UAV-borne LIDAR system-AOEagle, developed by Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which mounted on a Multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle for complex terrain survey according to real test. Furthermore, the point cloud data was explored to validate its applicability for power line inspection, in terms of corridor and line laser point clouds; deformation detection of power towers, etc. The feasibility and advantages of AOEagle have been demonstrated by the promising results based on the real-measured data in the field of power line inspection.

  9. Hurricane Harvey Building Damage Assessment Using UAV Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Chang, A.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey which was extremely destructive major hurricane struck southern Texas, U.S.A on August 25, causing catastrophic flooding and storm damages. We visited Rockport suffered severe building destruction and conducted UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveying for building damage assessment. UAV provides very high resolution images compared with traditional remote sensing data. In addition, prompt and cost-effective damage assessment can be performed regardless of several limitations in other remote sensing platforms such as revisit interval of satellite platforms, complicated flight plan in aerial surveying, and cloud amounts. In this study, UAV flight and GPS surveying were conducted two weeks after hurricane damage to generate an orthomosaic image and a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). 3D region growing scheme has been proposed to quantitatively estimate building damages considering building debris' elevation change and spectral difference. The result showed that the proposed method can be used for high definition building damage assessment in a time- and cost-effective way.

  10. D Modeling with Photogrammetry by Uavs and Model Quality Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrile, V.; Bilotta, G.; Nunnari, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with a test lead by Geomatics laboratory (DICEAM, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria), concerning the application of UAV photogrammetry for survey, monitoring and checking. The study case relies with the surroundings of the Department of Agriculture Sciences. In the last years, such area was interested by landslides and survey activities carried out to take the phenomenon under control. For this purpose, a set of digital images were acquired through a UAV equipped with a digital camera and GPS. Successively, the processing for the production of a 3D georeferenced model was performed by using the commercial software Agisoft PhotoScan. Similarly, the use of a terrestrial laser scanning technique allowed to product dense cloud and 3D models of the same area. To assess the accuracy of the UAV-derived 3D models, a comparison between image and range-based methods was performed.

  11. Setting the Stage for California Coffee Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional coffee farming has occurred worldwide at equatorial latitudes below 25° under very specific growing conditions with acidic soils, warm temperatures and high humidity. Environmental conditions have been found to have large impacts on the quality and taste of the berry, which in turn affec...

  12. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  13. Self Reported Symptoms Associated with Coffee Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    caffeine ingestion often leads to inhibition of logical, connected thought, and ... consumption produced a pattern of physiological and psychological reactions ... professionals in Nigeria after several years of research at .... experienced by daily users of coffee and occasional users. .... Brain Research and Review 17: 139 –.

  14. Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidermeier, Tim; Burghardt, Manuel; Wolff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.

  15. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  16. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bscv2006@yahoo.com. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE VARIETIES OF. ETHIOPIA. Abera Gure1,2, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi1* and Taddese Wondimu Godeto1, ...

  18. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, D.J.; Benck, R.M.; Merle, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  19. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  20. Implications of longitude and latitude on the size of solar-powered UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Parvathy; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied solar irradiance and daylight implication on solar-powered UAV design. • We explored for perpetual UAV flight for 12 cities around the world. • All year round solar-powered UAV operation possible for cities near equatorial line. • Cities in latitudes of ±35° are the optimal for solar-powered UAV. • Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on UAV design. - Abstract: The implication of solar irradiance and daylight duration on the design of a small solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is capable of operating perpetually in various cities around the world was investigated. Solar data in 2013 on 12 cities distributed around the world was collected. The effects of the available solar irradiance and daylight of the city on the maximum take-off weight and wing span of a small solar-powered UAV were studied. The analysis indicates that daylight duration is as important as the available solar irradiance to the performance of the solar-powered UAV. Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on the estimation of daylight duration. Areas considerably high in solar irradiance and daylight duration are more conducive to the effective performance of solar-powered UAVs than other areas. Therefore, cities closer to the equator have an advantage in utilizing solar-powered UAVs; where smaller and lighter solar-powered UAV can be designed

  1. Short Communication. Using high resolution UAV imagery to estimate tree variables in Pinus pinea plantation in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Sarmento, A.; Silva, J.; Nunes, A.; Correia, A.C.; Fontes, L.; Tomé, M.; Diaz-Varela, D.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The study aims to analyse the potential use of low‑cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for the estimation of Pinus pinea L. variables at the individual tree level (position, tree height and crown diameter). Area of study: This study was conducted under the PINEA project focused on 16 ha of umbrella pine afforestation (Portugal) subjected to different treatments. Material and methods: The workflow involved: a) image acquisition with consumer‑grade cameras on board an UAV; b) orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) generation using structure-from-motion (SfM) image reconstruction; and c) automatic individual tree segmentation by using a mixed pixel‑ and region‑based based algorithm. Main results: The results of individual tree segmentation (position, height and crown diameter) were validated using field measurements from 3 inventory plots in the study area. All the trees of the plots were correctly detected. The RMSE values for the predicted heights and crown widths were 0.45 m and 0.63 m, respectively. Research highlights: The results demonstrate that tree variables can be automatically extracted from high resolution imagery. We highlight the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and cost‑effective technique for small scale applications. (Author)

  2. Using Photogrammetric UAV Measurements as Support for Classical Topographical Measurements in Order to Obtain the Topographic Plan for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemer Emanuel SUBA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the benefits of UAV photogrammetric measurements in addition to classical ones. It will also deal with the processing and integration of the point cloud, respectively the digital elevation model in topo-cadastral works. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the results obtained using the UAV photogrammetric measurements with the results obtained by classical methods. It will briefly present the classical measurements made with the total station. In the present project, the closed-circuit traverse and the supported on the endings traverse were made using known coordinate points. Determining the coordinates of the points used for the traverses was done by GNSS methods. The area on which the measurements were made is 67942m2 and is covered by 31 determined station points. From these points, 13 were used as ground control points, respectively components of the aero-triangulation network and 17 points were used to control the obtained results by comparing their coordinates obtained by classical methods with those obtained by the UAV photogrammetric method. It was intended that the constraint points of the aero triangulation to be uniformly distributed on the studied surface.

  3. Short Communication. Using high resolution UAV imagery to estimate tree variables in Pinus pinea plantation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Sarmento, A.; Silva, J.; Nunes, A.; Correia, A.C.; Fontes, L.; Tomé, M.; Diaz-Varela, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: The study aims to analyse the potential use of low‑cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for the estimation of Pinus pinea L. variables at the individual tree level (position, tree height and crown diameter). Area of study: This study was conducted under the PINEA project focused on 16 ha of umbrella pine afforestation (Portugal) subjected to different treatments. Material and methods: The workflow involved: a) image acquisition with consumer‑grade cameras on board an UAV; b) orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) generation using structure-from-motion (SfM) image reconstruction; and c) automatic individual tree segmentation by using a mixed pixel‑ and region‑based based algorithm. Main results: The results of individual tree segmentation (position, height and crown diameter) were validated using field measurements from 3 inventory plots in the study area. All the trees of the plots were correctly detected. The RMSE values for the predicted heights and crown widths were 0.45 m and 0.63 m, respectively. Research highlights: The results demonstrate that tree variables can be automatically extracted from high resolution imagery. We highlight the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and cost‑effective technique for small scale applications. (Author)

  4. Application Possibility of Smartphone as Payload for Photogrammetric Uav System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE), which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  5. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  6. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  7. Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez C, Jose Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  9. Exploring structures of the Rochefort Cave (Belgium) with 3D models from LIDAR scans and UAV photoscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2016-12-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different types of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g., Agisoft PhotoScan, MicMac, VisualSFM). In this canvas, we present a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The main chamber of the cave ( 10000 m³) was the principal target of the study. A LIDAR scan and an UAV photoscan were acquired underground, producing respective 3D models. An additional 3D photoscan was performed at the surface, in the sinkhole in direct connection with the main chamber. The main goal of the project is to combine this different datasets for quantifying the orientation of inaccessible geological structures (e.g. faults, tectonic and gravitational joints, and sediments bedding), and for comparing them to structural data surveyed on the field. To go through structural interpretations, we used a subsampling method merging neighboured model polygons that have similar orientations, allowing statistical analyses of polygons spatial distribution. The benefit of this method is to verify the spatial continuity of in-situ structural measurements to larger scale. Roughness and colorimetric/spectral analyses may also be of great interest for several geosciences purposes by discriminating different facies among the geological beddings. Amongst others, this study was helpful to precise the local petrophysical properties associated with particular geological layers, what

  10. UAV telemetry communications using ZigBee protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siregar, I.; Yasir, M.

    2017-10-01

    Wireless communication has been widely used in various fields or disciplines such as agriculture, health, engineering, military, and aerospace so as to support the work in that field. The communication technology is typically used for controlling devices and data monitoring. One development of wireless communication is the widely used telemetry system used to reach areas that cannot be reached by humans using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or unmanned aircraft. In this paper we discuss the design of telemetry system in UAV using ZigBee protocol. From the test obtained the system can work well with visualization displays without pause is 20 data per second with a maximum data length of 120 characters.

  11. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  12. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  13. Xpider: Design and Development of a Low Cost VTOL UAV Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Higuera Rincon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the Xpider project is to analyse, design and develop a low-cost VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle platform in order to provide a common architectural model for both embedded software and GCS (Ground Control Station software and communications system. This architectural model should be adaptable to any other hardware platforms or sensors. Some of the key points of the project were, on the one hand, the stabilization process using low-cost sensors and all the associated issues with low quality instruments, on the other hand the interface between the stabilization controller and the navigation controller, not forgetting the secure communication protocols. Additionally, as a side effect of the stabilization process analysis, a new metaheuristic optimization search algorithm has been developed to be used in PID (Proportional Integral Derivative controllercalibration tuning and has been successfully applied in the stabilization controller.

  14. Fast Orientation of Video Images of Buildings Acquired from a UAV without Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Michal; Delis, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of conducting an absolute orientation procedure for video imagery, in which the external orientation for the first image was typical for aerial photogrammetry whereas the external orientation of the second was typical for terrestrial photogrammetry. Starting from the collinearity equations, assuming that the camera tilt angle is equal to 90°, a simplified mathematical model is proposed. The proposed method can be used to determine the X, Y, Z coordinates of points based on a set of collinearity equations of a pair of images. The use of simplified collinearity equations can considerably shorten the processing tine of image data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), especially in low cost systems. The conducted experiments have shown that it is possible to carry out a complete photogrammetric project of an architectural structure using a camera tilted 85°–90° (φ or ω) and simplified collinearity equations. It is also concluded that there is a correlation between the speed of the UAV and the discrepancy between the established and actual camera tilt angles. PMID:27347954

  15. Fast Orientation of Video Images of Buildings Acquired from a UAV without Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of conducting an absolute orientation procedure for video imagery, in which the external orientation for the first image was typical for aerial photogrammetry whereas the external orientation of the second was typical for terrestrial photogrammetry. Starting from the collinearity equations, assuming that the camera tilt angle is equal to 90°, a simplified mathematical model is proposed. The proposed method can be used to determine the X, Y, Z coordinates of points based on a set of collinearity equations of a pair of images. The use of simplified collinearity equations can considerably shorten the processing tine of image data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, especially in low cost systems. The conducted experiments have shown that it is possible to carry out a complete photogrammetric project of an architectural structure using a camera tilted 85°–90° ( φ or ω and simplified collinearity equations. It is also concluded that there is a correlation between the speed of the UAV and the discrepancy between the established and actual camera tilt angles.

  16. IMPROVED UAV-BORNE 3D MAPPING BY FUSING OPTICAL AND LASERSCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable. Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  17. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  18. Kibale forest wild coffee: challenges to market-based conservation in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilieholm, Robert J; Weatherly, W Paul

    2010-08-01

    Declining rural security and pressures to reduce public-sector expenditures in the late 1990s spurred efforts to develop alternative funding models for Uganda's Kibale National Park (KNP). The Wild Coffee Project, established in 1999 with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and the Ford Foundation, sought to develop a market for wild coffee that had been harvested traditionally from areas within today's KNP. The Kibale Forest Foundation, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, was created to legalize harvests, obtain third-party wild and organic certification, and coordinate management between KNP, the coffee industry, and local communities. Although the project was successful in legalizing, harvesting, and processing the world's first certified wild and organic coffee, efforts to gain entry into the international marketplace failed. Chief among the lessons learned from this project is that for many wild-grown products, the value of "the story"--in both human and conservation terms--is likely to far exceed actual product values. This value differential should be captured through high-value niche markets to avoid low commodity pricing and subsequent pressures to improve financial returns through over harvesting. In addition, local producers should hold significant assets in whatever brands are developed, creating a shared-equity approach that serves social responsibility goals, fosters project sustainability, and ensures a steady stream of positive stories for use in marketing to build brand value. Shared equity--in this case ownership interest in the intellectual property embodied in the brand--provides a second incentive beyond transactional profits that can only be realized if resource conservation is maintained.

  19. Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates (COFFEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Charlie; Jan, Dastugue; Jackie, May; Rowley, Clark; Smith, Scott; Spence, Peter; Gremes-Cordero, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the evolution of ocean temperature in regional ocean models depends on estimates of surface heat fluxes and upper-ocean processes over the forecast period. Within the COFFEE project (Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates, real-time satellite observations are used to estimate shortwave, longwave, sensible, and latent air-sea heat flux corrections to a background estimate from the prior day's regional or global model forecast. These satellite-corrected fluxes are used to prepare a corrected ocean hindcast and to estimate flux error covariances to project the heat flux corrections for a 3-5 day forecast. In this way, satellite remote sensing is applied to not only inform the initial ocean state but also to mitigate errors in surface heat flux and model representations affecting the distribution of heat in the upper ocean. While traditional assimilation of sea surface temperature (SST) observations re-centers ocean models at the start of each forecast cycle, COFFEE endeavors to appropriately partition and reduce among various surface heat flux and ocean dynamics sources. A suite of experiments in the southern California Current demonstrates a range of COFFEE capabilities, showing the impact on forecast error relative to a baseline three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation using operational global or regional atmospheric forcing. Experiment cases combine different levels of flux calibration with assimilation alternatives. The cases use the original fluxes, apply full satellite corrections during the forecast period, or extend hindcast corrections into the forecast period. Assimilation is either baseline 3DVAR or standard strong-constraint 4DVAR, with work proceeding to add a 4DVAR expanded to include a weak constraint treatment of the surface flux errors. Covariance of flux errors is estimated from the recent time series of forecast and calibrated flux terms. While the California Current examples are shown, the approach is

  20. FDM 3D printed coffee glove embedded with flexible electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Bahri, Meznan

    2017-10-31

    With the advances in 3D printing technology, Flexible Electronics can now be exploited to form the so-called “Embedded Electronics”. This paper describes experiences learned from a research project which ran during summer 2016 at KAUST, in collaboration with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Effat University, and aimed at creating a heating coffee glove product operating on double alkaline batteries using Kapton© as a flexible substrate for the circuit. The circuit and its batteries are encapsulated in a 3D printed glove, designed using SolidWorks©. The proposed methodology and techniques applied during this work could be further used in implementing other technologies, such as thermoelectric coolers head patches, smart garments, and flexible smartphones. Limitation and recommendation of the present methodology are also discussed.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  2. Radar sensing via a Micro-UAV-borne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco; Rodi Vetrella, Amedeo; Fasano, Giancarmine

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the miniaturization of flight control systems and payloads has contributed to a fast and widespread diffusion of micro-UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle). While micro-UAV can be a powerful tool in several civil applications such as environmental monitoring and surveillance, unleashing their full potential for societal benefits requires augmenting their sensing capability beyond the realm of active/passive optical sensors [1]. In this frame, radar systems are drawing attention since they allow performing missions in all-weather and day/night conditions and, thanks to the microwave ability to penetrate opaque media, they enable the detection and localization not only of surface objects but also of sub-surface/hidden targets. However, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging represents still a new frontier, since it is much more than a matter of technology miniaturization or payload installation, which can take advantage of the newly developed ultralight systems. Indeed, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging entails scientific challenges in terms of electromagnetic modeling and knowledge of flight dynamics and control. As a consequence, despite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a traditional remote sensing tool, its adaptation to micro-UAV is an open issue and so far only few case studies concerning the integration of SAR and UAV technologies have been reported worldwide [2]. In addition, only early results concerning subsurface imaging by means of an UAV-mounted radar are available [3]. As a contribution to radar imaging via autonomous micro-UAV, this communication presents a proof-of-concept experiment. This experiment represents the first step towards the development of a general methodological approach that exploits expertise about (sub-)surface imaging and aerospace systems with the aim to provide high-resolution images of the surveyed scene. In details, at the conference, we will present the results of a flight campaign carried out by using a single radar

  3. Vertical and Horizontal Measurements of Ambient Ozone over a Gas and Oil Production Area using a UAV Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A.; Gowing, I.; Martin, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 wintertime Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS13), an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, coupled with an on-board UV ozone monitor, flew several spatial profiles near the location (Horse Pool) of other concentrated measurements by other co-investigators. The airframe, part of the Utah Water Research Laboratory's (UWRL) AggieAir UAV program, consisted of a custom-built, battery-operated plane with and 2.4 m (8 ft) wing span and a 12.7 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.5 cm payload bay with a carrying capacity of approximately 2.0 kg. With the current power system, the fully-loaded AggieAir UAV can fly for approximately 45 minutes at a nominal airspeed of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). The system can be operated either in manual control or be flown autonomously following preprogrammed waypoints via a built in GPS system. The AggieAir UAV systems were primarily designed for photographic and telemetry tracking projects. For the UBOS13 flights, a 2B Technologies Model 205 Ozone (O3) monitor was modified for minimal weight optimization, wrapped with lightweight insulation and secured into the UAV payload bay. Additionally, HOBO Model H08-001-02 shielded temperature/datalogger was secured to the exterior of the UAV from parallel thermal profile determination. During the study period, three demonstration flight profiles were obtained on February 17 and 18, 2013: two vertical 'curtain' profiles and a pair of 'stacked' horizontal profiles. As recorded by numerous ground-based monitoring sites, the ozone during the UAV test periods was characterized by initial trends of daytime O3 maximums over 130 ppb, followed by a meteorological front partially ventilating the Basin on the evening of Feb. 17th leading to decreased O3 minimums around 40 ppb. However, the ground level O3 rebuilt quickly to ground level maximums approaching 100 ppb. The vertical 'curtain' flown on the evening of Feb. 17th only reached a maximum elevation of about 2160 m ASL (600 m AGL) due to encountering

  4. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries : A multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno U.; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study.

  5. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  6. Characterization of Organic and Conventional Coffee Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro

    2000-01-01

    Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analytical methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants

  7. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment....

  8. UAV MONITORING FOR ENVIROMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands’ institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB and Infrarred Red Green (NIR. First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  9. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to Modeling Tornado Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Doe, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to assess storm damage is a useful research tool. Benefits include their ability to access remote or impassable areas post-storm, identify unknown damages and assist with more detailed site investigations and rescue efforts. Technological advancement of UAVs mean that they can capture high resolution images often at an affordable price. These images can be used to create 3D environments to better interpret and delineate damages from large areas that would have been difficult in ground surveys. This research presents the results of a rapid response site investigation of the 29 April 2017 Canton, Texas, USA, tornado using low cost UAVs. This was a multiple, high impact tornado event measuring EF4 at maximum. Rural farmland was chosen as a challenging location to test both equipment and methodology. Such locations provide multiple impacts at a variety of scales including structural and vegetation damage and even animal fatalities. The 3D impact models allow for a more comprehensive study prior to clean-up. The results show previously unseen damages and better quantify damage impacts at the local level. 3D digital track swaths were created allowing for a more accurate track width determination. These results demonstrate how effective the use of low cost UAVs can be for rapid response storm damage assessments, the high quality of data they can achieve, and how they can help us better visualize tornado site investigations.

  10. DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Polat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  11. DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, N.; Uysal, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  12. Supervising UAVs : improving operator performance by optimizing the human factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Jansen, C.; Veltman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have no operators on board and therefore enable extension of the present sensing and communication capabilities in civil and military missions, without unnecessarily endangering personnel or deploying expensive material. One should also realize that

  13. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  14. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using a commer...

  15. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  16. Preliminary Study on Earthquake Surface Rupture Extraction from Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Ding, X.; Wu, X.; Dou, A.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Because of the advantages of low-cost, lightweight and photography under the cloud, UAVs have been widely used in the field of seismic geomorphology research in recent years. Earthquake surface rupture is a typical seismic tectonic geomorphology that reflects the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of crustal movement. The quick identification of earthquake surface rupture is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, disasters distribution and scale. Using integrated differential UAV platform, series images were acquired with accuracy POS around the former urban area (Qushan town) of Beichuan County as the area stricken seriously by the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Based on the multi-view 3D reconstruction technique, the high resolution DSM and DOM are obtained from differential UAV images. Through the shade-relief map and aspect map derived from DSM, the earthquake surface rupture is extracted and analyzed. The results show that the surface rupture can still be identified by using the UAV images although the time of earthquake elapse is longer, whose middle segment is characterized by vertical movement caused by compression deformation from fault planes.

  17. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultur...

  18. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  19. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao

    2018-03-03

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  20. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  1. Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the classification of UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevaert, C.M.; Persello, C.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from

  2. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao; Mueller, Matthias; Casser, Vincent; Smith, Neil; Michels, Dominik L.; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  3. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  4. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  5. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  6. Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fercan; A. S. Kipcak; O. Dere Ozdemir; M. B. Piskin; E. Moroydor Derun

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this...

  7. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  8. THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...

  9. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  10. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  11. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have ...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  13. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  14. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  15. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  16. WETLAND ASSESSMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP’s were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  17. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  19. Natural radiation source fabricated from commercially available instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40 K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)

  20. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Frei, Balz

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.

  2. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  3. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  4. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-12-08

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  5. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  6. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Peter F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.

  7. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.

  8. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-24

    contrast to the Exdrone is the more conventional, and more Spartan, Pointer UAV. Designed by Paul McCready, PhD., the engineer who designed the “ Gossamer ... Albatross ”, the first human powered aircraft to cross the English Channel, the Pointer UAV’s design reflects an engineering philosophy predicated on

  9. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  10. THE RISE AND DECLINE OF RENT-SEEKING ACTIVITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COFFEE SECTOR: LESSONS FROM THE IMPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF COFFEE EXPORT QUOTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...

  11. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  12. Challenges to the Transdisciplinarity of Climate Services: A Coffee Farming Case from Jamaica's Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate information is heralded as helping to build adaptive capacity, improve resource management, and contribute to more effective risk management. However, decision makers often find it challenging to use climate information for reasons attributed to a disconnect between technical experts who produce the information and end users. Consequently, many climate service projects are now applying an end-to-end approach that links information users and producers in the design, development, and delivery of services. This collaboration confronts obstacles that can undermine the objectives of the project. Despite this, few studies in the burgeoning field of climate services have assessed the challenges. To address this gap, I provide a reflective account and analysis of the collaborative challenges experienced in an ongoing, complex four-year project developing climate services for small-scale coffee producers in Jamaica. The project has involved diverse activities, including social data collection, research and development of information tools, periodic engagement with coffee sector representatives, and community-based trainings. Contributions to the project were made routinely by 18 individuals who represent 9 institutions located in three countries. These individuals work for academic and governmental organizations and bring expertise in anthropology, plant pathology, and climatology, among others. In spanning diverse disciplines, large geographic distances, and different cultures, the project team has navigated challenges in communication, problem framing, organizational agendas, disciplinary integration, and project management. I contextualize these experiences within research on transdisciplinary and team science, and share some perspectives on strategies to lessen their impact.

  13. Taxation and Mexican Coffee. The Porfiriato's Strategies for Promoting Coffee Production and Sale (1870-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel M. Rodríguez Centeno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes how Mexican liberal policies for economic development combined with international markets in the late-Nineteenth century.  It focuses on the case of coffee because it clearly  shows  that  the  grower's main incentive  were  the high prices of this product in international markets. The analysis centers on the specific cases of Michoacan, Jalisco, Colima, Oaxaca, Chiapas  and Veracruz,  emphasizing  the central  role of federal and state government  support for expanding coffee production, through fiscal incentives and the development of transportation means.

  14. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  15. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  16. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  17. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  18. Integration of Multiple UAVs for Collaborative ISR Missions in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Chee Nam

    2012-01-01

    Military conflicts are shifting from jungles and deserts to cities. This is because terrorists, insurgents, and guerillas find these areas provide a rich target environment and good hideouts. With the use of UAVs, urban threats can be tracked and targeted effectively. However, in an urban environment where there is little or no GPS signals and many obstacles, navigation of UAVs is a major challenge. Multiple UAVs can be employed to share sensor information to counter these challenges and to p...

  19. Analysis of Nondeterministic Search Patterns for Minimization of UAV Counter-Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    64 Figure 4.9 Procerus Unicorn UAV [48] used in multi-UAV look-ahead Levy search demonstration conducted at 13-2 JIFX in February, 2013...minimum time or coverage path, minimal overlap, increased robustness to localization errors, etc. [3–5]. The role of randomized coverage and search...to the Procerus Unicorn UAV employed during these flight experiments, shown in Figure 4.9. Figure 4.10 shows the straight-line path between the major

  20. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    The current disruptive innovation in civilian drone (UAV) applications has led to an increased need for research and development in UAV technology. The key challenges currently being addressed are related to UAV platform properties such as functionality, reliability, fault tolerance, and endurance......-source drone platform elements that can be used for research and development. The survey covers open-source hardware, software, and simulation drone platforms and compares their main features....

  1. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV Cooperative Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    REPORT DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD...iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD APPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-UAV COOPERATIVE...the report is to lay the groundwork for future analysis in multi-UAV analysis to close the gap between existing research and efficient multi-UAV

  2. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  3. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  4. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  5. Semiautonomous Avionics-and-Sensors System for a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar

    2006-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) autonomous or remotely controlled pilotless aircraft have been recently thrust into the spotlight for military applications, for homeland security, and as test beds for research. In addition to these functions, there are many space applications in which lightweight, inexpensive, small UAVS can be used e.g., to determine the chemical composition and other qualities of the atmospheres of remote planets. Moreover, on Earth, such UAVs can be used to obtain information about weather in various regions; in particular, they can be used to analyze wide-band acoustic signals to aid in determining the complex dynamics of movement of hurricanes. The Advanced Sensors and Electronics group at Langley Research Center has developed an inexpensive, small, integrated avionics-and-sensors system to be installed in a UAV that serves two purposes. The first purpose is to provide flight data to an AI (Artificial Intelligence) controller as part of an autonomous flight-control system. The second purpose is to store data from a subsystem of distributed MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors. Examples of these MEMS sensors include humidity, temperature, and acoustic sensors, plus chemical sensors for detecting various vapors and other gases in the environment. The critical sensors used for flight control are a differential- pressure sensor that is part of an apparatus for determining airspeed, an absolute-pressure sensor for determining altitude, three orthogonal accelerometers for determining tilt and acceleration, and three orthogonal angular-rate detectors (gyroscopes). By using these eight sensors, it is possible to determine the orientation, height, speed, and rates of roll, pitch, and yaw of the UAV. This avionics-and-sensors system is shown in the figure. During the last few years, there has been rapid growth and advancement in the technological disciplines of MEMS, of onboard artificial-intelligence systems, and of smaller, faster, and

  6. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM). LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP) data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building's wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an effective tool

  7. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  8. USING DISTANCE SENSORS TO PERFORM COLLISION AVOIDANCE MANEUVRES ON UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raimundo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. “Sense and Avoid” algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk’s flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G. Some tests were made in order to evaluate the “Sense and Avoid” algorithm’s overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and “Brake” mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  9. Evolving Self-Organized Behavior for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous UAV or UCAV Swarms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Ian C

    2006-01-01

    This investigation uses a self-organization (SO) approach to enable cooperative search and destruction of retaliating targets with swarms of homogeneous and heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs...

  10. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  11. Using Distance Sensors to Perform Collision Avoidance Maneuvres on Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, A.; Peres, D.; Santos, N.; Sebastião, P.; Souto, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. "Sense and Avoid" algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk's flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G). Some tests were made in order to evaluate the "Sense and Avoid" algorithm's overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and "Brake" mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  12. Possibilities of Use of UAVS for Technical Inspection of Buildings and Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian; Cellmer, Anna

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used in various sectors of the economy. This is due to the development of new technologies for acquiring and processing geospatial data. The paper presents the results of experiments using UAV, equipped with a high resolution digital camera, for a visual assessment of the technical condition of the building roof and for the inventory of energy infrastructure and its surroundings. The usefulness of digital images obtained from the UAV deck is presented in concrete examples. The use of UAV offers new opportunities in the area of technical inspection due to the detail and accuracy of the data, low operating costs and fast data acquisition.

  13. Air-to-Air UAV Aerial Refueling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers, in cooperation with Northrop Grumman Corporation and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) demonstrated autonomous aerial...

  14. A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre ...

  15. AERIAL IMAGES FROM AN UAV SYSTEM: 3D MODELING AND TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION IN A PARK AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment: it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes. Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  16. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  17. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  18. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  19. El Nino phenomenon, effects on the tree of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro; Baldion Rincon, Jose Vicente; Guzman Martinez, Orlando

    1998-01-01

    El Nino phenomenon is manifested in the coffee by a deficiency of water in the plant, that which affects its normal development in its fruits; the author describes other alterations that affect the plants of coffee due to El Nino phenomenon

  20. Metabolomics as a research tool for coffee and cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean