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Sample records for u-6 wt percent

  1. Effect of quench rate on the mechanical properties of U-6 wt % Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.

    1980-03-01

    U-6 wt % Nb conventionally is water quenched from 800 0 C in order to obtain a niobium supersaturated α'' structure having good corrosion resistance and high ductility (125% tensile elongation). The high cooling rate associated with the water quench, however, produces undesirable distortion and residual stress. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the quench rate could be reduced (in order to minimize the distortion and residual stress problems) without sacrificing properties. The results indicate that quench rate can be reduced by as much as a factor of 10 without any loss of ductility, and that a factor of 100 reduction in quench rate (as is produced by air cooling) still produces material with moderate ductility (> 12% tensile elongation). The results also indicate that supersaturated α'' structures are produced at all of these quench rates. This suggests that these reductions in quench rate should not have drastic adverse effects on corrosion resistance. Hence, it should not be possible to substantially reduce the magnitudes of the distortion and residual stress problems while retaining appreciable ductility and corrosion resistance in U-6 wt % Nb

  2. A model for growth of beta-phase particles in zirconium-2.5 wt percent niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, C.K.; Liner, Y.; Rigby, G.L.

    1984-08-01

    The kinetics of the α → β phase change in Zr-2.5 percent Nb pressure-tube material at constant temperature have been studied. The volume-fraction change of the β phase due to diffusion in an infinite α-phase matrix was considered, and a mathematical model with a numerical solution was developed to predict the transient spherical growth of the β-phase region. This model has been applied to Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, and the calculated results compared to experiment

  3. An experimental investigation of the rate of hydrogen absorption in zirconium-2.5 wt percent niobium from steam/hydrogen mixtures at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.J.

    1984-08-01

    The test specifications for an experimental program to study the rate of hydrogen absorption in zirconium-2.5 weight percent niobium pressure tube material from steam/hydrogen mixtures at elevated temperatures are discussed

  4. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  5. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  6. Verification tests for GRAD, a computer program to predict nonuniform deformation and failure of Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb pressure tubes during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewfelt, R.S.W.; Godin, D.P.

    1985-03-01

    During a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in a CANDU reactor, the temperature of the pressure tubes could rise sufficiently so that ballooning could occur. It is also likely that there would be a variation in temperature around the tube circumference, causing the deformation to be nonuniform. Since the deformation of the pressure tube controls how the core heat is transferred to the surrounding moderator, which is a large heat sink, a computer program, GRAD, has been developed to predict this nonuniform deformation. Numerous biaxial creep tests were done, where the temperature of internally pressurized sections of Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb pressure tubes were ramped to check the ability of GRAD to predict the resulting nonuniform deformation and possible tube failure. GRAD was successful in predicting the average transverse creep strain observed during the tests and the local transverse creep strain at the end of the tests. GRAD was also able to predict the failure time and average transverse creep strain at failure for all the specimens that failed

  7. Hydrogen absorption properties of U6Mn and U6Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Yamawaki, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption properties of U, U 6 Mn and U 6 Ni were investigated at hydrogen pressures below 10 5 Pa. The pressure-composition (P-C) isotherms of U, U 6 Mn and U 6 Ni were obtained and the amounts of absorbed hydrogen for U, U 6 Mn and U 6 Ni were determined to be 3, 16.6 and 16.0 for x in MH x , where M is U, U 6 Mn and U 6 Ni, respectively. The desorption plateau pressures at 573 K decreased in the order: U 6 Mn-H>U 6 Ni-H>U-H. In addition, the results for the amounts of absorbed hydrogen suggests the formation of ternary hydrides U 6 MnH 18 and U 6 NiH 14 . (orig.)

  8. Percent Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...

  9. Elastic-Plastic Behavior of U6Nb Under Ramp Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D. B.; Hall, C.; Hixson, R. S.

    2005-07-01

    Prior shock experiments on the alloy uranium-niobium-6 wt.% (U6Nb) were absent an elastic precursor when one was expected (A. K. Zurek, et. al., Journal de Physique IV, 10 (#9) p677-682). This was later explained as a consequence of shear stress relaxation from time-dependent twinning that prevented sufficient shear stress for plastic yielding. (D. B. Hayes, et. al., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter-2003, p1177, American Institute of Physics 2004) Pressure was ramped to 13 GPa in 150-ns on eight U6Nb specimens with thicknesses from 0.5 -- 1.1-mm and the back surface velocities were measured with laser interferometry. This pressure load produces a stress wave with sufficiently fast rise time so that, according to the prior work, twins do not have time to form. Four of the U6Nb specimens had been cold-rolled which increased the yield stress. Each velocity history was analyzed with a backward integration analysis to give the stress-strain response of the U6Nb. Comparison of these results with prior Hugoniot measurements shows that the U6Nb in the present experiments responds as an elastic-plastic material and the deduced yield strength of the baseline and of the cold-rolled material agree with static results.

  10. Direct Cast U-6Nb – 2017 Progress on Cylindrical Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This report describes work to further develop a sound technical basis and best practices for mold design and process parameters for the Direct Casting of U-6wt%Nb components. One major challenge to the production of U-6Nb components is the propensity for niobium segregation during casting and solidification. This is especially true for cylindrical castings where the vertical side walls allow flotation of Nb resulting in severe inverse macrosegregation. In this work, a small (120 mm diameter by 180 mm tall) and large cylinder (250 mm diameter by 310 mm tall) are examined with a focus on reducing, or eliminating, niobium segregation. It is demonstrated that counter gravity casting (top-to-bottom solidification) can be used to minimize segregation in the small cylinder. Attempts to counter gravity cast the large cylinder were unsuccessful, in large part due to size limitations of the current furnace. A path forward for casting of the large cylinders is discussed.

  11. High-field, high-T/sub c/ superconductivity in U6Fe and U6Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Hall, L.N.; Malik, S.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Lwpl, W.; Gschneidner, K. A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    Upper critical field data for U 6 Fe and U 6 Co are found to be markedly inconsistent with the weak coupling WHHM model. Nevertheless, excellent quantitative fits of H/sub c/ 2 vs T are obtained by using a modifiction of the WHHM model in which the orbital field is multiplied by a temperature-dependent enhancement factor

  12. U(6)-phonon model of nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    The U(6)-phonon model of nuclear collective motion with the semi-direct product structure [HW(21)]U(6) is obtained as a hydrodynamic (macroscopic) limit of the fully microscopic proton–neutron symplectic model (PNSM) with Sp(12, R) dynamical group. The phonon structure of the [HW(21)]U(6) model enables it to simultaneously include the giant monopole and quadrupole, as well as dipole resonances and their coupling to the low-lying collective states. The U(6) intrinsic structure of the [HW(21)]U(6) model, from the other side, gives a framework for the simultaneous shell-model interpretation of the ground state band and the other excited low-lying collective bands. It follows then that the states of the whole nuclear Hilbert space which can be put into one-to-one correspondence with those of a 21-dimensional oscillator with an intrinsic (base) U(6) structure. The latter can be determined in such a way that it is compatible with the proton–neutron structure of the nucleus. The macroscopic limit of the Sp(12, R) algebra, therefore, provides a rigorous mechanism for implementing the unified model ideas of coupling the valence particles to the core collective degrees of freedom within a fully microscopic framework without introducing redundant variables or violating the Pauli principle. (author)

  13. The effect of quench rate on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of U-6 Wt Pct Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.; Romiy, A.D.; Weirick, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on microstructure, mechanical behavior, corrosion resistance, and subsequent age hardenability is discussed. Cooling rates in excess of 20 Ks -1 cause the parent γ-phase to transform martensitically to a niobium supersaturated variant of the α-phase. This phase exhibits low hardness and strength, high ductility, good corrosion resistance, and age hardenability. As cooling rate decreases from 10 Ks -1 to 0.2 Ks -1 , microstructural changes (consistent with spinodal decomposition) occur to an increasing extent. These changes produce increases in hardness and strength and decreases in ductility, corrosion resistance, and age hardenability. At cooling rates less than 0.2 Ks -1 the parent phase undergoes cellular decomposition to a coarse two-phase lamellar microstructure which exhibits intermediate strength and ductility, reduced corrosion resistance, and no age hardenability. An analysis of the cooling rates indicates that fully martensitic microstructures can be obtained in plates as thick as 50 mm

  14. Elastic-Plastic Behavior of U6Nb under Ramp Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D. B.; Gray, G. T. III; Hixson, R. S.; Hall, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    When uranium-niobium (6 wt.%) alloy is shock loaded, the expected elastic precursor is absent. A prior model attributed this absence to shear-induced twinning and the concomitant shear stress reduction that prevented the shocked material from reaching the plastic yield point. In the present study, carefully prepared U6Nb was subjected to shock loading to verify the adequacy of the prior model. Other samples were loaded with a ramp pressure pulse with strain rate large enough so that significant twinning would not occur during the experiment. Backward integration analyses of these latter experiments' back surface motion give stress-strain loading paths in U6Nb that suggest ordinary elastic-plastic flow. Some of the U6Nb was pre-strained by cold rolling in an effort to further ensure that twinning did not affect wave propagation. Shock and ramp loadings yielded similar results to the baseline material except, as expected, they are consistent with a higher yield stress and twinning shear stress threshold

  15. Characterization of the uranium--2 weight percent molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    The uranium-2 wt percent molybdenum alloy was prepared, processed, and age hardened to meet a minimum 930-MPa yield strength (0.2 percent) with a minimum of 10 percent elongation. These mechanical properties were obtained with a carbon level up to 300 ppM in the alloy. The tensile-test ductility is lowered by the humidity of the laboratory atmosphere

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. Effect of thermo-mechanical processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of U - Nb - Zr alloys: Part 2 - U - 3 wt % Nb - 9 wt % Zr and U - 9 wt% Nb - 3 wt% Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Nathanael Wagner Sales; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Schön, Cláudio Geraldo

    2018-04-01

    The present work is the second and final part of an extended investigation on Usbnd Nb - Zr alloys. It investigates the effect of mechanical processing routes on microstructure of alloys U - 3 wt % Nb - 9 wt % Zr and U - 9 wt% Nb - 3 wt% Zr, through X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, completing the investigation, which started with alloy U - 6 wt% Nb - 6 wt% Zr in part 1. Mechanical properties are determined using microhardness and bending tests and correlated with the developed microstructures. The results show that processing sequence, in particular the inclusion of a 1000 °C heat treatment step, affects significantly the microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys alloy in different ways. Microstructural characterization shows that both alloys present significant volume fraction of precipitates of a body-centered cubic (BCC) γ-Nb-Zr rich phase in addition the uranium-rich matrix. Bending tests show that sample ductility does not correlate necessarily with hardness and that the key factor appears to be the amount of the γ-Nb-Zr precipitates, which controls the matrix microstructure. Samples with a monoclinic α″ cellular microstructure and/or with the tetragonally-distorted BCC phase (γ0), although not strictly ductile, showed the largest allowed strains-before-break and complete elastic recovery of the broken pieces, pointing out to the macroscopic observation of superelasticity.

  19. TRIGA high wt -% LEU fuel development program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1980-07-01

    The principal purpose of this work was to investigate the characteristics of TRIGA fuel where the contained U-235 was in a relatively high weight percent (wt %) of LEU (low enriched uranium - enrichment of less than 20%) rather than a relatively low weight percent of HEU (high enriched uranium). Fuel with up to 45 wt % U was fabricated and found to be acceptable after metallurgical examinations, fission product retention tests and physical property examinations. Design and safety analysis studies also indicated acceptable prompt negative temperature coefficient and core lifetime characteristics for these fuels

  20. Rhodamine-WT dye losses in a mountain stream environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Rathburn, Ronald E.; Jackman, Alan P.; Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant fraction of rhodamine WT dye was lost during a short term multitracer injection experiment in a mountain stream environment. The conservative anion chloride and the sorbing cation lithium were concurrently injected. In-stream rhodamine WT concentrations were as low as 45 percent of that expected, based on chloride data. Concentration data were available from shallow‘wells’dug near the stream course and from a seep of suspected return flow. Both rhodamine WT dye and lithium were nonconservative with respect to the conservative chloride, with rhodamine WT dye closely following the behavior of the sorbing lithium.Nonsorption and sorption mechanisms for rhodamine WT loss in a mountain stream were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Experiments evaluating nonsorption losses indicated minimal losses by such mechanisms. Laboratory experiments using sand and gravel size streambed sediments show an appreciable capacity for rhodamine WT sorption.The detection of tracers in the shallow wells and seep indicates interaction between the stream and the flow in the surrounding subsurface, intergravel water, system. The injected tracers had ample opportunity for intimate contact with materials shown in the laboratory experiments to be potentially sorptive. It is suggested that in the study stream system, interaction with streambed gravel was a significant mechanism for the attenuation of rhodamine WT dye (relative to chloride).

  1. Timing characteristics of the VEhU-6 microchannel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtizin, R.Z.; Yumaguzin, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    The VEhU-6 charnel electron multiplier timing characteristics are experimentally studied. Dependence of monoelectron pulse duration at the VEhU-6 output at different values of channel supply voltage is investigated. The VEhU-6 delay time is measured. Delay time increased from 10 to 30 ns with the increase of channel supply voltage from 2.8 to 3.2 kV (at approximately 10 5 pulse/s loading). Delay time increases with loading decrease

  2. Irradiation behavior of U 6Mn-Al dispersion fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. K.; Wiencek, T. C.; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.

    2000-02-01

    Irradiation testing of U 6Mn-Al dispersion fuel miniplates was conducted in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR). Post-irradiation examination showed that U 6Mn in an unrestrained plate configuration performs similarly to U 6Fe under irradiation, forming extensive and interlinked fission gas bubbles at a fission density of approximately 3×10 27 m-3. Fuel plate failure occurs by fission gas pressure driven `pillowing' on continued irradiation.

  3. Usb1 controls U6 snRNP assembly through evolutionarily divergent cyclic phosphodiesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didychuk, Allison L; Montemayor, Eric J; Carrocci, Tucker J; DeLaitsch, Andrew T; Lucarelli, Stefani E; Westler, William M; Brow, David A; Hoskins, Aaron A; Butcher, Samuel E

    2017-09-08

    U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is essential for spliceosome assembly, but not well understood. Here, we report structures of the U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1 from yeast and a substrate analog bound complex from humans. Unlike the human ortholog, we show that yeast Usb1 has cyclic phosphodiesterase activity that leaves a terminal 3' phosphate which prevents overprocessing. Usb1 processing of U6 RNA dramatically alters its affinity for cognate RNA-binding proteins. We reconstitute the post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, which occurs through a complex series of handoffs involving 10 proteins (Lhp1, Prp24, Usb1 and Lsm2-8) and anti-cooperative interactions between Prp24 and Lhp1. We propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly that explains how evolutionarily divergent and seemingly antagonistic proteins cooperate to protect and chaperone the nascent snRNA during its journey to the spliceosome.The mechanism of U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is not well understood. Here the authors characterize the enzymatic activities and structures of yeast and human U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1, reconstitute post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, and propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly.

  4. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  5. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larruga José M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Results Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs. Conclusions The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1 indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent.

  6. Impact strength of the uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy between -1980 and +2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a ductile-to-brittle transition wxisted for the uranium-6 wt % niobium (U-6Nb) alloy. Standard V-notched Charpy bars were made from both solution-quenched and solution-quenched and aged U-6Nb alloy and were tested between -198 0 and +200 0 C. It was found that a sharp ductile-brittle transition does not exist for the alloy. A linear relationship existed between test temperature and impact strength, and the alloy retained a significant amount of impact strength even at very low temperatures. 9 figures

  7. Neutron diffraction study of the deformation mechanisms of the uranium-7 wt.% niobium shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: dbrown@lanl.gov; Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Field, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hults, W.L. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Teter, D.F. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Thoma, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The shape memory effect (SME) has been reported in the uranium-niobium alloy system in the region of the phase diagram surrounding U-6.5 wt.% Nb. In this regime, the material may have either an {alpha}'' monoclinic (U-6 wt.% Nb), or {gamma}{sup 0} tetragonal structure (U-7 wt.% Nb) and is two phase near 6.5 wt.% niobium. In situ neutron diffraction studies during uniaxial compressive loading of U-7 wt.% Nb indicate that strain in the recoverable region is accommodated by both motion of existing twin boundaries within {gamma}{sup 0}-phase and stress-induced phase transformation from the {gamma}{sup 0} to the {alpha}'' structure. The volume fraction of the {gamma}{sup 0}-phase decreases from 100% initially to {approx}26% after 4% total strain and some reversion is observed on release. The initial stress state of the stress-induced {alpha}'' grains will be discussed as well as the load sharing between the two phases.

  8. Functional characterization of Pol III U6 promoters for gene knockdown and knockout in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuping; Wang, Yajun; Zeng, Baosheng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Xu, Xuejiao; Meng, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Yang, Guang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2017-10-01

    RNA polymerase type III (Pol-III) promoters such as U6 are commonly used to express small RNAs, including short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Functional U6 promoters are widely used in CRISPR systems, and their characterization can facilitate genome editing of non-model organisms. In the present study, six U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters containing two conserved elements of a proximal sequence element (PSEA) and a TATA box, were identified and characterized in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) genome. Relative efficiency of the U6 promoters to express shRNA induced EGFP knockdown was tested in a P. xylostella cell line, revealing that the PxU6:3 promoter had the strongest expression effect. Further work with the PxU6:3 promoter showed its efficacy in EGFP knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 system in the cells. The expression plasmids with versatile Pxabd-A gene specific sgRNA driven by the PxU6:3 promoter, combined with Cas9 mRNA, could induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci in vivo. The phenotypes induced by sgRNA expression plasmids were similar to those done in vitro transcription sgRNAs. A plasmid with two tandem arranged PxU6:3:sgRNA expression cassettes targeting Pxabd-A loci was generated, which caused a 28,856 bp fragment deletion, suggesting that the multi-sgRNA expression plasmid can be used for multi-targeting. Our work indicates that U6 snRNA promoters can be used for functional studies of genes with the approach of reverse genetics in P. xylostella. These essential promoters also provide valuable potential for CRISPR-derived gene drive as a tactic for population control in this globally significant pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a near-net-shape casting technology for the U-6Nb alloy. Part 1: Materials characterization, experiment design, and model construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.J.; Keeney, J.A.; Wendel, M.W.; Demint, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) is conducting highly coupled experimental and numerical studies to develop the technology needed to produce near-net-shape (NNS)-cast uranium-6 wt% niobium (U-6Nb) components which have a controlled carbon content. Current activities are focused on defining mechanical and metallurgical properties of cast material; experimental studies to define NNS casting, carbide particle flotation, and immersion-quench physics; and developing the numerical models needed to support the optimized design of NNS components. This paper summarizes the material characterization, experiment design, and model development activities

  10. Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuying; Liu Xiangfa; Jiang Binggang; Huang Chuanzhen

    2009-01-01

    Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on the Al-12 wt.%Si alloy has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter, torsional oscillation viscometer and liquid X-ray diffraction experiments. It is found that there is a modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, i.e. primary Si can precipitate in the microstructure of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy when Ni and Si added in the form of Ni-38 wt.%Si, but not separately. Ni-38 wt.%Si alloy brings 'genetic materials' into the Al-Si melt, which makes the melt to form more ordering structure, promotes the primary Si precipitated. Moreover, the addition of Ni-38 wt.%Si, which decreases the solidification supercooling degree of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, is identical to the effect of heterogeneous nuclei.

  11. Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China)], E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co., Ltd., Binzhou 256602, Shandong (China); Jiang Binggang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Huang Chuanzhen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-05-27

    Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on the Al-12 wt.%Si alloy has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter, torsional oscillation viscometer and liquid X-ray diffraction experiments. It is found that there is a modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, i.e. primary Si can precipitate in the microstructure of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy when Ni and Si added in the form of Ni-38 wt.%Si, but not separately. Ni-38 wt.%Si alloy brings 'genetic materials' into the Al-Si melt, which makes the melt to form more ordering structure, promotes the primary Si precipitated. Moreover, the addition of Ni-38 wt.%Si, which decreases the solidification supercooling degree of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, is identical to the effect of heterogeneous nuclei.

  12. Symmetry breaking of u(6/2j+1) supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baake, M.; Reinicke, P.

    1985-09-01

    In this paper, we present the group theory of models with broken u(6/2j+1) supersymmetry described by the chain u(6/2j+1) contains usub(B)(6) x usub(F)(2j+1) contains usub(B)(6) x spsub(F)(2j+1) contains ... contains sosub(B)(3) x susub(F)(2) contains susub(B+F)(2) which has recently been suggested for application to nuclear physics. We present all invariants that are needed for the construction of the general Hamiltonian for this model. (orig.)

  13. Transfer in the light Hg isotopes and the U(6/12) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.; Grafeuille, S.; Rotbard, G.

    1985-01-01

    It was suggested recently that the level schemes of the odd Hg isotopes with 193 200 Hg, 198 Hg, 196 Hg(p,d) 199 Hg, 197 Hg, 195 Hg. The comparison of the experimental spectroscopic factors with the ones computed using the U(6/12) model shows that, among the three nuclei studied, 195 Hg and 197 Hg can be considered as reasonably described. The agreement in this case with U(6/12) is better in the U(5) limit than in the O(6) limit

  14. PEMBUATAN SERBUK U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrukan Masrukan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMBUATAN SERBUK PADUAN U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET. Telah dilakukan pembuatan serbuk paduan U-6Zr dengan pengkayaan 19,75 % untuk bahan bakar reaktor riset. Pembuatan bahan bakar U-6Zr ini dalam rangka mencari bahan bakar baru yang mempunyai densitas tinggi untuk mengganti bahan bakar yang sudah ada U3Si2-Al. Tujuan dari percobaan ini untuk mengetahui sifat-sifat serbuk paduan U- 6Zr yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding sebagai kandidat bahan bakar reaktor riset. Serbuk yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding dikenai pengujian, diantaranya pungujian komposisi kimia, densitas, kandungan hidrogen, fasa dan sifat termal. Hasil pengujian komposisi kimia menunjukkan beberapa unsur seperti Al, Ca, Cu, dan Ni melebihi batas yang diijinkan dimana masing-masing unsur terdapat sebesar 202,21 ppm; 214,05 ppm; 61,25 ppm dan 134,53 ppm. Pada pengujian diperolah densitas serbuk U-6Zr sebesar 13,58 g/cm3 dan pada pengujian kandungan hidrogen sisa diperoleh kandungan hidrogen sebesar 0,16 %. Untuk pengujian fasa, diperoleh fasa αU dan δU, sedangkan pada pengujian sifat termal yakni transformasi temperatur terdapat dua puncak yakni puncak pertama terjadi pada temperatur 274 hingga 311 oC dan puncak kedua terjadi pada temperatur 493 hingga 527oC. Puncak pertama terjadi reaksi endotermik dengan menyerap panas sebesar ∆H = 6,23 cal/g tetapi tidak terbentuk fasa baru, sedangkan puncak kedua terjadi reaksi eksotermik dengan mengeluarkan panas sebesar ∆H = -9.34 cal/g dan terbentuk fasa αZr. Sementara itu, dari pengujian kapasitas panas pada temperatur 34 hingga 75 oC, terjadinya penurunan nilai kapasitas panas yang disertai dengan penyerapan panas. Pada temperatur yang lebih tinggi hingga temperatur 437oC nilai kapasitas panas menjadi lebih kecil disertai pengeluaran panas. Reaksi termokimia antara Zr dengan hidrogen sisa menunjukkan terbentuknya fasa αZr yang diindikasikan oleh reaksi

  15. U6 snRNA expression prevents toxicity in TDP-43-knockdown cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yahara

    Full Text Available Depletion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-associated transactivation response (TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 alters splicing efficiency of multiple transcripts and results in neuronal cell death. TDP-43 depletion can also disturb expression levels of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs as spliceosomal components. Despite this knowledge, the relationship between cell death and alteration of snRNA expression during TDP-43 depletion remains unclear. Here, we knocked down TDP-43 in murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells and found a time lag between efficient TDP-43 depletion and appearance of cell death, suggesting that several mechanisms mediate between these two events. The amount of U6 snRNA was significantly decreased during TDP-43 depletion prior to increase of cell death, whereas that of U1, U2, and U4 snRNAs was not. Downregulation of U6 snRNA led to cell death, whereas transient exogenous expression of U6 snRNA counteracted the effect of TDP-43 knockdown on cell death, and slightly decreased the mis-splicing rate of Dnajc5 and Sortilin 1 transcripts, which are assisted by TDP-43. These results suggest that regulation of the U6 snRNA expression level by TDP-43 is a key factor in the increase in cell death upon TDP-43 loss-of-function.

  16. All Small Nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) of the [U4/U6.U5] Tri-snRNP Localize to Nucleoli; Identification of the Nucleolar Localization Element of U6 snRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Susan A.; Lange, Thilo Sascha

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we showed that spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) transiently passes through the nucleolus. Herein, we report that all individual snRNAs of the [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP localize to nucleoli, demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy of nucleolar preparations after injection of fluorescein-labeled snRNA into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Nucleolar localization of U6 is independent from [U4/U6] snRNP formation since sites of direct interaction of U6 snRNA with U4 snRNA are not nucleolar localization elements. Among all regions in U6, the only one required for nucleolar localization is its 3′ end, which associates with the La protein and subsequently during maturation of U6 is bound by Lsm proteins. This 3′-nucleolar localization element of U6 is both essential and sufficient for nucleolar localization and also required for localization to Cajal bodies. Conversion of the 3′ hydroxyl of U6 snRNA to a 3′ phosphate prevents association with the La protein but does not affect U6 localization to nucleoli or Cajal bodies. PMID:12221120

  17. Bose-Fermi U(6/2j+1) supersymmetries and high-spin anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, I.; Jarvis, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    A supersymmetric extension of the interacting boson model (IBM) is constructed to describe high-spin anomalies in both even- and odd-mass spectra of the Hg, Pt region (190<=A<=200). Supergroup chains such as U(6/2j+1)containsOsp(6/2j+1)containsO(6)xSp(2j+1)... or U(6/2j+1)containsU(5/2j+1)xU(1)containsOsp(5/2j+1)... incorporate a single j-shell fermion in addition to the usual 's' and 'd' bosons (L=0 and L=2). The orthosympletic supergroup reflects the strong pairing force in the subspace of the fermion intruder level. The model agrees favourably with experiment and microscopic calculation. (orig.)

  18. Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.

    1985-01-01

    High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)

  19. Equation of state, phase stability, and phase transformations of uranium-6 wt. % niobium under high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Vogel, Sven; Brown, Donald; Clausen, Bjorn; Hackenberg, Robert

    2018-05-01

    In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were conducted on the uranium-niobium alloy with 6 wt. % Nb (U-6Nb) at pressures up to 4.7 GPa and temperatures up to 1073 K. Upon static compression at room temperature, the monoclinic structure of U-6Nb (α″ U-6Nb) remains stable up to the highest experimental pressure. Based on the pressure-volume measurements at room temperature, the least-squares fit using the finite-strain equation of state (EOS) yields an isothermal bulk modulus of B0 = 127 ± 2 GPa for the α″-phase of U-6Nb. The calculated zero-pressure bulk sound speed from this EOS is 2.706 ± 0.022 km/s, which is in good agreement with the linear extrapolation of the previous Hugoniot data above 12 GPa for α″ U-6Nb, indicating that the dynamic response under those shock-loading conditions is consistent with the stabilization of the initial monoclinic phase of U-6Nb. Upon heating at ambient and high pressures, the metastable α″ U-6Nb exhibits complex transformation paths leading to the diffusional phase decomposition, which are sensitive to applied pressure, stress state, and temperature-time path. These findings provide new insight into the behavior of atypical systems such as U-Nb and suggest that the different U-Nb phases are separated by rather small energies and hence highly sensitive to compositional, thermal, and mechanical perturbations.

  20. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  1. A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted

    1994-01-01

    Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  2. Beyond Marbles: Percent Change and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Flannery

    2013-01-01

    In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…

  3. Photolysis of rhodamine-WT dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, D.Y.; Rathbun, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Photolysis of rhodamine-WT dye under natural sunlight conditions was determined by measuring the loss of fluorescence as a function of time. Rate coefficients at 30?? north latitude ranged from 4.77 x 10-2 day-1 for summer to 3.16 x 10-2 day-1 for winter. Experimental coefficients were in good agreement with values calculated using a laboratory-determined value of the quantum yield.

  4. Mechanical Properties of 0.14wt%C – 0.56wt%Mn – 0.13wt%Si ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C – 0.56wt%Mn – 0.13wt%Si structural steel has been investigated. Specimens for single quenching and those for double quenching were prepared for intercritical heat treatment. The heat treatment of the experimental steel was based on intercritical annealing in the ferrite + ...

  5. Isolating $Wt$ production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Chris D; Laenen, Eric; Maltoni, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We address the issue of single top production in association with a W boson at the Large Hadron Collider, in particular how to obtain an accurate description in the face of the top pair production background given that the two processes interfere with each other. We stress the advantages of an MC@NLO description, and find that for cuts used to isolate the signal, it makes sense to consider Wt as a well-defined production process in that the interference with top pair production is small, and the cross-section of the former is above the scale variation uncertainty associated with the latter. We also consider the case where both Wt and top pair production are backgrounds to a third process (Higgs boson production followed by decay to a W boson pair), and find in this context that interference issues can also be neglected. We discuss the generalization of our results to other situations, aided by a comparison between the MC@NLO approach and a calculation of the WWbb final state matched to a parton shower.

  6. Influence of temperature, strain rate and thermal aging on the structure/property behavior of uranium 6 wt% Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T.; Chen, S.R.; Lopez, M.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., MST-8, MS G-755, NM (United States); Field, R.D.; Korzekwa, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., MST-6, MS G-770, NM (United States); Hixson, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab, DX-9, MS P-952, NM (United States)

    2006-08-15

    A rigorous experimentation and validation program is being undertaken to create constitutive models that elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling plasticity in uranium-6 wt% niobium alloys (U-6Nb). These models should accurately predict high-strain-rate large-strain plasticity, damage evolution and failure. The goal is a physically-based constitutive model that captures 1) an understanding of how strain rate, temperature, and aging affects the mechanical response of a material, and 2) an understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms. The stress-strain response of U-6Nb has been studied as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and thermal aging. U-6Nb specimens in a solution-treated and quenched condition and after subsequent aging at 473 K for 2 hours were studied. The constitutive behavior was evaluated over the range of strain rates from quasi-static (0.001 s{sup -1}) to dynamic ({approx} 2000 s{sup -1}) and temperatures ranging from 77 to 773 K. The yield stress of U-6Nb was exhibited pronounced temperature sensitivity. The strain hardening rate is seen to be less sensitive to strain rate and temperature beyond plastic strains of 0.10. The yield strength of the aged material is less significantly affected by temperature and the work hardening rate shows adiabatic heating at lower strains rates (1/s). (authors)

  7. Heterologous and endogenous U6 snRNA promoters enable CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Kun, Zhang; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-01-01

    U6 promoters have been used for single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcription in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. However, no available U6 promoters have been identified in Aspergillus niger, which is an important industrial platform for organic acid and protein production. Two CRISPR/Cas9 systems established in A. niger have recourse to the RNA polymerase II promoter or in vitro transcription for sgRNA synthesis, but these approaches generally increase cloning efforts and genetic manipulation. The validation of functional RNA polymerase II promoters is therefore an urgent need for A. niger . Here, we developed a novel CRISPR/Cas9 system in A. niger for sgRNA expression, based on one endogenous U6 promoter and two heterologous U6 promoters. The three tested U6 promoters enabled sgRNA transcription and the disruption of the polyketide synthase albA gene in A. niger . Furthermore, this system enabled highly efficient gene insertion at the targeted genome loci in A. niger using donor DNAs with homologous arms as short as 40-bp. This study demonstrated that both heterologous and endogenous U6 promoters were functional for sgRNA expression in A. niger . Based on this result, a novel and simple CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox was established in A. niger, that will benefit future gene functional analysis and genome editing.

  8. An evaluation of 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels in patients with acute toothaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Elliot V.; Ciancio, Sebastian G.; Kuperstein, Arthur S.; Stoopler, Eric T.; Moore, Paul A.; Boynes, Sean G.; Levine, Steven C.; Casamassimo, Paul; Leyva, Rina; Mathew, Tanya; Shibly, Othman; Creighton, Paul; Jeffers, Gary E.; Corby, Patricia M.A.; Turetzky, Stanley N.; Papas, Athena; Wallen, Jillian; Idzik-Starr, Cynthia; Gordon, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels compared with those of a vehicle (placebo) gel for the temporary relief of toothache pain. They also assessed the compliance with the label dose administration directions on the part of participants with toothache pain. Methods Under double-masked conditions, 576 participants self-applied study gel to an open tooth cavity and surrounding oral tissues. Participants evaluated their pain intensity and pain relief for 120 minutes. The authors determined the amount of gel the participants applied. Results The responders’ rates (the primary efficacy parameter), defined as the percentage of participants who had an improvement in pain intensity as exhibited by a pain score reduction of at least one unit on the dental pain scale from baseline for two consecutive assessments any time between the five- and 20-minute points, were 87.3 percent, 80.7 percent and 70.4 percent, respectively, for 20 percent benzocaine gel, 10 percent benzocaine gel and vehicle gel. Both benzocaine gels were significantly (P ≤ .05) better than vehicle gel; the 20 percent benzocaine gel also was significantly (P ≤ .05) better than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. The mean amount of gel applied was 235.6 milligrams, with 88.2 percent of participants applying 400 mg or less. Conclusions Both 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels were more efficacious than the vehicle gel, and the 20 percent benzocaine gel was more efficacious than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. All treatments were well tolerated by participants. Practical Implications Patients can use 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels to temporarily treat toothache pain safely. PMID:23633700

  9. U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structures of uranyl minerals and inorganic uranyl compounds are important for understanding the genesis of U deposits, the interaction of U mine and mill tailings with the environment, transport of actinides in soils and the vadose zone, the performance of geological repositories for nuclear waste, and for the development of advanced materials with novel applications. Over the past decade, the number of inorganic uranyl compounds (including minerals) with known structures has more than doubled, and reconsideration of the structural hierarchy of uranyl compounds is warranted. Here, 368 inorganic crystal structures that contain essential U 6+ are considered (of which 89 are minerals). They are arranged on the basis of the topological details of their structural units, which are formed by the polymerization of polyhedra containing higher-valence cations. Overarching structural categories correspond to those based upon isolated polyhedra (8), finite clusters (43), chains (57), sheets (204), and frameworks (56) of polyhedra. Within these categories, structures are organized and compared upon the basis of either their graphical representations, or in the case of sheets involving sharing of edges of polyhedra, upon the topological arrangement of anions within the sheets. (author)

  10. Increasing TRIGA fuel lifetime with 12 wt.% U TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, W F; Cenko, M J; Levine, S H; Witzig, W F [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    In-core fuel management studies have been performed for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) wherein 12 wt % U fuel elements are used to replace the standard 8.5 wt % U TRIGA fuel. The core configuration used to develop a calculational model was a 90-element hexagonal array, which is representative of the PSBR core, and consists of five hexagonal rings surrounding a central thimble containing water. The technique employed for refueling the core fully loaded with 8.5 wt % U fuel involves replacing 8.5 wt % U fuel with 12 wt % U fuel using an in-out reloading scheme. A batch reload consists of 6 new 12 wt % U fuel elements. Placing the 12 wt % U fuel in the B ring produces fuel temperatures ({approx}450 {sup o}C) that are well below the 800{sup o}C maximum limitation when the PSBR is operating at its maximum allowed power of 1 Megawatt. The advantages of using new 12 wt % U fuel to replace the burned up 8.5 wt % U fuel in the B ring over refueling strictly with 8.5 wt % U-Zr TRIGA fuel are clearly delineated in Table 1 where cost calculations used the General Atomic pre-1972 prices for TRIGA fuel, i.e., $1500 and $1650 for an 8.5 and 12 wt % U fuel element, respectively. Experimental results obtained to date utilizing the 12 wt % U fuel elements agree with the computed results. (author)

  11. Infiltration Behavior Of Mechanical Alloyed 75 wt% Cu-25 wt% WC Powders Into Porous WC Compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şelte A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work infiltration behavior of mechanical alloyed 75 wt% Cu – 25 wt% WC powders into porous WC compacts were studied. Owing to their ductile nature, initial Cu powders were directly added to mechanical alloying batch. On the other hand initial WC powders were high energy milled prior to mechanical alloying. Contact infiltration method was selected for densification and compacts prepared from processed powders were infiltrated into porous WC bodies. After infiltration, samples were characterized via X-Ray diffraction studies and microstructural evaluation of the samples was carried out via scanning electron microscopy observations. Based on the lack of solubility between WC and Cu it was possible to keep fine WC particles in Cu melt since solution reprecipitation controlled densification is hindered. Also microstructural characterizations via scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the transport of fine WC fraction from infiltrant to porous WC skeleton can be carried out via Cu melt flow during infiltration.

  12. Phase development in a U-7 wt.% Mo vs. Al-7 wt.% Ge diffusion couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2013-10-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has demonstrated that U-Mo alloys in contact with Al develop interaction regions with phases that have poor irradiation behavior. The addition of Si to the Al has been considered with positive results. In this study, compositional modification is considered by replacing Si with Ge to determine the effect on the phase development in the system. The microstructural and phase development of a diffusion couple of U-7 wt.% Mo in contact with Al-7 wt.% Ge was examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interdiffusion zone developed a microstructure that included the cubic-UGe3 phase and amorphous phases. The UGe3 phase was observed with and without Mo and Al solid solution developing a (U,Mo)(Al,Ge)3 phase.

  13. Phase development in a U–7 wt.% Mo vs. Al–7 wt.% Ge diffusion couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E., E-mail: Emmanuel.Perez@inl.gov [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development, Idaho National Laboratory, Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Keiser, D.D. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development, Idaho National Laboratory, Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Sohn, Y.H. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has demonstrated that U–Mo alloys in contact with Al develop interaction regions with phases that have poor irradiation behavior. The addition of Si to the Al has been considered with positive results. In this study, compositional modification is considered by replacing Si with Ge to determine the effect on the phase development in the system. The microstructural and phase development of a diffusion couple of U–7 wt.% Mo in contact with Al–7 wt.% Ge was examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interdiffusion zone developed a microstructure that included the cubic-UGe{sub 3} phase and amorphous phases. The UGe{sub 3} phase was observed with and without Mo and Al solid solution developing a (U,Mo)(Al,Ge){sub 3} phase.

  14. Hardness and microstructure of Al-10.0 wt% Zn-4.0 wt% Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmad, W.; Ali, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Al-Zn-Mg alloys are widely used in industries as these have excellent physical and mechanical properties. However some aspects of the effect of heat treatment on these alloys are not yet clear. In order to understand the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, microstructure of a locally prepared alloy Al-10.0 wt% Zn-4.0 wt% Mg heat treated under different conditions has been examined in scanning electron microscope/electron probe micro analyser. Precipitates MgZn/sub 2/, MgZn/sub 4/ and Mg/sub 2/Zn/sub 11/ have been observed and these are caused by heat treatment. Correlation between these precipitates and Vickers's hardness has also been studied. In the present paper results of this investigation have been presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Divorcing the Late Upper Palaeolithic demographic histories of mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6 in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennarun Erwan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Southwest Asian origin and dispersal to North Africa in the Early Upper Palaeolithic era has been inferred in previous studies for mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6. Both haplogroups have been proposed to show similar geographic patterns and shared demographic histories. Results We report here 24 M1 and 33 U6 new complete mtDNA sequences that allow us to refine the existing phylogeny of these haplogroups. The resulting phylogenetic information was used to genotype a further 131 M1 and 91 U6 samples to determine the geographic spread of their sub-clades. No southwest Asian specific clades for M1 or U6 were discovered. U6 and M1 frequencies in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe do not follow similar patterns, and their sub-clade divisions do not appear to be compatible with their shared history reaching back to the Early Upper Palaeolithic. The Bayesian Skyline Plots testify to non-overlapping phases of expansion, and the haplogroups’ phylogenies suggest that there are U6 sub-clades that expanded earlier than those in M1. Some M1 and U6 sub-clades could be linked with certain events. For example, U6a1 and M1b, with their coalescent ages of ~20,000–22,000 years ago and earliest inferred expansion in northwest Africa, could coincide with the flourishing of the Iberomaurusian industry, whilst U6b and M1b1 appeared at the time of the Capsian culture. Conclusions Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of both haplogroups and coalescent time assessments suggest that the extant main branching pattern of both haplogroups arose and diversified in the mid-later Upper Palaeolithic, with some sub-clades concomitantly with the expansion of the Iberomaurusian industry. Carriers of these maternal lineages have been later absorbed into and diversified further during the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages in North and East Africa.

  16. Temperature behavior of 12 wt.% U TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, S H; Geisler, G C; Totenbier, R E [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Stainless steel clad 12 wt % U TRIGA fuel elements have been used to refuel the Penn State University's Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). When 12 wt % U fuel containing nominally 55 gms of {sup 235}U per fuel element is substituted for the 8.5 wt % U fuel containing nominally 38 gms {sup 235}U, higher fuel temperatures were produced in the 12 wt % U fuel than in the 8.5 wt % U fuel at the same reactor powers. The higher fuel temperature can be related to the higher power densities in the 12 wt % U fuel. The power density is calculated to be 35% higher in the 12 wt % U fuel when 6 of these fuel elements are substituted for 8.5 wt % U fuel in the innermost ring, the B ring. Temperatures have been calculated for the 12 wt % U fuel in the above configuration for both steady state and pulse conditions, assuming a 35% higher fuel density in the 12 wt % U fuel and the results compare favorably with the experimental measurements. This is particularly true when the comparison is made with temperature data taken after exposing the new fuel elements to a series of pulses. These calculations and data will be presented at the meeting. (author)

  17. Analysis list: Wt1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Wt1 Embryo,Kidney + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Wt1.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Wt1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyush...u-u/mm9/target/Wt1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Wt1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Wt1.Kidney.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kidney.gml ...

  18. WT1 isoform expression pattern in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Irene; Such, Esperanza; Cervera, Jose; Barragán, Eva; Ibañez, Mariam; Gómez-Seguí, Inés; López-Pavía, María; Llop, Marta; Fuster, Oscar; Dolz, Sandra; Oltra, Silvestre; Alonso, Carmen; Vera, Belén; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Montesinos, Pau; Senent, M Leonor; Moscardó, Federico; Bolufer, Pascual; Sanz, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    WT1 plays a dual role in leukemia development, probably due to an imbalance in the expression of the 4 main WT1 isoforms. We quantify their expression and evaluate them in a series of AML patients. Our data showed a predominant expression of isoform D in AML, although in a lower quantity than in normal CD34+ cells. We found a positive correlation between the total WT1 expression and A, B and C isoforms. The overexpression of WT1 in AML might be due to a relative increase in A, B and C isoforms, together with a relative decrease in isoform D expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How I Love My 80 Percenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Don't ever take your support staff for granted. By support staff, I mean the people in personnel, logistics, and finance; the ones who can make things happen with a phone call or a signature, or by the same token frustrate you to no end by their inaction; these are people you must depend on. I've spent a lot of time thinking about how to cultivate relationships with my support staff that work to the advantage of both of us. The most important thing that have learned working with people, any people--and I will tell you how I learned this in a minute--is there are some folks you just can't motivate, so forget it, don't try; others you certainly can with a little psychology and some effort; and the best of the bunch, what I call the 80 percenters, you don't need to motivate because they're already on the team and performing beautifully. The ones you can't change are rocks. Face up to it, and just kick them out of your way. I have a reputation with the people who don't want to perform or be part of the team. They don't come near me. If someone's a rock, I pick up on it right away, and I will walk around him or her to find someone better. The ones who can be motivated I take time to nurture. I consider them my projects. A lot of times these wannabes are people who want to help but don't know how. Listen, you can work with them. Lots of people in organizations have the mindset that all that matters are the regulations. God forbid if you ever work outside those regulations. They've got one foot on that regulation and they're holding it tight like a baby holds a blanket. What you're looking for is that first sign that their minds are opening. Usually you hear it in their vocabulary. What used to sound like "We can't do that ... the regulations won't allow it ... we have never done this before," well, suddenly that changes to "We have options ... let's take a look at the options ... let me research this and get back to you." The 80 percenters you want to nurture too, but

  20. Low-temperature heat-capacity study of the U6X (XequivalentMn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.N.; Maple, M.B.; DeLong, L.E.; Huber, J.G.; Junod, A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the superconducting- and normal-state heat capacity of U 6 X (XequivalentMn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds have been performed over a temperature range 1 Kapprox. 6 X compounds have strong renormalizations of the free-carrier effective mass m/sup */ in the range 10m/sub e/approx. 6 X heat capacities suggest the presence of high densities of low-energy excitations of undetermined nature. The results are analyzed in terms of models appropriate to heavy-fermion liquids, and anisotropic or strong-coupled superconductors. The U 6 X compounds form a link between relatively low-m/sup */, high-transition-temperature A15 compounds and the more extreme examples of heavy-fermion superconductors such as UBe/sub 13/, UPt 3 , and CeCuSi 2 for which m/sup */∼10 2 m/sub e/. .AE

  1. Assembly and dynamics of the U4/U6 di-snRNP by single-molecule FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, John W.; Warnasooriya, Chandani; Kondo, Yasushi; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Rueda, David

    2015-01-01

    In large ribonucleoprotein machines, such as ribosomes and spliceosomes, RNA functions as an assembly scaffold as well as a critical catalytic component. Protein binding to the RNA scaffold can induce structural changes, which in turn modulate subsequent binding of other components. The spliceosomal U4/U6 di-snRNP contains extensively base paired U4 and U6 snRNAs, Snu13, Prp31, Prp3 and Prp4, seven Sm and seven LSm proteins. We have studied successive binding of all protein components to the snRNA duplex during di-snRNP assembly by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and accompanying conformational changes in the U4/U6 RNA 3-way junction by single-molecule FRET. Stems I and II of the duplex were found to co-axially stack in free RNA and function as a rigid scaffold during the entire assembly, but the U4 snRNA 5′ stem-loop adopts alternative orientations each stabilized by Prp31 and Prp3/4 binding accounting for altered Prp3/4 binding affinities in presence of Prp31. PMID:26503251

  2. Steady state creep during metastable phase transition in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H.; Youssef, S.B.; Mahmoud, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1998-08-16

    The early stages of decomposition of Guinier-Preston zones (G.P. zones) in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys were investigated through creep measurements and electron microscopy observations. It was found that the strengthening and softening of the alloys has been achieved during the formation of metastable phases (G.P. zones and {gamma}`-phase) in the ageing temperature range (428 to 498 K). TEM investigations confirmed that the addition of zirconium to the Al-Ag alloy accelerates the formation and coarsening of the metastable phases. The mean values of activation energy of both alloys were found to be equal to that quoted for precipitate-dislocation interactions. (orig.) 23 refs.

  3. Mpn1, Mutated in Poikiloderma with Neutropenia Protein 1, Is a Conserved 3′-to-5′ RNA Exonuclease Processing U6 Small Nuclear RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Shchepachev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN is a rare genodermatosis associated with mutations in the C16orf57 gene, which codes for the uncharacterized protein hMpn1. We show here that, in both fission yeasts and humans, Mpn1 processes the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA posttranscriptionally. In Mpn1-deficient cells, U6 molecules carry 3′ end polyuridine tails that are longer than those in normal cells and lack a terminal 2′,3′ cyclic phosphate group. In mpn1Δ yeast cells, U6 snRNA and U4/U6 di-small nuclear RNA protein complex levels are diminished, leading to precursor messenger RNA splicing defects, which are reverted by expression of either yeast or human Mpn1 and by overexpression of U6. Recombinant hMpn1 is a 3′-to-5′ RNA exonuclease that removes uridines from U6 3′ ends, generating terminal 2′,3′ cyclic phosphates in vitro. Finally, U6 degradation rates increase in mpn1Δ yeasts and in lymphoblasts established from individuals affected by PN. Our data indicate that Mpn1 promotes U6 stability through 3′ end posttranscriptional processing and implicate altered U6 metabolism as a potential mechanism for PN pathogenesis.

  4. The stored energy in processed Cu-0.4 wt.%Cr-0.12 wt.%Zr-0.02 wt.%Si-0.05 wt.%Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.F.; Dong, A.P.; Wang, L.T.; Yu, Z.; Meng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The crystal orientation in processed Cu-0.4 wt.%Cr-0.12 wt.%Zr-0.02 wt.%Si-0.05 wt.%Mg is deviating from the as-cast specimens and microstrain of the alloy is gradually increasing as the draw ratio rising before η ≤ 6.7. → The dynamic recovery has taken place as 6.7 texture is formed with the draw ratio rising. Meanwhile, the stored energy also increases with the draw ratio rising and a peak is reached with draw ratio of 6.7. The release of stored energy is primarily due to the decrease of dislocation density. The flow stress estimated from the stored energy has a similar variation trend with the measured data with a stress difference ∼20 to 120 MPa. The main strengthening effect is attributed to dislocation mechanism.

  5. Effect of superimposed low frequency oscillations on the static creep behaviour of Al-1 wt%Si and Al-1 wt%Si-0.1 wt%Zr-0.1 wt%Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshai, M.H.N. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Deaf, G.H. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Abd El Khalek, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Graiss, G. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Kenawy, M.A. [Physics Dept., University Coll. for Women, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-05-16

    Torsional oscillations of increasing frequencies with constant torsional strain amplitude, {theta}, of 3.1 x 10{sup -4} were superimposed on wires of Al-1 wt% Si and Al-1 wt% Si-0.1 wt% Zr-0.1 wt% Ti alloys, while being crept under constant stress (52.3 MPa) and different testing temperatures. It was found that increasing the frequency of oscillations resulted in an increase of both transient and steady state creep. In the transient stage, while the exponent n is increasing with frequency v, the parameter {beta} decreases. Zirconium and titanium addition generally reduced the rate of creep. A value of 20 kJ/mol was found for the activation energy of the mechanism operating in the transient and steady state stages which was ascribed as being due to dislocation intersection. (orig.)

  6. Processing and microstructure of Nb-1 percent Zr-0.1 percent C alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Mehmet; Titran, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to evaluate the effects of processing on the microstructure of Nb-1 wt. pct. Zr-0.1 wt. pct. C alloy sheet. The samples were fabricated by cold rolling different sheet bars that were single-, double- or triple-extruded at 1900 K. Heat treatment consisted on one- or two-step annealing of different samples at temperatures ranging from 1350 to 1850 K. The assessment of the effects of processing on microstructure involved characterization of the precipitates including the type, crystal structure, chemistry and distribution within the material as well as an examination of the grain structure. A combination of various analytical and metallographic techniques were used on both the sheet samples and the residue extracted from them. The results show that the relatively coarse orthorhombic Nb2C carbides in the as-rolled samples transformed to rather fine cubic monocarbides of Nb and Zr with varying Zr/Nb ratios upon subsequent heat treatment. The relative amount of the cubic carbides and the Zr/Nb ratio increased with increasing number of extrusions prior to cold rolling. Furthermore, the size and the aspect ratio of the grains appear to be strong functions of the processing history of the material. These and other results obtained will be presented with the emphasis on a possible relationship between processing and microstructure.

  7. Mild hydrothermal crystal growth of new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30: Structures, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D.; Tapp, Joshua; Möller, Angela; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Two new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 (1) and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30 (2), were synthesized through an in situ mild hydrothermal route, and were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds exhibit complex crystal structures composed of corner- or edge-shared UF9 and MF6 (M=Mg, Mn) polyhedra, forming hexagonal channels in the three-dimensional framework, in which ordered or disordered divalent metal and sodium atoms reside. The large hexagonal voids contain the nearly regular M(II)F6 octahedra and sodium ions, whereas the small hexagonal cavities include M(II) and sodium ions on a mixed-occupied site. Magnetic susceptibility measurements yielded effective magnetic moments of 8.36 and 11.6 μB for 1 and 2, respectively, confirming the presence and oxidation states of U(IV) and Mn(II). The large negative Weiss constants indicate the spin gap between a triplet and a singlet state in the U(IV). Magnetization data as a function of applied fields revealed that 2 exhibits paramagnetic behavior due to the nonmagnetic singlet ground state of U(IV) at low temperature. UV-vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data were also analyzed.

  8. Effects of Mo on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.% Cr–2.6 wt.% C–(0–10) wt.% Mo irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imurai, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thanachayanont, C.; Pearce, J.T.H. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tsuda, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chairuangsri, T., E-mail: tchairuangsri@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-04-01

    Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.% Cr–2.6 wt.% C irons containing (0–10) wt.% Mo with the Cr/C ratio of about 10 were studied and related to hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the iron with about 10 wt.% Mo was eutectic/peritectic, whereas the others with less Mo content were hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. Mo addition promoted the formation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C. At 1 wt.% Mo, multiple eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} existed as a transition zone between eutectic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C, indicating a carbide transition as M{sub 7}C{sub 3}(M{sub 2.3}C) → M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M{sub 3.8}C) → M{sub 6}C. At 6 wt.% Mo, multiple eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were observed together with fine cellular/lamellar M{sub 6}C aggregates. In the iron with 10 wt.% Mo, only eutectic/peritectic M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C were found without M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. Mo distribution to all carbides has been determined to be increased from ca. 0.4 to 0.7 in mass fraction as the Mo content in the irons was increased. On the other hand, Cr distribution to all carbides is quite constant as ca. 0.6 in mass fraction. Mo addition increased Vickers macro-hardness of the irons from 495 up to 674 HV{sub 30}. High Mo content as solid-solution in the matrix and the formation of M{sub 6}C or M{sub 23}C{sub 6} aggregates were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the irons with Mo addition. - Highlights: • Mo promoted the formation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C in the irons with Cr/C ratio of about 10

  9. Effects of W on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C–(0–10)wt.%W irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imurai, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thanachayanont, C.; Pearce, J.T.H. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tsuda, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chairuangsri, T., E-mail: tchairuangsri@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C irons containing (0–10)wt.%W with the Cr/C ratio about 10 were studied and related to their hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the irons with 1 to 10 wt.%W addition was hypereutectic containing large primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, whereas the reference iron without W addition was hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. The volume fractions of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and the total carbides increased, but that of eutectic carbides decreased with increasing the W content of the irons. W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. At about 4 wt.%W, two eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C were observed together with primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. At 10 wt.%W, multiple carbides including primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, fish-bone M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub x}C where x = 3 or less has not been found due possibly to the high M/C ratio in the studied irons. W distribution to all carbides has been determined increasing from ca. 0.3 to 0.8 in mass fraction as the W content in the irons was increased. W addition led to an increase in Vickers macro-hardness of the irons up to 671 kgf/(mm){sup 2} (HV30/15) obtained from the iron with 10 wt.%W. The formation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and aggregates of M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the as-cast irons with W addition. - Highlights: • W addition at 1 up to 10 wt.%W to Fe–28Cr–2.6C produced “hypereutectic” structure. • W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M

  10. A comparison of the metallurgical behaviour of dispersion fuels with uranium silicides and U6Fe as dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1984-01-01

    In the past few years metallurgical studies have been carried out to develop fuel dispersions with U-densities up to 7.0 Mg U m -3 . Uranium silicides have been considered to be the prime candidates as dispersants; U 6 Fe being a potential alternative on account of its higher U-density. The objective of this paper is to compare the metallurgical behaviour of these two material combinations with regard to the following aspects: (1) preparation of the compounds U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 and U 6 Fe; (2) powder metallurgical processing to miniature fuel element plates; (3) reaction behaviour under equilibrium conditions in the relevant portions of the ternary U-Si-Al and U-Fe-Al systems; (4) dimensional stability of the fuel plates after prolonged thermal treatment; (5) thermochemical behaviour of fuel plates at temperatures near the melting point of the cladding. Based on this data, the possible advantages of each fuel combination are discussed. (author)

  11. [Construction and identification of eukaryotic plasmid pGC-silencer-U6/Neo/GFP/ABCG2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Song; Kong, Weijia

    2010-09-01

    To construct three short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference expression plasmid vectors of human ABCG2 gene, to assay the expression of ABCG2 in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line, CEN-2 cell line, and to detect the RNAi effect of shRNA. Targeting ABCG2 gene sequence, three plasmid expression vectors coding for shRNA and a control vector containing random DNA fragment were constructed. The recombinant plasmids were amplified in Ecoli. DH5 and then identified by restriction digestion, PCR and sequencing. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into CEN-2 cells. ABCG2 expression was assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The construction of pGC-silencer-U6/Neo/GFP/ABCG2 was succeed. The shRNA plasmids significantly down-regulated the ABCG2 expression in CEN-2 cells, at both mRNA level and protein level. Recombinant plasmid 1 had the strongest effect compared with plasmids 2 and 3 (P < 0.05), with an inhibition ratio of 75% at the mRNA level and 68% at the protein level. pGC-silencer-U6/Neo/GFP/ABCG2 has been successfully constructed and it can down-regulate ABCG2 expression after transfected into CEN-2 cells, which could help further studies of ABCG2 functions CEN-2 cell line and contribute to the NPC gene therapy.

  12. Development of U6Fe-Al dispersions for the use of LEU in research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1983-01-01

    For some time now, efforts are being made to develop fuel dispersions that would permit the use of low (approx. 20% 235-U) enriched uranium (LEU) instead of the currently used highly (approx. 93% 235-U) enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors. Since penalties in the performance of the reactor have to be avoided, the 235-U content in the dispersion has at least to be retained at current levels. On account of their high U-densities, the major development effort has been focussed on the uranium silicides (U 3 Si, U 3 Si(Al), and U 3 Si 2 -based dispersions). With silicides as dispersants, it is possible to fabricate fuel element plates with U-densities in the dispersion of about 6.0 gU/cm 3 . In comparison to the silicides, the U 6 Fe-phase offers several advantages namely: higher U-density (approx. 17.0 gU/cm 3 ); relative ease of formation compared to U 3 Si; possible advantages with regard to reprocessing of the spent fuel due to the absence of silicon. The studies outlined here were performed with a view to investigating the preparation, reaction behavior and dimensional stability after heat treatment of U 6 Fe-Al dispersions

  13. Development of U6Fe-Al dispersions for the use of LEU in research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1983-01-01

    For some time now, efforts are being made to develop fuel dispersions that would permit the use of low (∼ 20% 235-U) enriched uranium (LEU) instead of the currently used highly (∼ 93% 235-U) enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors. Since penalties in the performance of the reactor have to be avoided, the 235-U content in the dispersion has at least to be retained at current levels. On account of their high U-densities, the major development effort has been focussed on the uranium silicides [U 3 Si, U 3 Si(Al), and U 3 Si 2 - based dispersions. With silicides as dispersants, it is possible to fabricate fuel element plates with U-densities in the dispersion of about 6.0 g U/cm 3 . In comparison to the silicides, the U 6 Fe-phase offers several advantages namely: - higher U-density (∼ 17.0 g U/cm 3 ); - relative ease of formation compared to U 3 Si; - possible advantages with regard to reprocessing of the spent fuel due to the absence of silicon. The studies outlined here were therefore performed with a view to investigating the preparation, reaction behaviour and dimensional stability after heat treatment of U 6 Fe-Al dispersions

  14. The effect of irradiation and irradiation temperature on the fracture toughness of cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Ellis, R.B.; Stark, D.J.; Shillinglaw, A.J.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fracture mechanics methods and small specimens to assess the effect of metallurgical variables on fracture toughness and critical crack length in reactor pressure tubes is reviewed. Fracture toughness tests on specimens irradiated in the NRU research reactor at 260 degrees C are described and compared with results from a previous irradiation in the WR-1 research reactor at 350 degrees C. The J-resistance curve is used as the measure of fracture toughness, and is shown to be very sensitive to the metallurgical state. The lower irradiation temperature (260 degrees C), characteristic of the operating temperature range for power reactors, has a significant effect on fracture toughness. Circumferential hydrides also have an effect. Estimates of critical crack length are made using the J-resistance data, and are seen to slightly underestimate the actual critical crack length as determined in full-scale burst tests. This conservatism is not large enough to impose a significant penalty in design applications

  15. The role of Ag precipitates in Cu-12 wt% Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, D.W.; Song, L.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Dong, A.P.; Wang, L.T. [China Railway Construction Electrification Bureau Group Co.,Ltd., Beijing 100036 (China); Zhang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Meng, L., E-mail: mengliang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The Cu-12 wt% Ag was prepared to investigate the role of Ag precipitates on the properties of the alloy. Two kinds of heat treatment procedures were adopted to produce different amount of Ag precipitates in the Cu-12 wt% Ag. The microstructure of Ag precipitates was systematically observed by optical microscopy and electron microscopy. The Cu-12 wt% Ag with more Ag precipitates exhibits higher strength and lower electrical conductivity. More Ag precipitates results in more phase interface and less Ag atoms dissolved in Cu matrix. By comparing the strengthening effect and electron scattering effect of phase interface and dissolved Ag atoms, it is conclude that the interface between Cu matrix and Ag precipitates could significantly block dislocation movement and enhance electron scattering in Cu-Ag alloys.

  16. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  17. Mechanical alloying and sitering of TI - 10WT.% MG powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ti-10wt.%Mg powder alloy has been produced by mechanical alloying. Elemental powders of Ti and Mg were ball milled in a Zoz-Simoloyer CM01 for 16 and 20 hours under argon. Mechanical alloying was followed by XRD, SEM and particle size analysis...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  19. Partially-reflected water-moderated square-piteched U(6.90)O2 fuel rod lattices with 0.67 fuel to water volume ratio (0.800 CM Pitch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, Gary A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative funded the design and construction of the Seven Percent Critical Experiment (7uPCX) at Sandia National Laboratories. The start-up of the experiment facility and the execution of the experiments described here were funded by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program. The 7uPCX is designed to investigate critical systems with fuel for light water reactors in the enrichment range above 5% 235U. The 7uPCX assembly is a water-moderated and -reflected array of aluminum-clad square-pitched U(6.90%)O2 fuel rods.

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Additively Manufactured Uranium-6 wt. pct. Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wraith, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamza, A. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hsiung, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKeown, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sedillo, E. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Teslich, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Torres, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Urabe, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alexander, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iniguez, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancheta, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lotscher, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Young, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Evans, C. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Florando, J. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Margraff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hrousis, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, G. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report describes an effort to process uranium-6 weight% niobium using laser powder bed fusion. The chemistry, crystallography, microstructure and mechanical response resulting from this process are discussed with particular emphasis on the effect of the laser powder bed fusion process on impurities. In an effort to achieve homogenization and uniform mechanical behavior from different builds, as well as to induce a more conventional loading response, we explore post-processing heat treatments on this complex alloy. Elevated temperature heat treatment for recrystallization is evaluated and the effect of recrystallization on mechanical behavior in laser powder bed fusion processed U-6Nb is discussed. Wrought-like mechanical behavior and grain sizes are achieved through post-processing and are reported herein.

  1. Technicolor dynamics corrections to Wt-barb coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Chongxing; Huang Jinshu; Lu Gongru; Yang Zhengtao

    1998-01-01

    The authors consider the contributions of new gauge bosons to Wt-barb coupling in one generation technicolor (OGTC) model and topcolor assisted multiscale technicolor (TOPCMTC) model. The authors find that the exchange of diagonal extended technicolor (ETC) gauge boson has no contribution to Wt-barb coupling. Using the LEP value of R b , the authors calculate the corrections to the CKM matrix element V tb which arise from the sideways ETC gauge boson in OGTC model and the sideways ETC gauge bosons and color exchange in TOPCMTC model. The authors find that the δV tb is significantly large for a certain set of the parameters of either OGTC model or TOPCMTC model which might be detected in the Fermilab Tevatron Run 3 experiments

  2. Physical properties of monolithic U8 wt.%-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, R. M.; Beck, L.; Breitkreutz, H.; Jarousse, C.; Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W.; Schmid, W.; Schneider, J.; Wieschalla, N.

    2010-07-01

    As a possible high density fuel for research reactors, monolithic U8 wt.%-Mo ("U8Mo") was examined with regard to its structural, thermal and electric properties. X-ray diffraction by the Bragg-Brentano method was used to reveal the tetragonal lattice structure of rolled U8Mo. The specific heat capacity of cast U8Mo was determined by differential scanning calorimetry, its thermal diffusivity was measured by the laser flash method and its mass density by Archimedes' principle. From these results, the thermal conductivity of U8Mo in the temperature range from 40 °C to 250 °C was calculated; in the measured temperature range, it is in good accordance with literature data for UMo with 8 and 9 wt.% Mo, is higher than for 10 wt.% Mo and lower than for 5 wt.% Mo. The electric conductivity of rolled and cast U8Mo was measured by a four-wire method and the electron based part of the thermal conductivity calculated by the Wiedemann-Frantz law. Rolled and cast U8Mo was irradiated at about 150 °C with 80 MeV 127I ions to receive the same iodine ion density in the damage peak region as the fission product density in the fuel of a typical high flux reactor after the targeted nuclear burn-up. XRD analysis of irradiated U8Mo showed a change of the lattice parameters as well as the creation of UO 2 in the superficial sample regions; however, a phase change by irradiation was not observed. The determination of the electron based part of the thermal conductivity of the irradiated samples failed due to high measurement errors which are caused by the low thickness of the damage region in the ion irradiated samples.

  3. TEM investigation of irradiated U-7 weight percent Mo dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the FUTURE experiment, fuel plates containing U-7 weight percent Mo atomized powder were irradiated in the BR2 reactor. At a burn-up of approximately 33 percent 235 U (6.5 percent FIMA or 1.41 10 21 fissions/cm 3 meat), the fuel plates showed an important deformation and the irradiation was stopped. The plates were submitted to detailed PIE at the Laboratory for High and Medium level Activity. The results of these examinations were reported in the scientific report of last year and published in open literature. Since then, the microstructural aspects of the FUTURE fuel were studied in more detail using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in an attempt to understand the nature of the interaction phase and the fission gas behavior in the atomized U(Mo) fuel. The FUTURE experiment is regarded as the definitive proof that the classical atomized U(Mo) dispersion fuel is not stable under irradiation, at least in the conditions required for normal operation of plate-type fuel. The main cause for the instability was identified to be the irradiation behavior of the U(Mo)-Al interaction phase which is formed between the U(Mo) particles and the pure aluminum matrix during irradiation. It is assumed to become amorphous under irradiation and as such cannot retain the fission gas in stable bubbles. As a consequence, gas filled voids are generated between the interaction layer and the matrix, resulting in fuel plate pillowing and failure. The objective of the TEM investigation was the confirmation of this assumption of the amorphisation of the interaction phase. A deeper understanding of the actual nature of this layer and the fission gas behaviour in these fuels in general can allow a more oriented search for a solution to the fuel failures

  4. Multiscale modeling of a low magnetostrictive Fe-27wt%Co-0.5wt%Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, M.; Hubert, O.; Helbert, A. L.; Baudin, T.; Batonnet, R.; Waeckerlé, T.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper deals with the improvement of a multi-scale approach describing the magneto-mechanical coupling of Fe-27wt%Co-0.5wt%Cr alloy. The magnetostriction behavior is demonstrated as very different (low magnetostriction vs. high magnetostriction) when this material is submitted to two different final annealing conditions after cold rolling. The numerical data obtained from a multi-scale approach are in accordance with experimental data corresponding to the high magnetostriction level material. A bi-domain structure hypothesis is employed to explain the low magnetostriction behavior, in accordance with the effect of an applied tensile stress. A modification of the multiscale approach is proposed to match this result.

  5. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  6. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Sarigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  7. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Tutuila

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  8. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Anatahan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  9. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Alamagan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  10. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Agrihan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  11. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Asuncion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  12. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Aguijan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  13. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Pagan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  14. Top Polarisation in H-t and Wt production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Hartgring, L.; Niessen, I.; White, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider laboratory frame observables (like the azimuthal angle between the top quark and its decay lepton or the polar angle between the top quark and leptonic directions) obtained from leptonic decay products of top quarks produced in association with a charged Higgs or W boson. These are robust against QCD corrections to top quark decay, and can be used to pin down the parameter space of a charged Higgs boson, or reduce backgrounds in H - t and (Standard Model) Wt production. Polarisation information can efficiently be used to distinguish single top quark production processes from their backgrounds, as well as to pin down the parameters of a charged Higgs boson model

  15. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  16. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  17. Optimization of Surrounding Reflector Material for Hyb-WT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Hong, Song Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The choice of reflector material is crucial for fusion and hybrid reactors as it was for the fission reactors. Multiple reflector materials were studied for pure fusion blanket design. The purpose of reflector in fusion blanket is to enhance the tritium breeding ratio (TBR). In fusion fission hybrid blanket the roll of reflector is slightly changed as it include the fission core and the performance of fission core also needs to be optimized and evaluated with the choice of reflector material, along with the enhancement of TBR. The performance parameters of Hyb-WT are significantly influenced by the choice of reflector material. TiC is best for TRU transmutation, TBR and reduced the neutron wall loading and graphite is best for FP transmutation. Strategy of multi reflector materials gives the best TRU and FP transmutation performance and also enhanced TBR with reduced neutron wall loading and it is a better choice for Hyb-WT reflector. The neutron flux is primarily dominated by the fission neutrons

  18. Phase Transformation Behavior of Medium Manganese Steels with 3 Wt Pct Aluminum and 3 Wt Pct Silicon During Intercritical Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binhan; Fazeli, Fateh; Scott, Colin; Yue, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Medium manganese steels alloyed with sufficient aluminum and silicon amounts contain high fractions of retained austenite adjustable to various transformation-induced plasticity/twinning-induced plasticity effects, in addition to a reduced density suitable for lightweight vehicle body-in-white assemblies. Two hot rolled medium manganese steels containing 3 wt pct aluminum and 3 wt pct silicon were subjected to different annealing treatments in the present study. The evolution of the microstructure in terms of austenite transformation upon reheating and the subsequent austenite decomposition during quenching was investigated. Manganese content of the steels prevailed the microstructural response. The microstructure of the leaner alloy with 7 wt pct Mn (7Mn) was substantially influenced by the annealing temperature, including the variation of phase constituents, the morphology and composition of intercritical austenite, the Ms temperature and the retained austenite fraction. In contrast, the richer variant 10 wt pct Mn steel (10Mn) exhibited a substantially stable ferrite-austenite duplex phase microstructure containing a fixed amount of retained austenite which was found to be independent of the variations of intercritical annealing temperature. Austenite formation from hot band ferrite-pearlite/bainite mixtures was very rapid during annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C), regardless of Mn contents. Austenite growth was believed to be controlled at early stages by carbon diffusion following pearlite/bainite dissolution. The redistribution of Mn in ferrite and particularly in austenite at later stages was too subtle to result in a measureable change in austenite fraction. Further, the hot band microstructure of both steels contained a large fraction of coarse-grained δ-ferrite, which remained almost unchanged during intercritical annealing. A recently developed thermodynamic database was evaluated using the experimental data. The new database achieved a better agreement

  19. Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of A356 Alloy with Ni Additions from 0.5 Wt to 2 Wt %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lattanzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the influence of Ni on high-temperature mechanical properties of casting Al alloys has been extensively examined in the literature. In the present study, room temperature mechanical properties of an A356 alloy with Ni additions from 0.5 to 2 wt % were investigated. The role of Ni-based compounds and eutectic Si particles in reinforcing the Al matrix was studied with image analysis and was then related to tensile properties and microhardness. In the as-cast condition, the formation of the 3D network is not sufficient to determine an increase of mechanical properties of the alloys since fracture propagates by cleavage through eutectic Si particles and Ni aluminides or by the debonding of brittle phases from the aluminum matrix. After T6 heat treatment the increasing amount of Ni aluminides, due to further addition of Ni to the alloy, together with their brittle behavior, leads to a decrease of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and Vickers microhardness. Despite the fact that Ni addition up to 2 wt % hinders spheroidization of eutectic Si particles during T6 heat treatment, it also promotes the formation of a higher number of brittle Ni-based compounds that easily promote fracture propagation.

  20. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Tree Canopy Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Tree Canopy Collection is a product of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and is produced through a cooperative project...

  1. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Developed Imperviousness Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Developed Imperviousness Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land...

  2. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. U-8 wt %Mo and 7 wt %Mo alloys powder obtained by an hydride-de hydride process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Silvia N.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S.; Gribaudo, Luis M. J.; Hermida, Jorge D.; Ovejero, Jose; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Vicente, Eduardo E.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum alloys are been tested as a component in high-density LEU dispersion fuels with very good performances. These alloys need to be transformed to powder due to the manufacturing requirements of the fuels. One method to convert ductile alloys into powder is the hydride-de hydride process, which takes advantage of the ability of the U-α phase to transform to UH 3 : a brittle and relatively low-density compound. U-Mo alloys around 7 and 8 wt % Mo were melted and heat treated at different temperature ranges in order to partially convert γ -phase to α -phase. Subsequent hydriding transforms this α -phase to UH 3 . The volume change associated to the hydride formation embrittled the material which ends up in a powdered alloy. Results of the optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction during different steps of the process are shown. (author)

  4. Thermomechanical fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.W.; Plumbridge, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints has been investigated under thermomechanical and thermal cycling. Based upon an analysis of displacements during thermomechancial cycling, a model solder joint has been designed to simulate actual joints in electronic packages. The strain-stress relationship, characterised by hysteresis loops, was determined during cycling from 30 to 125 deg. C, and the stress-range monitored throughout. The number of cycles to failure, as defined by the fall in stress range, was correlated to strain range and strain energy. The strain hardening exponent, k, varied with the definition of failure and, when a stress-range drop of 50% was used, it was 0.46. Cracks were produced during pure thermal cycling without external strains applied. These arose due to the local strains caused by thermal expansion mismatches between the solder and Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic layer, between the phases of solder, and due to the anisotropy of the materials. The fatigue life under thermomechanical cycling was significantly inferior to that obtained in isothermal mechanical cycling. A factor contributing to this inferiority is the internal damage produced during temperature cycling

  5. Optimization of Graphene Conductive Ink with 73 wt% Graphene Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Lu; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xin-Yi; Li, Jian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    With the pace of development accelerating in printed electronics, the fabrication and application of conductive ink have been brought into sharp focus in recent years. The discovery of graphene also unfolded a vigorous research campaign. In this paper, we prepared graphene conductive ink and explored the feasibility of applying the ink to flexible paper-based circuit. Since experimental study concentrating upon ink formulation was insufficient, orthogonal test design was used in the optimization of preparation formula of conductive ink for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of constituent dosage on conductivity of graphene conductive ink, so as to obtain the optimized formula and prepare graphene conductive ink with good conductivity. Characterization of optimized graphene conductive ink we fabricated showed good adhesion to substrate and good resistance to acid and water. The graphene concentration of the optimized ink reached 73.17 wt% solid content. Particle size distribution of graphene conductive ink was uniform, which was about 1940 nm. Static surface tension was 28.9 mN/m and equilibrium contact angle was 23°, demonstrating that conductive ink had good wettability. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was also investigated, moreover, the feasibility of lightening a light-emitting diode (LED) light was verified. The graphene conductive ink with optimized formula can be stored for almost eight months, which had potential applications in flexible paper-based circuit in the future.

  6. Effect of conventional and subzero treating on the mechanical properties of aged martensitic Fe-12 wt.% Ni-X wt.% Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedjad, S. Hossein; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Mahmudi, R.; Farhangi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn maraging alloys are suffering from sever embrittlement after aging. Mechanism of the embrittelement has not been well understood yet. Segregation of Mn atoms or formation of Austenite particles at prior Austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) have been reported as embrittelement mechanisms while it remains controversial now. For better understanding of embrittelement behavior, effect of subzero treating after aging, double aging and modification of alloy composition on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior were investigated. Alloys of chemical compositions Fe-11.9 wt.% Ni-6.3 wt.% Mn and Fe-10.5 wt.% Ni-5.8 wt.% Mo-3 wt.% Mn were studied. Double solution annealing was performed at 1223 and 1093 K for 3.6 ks followed by water quenching. After aging at 723 K for 0.9 ks (under aging) and 172.8 ks (over aging), tensile properties of specimens heat treated conventionally and cryogenically were measured. Double aging was done at 623 K for 3.6 ks followed by a step aging at 753, 783 and 803 K. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10.5 wt.% Ni-5.8 wt.% Mo-3 wt.% Mn were investigated after aging at 773 K. Results showed that alloy modification yields reasonable tensile properties while subzero treatment and double aging couldn't improve tensile properties. An insight toward more investigation of the embrittelement mechanism was made on the basis of this study

  7. Modeling percent tree canopy cover: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen G. Moisen; Barry T. Wilson; Mark V. Finco; Warren B. Cohen; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover is a fundamental component of the landscape, and the amount of cover influences fire behavior, air pollution mitigation, and carbon storage. As such, efforts to empirically model percent tree canopy cover across the United States are a critical area of research. The 2001 national-scale canopy cover modeling and mapping effort was completed in 2006,...

  8. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  9. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs ...

  10. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  11. School Designed To Use 80 Percent Less Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The new Terraset Elementary School in Reston, Virginia, uses earth as a cover for the roof area and for about 80 percent of the wall area. A heat recovery system will be used with solar collectors playing a primary role in heating and cooling. (Author/MLF)

  12. Direct dissolution of g-level U metal and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct and in situ extraction at ambient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Bijendra Kumar; Gelatar, J.K.; Pranay Kumar Sinha; Alok Kumar Mishra; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    A study on direct dissolution of g-level metallic U and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct followed by in situ extraction at ambient pressures under batch and dynamic conditions was performed. The product organic solution was adjusted to 30 % TBP in dodecane and from it, U(VI) could be stripped quantitatively with 0.01 N nitric acid. Experimental results of the study are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Hot deformation of U-9 wt% Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.; Thota, M.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Basak, C.B.; Jha, S.K.; Hussain, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uranium – 9 wt% molybdenum in the as-extruded condition was deformed in compression in vacuum at temperatures from 850 to 1000 °C and strain rates from 3 × 10"−"3 to 1 s"−"1. The strain rate sensitivity (m) was computed and plotted as iso-strain rate sensitivity contour plots. m was around 0.33 at 950–1000 °C at strain rate of 3 × 10"−"3 s"−"1. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that at 1000 °C–3 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 grains refined, fraction of high angle boundaries increased and the average local misorientation reduced, all indicative of the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. In comparison, at 950 and 900 °C both the fraction of low angle boundaries and local misorientation was higher. At 1000 °C–3 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 the [111] direction was aligned along the compression axis, whereas at lower temperature of 900 °C and 3 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 it was the orientations close to [001]. - Highlights: • U-9Mo was deformed from 850 to 1000 °C and 3 × 10"−"3 to 1 s"−"1. • Strain rate sensitivity of 0.33 was observed at 1000 °C–3 × 10"−"3 s"−"1. • At 1000 °C the dominant texture was along the compression axis.

  14. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  15. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  16. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  17. New formula for calculation of cobalt-60 percent depth dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi Birgani, M. J.; Ghorbani, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of percent depth dose calculation, the application of - dosimetry in radiotherapy has an important role to play in reducing the chance of tumor recurrence. The aim of this study is to introduce a new formula for calculating the central axis percent depth doses of Cobalt-60 beam. Materials and Methods: In the present study, based on the British Journal of Radiology table, nine new formulas are developed and evaluated for depths of 0.5 - 30 cm and fields of (4*4) - (45*45) cm 2 . To evaluate the agreement between the formulas and the table, the average of the absolute differences between the values was used and the formula with the least average was selected as the best fitted formula. The Microsoft Excel 2000 and the Data fit 8.0 soft wares were used to perform the calculations. Results: The results of this study indicated that one amongst the nine formulas gave a better agreement with the percent depth doses listed in the table of British Journal of Radiology . The new formula has two parts in terms of log (A/P). The first part as a linear function with the depth in the range of 0.5 to 5 cm and the other one as a second order polynomial with the depth in the range of 6 to 30 cm. The average of - the differences between the tabulated and the calculated data using the formula (Δ) is equal to 0.3 152. Discussion and Conclusion: Therefore, the calculated percent depth dose data based on this formula has a better agreement with the published data for Cobalt-60 source. This formula could be used to calculate the percent depth dose for the depths and the field sizes not listed in the British Journal of Radiology table

  18. Conditional RNA interference achieved by Oct-1 POU/rtTA fusion protein activator and a modified TRE-mouse U6 promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Zhaoliang; Chen Zheng; Wang Zhugang; Fei Jian

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique and is widely used to down-regulate expression of specific genes in cultured cells and in vivo. In this paper, we report our development of a new tetracycline-inducible RNAi expression using a modified TRE-mouse U6 promoter in which the distal sequence element (DSE) was replaced by the tetracycline-responsive element (TRE). The modified TRE-mouse U6 promoter can be activated by a Tet-on version tetracycline-regulated artificial activator rTetOct which was constructed by fusing the rtTA DNA binding domain with the Oct-1 POU activation domain. This rTetOct/TRE-U6 system was successfully applied to conditionally and reversibly down-regulate the expression of endogenous p53 gene in MCF7 cells, and the expression of β-defensin gene (mBin1b) either transiently expressed in COS7 cells or stably expressed in CHO cells

  19. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. BASP1 is a transcriptional cosuppressor for the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, Brian; Hill, Kathryn J; Charalambous, Marika

    2004-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 is a transcriptional regulator that plays a key role in the development of the kidneys. The transcriptional activation domain of WT1 is subject to regulation by a suppression region within the N terminus of WT1. Using a functional assay, we provide direct...... evidence that this requires a transcriptional cosuppressor, which we identify as brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1). WT1 and BASP1 associate within the nuclei of cells that naturally express both proteins. BASP1 can confer WT1 cosuppressor activity in transfection assays, and elimination of endogenous...

  1. Nanostructured Titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-Ag Composite Foams for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jurczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an investigation on the effectiveness of nanostructured titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composite foams as a novel class of antibacterial materials for medical applications. The Ti-based composite foams were prepared by the combination of mechanical alloying and a “space-holder” sintering process. In the first step, the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag powder synthesized by mechanical alloying and annealing mixed with 1.0 mm diameter of saccharose crystals was finally compacted in the form of pellets. In the next step, the saccharose crystals were dissolved in water, leaving open spaces surrounded by metallic-bioceramic scaffold. The sintering of the scaffold leads to foam formation. It was found that 1:1 Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag/sugar ratio leads to porosities of about 70% with pore diameter of about 0.3–1.1 mm. The microstructure, corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of the produced foams were investigated. The value of the compression strength for the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag foam with 70% porosity was 1.5 MPa and the Young’s modulus was 34 MPa. Silver modified Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass composites possess excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Porous Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% foam could be a possible candidate for medical implants applications.

  2. Corrosion Behaviour of Heat - Treated Al-6063/ SiCp Composites Immersed in 5 wt% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth ALANEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of SiC volume percent and temper conditions (namely, as-cast, solutionized, and artificial age hardening at 180°C and 195°C on the corrosion behaviour of Al (6063 composites and its monolithic alloy immersed in 5wt% NaCl solution has been investigated. Al (6063 - SiC particulate composites containing 6, 12 and 15 volume percent SiC were produced by premixing the SiC particles with borax additive and then adopting two step stir casting. Mass loss and corrosion rate measurements were utilized as criteria for evaluating the corrosion behaviour of the composites. The results show that the corrosion susceptibility of the Al (6063 - SiCp composites was higher than that of the monolithic alloy, and for most cases the corrosion rate of the composites increased with increase in volume percent of SiC. However, it was discovered that the nature of the passive films formed on the composites was sufficiently stable to reduce significantly the corrosion rate of the composites after 13days of immersion. This trend was observed to be consistent for all heat-treatment conditions utilized.

  3. Warm hydroforming of iridium + 0.3 wt % tungsten hemishells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyder, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for the production of iridium alloy hemispherical shells to be used for the primary encapsulation of plutonium-238 oxide spheres is described. The encapsulated spheres, 24 per heat source, provide the thermal heat used to drive thermoelectric converters which supply power for the Department of Defense's LES 8/9 satellites. The technique used a standard production type Hydroform machine converted for hot tooling. The iridium alloy discs were canned in stainless steel waster sheets of a larger size than the iridium discs and separated from the latter by tantalum foil barrier discs. The stainless steel was electron beam welded around the edge to form an envelope. The iridium disc assembly was heated to approximately 900 0 C and the tooling to approximately 500 0 C. After forming, the iridium shell was cut to length while in the waster sheet; and the latter was removed by dissolving in hot aqua regia. After removal of the waster sheets, the hemishells were cleaned and heat treated. Production efficiency reached a level of better than 95 percent and was maintained to produce some 600-odd hemishells

  4. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...

  5. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  6. Effect of aging on the general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of uranium--6 wt % niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, J.W.; Ammons, A.M.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1975-11-01

    Mechanical properties of the uranium-6 wt percent niobium alloy change with aging time and temperature. In general, the ultimate tensile strength and hardness reach a peak, while elongation becomes a minimum at aging temperatures between 400 and 500 0 C. The first optical evidence of a second phase was in the 400 0 C-aged alloy, while complete transformation to a two-phase structure was seen in the 600 0 C-aged alloy. The maximum-strength conditions correlate with the minimum stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. The maximum SCC resistance is found in the as-quenched and 150, 200, and 600 0 C-aged specimens. The as-quenched and 300 0 C-aged specimens had the greatest resistance to general corrosion in aqueous chloride solutions; the 600 0 C-aged specimen had the least resistance

  7. Microstructural morphologies of slag based glass-ceramics nucleated with 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oevecoglu, M.L.; Oezkal, B. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Enginering; Catakli, E. [Mimar Sinan Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Literature; Erkmen, Z.E. [Istnabul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials were developed from the blast-furnace slags by mixing 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2}. The samples were nucleated for 18 h at 780 C and crystallized for 20 min. at 905 C, respectively. SEM and SEM/EDS investigations revealed the presence of clover-shaped TiO{sub 2} particles in the glassy matrix of the sample nucleated with 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2} and polygonal-shaped Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets for both samples. XRD scans revealed the presence of akermanite (2CaO.MgO.2SiO{sub 2}) and gehlenite (2CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.SiO{sub 2}) peaks indicating the existence of the mellilite solid solution for the crystallized glass-ceramic samples. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in boreholes USW WT-10, UE-25 WT No. 12, and USW SD-7, 1995-96, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in three boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area between March 1995 and January 1996 to obtain estimates of borehole specific capacity and aquifer transmissivity. Analysis of aquifer testing in borehole USW SD-7 also resulted in an estimate of reservoir volume. Aquifer-test data were analyzed with the Cooper and Jacob straight-line method, two modified Theis nonequilibrium equation solutions, and a modified reservoir-limit solution. The highest estimates of transmissivity were in borehole USW WT-10, completed in the Topopah Spring Tuff. Mean transmissivity, based on the results of three drawdown tests, was 1,600 meters squared per day. Mean specific capacity in borehole USW WT-10 after 5 hours of pumping was 1,100 meters squared per day, and was estimated to be 740 meters squared per day after 24 hours of pumping. Aquifer testing in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 appeared to be significantly affected by well losses. A mean transmissivity of 7 meters squared per day was obtained on the basis of analysis of three drawdown tests in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12. Mean specific capacity in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12, after 24 hours of pumping, was 7 meters squared per day. Borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 seemed to be producing water from fractures that could provide only a limited amount of water to the borehole

  9. MEDICIS(ASTEC-V2) sensitivity calculations for investigation of the crust formation in VB-U5 and VB-U6 VULCANO tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.; Grudev, P.; Gencheva, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results from sensitivity calculations made with MEDICIS(ASTECv2) for investigation of the crust formation during the Molten Corium-Concrete Interaction(MCCI) in VB-U5 and VB-U6 VULCANO tests. All calculations are made with MEDICIS computer code. The main goal of these analyses is to assess how the assumptions for crust formation or not formation influence over the concrete ablation. Three calculations have been done for each one of the experiments with different crust thickness and lock of crust formation at the bottom, side and upper surface. (authors)

  10. Extrusion of the uranium-0.75 weight percent titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.J.; Lundberg, M.R.; Boland, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures are described for extruding the U--0.75 wt percent Ti alloy in the high alpha region (600 to 640 0 C) , and in the upper gamma region (900 to 1000 0 C). The casting of sound extrusion billets has importance in the production of sound extrusions, and procedures are given for casting sound billets up to 1,100 kilograms . Also important in producing sound extrusions is the use of glass lubricants. Reduction ratios of greater than 50 to 1 were achieved on reasonably sized billets. Extrusion constants of 48,000 pounds per square inch (psi) [296 megapascals (MPa)] for alpha phase (630 0 C) and 8,000 psi (56 MPa) for gamma phase (950 0 C) were achieved. Gamma-phase extrusion has preference over alpha-phase extrusion in that larger billets can be used and temperature control is not as critical. However alpha-phase extrusion offers better surface finish, less die wear, and fewer oxidation problems. Billets up to 14 inches in diameter have been successfully gamma-extruded and plans exist for extruding billets up to 20 inches (508 millimetres) in diameter. (U.S.)

  11. Correlation of Thermal and Microstructural Properties of an Al-0.60wt%Mg-0.25wt%Fe-0.05wt%Cu Alloy Unidirectionally Solidified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro LAMARÃO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the thermal, mechanical and microstructural properties of an Al-0.60 wt% Mg-0.25 wt% Fe- -0.05 wt% Cu alloy for application as an electrical conductor. The ingots were obtained by unidirectional horizontal casting, and were sectioned in specific positions to the production of test specimens destined to mechanical tests and microstructural characterization. As results, one can observe that it was possible to obtain experimental models of correlation between the average dimple diameters and thermal variables, demonstrating a trend on the formation of smaller fracture dimples where the cooling was more intense. As one can associate smaller dimples with greater ultimate tensile strength, it is important to understand this mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.5015

  12. Influence of the UV Radiation on Rhodamine WT Fluorescence in Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    , L. Kola; , P. Lazo

    2016-01-01

    The şuorescence ability of Rhodamine WT enables its using as artiŞcial tracer in the water system studies. The problem is dealt with in relation to applying Rhodamine WT (RhWT) to trace and determine water movements within the karstic system and underground waters. Rhodamine WT has been used as an artiŞcial tracer for the Şrst times in our country on Mali me Gropa system study (2002). UV radiation may induce photochemical decomposition of the dye which can cause large measurement errors on me...

  13. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  14. Structures of native and affinity-enhanced WT1 epitopes bound to HLA-A*0201: Implications for WT1-based cancer therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)

    2010-09-07

    Presentation of peptides by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is required for the initiation and propagation of a T cell-mediated immune response. Peptides from the Wilms Tumor 1 transcription factor (WT1), upregulated in many hematopoetic and solid tumors, can be recognized by T cells and numerous efforts are underway to engineer WT1-based cancer vaccines. Here we determined the structures of the class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201 bound to the native 126-134 epitope of the WT1 peptide and a recently described variant (R1Y) with improved MHC binding. The R1Y variant, a potential vaccine candidate, alters the positions of MHC charged side chains near the peptide N-terminus and significantly reduces the peptide/MHC electrostatic surface potential. These alterations indicate that the R1Y variant is an imperfect mimic of the native WT1 peptide, and suggest caution in its use as a therapeutic vaccine. Stability measurements revealed how the R1Y substitution enhances MHC binding affinity, and together with the structures suggest a strategy for engineering WT1 variants with improved MHC binding that retain the structural features of the native peptide/MHC complex.

  15. Effect of Ag additions on the β phase formation reaction in the Cu–9 wt.%Al–6 wt.%Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.T., E-mail: atadorno@iq.unesp.br [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, T.M. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva, R.A.G. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Santos, C.M.A.; Magdalena, A.G. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The results suggest a multi-step process involving reversible reactions. • Ag solubilizes preferably at the Cu matrix. • Ag additions decrease the activation energy for the process. - Abstract: The influence of 4 and 5 wt.%Ag additions on the kinetics of β [T{sub 7}-(CuMn){sub 3}Al] phase formation reaction in the Cu–9 wt.%Al–6 wt.%Mn alloy was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the conversion dependence of the activation energy has a descending shape, suggesting a multi-step process involving reversible reactions. The presence of Ag facilitates the formation of the β phase. The results also showed that the Ag precipitates formation includes the dissolution of Mn and Al atoms, thus decreasing the partial fraction of these elements available to react.

  16. Osr1 Interacts Synergistically with Wt1 to Regulate Kidney Organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Xu

    Full Text Available Renal hypoplasia is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and several adult-onset diseases. Recent studies have associated a variant of the OSR1 gene with reduction of newborn kidney size and function in heterozygotes and neonatal lethality with kidney defects in homozygotes. How OSR1 regulates kidney development and nephron endowment is not well understood, however. In this study, by using the recently developed CRISPR genome editing technology, we genetically labeled the endogenous Osr1 protein and show that Osr1 interacts with Wt1 in the developing kidney. Whereas mice heterozygous for either an Osr1 or Wt1 null allele have normal kidneys at birth, most mice heterozygous for both Osr1 and Wt1 exhibit defects in metanephric kidney development, including unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. The developmental defects in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos were detected as early as E10.5, during specification of the metanephric mesenchyme, with the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos exhibiting significantly reduced Pax2-positive and Six2-positive nephron progenitor cells. Moreover, expression of Gdnf, the major nephrogenic signal for inducing ureteric bud outgrowth, was significantly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme in Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- littermates. By E11.5, as the ureteric buds invade the metanephric mesenchyme and initiate branching morphogenesis, kidney morphogenesis was significantly impaired in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- embryos. These results indicate that Osr1 and Wt1 act synergistically to regulate nephron endowment by controlling metanephric mesenchyme specification during early nephrogenesis.

  17. Evidence that WT1 mutations in Denys-Drash syndrome patients may act in a dominant-negative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Little, M. H.; Williamson, K. A.; Mannens, M.; Kelsey, A.; Gosden, C.; Hastie, N. D.; van Heyningen, V.

    1993-01-01

    The triad of nephropathy, partial gonadal dysgenesis and Wilms' tumour (WT) is known as Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS). The WT predisposition gene WT1, which plays a vital role in both genital and renal development, is known to be mutated in DDS patients. The WT1 mutations in these patients are

  18. Energy Level Statistics of SO(5) Limit of Super-symmetry U(6/4) in Interacting Boson-Fermion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongbo; Zhang Jinfu; Zhou Xianrong

    2005-01-01

    We study the energy level statistics of the SO(5) limit of super-symmetry U(6/4) in odd-A nucleus using the interacting boson-fermion model. The nearest neighbor spacing distribution (NSD) and the spectral rigidity (Δ 3 ) are investigated, and the factors that affect the properties of level statistics are also discussed. The results show that the boson number N is a dominant factor. If N is small, both the interaction strengths of subgroups SO B (5) and SO BF (5) and the spin play important roles in the energy level statistics, however, along with the increase of N, the statistics distribution would tend to be in Poisson form.

  19. WT1 vaccination in acute myeloid leukemia: new methods of implementing adoptive immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Lindsay A M; Chao, Nelson J

    2014-03-01

    The Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene was originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene that, when mutated, would lead to the development of pediatric renal tumors. More recently, it has been determined that WT1 is overexpressed in 90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mutated in approximately 10% of AML patients. WT1 plays a role in normal hematopoiesis and, in AML specifically, it has oncogenic function and plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. The ubiquity of WT1 in leukemia has lead to the development of vaccines aimed at employing the host immune system to mount a T-cell response to a known antigen. In this evaluation, the authors discuss the role of WT1 in normal hematopoiesis as well as in the development of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, the authors discuss the data supporting the development of WT1 vaccines, and the clinical trials supporting their use in patients with acute leukemia. Several small trials have been conducted which support the safety and efficacy of this therapy, although larger trials are certainly warranted. In the authors' opinion, the WT1 vaccination has potential in terms of its application as an adjuvant therapy for patients with AML who are at high risk of relapse or who have detectable minimal residual disease after initial standard therapy.

  20. Comparison of electrochemical performance of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A comparative experimental study of the electrochemical features of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys is carried out with a view to applications in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components. The as-cast samples are obtained using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloy samples having similar coarse cell arrays are subjected to corrosion tests in order to assess the effect of Sn or Sb segregation in the cell boundary on the electrochemical performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis are used to evaluate the electrochemical parameters in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Both the experimental and simulated EIS parameters evidence different kinetics of corrosion. The Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy is found to have a current density which is of about three times lower than that of the Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloy which indicates that dilute Pb-Sn alloys have higher potential for application as positive grid material in maintenance-free Pb-acid batteries. (author)

  1. A survey of the mechanical properties of uranium alloys U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% and U-3Mo-3Nb wt.%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, G.

    1969-04-15

    In a continuing program on the development of soft and ductile uranium alloys for armament applications, two compositions were studied. These gamma extruded uranium alloys were U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% and U-3Mo-3Nb wt.%. This study was carried out to determine the influence of tempering heat treatments associated with extrusion on the ductility of these uranium alloys. The mechanical properties of both alloys were measured in the extruded condition, in the extruded and annealed condition and in the quenched and tempered condition. A maximum elongation of 13.7% in tension with a low amount of work hardening was obtained for the U-3Mo-3Nb wt.% alloy after 1 1/2 hours anneal at 1200 deg F (650 deg C) followed by a rapid cooling in water at 70 deg F (21 deg C). A maximum elongation of 17.3% with a large amount of work hardening was obtained for alloy U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% after vacuum annealing, normalizing, gamma phase solubilizing at 1500 deg F (815 deg C) and quenching in water at 700 deg F (210 deg C). The maximum ductility achieved in these two alloys by our approaches is low compared with the ductility of Armco Iron employed for the same applications in the field of ballistics.

  2. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium alloys containing 0.5 to 10 per cent wt molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laniesse, J.; Bouleau, M.

    1959-02-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at determining for different uranium molybdenum alloys and with respect to their molybdenum content a polishing method which allows a relatively simple grain examination in the as-cast condition, an as perfect as possible resolution of eutectic decompositions, and the appropriate conditions to highlight structures (beta-alpha and gamma-alpha martensite transformations, beta phase retention and decomposition, transient structures, eutectoid decomposition, and so on). Alloys differ by their molybdenum content: from 0.5 to 1 per cent wt, 1.5 to 3 per cent wt, 5 to 10 per cent wt

  3. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Effect of Pre-Aging Conditions on Bake-Hardening Response of Al-0.4 wt%Mg-1.2 wt%Si-0.1 wt%Mn Alloy Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-jin; Woo, Kee-do

    2011-01-01

    Pre-aging heat treatment after solution heat treatment (SHT) of Al-0.4 wt%Mg-1.2 wt%Si-0.1 wt%Mn alloy sheets for auto-bodies was carried out to investigate the effect of pre-aging and its conditions on the bake-hardening response. Mechanical properties were evaluated by a tensile and Vickers hardness test. Microstructural observation was also performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was revealed that pre-aging treatments play a great role in the bake-hardening response. In addition, it was found that the sphere-shaped nanosized clusters that can directly transit to the needle-shaped β” phase during the paint-bake process, not being dissolved into the matrix, are formed at 343 K. The result, reveals that the dominant factor of the bake-hardening response is the pre-aging temperature rather than the pre-aging time.

  5. Preparation and investigation of Al–4 wt % B4C nanocomposite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal behaviour including light weight, electrical and thermal conductivity (Boey et ... cle sizes, density, geometries, flow or the development of an electrical charge ... 2. Experimental. Argon gas atomized Al–2 wt % Cu powders with a mean size.

  6. SUSY WT identity in a lattice formulation of 2D N=(2,2) SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoh, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We address some issues relating to a supersymmetric (SUSY) Ward-Takahashi (WT) identity in Sugino's lattice formulation of two-dimensional (2D) N=(2,2)SU(k) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM). A perturbative argument shows that the SUSY WT identity in the continuum theory is reproduced in the continuum limit without any operator renormalization/mixing and tuning of lattice parameters. As application of the lattice SUSY WT identity, we show that a prescription for the Hamiltonian density in this lattice formulation, proposed by Kanamori, Sugino and Suzuki, is justified also from a perspective of an operator algebra among correctly-normalized supercurrents. We explicitly confirm the SUSY WT identity in the continuum limit to the first nontrivial order in a semi-perturbative expansion.

  7. Characterization and property evaluation of U–15 wt%Pu alloy for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaity, Santu; Banerjee, Joydipta; Ravi, K.; Keswani, R.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and high temperature behaviour of U–15 wt%Pu alloy has been investigated in this study for the first time. U–15 wt%Pu alloy sample for this study was prepared by following melting and casting route. Microstructural characterization of the alloy was carried out by XRD and optical microscopy. The thermophysical properties like phase transition temperatures, coefficient of thermal expansion and hot hardness of the above alloy were determined. Eutectic temperature between T91 and U–15 wt%Pu was established. Apart from that, the fuel–cladding chemical compatibility of U–15 wt%Pu alloy with T91 grade steel was studied by diffusion couple experiment

  8. Experimental determination of the H2O + 15 wt% NaCl and H2O + 25 wt% NaCl liquidi to 1.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, P.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    The binary H2O+NaCl is one of the most important model systems for chloridic fluids in many geologic environments such as the Earth’s crust, upper mantle, and subducting slabs, and is also applicable to extraterrestrial icy planetary bodies (e.g., Manning 2004, Zolensky et al., 1999). The knowledge on phase equilibria and PVTx properties of this system is still fragmentary at high pressures, e.g., very little has been reported on liquidi at compositions Daniel 2008). In this study, we investigated the liquidus of 15 and 25 wt% NaCl solutions at pressures up to 1.4 GPa. The experiments were performed using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (Bassett et al. 1993) modified for Raman spectroscopy and accurate temperature measurements. A quartz chip, halite, and water were loaded into the sample chamber, which also contained a small trapped air bubble (10 vol%) when it was sealed. The actual salinity was then determined from measurement of the vapor-saturated liquidus temperature. The sample chamber was then compressed until the bubble disappeared. After freezing, phase transitions occurring with increasing temperature were observed optically, and the pressure was determined from the frequency shift of the 464 cm-1 Raman line of quartz (Schmidt and Ziemann 2000). The sample chamber was then compressed further, and the experiment was repeated at various bulk densities until a pressure of ~1.4 GPa was attained. At some conditions, Raman spectra were acquired for identification of the phase assemblage. The solution always crystallized to a single phase upon cooling above ~0.15 GPa at 25 wt% NaCl and above ~1 GPa at 15 wt% NaCl. Raman spectra in the OH stretching region indicate that this phase contains or is a NaCl hydrate other than hydrohalite, probably in solid solution with ice. Melting of this phase produced liquid and hydrohalite and/or ice VI. Ice VI was the last solid that dissolved upon heating, between 1100 MPa, 3 °C and 1370 MPa, 17 °C for 15 wt% NaCl and at

  9. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.J.; Clarke, K.D.; McCabe, R.J.; Necker, C.T.; Papin, P.A.; Field, R.D.; Kelly, A.M.; Tucker, T.J.; Forsyth, R.T.; Dickerson, P.O.; Foley, J.C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R.M.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time–temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2–4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  10. Faults detection approach using PCA and SOM algorithm in PMSG-WT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine FADDA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for faults detection in observable data system wind turbine - permanent magnet synchronous generator (WT-PMSG, the studying objective, illustrate the combination (SOM-PCA to build Multi-local-PCA models faults detection in system (WT-PMSG, the performance of the method suggested to faults detection in system data, finding good results in simulation experiment.

  11. The transformation behaviour of the beta phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.; Winegar, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    A temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram has been developed for the β-phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes. The results show that the morphology and/or physical state of the β-phase in pressure tubes has a significant effect on the transformation behaviour compared with a bulk Zr-19 wt%Nb alloy. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  12. Fabrication and tensile properties of rapidly solidified Cu-10wt. %Ni alloy. [Cu-10Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, D; Angers, R; Baril, J [Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Cu-10wt.%Ni ribbons were produced by melt spinning and cut into small particles with a blade cutter mill. The powders were then hot consolidated to full density by hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. Tensile properties of the resulting pieces were measured. Cu-10wt.%Ni cast ingots were also hot extruded and mechanically tested to compare with the rapidly solidified alloy and to evaluate the possible benefits brought by the rapid solidification process.

  13. Study on the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behaviors of Fe-(20, 45) wt%Gd Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Kyeong; Baik, Youl; Choi, Yong [Dankook University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Byung Moon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fe-(20, 45 wt%) Gd intermetallics were vacuum arc melted as the mother alloy of a neutron shielding and absorbing material. The structure of the cast Fe-20 wt%Gd intermetallics had primary dendrites with a short width of about 2 μm, which became coarse with increasing Gd content. The final compositions of the Fe-20 wt%Gd and Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics determined by Rietveld refinement were mainly Fe{sub 3}Gd with 26.6 at%Fe{sub 2}Gd, and Fe{sub 3}Gd with various intermetallics like 13.9 at%Fe{sub 2}Gd, 7.3 at%Fe{sub 9}Gd and 3.9 at%Fe{sub 17}Gd{sub 2}, respectively. The micro-hardnesses, yield strength, ultimate compressive strength and elongation of the Fe-20 wt%Gd intermetallics were 629±12 Hv, 753 MPa, 785 MPa and 4%, respectively, and those of the Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics were 741±13 Hv, 772 MPa, 823 MPa and 3%. Passivity was not present in artificial sea water at room temperature. The corrosion potentials and the corrosion rates of the Fe-20 wt%Gd and Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics were –624 mV{sub SHE}, 2.771 mA/cm{sup 2} , and –804 mV{sub SHE}, 3.397 mA/cm{sup 2} , respectively. The corroded surface of the Fe-Gd intermetallics contained corrosion products like gadolinium with iron, which detached to leave a trail of pits.

  14. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A.J., E-mail: aclarke@lanl.gov; Clarke, K.D.; McCabe, R.J.; Necker, C.T.; Papin, P.A.; Field, R.D.; Kelly, A.M.; Tucker, T.J.; Forsyth, R.T.; Dickerson, P.O.; Foley, J.C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R.M.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    2015-10-15

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time–temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2–4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  15. Savannah River Site Tank Cleaning: Corrosion Rate For One Versus Eight Percent Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  16. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  17. Electrochemical corrosion of Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloys for lead-acid battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the electrochemical corrosion behavior of as-cast Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloy samples in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used to obtain the as-cast samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response. It was found that a coarse cellular array has a better electrochemical corrosion resistance than fine cells. The pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance associated with environmental and economical aspects. (author)

  18. Wear properties of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) near β titanium alloy containing 0.5 wt.% boron in dry condition, Hank's solution and bovine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Singh, S.B.; Chakraborty, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, hardness and sliding wear behaviour of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) containing 0.5 wt.% B (TZNB) has been studied and compared with that of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) (TZN) alloy. The wear properties were tested in dry condition and in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution and bovine serum) to understand the effect of different medium on wear behaviour of the TZNB alloy. Depending on the heat treatment condition the microstructure of the alloy consisted of α/martensite and TiB in β matrix. In general, the hardness of all the heat treated samples varied in a narrow range and in most of the cases addition of boron to the TZN alloy decreased the hardness. Almost all cases, no significant variation of the wear rate in dry condition with heat treatment was observed. Compared with the wear rate in dry condition, the wear rate in Hank's solution of the all the TZNB samples increased substantially. Moreover, the wear was found to be most severe in bovine serum. Addition of boron to TZN alloy did not result in any improvement in the wear resistance in all the media studied.

  19. White matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. Methods: We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. Results: We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  20. White Matter Fiber-based Analysis of T1w/T2w Ratio Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  1. Feasibility of Cancer Immunotherapy with WT1 Peptide Vaccination for Solid and Hematological Malignancies in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa; Inoue, Masami; Kondo, Osamu; Yamada-Nakata, Kayo; Ishihara, Takashi; Kuwae, Yuko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Ammori, Yasuhiro; Tsuboi, Akihiro; Oji, Yusuke; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Oka, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Haruo; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-02-01

    Advances in cancer immunotherapy in the pediatric field are needed in order to improve the prognosis of children with malignancies. We conducted a prospective phase I/II study of WT1 peptide vaccination for children with relapsed or refractory malignancies. The main eligibility criteria were affected tissues or leukemic cells expressing the WT1 gene, and patients (and donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) having HLA-A*24:02. Vaccination using the WT1 peptide (CYTWNQMNL), which was modified for higher affinity to this HLA-type molecule with the adjuvant Montanide ISA51, was performed weekly 12 times. Twenty-six patients were enrolled and 13 (50.0%) completed the vaccination 12 times. Evidence for the induction of WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses without severe systemic side effects was obtained. Two out of 12 patients with bulky disease exhibited a transient clinical effect (one mixed response and one stable disease), three out of six patients with minimal residual disease achieved transient molecular remission, and five out of eight patients without a detectable level of the molecular marker, but with a high risk of relapse, had the best outcome of long-term continuous complete remission. WT1 vaccination is a safe immunotherapy and induced WT1-specific CTL responses in children; however, as a single agent, vaccination only provided patients in remission, but with a high risk of relapse, with "long-term benefits" in the context of its use for relapse prevention. WT1 peptide-based treatments in combination with other modalities, such as anti-tumor drugs or immunomodulating agents, need to be planned. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. On the use of rhodamine WT for the characterization of stream hydrodynamics and transient storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorometry have led to increased use of rhodamine WT as a tracer in streams and rivers. In light of this increased use, a review of the dye's behavior in freshwater systems is presented. Studies in the groundwater literature indicate that rhodamine WT is transported nonconservatively, with sorption removing substantial amounts of tracer mass. Column studies document a two-step breakthrough curve in which two structural isomers are chromatographically separated. Although the potential for nonconservative transport is acknowledged in the surface water literature, many studies assume that sorptive losses will not affect the characterization of physical transport processes. A literature review and modeling analysis indicates that this assumption is valid for quantification of physical properties that are based on the bulk of the tracer mass (traveltime), and invalid for the characterization of processes represented by the tracer tail (transient storage attributable to hyporheic exchange). Rhodamine WT should be considered nonconservative in the hyporheic zone due to nonconservative behavior demonstrated for similar conditions in groundwater. As such, rhodamine WT should not be used as a quantitative tracer in hyporheic zone investigations, including the study of long flow paths and the development of models describing hyporheic zone processes. Rhodamine WT may be used to qualitatively characterize storage in large systems, where there are few practical alternatives. Qualitative investigations should rely on early portions of the tracer profile, making use of the temporal resolution afforded by in situ fluorometry, while discarding later parts of the tracer profile that are adversely affected by sorption.

  3. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Guoqing, E-mail: gz854@uowmail.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhao, Jingwei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Yuqian [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yan, Yi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Zhengyi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  4. Mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Al-3wt%Mg from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rong [Chongqing Jiaotong Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Tang, Bin [Chongqing City Management College, Chongqing (China). Inst. of Finance and Trade; Gao, Tao [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Al-3wt%Mg have been investigated using the first-principles method. The calculated structural parameter is in good agreement with previous works. Results for the elastic modulus, stress-strain relationships, ideal tensile and shear strengths are presented. Al-3wt%Mg is found to have larger moduli and higher strengths than Al, which is consistent with its exploitation in Al precipitate-hardening mechanisms. The partial density of states (PDOS) show that the partly covalent-like bonding through Al p-Mg s hybridization is the origin of excellent mechanical properties of Al-3wt%Mg. The phonon dispersion curves indicate that Al-3wt%Mg is dynamically stable at ambient pressure and 0 K. Furthermore, the Helmholtz free energy ΔF, the entropy S, the constant-volume specific heat C{sub V} and the phonon contribution to the internal energy ΔE are predicted using the phonon density of states. We expect that our work can provide useful guidance to help with the performance of Al-3wt%Mg.

  5. Conceptual design study of Hyb-WT as fusion–fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design study of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation. • MCNPX and MONTEBURNS are compared for transmutation performance of WT-Hyb. • Detailed neutronic performance of final optimized Hyb-WT design is analyzed. • A new tube-in-duct core design is implemented and compared with pin type design. • Study shows many aspects of hybrid reactor even though scope was limited to neutronic analysis. - Abstract: This study proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). The design of Hyb-WT is based on a low-power tokamak (less than 150 MWt) and an annular ring-shaped reactor core with metal fuel (TRU 60 w/o, Zr 40 w/o) and a fission product (FP) zone. The computational code systems MONTEBURNS and MCNPX2.6 are investigated for their suitability in evaluating the performance of Hyb-WT. The overall design performance of the proposed reactor is determined by considering pin-type and tube-in-duct core designs. The objective of such consideration is to explore the possibilities for enhanced transmutation with reduced wall loading from fusion neutrons and reduced transuranic (TRU) inventory. TRU and FP depletion is analyzed by calculating waste transmutation ratio, mass burned per full power year (in units of kg/fpy), and support ratio. The radio toxicity analysis of TRUs and FPs is performed by calculating the percentage of toxicity reduction in TRU and FP over a burn cycle

  6. Microstructural and thermophysical properties of U–6 wt.%Zr alloy for fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaity, Santu; Banerjee, Joydipta; Nair, M.R.; Ravi, K.; Dash, Smruti; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Singh, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of U–6%Zr alloy prepared by injection casting route. ► Martensitic to non-martensitic transformation of U–6%Zr alloy occurs at 843 K. ► Specific heat versus temperature curve shows a phase transition at 845 K. ► Average coefficient of thermal expansion is 18.28 × 10 −6 K −1 (298–823 K). ► Hardness versus temperature plot shows a transition at 748 K. - Abstract: The microstructural and high temperature behavior of U–6 wt.%Zr alloy has been investigated in this study. U–6 wt.%Zr alloy sample for this study was prepared by following injection casting route. The thermophysical properties like coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal conductivity of the above alloy were determined. The hot-hardness data of the U–6 wt.%Zr alloy was also generated from room temperature to 973 K. Apart from that, the fuel-clad chemical compatibility with T91 grade steel was also studied by diffusion couple experiment. No studies have been reported on U–6 wt.%Zr alloy. This paper aims at filling up the gap on characterization and thermophysical property evaluation of U–6 wt.%Zr alloy.

  7. Mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Al-3wt%Mg from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rong; Tang, Bin; Gao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Al-3wt%Mg have been investigated using the first-principles method. The calculated structural parameter is in good agreement with previous works. Results for the elastic modulus, stress-strain relationships, ideal tensile and shear strengths are presented. Al-3wt%Mg is found to have larger moduli and higher strengths than Al, which is consistent with its exploitation in Al precipitate-hardening mechanisms. The partial density of states (PDOS) show that the partly covalent-like bonding through Al p-Mg s hybridization is the origin of excellent mechanical properties of Al-3wt%Mg. The phonon dispersion curves indicate that Al-3wt%Mg is dynamically stable at ambient pressure and 0 K. Furthermore, the Helmholtz free energy ΔF, the entropy S, the constant-volume specific heat C_V and the phonon contribution to the internal energy ΔE are predicted using the phonon density of states. We expect that our work can provide useful guidance to help with the performance of Al-3wt%Mg.

  8. Thermal expansion of ThO2-2 wt% UO2 by HT-XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, A.K.; Mathews, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion of polycrystalline ThO 2 -2 wt% UO 2 has been investigated from room temperature to 1473 K in flowing helium atmosphere using high temperature X-ray diffractometry. ThO 2 -2 wt% UO 2 shows a marginally higher linear thermal expansion as compared to pure ThO 2 . The average linear and volume thermal expansion coefficients of ThO 2 -2 wt% UO 2 are found to be α-bar a =9.74x10 -6 K -1 and α-bar v =29.52x10 -6 K -1 (298-1473 K). This study will be useful in designing the nuclear reactor fuel assembly based on ThO 2

  9. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgrall, J.; Barthelemy, P.; Boucher, R.

    1963-01-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL 3 reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [fr

  10. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  11. Hardness and microstructural characteristics of rapidly solidified Al-8-16 wt.%Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, O.; Karaaslan, T.; Gogebakan, M.; Keskin, M.

    2004-01-01

    Al-Si alloys with nominal composition of Al-8 wt.%Si, Al-12 wt.%Si, and Al-16 wt.%Si were rapidly solidified by using melt-spinning technique to examine the influence of the cooling rate/conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the rapidly solidified ribbons and ingot samples were investigated by the optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results showed that the structures of all melt-spun ribbons were completely composed of finely dispersed α-Al and eutectic Si phase, and primary silicon was not observed. The XRD analysis indicated that the solubility of Si in the α-Al matrix was greatly increased with rapid solidification. Additionally, mechanical properties of both conventionally cast (ingot) and melt-spun ribbons were examined by using Vickers indenter for one applied load (0.098 N). The hardness values of the melt-spun ribbons were about three times higher than those of ingot counterparts. The high hardness of the rapidly solidified state can be attributed to the supersaturated solid solutions. Besides, hardness values with different applied loads were measured for melt-spun ribbons. The results indicated that Vickers hardness values (H v ) of the ribbons depended on the applied load. Applying the concept of Hays-Kendall, the load independent hardness values were calculated as 694.0, 982.8 and 1186.8 MN/m 2 for Al-8 wt.%Si, Al-12 wt.%Si and Al-16 wt.%Si, respectively

  12. Studies of Wilms’ Tumor (WT1 Gene Expression in Adult Acute Leukemias in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Kang Lim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers provide certain values for diagnosis, monitor treatment effi cacy, or for the development of novel therapeutic approach for particular diseases. Thus, the identifi cation of specifi c of biomarkers for specifi c medical problems, including malignant diseases may be valuable in medical practice. In the study, we have used the Wilms’ tumor gene (WT1 as a biomarker to evaluate its expression in local adult patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia, including both acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias (AML and ALL.Aim: To investigate WT1 gene expression in adult patients with acute leukemia at diagnosis.Methods: Eighteen patients with acute leukemia diagnosed at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between September, 2004 and July, 2005 were included in this study. There were fifteen AML and three ALL cases aged from 18 to 71 years old. Total RNA and DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Expression of WT1 was detected by nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Nested RT-PCR. K562, and 3T3 cells were used as positive- and negative-controls. The results were revalidated using real-time PCR. HLA-A genotyping was performed using sequence specific oligonucleotide polymorphism (SSOP analysis.Results: WT1 gene was exclusively expressed in all eighteen, including three ALL and fi fteen AML, patients. In contrast with WT1 gene, the HLA-A genotyping was remarkably heterogeneous in these patients.Conclusions: WT1 gene expression was observed in local patients with acute leukemia at diagnosis. It may be used as a potential molecular marker for diagnosis, clinical progression of the diseases or monitoring the response to treatment, as well as a target for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  13. Microstructure and adhesion strength of Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-xBi (x = 0 wt% and 2 wt%)/Cu after electrochemical polarization in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.-L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-R.; Chang, K.-M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-Y.; Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shihchuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-08-11

    The microstructure and adhesion strength of the Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-xBi (x = 0 wt% and 2 wt%)/Cu interface after electrochemical polarization have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pull-off testing. The equilibrium potentials of Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag/Cu and Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-2Bi/Cu are -1.31 V{sub sce} and -1.22 V{sub sce}, respectively, indicating that Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-2Bi/Cu has a better corrosion resistance than that of Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag/Cu. The intermetallic compounds of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} and Ag{sub 3}Sn are formed at the soldered interface between the Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-xBi solder alloy and the Cu substrate. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} is close to the Cu substrate and the scallop-shaped Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} is found at the interface in the solder matrix after soldering at 250 deg. C for 10 s. The corrosion products are ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2} and ZnO. On the other hand, pits are also formed on the surface of both solder alloys. The interfacial adhesion strength of the Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag/Cu and Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-2Bi/Cu decreases from 8.27 {+-} 0.56 MPa and 12.67 {+-} 0.45 MPa to 4.78 {+-} 0.45 MPa and 8.14 {+-} 0.38 MPa, respectively, after electrochemical polarization in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The fracture path of the Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag-2Bi/Cu is along the solder alloy/ZnO and solder/Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} interfaces.

  14. Characterization and assessment of voltage and power constraints of DFIG WT connected to a weak network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Iov, Florin

    2014-01-01

    This article thoroughly investigates the challenges and constraints raised by the integration of a Doubly-fed Induction generator wind turbine, DFIG WT, into an ac network of extensively varying parameters and very weak conditions. The objective is to mitigate the voltage variations at the point...... of common coupling, PCC, and maximize the wind power penetration into weak networks. As a basis of investigation, a simplified system model is utilized and the respective PCC voltage, active and reactive power stability issues are identified. Besides, a steady-state study for DFIG WT connected to a weak...

  15. Review of Z phase precipitation in 9–12 wt-%Cr steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2016-01-01

    For high temperature applications, 9–12 wt-%Cr steels in fossil fired power plants rely upon precipitate strengthening from (V,Nb)N MX nitrides for long term creep strength. During prolonged exposure at service temperature, another nitride precipitates: Cr(V,Nb)NZ phase. The Z phases lowly replace......MX, eventually causing a breakdown in creep strength. The present paper reviews the Z phase and its behaviour in 9–12 wt-%Cr steels including thermodynamic modelling, crystal structure, nucleation process and precipitation rate as a function of chemical composition. The influence of Z phase precipitation upon...

  16. Al/ B4C Composites with 5 and 10 wt% Reinforcement Content Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Azali Muhammad; Nadira Kamarudin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus; Roslinda Shamsudin; Nasrat Hannah Shudin; Nurazila Mat Zali

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, physical and mechanical properties of Al/ B 4 C composites with 5 and 10 wt.% reinforcement content were investigated. In order to obtain the feedstock with a low powder loading, B 4 C mixtures containing fine powders were investigated to obtain the optimal particle packing. The experimental results indicated that the fine containing 5 and 10 wt.% particles are able to prepare the feedstock with a good flowability. The composites fabricated by powder metallurgy have low densities and homogeneous microstructures. Additionally there is no interface reaction observed between the reinforcement and matrix by XRD analysis. The hardness of Al/ B 4 C composites prepared by powder metallurgy was high. (Author)

  17. Does Asset Allocation Policy Explain 40, 90, 100 Percent of Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Roger G. Ibbotson; Paul D. Kaplan

    2001-01-01

    Does asset allocation policy explain 40 percent, 90 percent, or 100 percent of performance? According to some well-known studies, more than 90 percent of the variability of a typical plan sponsor's performance over time is attributable to asset allocation. However, few people want to explain variability over time. Instead, an analyst might want to know how important it is in explaining the differences in return from one fund to another, or what percentage of the level of a typical fund's retu...

  18. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  19. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss. (a) General. The percent of guarantee will not exceed 90 percent based on the credit risk to the lender and the Agency both before and after the transaction. The Agency will determine the percentage of... PLP lenders will not be less than 80 percent. (d) Maximum loss. The maximum amount the Agency will pay...

  20. Effect of Heat Treatments on Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Cu-3 wt%Ag-0.5 wt%Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, ChuanJie; Zhang, Ying; Yi, Cen; Zhang, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The microstructures and tensile properties of Cu-3 wt%Ag-0.5 wt%Zr alloy sheets under different aging treatments are investigated in this research. As one kind of precipitate, Ag nanoparticles with coherent orientation relationship with matrix precipitate. However, after the peak-age point, most of Ag nanoparticles grow into short rod shape with the interface translating to semi-coherent, which leads to the lower strength of over-aging sample. The yield strength is estimated by considering solid solute, grain boundary and precipitation strengthening mechanisms. The result shows that the Ag precipitates provide the main strengthening role. Then a constitutive equation representing the evolution of dislocation density with plastic strain is built by considering work-hardening behavior coming from shearable and non-shearable precipitates which is mainly the particles containing Zr. The flow stress contributed by shearable particle hardening is higher than that of non-shearable one. Due to the coarsening of grain boundary precipitates and low rate of damage accumulation of these non-shearable particles, the micro-cracks nucleate easily at grain boundary which leads to intergranular fracture.

  1. Secondary dendrite arm spacing and solute redistribution effects on the corrosion resistance of Al-10 wt% Sn and Al-20 wt% Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Spinelli, Jose E.; Cheung, Noe; Garcia, Amauri

    2006-01-01

    In general, aluminum alloys provide the most significant part of all shaped casting manufactured. An optimum range of properties can be obtained as a function of different cooling rate processes, such as sand, plaster, investment, permanent molds and die castings. It is well known that the dendritic network affects not only the mechanical properties but also the corrosion resistance. However, the literature is scarce on reports concerning the influences of dendrite arm spacing on corrosion resistance and mechanical behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of as-cast microstructure features, i.e., dendrite arm spacing and solute redistribution on the corrosion resistance of samples of aluminum alloys. In order to investigate the electrochemical behavior of solute and solvent of different aluminum systems, samples with the same order of magnitude of dendritic spacings were analyzed to permit comparison between Al-10 wt% Sn and Al-20 wt% Zn alloys. A casting water-cooled assembly promoting upward directional solidification was used in order to obtain controlled casting samples of these alloys. In order to characterize the dendritic structure, longitudinal sections from the directionally solidified specimens were analyzed by using optical and electronic microscopy techniques. The corrosion resistance was analyzed by both the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and Tafel extrapolation method conducted in a 3% NaCl solution at room temperature. Although both systems present an Al-rich dendritic matrix, different responses to corrosive action as a function of dendritic spacing have been detected

  2. Secondary dendrite arm spacing and solute redistribution effects on the corrosion resistance of Al-10 wt% Sn and Al-20 wt% Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spinelli, Jose E. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cheung, Noe [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: amaurig@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-03-25

    In general, aluminum alloys provide the most significant part of all shaped casting manufactured. An optimum range of properties can be obtained as a function of different cooling rate processes, such as sand, plaster, investment, permanent molds and die castings. It is well known that the dendritic network affects not only the mechanical properties but also the corrosion resistance. However, the literature is scarce on reports concerning the influences of dendrite arm spacing on corrosion resistance and mechanical behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of as-cast microstructure features, i.e., dendrite arm spacing and solute redistribution on the corrosion resistance of samples of aluminum alloys. In order to investigate the electrochemical behavior of solute and solvent of different aluminum systems, samples with the same order of magnitude of dendritic spacings were analyzed to permit comparison between Al-10 wt% Sn and Al-20 wt% Zn alloys. A casting water-cooled assembly promoting upward directional solidification was used in order to obtain controlled casting samples of these alloys. In order to characterize the dendritic structure, longitudinal sections from the directionally solidified specimens were analyzed by using optical and electronic microscopy techniques. The corrosion resistance was analyzed by both the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and Tafel extrapolation method conducted in a 3% NaCl solution at room temperature. Although both systems present an Al-rich dendritic matrix, different responses to corrosive action as a function of dendritic spacing have been detected.

  3. Effect of strain on evolution of dynamic recrystallization in Nb-1 wt%Zr-0.1 wt%C alloy at 1500 and 1600 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, A.N. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Kapoor, R., E-mail: rkapoor@barc.gov.in [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Paul, B. [Materials Processing & Corrosion Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on Nb-1 wt%Zr-0.1 wt%C alloy at temperature of 1500 and 1600 °C and strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1} to study the evolution of dynamic recrystallization with strain. Electron back scatter diffraction was used to quantify the microstructural evolution. Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy showed a necklace structure at a strain of 0.9 when deformed at 1500 °C and at strain of 0.6 when deformed at 1600 °C, both at strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}. This suggested the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. At 1500 °C and strain of 0.9 the local average misorientation and the grain orientation spread was low confirming the presence of dynamic recrystallization at this deformation condition. At both 1500 and 1600 °C and all measured strains the recrystallized grains had a strong fiber component of <001>. - Highlights: • Necklace formation of dynamically recrystallized grains occurred at strain of 0.6 and 0.9 for 1500 and 1600 °C, respectively. • Equiaxed microstructures were seen with increase in strain for both 1500 and 1600 °C. • At large strains the predominant recrystallized texture evolved to <001> pole.

  4. Effect of La addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–6 wt% Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yuzhou, E-mail: duyuzhou@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Mingyi, E-mail: zhenghe@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qiao, Xiaoguang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Peng, Wenqiang [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Jiang, Bailing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The Mg–6 wt% Zn alloys microalloyed with different amounts of La were cast and extruded. The second phase in the as-cast Mg–Zn alloy is Mg{sub 4}Zn{sub 7}, which was replaced by Mg–Zn–La intermetallics with orthorhombic structure after La addition. Microalloying with La refined the grain size of dynamic recrystallization slightly, which was due to La solute atom in α-Mg alloy. Addition of La weakened the texture and gave rise to the formation of non-basal texture component, attributing to the existence of La in the form of solute atoms in matrix. The ductility was enhanced significantly by adding La to Mg–6 wt% Zn alloy, while the strength was reduced. Such phenomenon was related to the weakening texture of the La containing alloys. The Mg–6Zn–0.2La (wt%) alloy exhibited a superior ductility with the elongation-to-fracture up to 35%. However, with further increasing of La content to 1 wt%, the strength of the as-extruded Mg–Zn–La alloys was not improved but the ductility was reduced, suggesting that small addition of La is preferred for the improvement of mechanical properties.

  5. Effect of Thai saraphi flower extracts on WT1 and BCR/ABL protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the cytotoxic effects of crude ethanolic and fractional extracts including hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions from M. siamensis flowers were investigated in order to determine their effect on WT1 expression in Molt4 and K562 cells and Bcr/Abl expression in K562 cells. Materials and Methods: The ...

  6. Effect of Cu addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–30 wt% Zn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rehim, A.F.; Sakr, M.S.; El-Sayed, M.M.; Abd El-Hafez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper describes a novel work on the effect of Cu addition on the Al–30 wt% Zn alloy. • The 1 wt% Cu alloy revealed the best hardness of the alloys. • The results indicated two deformation temperature regions (below and above 548 K). - Abstract: The effect of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt% Cu addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–30 wt% Zn alloy has been investigated by stress–strain tests carried out in the temperature range from 508 to 608 K. The work-hardening parameters of the test alloys decreased with increasing the deformation temperature and exhibited discontinuity at 548 K, resulting two deformation temperature regions, the low-temperature region (below 548 K) and high-temperature region (above 548 K). The activation energy of fracture mechanisms has been calculated and found to be 19.6 and 33.2 kJ/mol at the low and high temperature regions respectively. The operating mechanisms of work-hardening of the test alloys were confirmed by the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns

  7. Reaction layer between U-7WT%Mo and Al alloys in chemical diffusion couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandou, M.; Granovsky, M.; Ortiz, M.; Balart, S.; Arico, S.; Gribaudo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Several failures in U-Mo dispersion fuel plates like pillowing and large porosities have been reported during irradiation experiments. These failures have been assigned to the formation of a large (U-Mo)/Al interaction product under high operating conditions. The modification of the matrix by alloying Al to change the interaction layer and improve its irradiation behavior, has been proposed. This paper reports diffusion experiments performed between U-7wt%Mo and various Al alloys containing Mg and / or Si. By the use of Optical Microscopy, SEM and X-Ray diffraction, it was found that with a concentration of 5.2wt% or 7.1 wt%Si the interaction layer is constituted mainly by (U,Mo)(Si,Al) 3 and no (U,Mo)Al 4 is detected. As part of the studies of properties of the U-Mo alloys the time for isothermal transformation start at different temperatures of the γ phase is being evaluated for the present U-7wt%Mo alloy. These results are used to plan the future diffusion program that will include diffusion under irradiation at CNEA RA3 reactor. (author)

  8. Anomalous precipitation hardening in Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, L. J. C.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Geers, M. G. D.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the precipitation hardening of Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films. It is shown that in contrast to bulk, the well-known approach of precipitation hardening in confined systems like thin layers and thin films does not operate in the conventional way. This work analyses and discusses

  9. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R. [Mechanical Dynamics, Inc., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  10. Diagnostic utility of Wilms′ tumour-1 protein (WT-1 immunostaining in paediatric renal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: WT1 helps to differentiate Wilms′ tumour from other paediatric renal tumours. It may help in differentiating the two subgroups of Wilms′ tumour which have distinct molecular pathogenesis and biological behaviour, however, further prospective studies are required for validation of this hypothesis.

  11. Hot drawn Fe–6.5 wt.%Si wires with good ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Li, H.; Yang, K.; Liang, Y.F.; Yang, J.; Ye, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire with diameter of 1.6 mm can be successfully obtained by hot drawing process. • The ductility of Fe–6.5wt%Si alloy can be improved significantly when it is fabricated in the form of wire. • The Dc magnetic property of Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire 1.6 mm in diameter is excellent, which is close to that of 0.3 mm thick cold-rolling sheet. - Abstract: Fe–6.5 wt.%Si high silicon steel wires with a diameter of 1.6 mm are fabricated successfully by hot drawing. The high silicon steel wires show much better ductility than sheets. The tensile strength and elongation of the wires at the room temperature can reach 1.31 GPa and 1.4%, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling sheet at the room temperature are 0.8 GPa and 0, respectively. The microstructure analyses show that the elongated grains after drawing and reduced ordering phases by deformation in the wires might contribute to its good ductility. Bs value of 1.437 T and Hc value of 16.96 A/m are obtained for the wire after proper heat treatment for the wires

  12. Methodological approach to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines (WT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Vadim; Udina, Natalya; Samarskaya, Natalya

    2017-10-01

    Use of wind energy is related to one of the prospective directions among renewed energy sources. A methodological approach is reviewed in the article to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines on the designing stage taking into account characteristics of natural-territorial complex and peculiarities of anthropogenic load in the territory of WT location.

  13. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified; Caracterizacao da liga Ni-45wt%Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  14. Phase transformation kinetics in rolled U-10 wt. % Mo foil: Effect of post-rolling heat treatment and prior γ-UMo grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Overman, Nicole; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of sub-eutectoid heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior in rolled U-10 wt.percent Mo (U10Mo) foils was systematically investigated. The as-cast 5 mm thick foils were initially homogenized at 900 degrees C for 48 hours and were hot rolled to 2 mm and later cold rolled down to 0.2 mm. Three starting microstructures were evaluated: (i) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm (as-rolled condition), (ii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 hour, and (iii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 1000 deg. C for 60 hours. U10Mo rolled foils went through various degrees of decomposition when subjected to the sub-eutectoid heat-treatment step and formed a lamellar microstructure through a cellular reaction mostly along the previous γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  15. irradiation growth in annealed Zr2.5wt%Nb at 3530K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogerson, A.; Murgatroyd, R.A.

    1978-10-01

    Zr 2.5wt%Nb growth specimens have been irradiated at 353 0 K to a fast neutron dose of approximately 4.0 x 10 25 n/m 2 . Specimens were taken from the longitudinal and transverse directions of a nominally annealed, seam-welded tube and irradiated in both the stress relieved and fully annealed conditions. Growth in these specimens is characterised by large positive and negative strains in the longitudinal and transverse directions respectively, with dimensional changes in weld material exhibiting intermediate growth behaviour. The results are compared with growth data on both annealed and cold worked Zircaloy-2 at 353 0 K and discussed in terms of the effect of texture, grain size, and cold work on irradiation growth. It is concluded that the continuation of growth to high doses in annealed Zr-2.5wt%Nb at 353 0 K results from interstitial induced dislocation climb with vacancies diffusing to grain boundaries. (author)

  16. Work hardening characteristics in Al base alloys with 12.6 and 45 wt.% Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, F.; Mostafa, M.M.; Wahab, L.A.; Mostafa, M.T.; Abd El-Aziz, Sh.M.

    2008-01-01

    The stress-strain curves were obtained for Al-Zn alloys of 12.6 wt.% Zn (alloy I) and 45 wt.% Zn (alloy II) with elements of purity (99.99). The monotonic shift of these curves towards lower flow stress and higher ductility was interrupted at the transformation temperatures 483 K (alloy I) and both 543, 603 K (alloy II). By increasing deformation temperature, Young's modulus, Y, yield and fracture stresses, σ y and σ f , respectively, fracture time, t f , the coefficient of parabolic work hardening, χ, decreased while fracture strain, ε f , and dislocation slip distance, L, increased. From the obtained X-rays diffraction patterns the lattice strain, ε, crystallite size, η, and dislocation density, ρ, were obtained at different deformation temperatures around transformation

  17. Metallurgical characterization of melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Ren, Zhiyong; Tang, Qingfu; Chen, Dong; Liu, Tingyi; Su, Bin; Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Chao

    2018-06-01

    The microstructures and micro-mechanical properties of the melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. Observed variations in microstructures and properties are related to the changes in ribbon thicknesses and cooling rates. The microstructures of the melt-spun ribbon consist of fine-scale columnar grains (∼1 μm) adjacent to the chill surface and coarse cellular grains in the remainder of the ribbon. In addition, the formation of inclusions in the ribbon is suppressed kinetically due to the high cooling rate during melt spinning. Compared with the water-quenched specimen prepared by traditional gravity casting and solution heat treatment, the elastic modulus values of the U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were examined to vary with grain size and exhibited diverse energy dissipation capacities.

  18. Critical experiments on minimal-content gadolinia for above-5wt% enrichment fuels in Toshiba NCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Shouichi; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Kumanomido, Hironori; Sugahara, Satoshi; Hiraiwa, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    A concept of 'minimal-content gadolinia' with a content of less than several hundred ppm mixed in the 'above-5wt% enrichment UO 2 fuel' for super high burnup is proposed for ensuring the criticality safety in the UO 2 fuel fabrication facility for light water reactors (LWRs) without increase in investment cost. Required gadolinia contents calculated were from 53 to 305 ppm for enrichments of UO 2 powders for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from 6 to 10 wt%. It is expected that the minimal-content gadolinia yields an acceptable reactivity suppression at the beginning of operating cycle and no reactivity penalty at the end of operating cycle due to no residual gadolinium. A series of critical experiments were carried out in the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA). Reactivity effects of the gadolinia were measured to clarify the nuclear characteristics, and the measured values and the calculated values agreed within 5%. (author)

  19. Achados clínicos e genéticos de cinco pacientes com anomalias relacionadas ao gene WT1

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Juliana Gabriel R. de; Guaragna, Mara Sanches; Soardi, Fernanda Caroline; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Mello, Maricilda Palandi de; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To present phenotypic variability of WT1-related disorders. METHODS: Description of clinical and genetic features of five 46,XY patients with WT1 anomalies. RESULTS: Patient 1: newborn with genital ambiguity; he developed Wilms tumor (WT) and chronic renal disease and died at the age of 10 months; the heterozygous 1186G>A mutation compatible with Denys-Drash syndrome was detected in this child. Patients 2 and 3: adolescents with chronic renal disease, primary amenorrhea and hypergonadotr...

  20. Effect of compound field on horizontal continuous casting of Al-1wt.%Si alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-tao Zhang; Hong-yun Yue; Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A travelling magnetic field, a power ultrasonic field, and a compound field were used separately during the horizontal continuous casting process of Al-1wt.%Si alloy. The samples obtained were characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, a tensile testing machine, and an electron probe microscopic analyzer to test the microstructures, properties, and element distribution of the samples. The results show that the application of a single field can enhance the mecha...

  1. Sawtooth control by on-axis electron cyclotron current drive on the WT-3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, M.; Tanabe, K.; Nakayama, A.; Watanabe, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Terumichi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on control of sawtooth oscillations (STO) by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) have been performed on the WT-3 tokamak. Stabilization and excitation of STO are observed for counter-ECCD and co-ECCD, respectively, when the position of the power deposition is located inside the inversion radius. These results are due to the modification of the current profile near the magnetic axis. (author)

  2. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Kauai, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  3. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Niihau, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  4. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Raita Bank, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  5. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Kure Atoll, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  6. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Stingray Shoals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  7. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Ofu & Olosega

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  8. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Laysan Island, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  9. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Eleven-Mile Bank

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  10. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Palmyra Atoll, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  11. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Lisianski Island, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  12. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Ta'u

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  13. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Gardner Pinnacles, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  14. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  15. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Molokai, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  16. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Guam, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  17. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Baker Island, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  18. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at French Frigate Shoals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  19. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Maro Reef, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  20. A Project Assessment of Stabilizing System of WT Generation using Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Takano, Tomihiro; Tanikawa, Ryoichi; Takagi, Tetsuro; Hirooka, Koutaro; Kumagai, Sadatoshi

    The expansion of the renewable energy introduction is examined as measures for controlling global warming. Wind power generation is expected as effective power resource, but the negative impact from the difficulty of an unstable output is concerned. In recent years, WT generation with contract of cut-of with shorting adjusting power and with rechargeable battery for stabilizing control are examined, but the introduction has not been accelerated yet because there is an influence in WT generation entrepreneur's business. In this paper, we make a brief summary of relation between the fluctuation of wind power generation and stability of electric power operation, and two types of approach; cut-off contract and stabilization using rechargeable battery. For the stabilization using battery, there are two methods, one is reduction control and the other is constant control. We propose a new control method for constant control based on profit optimization considering WT generation forecast and its risk of deviation. We also propose the estimation method for the .limitation of battery installation. Simulation results show the efficiency of our proposed methods.

  1. Low temperature bainite in steel with 0.26 wt% C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.soliman@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Mostafa, Hanaa [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); El-Sabbagh, Ahmed S. [Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Palkowski, Heinz [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Low temperature bainite is produced in 0.26 wt% C steel. {yields} Alloy and process design enable decreasing the carbon content of the alloy. {yields} Generations of bainite are formed at temperatures lower than M{sub S} of the bulk alloy. {yields} Bainite plate thicknesses record values between 90 nm and 164 nm. {yields} Y.S. up to 1570 MPa and U.S. up to 2200 MPa are recorded in compression. - Abstract: Low temperature bainite has been produced in steel with 0.26 wt% C. In this steel the bainite transformation was suppressed, firstly, by adding substitutional solute of about 2 wt% Ni and, secondly, by modifying the conventional single-step bainite transformation. This modification made use of the suppression of martensite start of the undecomposed austenite due to carbon partitioning between that austenite and the formed bainitic ferrite. Consequently, it has been experimentally proved that generations of bainite were formed at temperatures lower than the martensite start of the bulk alloy. Dilatometric measurements were used to design and monitor the bainitic transformation process. The structure was characterized using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. In order to investigate the effect of the microstructure parameters on the material's mechanical properties, compression tests have been conducted at room temperature. The results were compared to those obtained by bainitic transformation in single-step process.

  2. Low temperature bainite in steel with 0.26 wt% C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Mohamed; Mostafa, Hanaa; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed S.; Palkowski, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low temperature bainite is produced in 0.26 wt% C steel. → Alloy and process design enable decreasing the carbon content of the alloy. → Generations of bainite are formed at temperatures lower than M S of the bulk alloy. → Bainite plate thicknesses record values between 90 nm and 164 nm. → Y.S. up to 1570 MPa and U.S. up to 2200 MPa are recorded in compression. - Abstract: Low temperature bainite has been produced in steel with 0.26 wt% C. In this steel the bainite transformation was suppressed, firstly, by adding substitutional solute of about 2 wt% Ni and, secondly, by modifying the conventional single-step bainite transformation. This modification made use of the suppression of martensite start of the undecomposed austenite due to carbon partitioning between that austenite and the formed bainitic ferrite. Consequently, it has been experimentally proved that generations of bainite were formed at temperatures lower than the martensite start of the bulk alloy. Dilatometric measurements were used to design and monitor the bainitic transformation process. The structure was characterized using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. In order to investigate the effect of the microstructure parameters on the material's mechanical properties, compression tests have been conducted at room temperature. The results were compared to those obtained by bainitic transformation in single-step process.

  3. Coextrusion of 60 to 80 wt % U3O8 nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aluminum-clad billets with up to 80 wt % U 3 O 8 in U 3 O 8 -Al cores have been coextruded at SRP. However, above 70 wt % U 3 O 8 , yields are low because of core-cracking. Proper selection of materials and extrusion parameters will give process conditions for successful fabrication. Studies were begun of the effects of these parameters on the flow of metal during coextrusion. In coextruded tubes, cracks are formed in large uranium oxide particles. Cracking is caused by the high tensile deformation of these particles that occurs as the cermet material flows through the die. Lower extrusion ratios and larger die angles appear to reduce severe particle cracking and increase fabrication yields. The particle size distribution of the ceramic fuel phase also influences fabricability. Six P/M assemblies with up to 57 wt % U 3 O 8 in U 3 O 8 -Al cores were successfully irradiated to 1.6 x 10 21 fissions per cm 3 of core. No swelling or blistering of the tubes occurred

  4. Investigation of nanostructured Al-10 wt.% Zr material prepared by ball milling for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosviryakov, A.S.; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Tabachkova, N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Ground chips of as-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) with 5 vol.% of nanodiamond addition in a high energy planetary ball-mill. The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the material both after MA and after subsequent annealing. Optical and transmission electron microscopes were used for morphological and microstructural analysis. The effect of milling time on powder microhardness, Al lattice parameter, lattice microstrain and crystallite size was determined. It was shown that mechanical alloying of as-cast Al-10wt.%Zr alloy during 20 h leads to a complete dissolution of the primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals in aluminum. At the same time, the powder microhardness increases to 370 HV. Metastable cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitate from the Al solution due to its decomposition after annealing, however, the Al solid solution remains supersaturated and nanocrystalline. Compression tests at room temperature and at 300 °C showed that the strength values of the hot-pressed samples reach 822 MPa and 344 MPa, respectively. - Highlights: •As-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed with 5 vol.% nanodiamond. •The primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals were completely dissolved in Al after 20 h. •Cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitated from Al solution after aging. •The aged bulk material showed a high strength at room and elevated temperatures.

  5. Mechanical properties of hot-pressed Al-4.5 wt. % Cu/WC composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Bernoosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elemental powders of aluminum and copper were initially subjected to mechanical alloying using an attrition ball mill under argon atmosphere to produce an Al-4.5 wt% Cu powder alloy. The WC nanoparticles were then added to the powder alloy and milled in a planetary ball mill to explore the role of the WC nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of the fabricated composite powder. The experimental results revealed that a solid solution of Al-Cu could be formed after MA and a good dispersion of the WC nanoparticles in the aluminum matrix was obtained as characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results of hardness and compression tests of the hot pressed composites indicated that the MA followed by the hot-press processes was successful to fabricate an alloy and a metal matrix composite with considerable mechanical properties. However, a decreasing trend in the hardness and strength of the composites with the WC contents of more than 5wt% was observed. The maximum values of 260 HV and 575 MPa were obtained for a composite containing 5 wt% of nano ceramic particles.

  6. 46 CFR 42.20-7 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 60 percent reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 60 percent reduction... DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-7 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 60 percent... applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or less in length...

  7. Basal area or stocking percent: which works best in controlling density in natural shortleaf pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1986-01-01

    Results from a shortleaf pine thinning study in Missouri show that continually thinning a stand to the same basal area will eventually create an understocked stand and reduce yields. Using stocking percent to control thinning intensity allows basal area to increase as stands get older. The best yield should occur when shortleaf pine is repeatedly thinned to 60 percent...

  8. 12 CFR 741.4 - Insurance premium and one percent deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance premium and one percent deposit. 741... Insurance premium and one percent deposit. (a) Scope. This section implements the requirements of Section... payment of an insurance premium. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Available assets ratio...

  9. A theory of piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric properties of the KH2PO4 family crystals under the strain u6. Phase transition and the piezoelectric effect in the KH2PO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levits'kij, R.R.; Lyisnij, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics of the KH 2 PO 4 family, we consider an extended proton tunneling model that takes into account the shear strain u 6 . In the four-particle cluster approximation for the short-range interactions and the mean field approximation for the long-range interaction we calculate the transverse components of the dielectric susceptibility tensor of the KH 2 PO 4 family ferroelectrics

  10. Frequency of WT1 and 11p15 constitutional aberrations and phenotypic correlation in childhood Wilms tumour patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, H.; Kersseboom, R.; Alders, M.; Pieters, R.; Wagner, A.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 9-17% of Wilms tumour patients a predisposing syndrome is present, in particular WT1-associated syndromes and overgrowth syndromes. Constitutional WT1 mutations or epigenetic changes on chromosome 11p15 have also been described in Wilms tumour patients without phenotypic

  11. Preparation, heat treatment, and mechanical properties of the uranium-5 weight percent chromium eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.B.

    1980-10-01

    The eutectic alloy of uranium-5 wt % chromium (U-5Cr) was prepared from high-purity materials and cast into 1-in.-thick ingots. This material was given several simple heat treatments, the mechanical properties of these heat-treated samples were determined; and the microstructure was examined. Some data on the melting point and transformation temperatures were obtained

  12. The study of microplasticity mechanism in Ti-50 wt.%Nb alloy with high hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.S.; Kollerov, M.U.; Schinaeva, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    The upper yield point (∼ 700 MPa) appears at the compression test curves (ε=0.024 sec -1 ) of b.c.c. Nb-50 wt.%Ti due to the increase of hydrogen content from 0 to 0.2 wt.% and more and leads to the non monotonous increase in compressive lower yield stress from 400 to 550 MPa. Taking into account close connection between macro- and microplasticity of metallic materials the low frequency (∼ 2 Hz) amplitude dependent internal friction (ADIF) spectrum (γ = 1. 60.10 -5 ) in hydrogenized Nb-50 wt.% Ti and Nb samples are studied. The ADIF investigation of the closed hysteresis loop ''loading-unloading'' shows the dependence of its width from the hydrogen content which evidences the fact of dislocation unpinning from hydrogen atmospheres in the 1/2 cycle of loading. The study of ADIF spectrum for samples with different hydrogen content before and after torsion deformation (γ ∼ 2%) shows the sharp increase of IF level at γ = 1. 10.10 -5 after ∼1 hour of natural ageing. At that time the ADIF curves change its shape from Γ-shape to U-shape. The amplitude range of the IF increase depends on the hydrogen content. It is the interaction of hydrogen atoms with dislocations that caused the above mentioned effect which has not been observed in hydrogen free samples. The time estimation for the formation of thermodynamically stable hydrogen atmospheres on dislocations shows that hydrogen atmospheres could not follow the dislocation during compressive tests and that leads to the upper yield point appearance. (orig.)

  13. Structure and phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.W., E-mail: David.Wheeler@awe.co.uk; Ennaceur, S.M.; Matthews, M.B.; Roussel, P.; Bayer, P.D.

    2016-08-01

    In plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloys that have a Ga content of 0.3–0.4 wt%, their readiness to transform to α′ renders them of particular interest in efforts to understand the tenuous nature of δ phase stability. The present study is a comprehensive examination of the structure and phase stability of a cast Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy, the Ga content being close to the minimum amount needed to retain the δ phase to ambient temperature. The alloy was characterised in both the as-cast condition as well as following a homogenising heat treatment. The 250-h heat treatment at 450 °C was shown to achieve an apparently stable δ-Pu phase. However, the stability of the δ-Pu phase was shown to be marginal: partial transformation to α′-Pu was observed when the alloy was subjected to hydrostatic compression. Similar transformation was also apparent during metallographic preparation as well as during hardness indentation. The results provide new understanding of the nature of δ phase stability. - Highlights: • New insights into the delta phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy. • Density and DSC of as-cast alloy both show α-Pu contents of approximately 30%. • The heat-treated alloy has a largely δ-Pu structure at ambient temperature. • Heat-treated alloy susceptible to δ → α transformation during hardness indentation.

  14. Densification, phase stability and in vitro biocompatibility property of hydroxyapatite-10 wt% silver composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Shekhar; Kalmodia, Sushma; Basu, Bikramjit

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a simple fabrication route, i.e., pressureless sintering of mechanically mixed powders can be employed to develop hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2))-silver (Ag) bioceramic composites with superior combination of physical (hardness, toughness), non-cytotoxicity, cytocompatiblity and anti-microbial property. The densification results show that such composites can be sintered at 1200 degrees C for 2 h near to theoretical density (>98% rho(th).) An important observation is that the dissociation of HAp phase can be prevented during sintering up to 1300 degrees C for 2 h in HAp-10 wt% Ag composites. The stability of HAp in presence of silver is discussed in reference to the results obtained using XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The hardness values of the composites are comparable (approximately 6.5 GPa) to that of pure HAp, despite of the presence of softer Ag particles. The sintered composites exhibit modest crack growth resistance property and their toughness varies in the range of 0.9-1.2 MPa m(0.5), depending on sintering temperature. For selected samples, the in vitro characterization was performed using mouse fibroblast (L929) and human osteosarcoma (MG63) cell lines. The combination of biochemical assays (MTT, ALP and osteocalcin) confirm that HAp-10 wt% Ag biocomposites have comparable or even better cellular viability, osteogenic differentiation and bone mineralization as well as osteoinduction property. Antibacterial experiments involving gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli confirm excellent bactericidal property of HAp-10 wt% Ag composites, sintered using mechanically mixed powders.

  15. Investigation of nanostructured Al-10 wt.% Zr material prepared by ball milling for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosviryakov, A.S., E-mail: pro.alex@mail.ru; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Tabachkova, N.Yu.

    2017-01-15

    Ground chips of as-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) with 5 vol.% of nanodiamond addition in a high energy planetary ball-mill. The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the material both after MA and after subsequent annealing. Optical and transmission electron microscopes were used for morphological and microstructural analysis. The effect of milling time on powder microhardness, Al lattice parameter, lattice microstrain and crystallite size was determined. It was shown that mechanical alloying of as-cast Al-10wt.%Zr alloy during 20 h leads to a complete dissolution of the primary tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr crystals in aluminum. At the same time, the powder microhardness increases to 370 HV. Metastable cubic Al{sub 3}Zr phase nanoparticles precipitate from the Al solution due to its decomposition after annealing, however, the Al solid solution remains supersaturated and nanocrystalline. Compression tests at room temperature and at 300 °C showed that the strength values of the hot-pressed samples reach 822 MPa and 344 MPa, respectively. - Highlights: •As-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed with 5 vol.% nanodiamond. •The primary tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr crystals were completely dissolved in Al after 20 h. •Cubic Al{sub 3}Zr phase nanoparticles precipitated from Al solution after aging. •The aged bulk material showed a high strength at room and elevated temperatures.

  16. Mechanical alloying of Cu-xCr (x = 3, 5 and 8 wt.%) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, C.; Ordonez, S.; Guzman, D.; Rojas, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the structural evolution of Cu-xCr (x = 3, 5 and 8 wt.%) alloys processed by mechanical alloying using X-ray diffraction profiles, scanning microscopy and microhardness analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis using the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods were used to determine structural properties, such as crystallite size, stacking fault probability and energy, dislocation density, lattice parameters and crystallite size distribution of metallic powder as a function of Cr amount and milling time. Lattice defects increase the Gibbs free energy and the Gibbs free energy curves shift upward, therefore the solubility limit change.

  17. Reaction layer in U-7WT%MO/Al diffusion couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandou, M.I.; Balart, S.N.; Ortiz, M.; Granovsky, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    New results of the reaction layer characterization between γ (U-7wt%Mo) alloy and Al, in chemical diffusion couples, are presented. The analysis was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopy with EDAX and X-ray diffraction techniques. Besides the main components (U, Mo)Al 3 and (U, Mo)Al 4 , already reported, two ternary compounds of high Al content have been identified in the reaction layer when it grew in retained or decomposed γ (U, Mo) phase, respectively. The drastic consequence on the interdiffusion behavior due to the thermal instability of the retained γ (U, Mo) phase is discussed. (author)

  18. Radiation-enhanced precipitation in a V-10 wt % Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.C.; Taylor, A.

    1976-01-01

    A V-10 wt % Ti alloy was irradiated with 2.7 MeV 51 V + at 650 0 C to doses of 2 to 60 dpa. No void swelling was observed at any dose. The irradiation resulted in an enhancement of a precipitation process similar to that observed in unirradiated materials. The precipitates in irradiated specimens were found to have the NaCl-type cubic crystal structure with a lattice parameter of TiO. The orientation relationship between the matrix and the precipitates was the same as that observed under thermal equilibrium conditions in unirradiated materials

  19. Microanalysis on the Hydrogen Ion Irradiated 50 wt pct TiC-C Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui JIANG; Yaoguang LIU; Ningkang HUANG

    2007-01-01

    The 50 wt pct TiC-C films were prepared on stainless steel substrates by using a technique of ion beam mixing.These films were irradiated by hydrogen ion beam with a dose of 1×1018 ions/cm2 and an energy of 5 keV.Microanalysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to analyze the films before and after hydrogen ion irradiation and to study the mechanism of hydrogen resistance.

  20. Long-term oxidation of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1976-09-01

    A long-term study of the oxidation of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloys in water, steam, air and fused nitrate/nitrite salt has been carried out as a function of material batch, degree of cold-work, and heat treatment. Examination after oxidation was by weight gain, optical microscopy, replica electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, oxide impedance measurements, mercury porosimetry and metallographic sectioning. The results are compared with other published work and some hypothetical oxidation mechanisms are proposed and discussed. (author)

  1. Analysis on Radioactive Waste Transmutation in Light Water cooled Hyb-WT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seonghee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility of realization is much higher in FFHR compared with pure fusion. A combination of plasma fusion source for neutrons with a subcritical reactor at the blanket side has much higher capability in transmutation of waste as well as reactor safety compared with fission reactor options. Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor (FFHR) uses various coolants depending on the purpose. It is important that coolant being used should be suitable to reactor purpose, because reactor performance and the design constraints may change depending on the coolant. There are basically two major groups of coolants for FFHR. One group of coolant does not contain Li. They are Na, Pb-Bi, H 2 O and D 2 O. The other group contains Li for tritium breeding. They are Li, LiPb, LiSN, FLIBE and FLiNaBe. Currently, the issue in FFHR is its implication for radioactive waste transmutation (FFHR for WT). Because radioactive wastes of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are transmuted using fusion neutron source. Therefore a suitable coolant should be used for effective waste transmutation. . In FFHR for WT, LiPb coolant is being used mainly because of tritium production in Li and high neutron economic through reaction in Pb. However different coolants use such as Na, Pb-Bi are used in fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS) having same purpose. In this study, radioactive waste transmutation performance of various coolants mentioned above will be compared and analyzed. Through this study, the coolants are judged primarily for their support to waste transmutation disregarding their limitation to reactor design and tritium breeding capability. First, performance of the light water coolant regarding radioactive waste transmutation was analyzed among various coolants mentioned above. In this paper, performance of radioactive waste transmutation can be known depending on different volume fractions (54.53, 60.27, 97.94vol.%) of the light water. Light water dose required fusion power lower than LiPb due to

  2. Ammonium nitrate with 15 wt % potassium nitrate-ethylenediamine dinitrate-nitroguanidine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W.; Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The phase diagram for the ternary system ammonium nitrate(AN) with 15 wt % potassium nitrate(AN:15KN)-ethylenediamine dinitrate(EDD)-nitroguanidine(NQ) has been determined from room temperature to the melting point. The ternary eutectic temperature, measured for a mixture containing 67.24, 25.30, and 7.46 mole % of AN:15KN, EDD, and NQ, respectively, was found to be 98.9/sup 0/C. The binary phase diagrams for the systems AN:15KN-EDD, AN:15KN-NQ, and EDD-NQ were also determined.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  4. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  5. Study on the sintered characteristics and properties of nanostructured WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co hard metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Tsung [Department of Auto-Mechanics, National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, four different vacuum sintering temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied to determine the optimal process parameters of nano WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co sintered hard metal alloys. Experimental results showed that the optimal sintering temperatures for nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co alloys were 1300 °C and 1350 °C for 1 h, respectively. The sintered nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co hard metal alloys showed a good contiguity of 0.44 and 0.42; hardness was enhanced to HRA 90.83 and 90.92; the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 2567.97 and 2860.08 MPa; and K{sub IC} was 16.23 and 12.33 MPa√m, respectively. Although the nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys possessed a slightly lower TRS value, they exhibited superior fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and hardness similar to that of the nano WC–Co material. Significantly, nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys could be sintered at a lower temperature and still retained their excellent mechanical properties. - Graphical abstract: The following figure shows the fracture morphology of the WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co specimens by means of high-magnification SEM after the K{sub IC} tests. Fig. a shows that numerous binder phases (Fe–Ni–Co) existed in the crack areas, which resisted the penetration and extension of the cracks. Due to the bridging effect of the binder phase, the stress concentration of the crack tip will be resolved through plastic deformation; thus, the cracks did not continue to extend. Once the deformation reaches a critical value, the crack propagation occurs. Meanwhile, the binder phase can link together the two crack faces through the bridging process. Although parts of the cracked areas also showed the bridging effect in the WC–Co specimens, as shown by the arrows (Fig. b), the crack propagation path was not obviously affected. This result corresponds to the tortuosity phenomenon. Consequently, the bridging process

  6. Thermal compatibility of U-2wt.%Mo and U-10wt.%Mo fuel prepared by centrifugal atomization for high density research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Ki Hwan; Lee Don Bae; Kim Chang Kyu; Kuk Il Hyun; Hofman, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Research on the intermetallic compounds of uranium was revived in 1978 with the decision by the international research reactor community to develop proliferation-resistant fuels. The reduction of 93% 235 U (HEU) to 20% 235 U (LEU) necessitates the use of higher U-loading fuels to accommodate the addition 238 U in the LEU fuels. While the vast majority of reactors can be satisfied with U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel, several high performance reactors require high loadings of up to 8-9 g U cm -3 . Consequently, in the renewed fuel development program of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, attention has shifted to high density uranium alloys. Early irradiation experiments with uranium alloys showed promise of acceptable irradiation behavior, if these alloys can be maintained in their cubic γ-U crystal structure. It has been reported that high density atomized U-Mo powders prepared by rapid cooling have metastable isotropic γ-U phase saturated with molybdenum, and good γ-U phase stability, especially in U-10wt.%Mo alloy fuel. If the alloy has good thermal compatibility with aluminium, and this metastable gamma phase can be maintained during irradiation, U-Mo alloy would be a prime candidate for dispersion fuel for research reactors. In this paper, U-2w.%Mo and U-10w.%Mo alloy powder which have high density (above 15 g-U/cm 3 ), are prepared by centrifugal atomization. The U-Mo alloy fuel meats are made into rods extruding the atomized powders. The characteristics related to the thermal compatibility of U-2w.%Mo and U-10w.%Mo alloy fuel meat at 400 o C for time up to 2000 hours are examined. (author)

  7. Completion of the first approach to critical for the seven percent critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, A. D.; Harms, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    The first approach-to-critical experiment in the Seven Percent Critical Experiment series was recently completed at Sandia. This experiment is part of the Seven Percent Critical Experiment which will provide new critical and reactor physics benchmarks for fuel enrichments greater than five weight percent. The inverse multiplication method was used to determine the state of the system during the course of the experiment. Using the inverse multiplication method, it was determined that the critical experiment went slightly supercritical with 1148 fuel elements in the fuel array. The experiment is described and the results of the experiment are presented. (authors)

  8. Effect of compound field on horizontal continuous casting of Al-1wt.%Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-tao Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A travelling magnetic field, a power ultrasonic field, and a compound field were used separately during the horizontal continuous casting process of Al-1wt.%Si alloy. The samples obtained were characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, a tensile testing machine, and an electron probe microscopic analyzer to test the microstructures, properties, and element distribution of the samples. The results show that the application of a single field can enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the segregation of Si element in Al-1wt.%Si alloy to some extent. The application of a compound field can obtain the best refinement and homogeneity of the Si element in the alloy, leading to the highest increase of tensile strength and elongation among the three applied fields. The mechanism of the action of external fields on the refinement of microstructures and homogeneity of the Si element is discussed and the compound field is considered to be an effective method to achieve high quality Al alloys.

  9. Tests of rhodamine WT dye for toxicity to oysters and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.

    1973-01-01

    Because of the toxicity to oyster larvae and eggs of rhodamine B dye in concentrations greater than 1 mg/l in earlier tests, there was a concern that rhodamine WT, a similar tracer dye, would have a detrimental effect on marine life being developed under the aquaculture program of the Lummi Indian Tribe near Bellingham, Wash. Tests showed that 48-hour exposures at 24° C of 11,000 oyster eggs per liter and 6,000 12-day-old larvae per liter, in sea water with concentrations of rhodamine WT ranging from 1 μg/l to 10 mg/l, resulted in development of the eggs to normal straight-hinge larvae and no abnormalities in the larvae development. Tests made on the smolt of both silver salmon and Donaldson trout, with the fish held for 17.5 hours in a tankfull of sea water with a dye concentration of 10 mg/l at 22°C showed no mortalities or respiratory problems. With the concentration increased to 375 mg/l, and the time extended an additional 3.2 hours, still no mortalities or abnormalities were noted. The fish remained healthy in dye-free water when last checked a month after the test.

  10. Characterization of the reaction layer in U-7wt%Mo/Al diffusion couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirandou, M.I.; Balart, S.N.; Ortiz, M.; Granovsky, M.S. E-mail: granovsk@cnea.gov.ar

    2003-11-15

    The reaction layer in chemical diffusion couples U-7wt%Mo/Al was investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. When the U-7wt%Mo alloy was previously homogenized and the {gamma}(U, Mo) phase was retained, the formation of (U, Mo)Al{sub 3} and (U, Mo)Al{sub 4} was observed at 580 deg. C. Also a very thin band was detected close to the Al side, the structure of the ternary compound Al{sub 20}UMo{sub 2} might be assigned to it. When the decomposition of the {gamma}(U, Mo) took place, a drastic change in the diffusion behavior was observed. In this case, XRD indicated the presence of phases with the structures of (U, Mo)Al{sub 3}, Al{sub 43}U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}, {gamma}(U, Mo) and {alpha}(U) in the reaction layer.

  11. Susceptibility of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy to delayed hydrogen cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Notched tensile specimens of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy have been stressed at 350 K and 520 K. At 350 K, above a possible threshold stress of 200 MPa, specimens exhibited delayed failure which was attributed to hydride cracking. Metallography showed that hydrides accumulated at notches and tips of growing cracks. The time to failure appeared to be independent of hydrogen content over the range 7 to 100 ppm hydrogen. Crack growth rates of about 10 -10 m/s deduced from fractography were in the same range as those necessary to fracture pressure tubes. The asymptotic stress intensity for delayed failure, Ksub(1H), appeared to be about 5 MPa√m. With this low value of Ksub(1H) small surface flaws may propagate in pressure tubes which contain large residual stresses. Stress relieving and modified rolling procedures will reduce the residual stresses to such an extent that only flaws 12% of the wall thickness or greater will grow. At 520 K no failures were observed at times a factor of three greater than times to failure at 350 K. Zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium appears to be safe from delayed hydrogen cracking at the reactor operating temperature. (author)

  12. Evidence of amorphous interdiffusion layer in heavy ion irradiated U–8wt%Mo/Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, H-Y.; Zweifel, T.; Palancher, H.; Bonnin, A.; Beck, L.; Weiser, P.; Döblinger, M.; Sabathier, C.; Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W.

    2013-01-01

    U–Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are worldwide considered as the most promising high density fuel for the conversion of high flux research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium to lower enrichment. However in-pile growth of an amorphous interdiffusion layer at the U–Mo/Al interfaces strongly limits the performances of this fuel. Several in-pile tests have been performed to optimize the composition. In this paper, a breakthrough in simulating the U–8wt%Mo/Al behavior under out-of-pile irradiation is reported. It is shown that an amorphous U–8wt%Mo/Al interdiffusion layer (IDL) is obtained by heavy ion irradiation ( 127 I) in a U–Mo/Al diffusion couple under controlled temperature conditions. The properties of this IDL coincide with the results obtained from in-pile tests. This methodological work clearly indicates that heavy ion irradiations could be routinely applied for optimizing composition of U–Mo/Al nuclear fuels. In other words these out-of-pile tests using ion beams could become a representative, efficient and economic step before in-pile irradiation

  13. Partial absence of pleuropericardial membranes in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Norden

    Full Text Available The pleuropericardial membranes are fibro-serous walls that separate the pericardial and pleural cavities and anchor the heart inside the mediastinum. Partial or complete absence of pleuropericardial membranes is a rare human disease, the etiology of which is poorly understood. As an attempt to better understand these defects, we wished to analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing the separation of pericardial and pleural cavities by pleuropericardial membranes in the mouse. We found by histological analyses that both in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice the pleural and pericardial cavities communicate due to a partial absence of the pleuropericardial membranes in the hilus region. We trace these defects to a persisting embryonic connection between these cavities, the pericardioperitoneal canals. Furthermore, we identify mesenchymal ridges in the sinus venosus region that tether the growing pleuropericardial membranes to the hilus of the lung, and thus, close the pericardioperitoneal canals. In Tbx18-deficient embryos these mesenchymal ridges are not established, whereas in Wt1-deficient embryos the final fusion process between these tissues and the body wall does not occur. We suggest that this fusion is an active rather than a passive process, and discuss the interrelation between closure of the pericardioperitoneal canals, lateral release of the pleuropericardial membranes from the lateral body wall, and sinus horn development.

  14. Evidence of amorphous interdiffusion layer in heavy ion irradiated U–8wt%Mo/Al interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H-Y. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Zweifel, T. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Palancher, H., E-mail: herve.palancher@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonnin, A. [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Beck, L. [Tandembeschleuniger des Maier-Leibnitz-Labors (MLL), Am Coulombwall 6, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Weiser, P. [Walther Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Butenandstr. 11, D-81377 München (Germany); Sabathier, C. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    U–Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are worldwide considered as the most promising high density fuel for the conversion of high flux research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium to lower enrichment. However in-pile growth of an amorphous interdiffusion layer at the U–Mo/Al interfaces strongly limits the performances of this fuel. Several in-pile tests have been performed to optimize the composition. In this paper, a breakthrough in simulating the U–8wt%Mo/Al behavior under out-of-pile irradiation is reported. It is shown that an amorphous U–8wt%Mo/Al interdiffusion layer (IDL) is obtained by heavy ion irradiation ({sup 127}I) in a U–Mo/Al diffusion couple under controlled temperature conditions. The properties of this IDL coincide with the results obtained from in-pile tests. This methodological work clearly indicates that heavy ion irradiations could be routinely applied for optimizing composition of U–Mo/Al nuclear fuels. In other words these out-of-pile tests using ion beams could become a representative, efficient and economic step before in-pile irradiation.

  15. Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Jia, Z; Ma, X L; Fan, Y R

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, P s , which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of P s to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed

  16. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  20. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  1. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Percent Urban Land Cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the percent urban land for each 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) in the conterminous United States. For the purposes of this...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  15. EnviroAtlas Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  16. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  17. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover and sand along camera tow tracks in west Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral and sand overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery northwest...

  18. Outcome of patients with stage III or inoperable WT treated on the second United Kingdom WT protocol (UKWT2); a United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, R G; Hutton, C; Middleton, H; Imeson, J; Pritchard, J; Kelsey, A; Marsden, H B; Vujanic, G M; Taylor, R E

    2004-04-01

    The aims of UKWT2 included consolidating the results for stage III patients obtained in UKWT1 and improving the outcome for patients with inoperable tumours by giving vincristine, actinomycin-D and doxorubicin in an intensive schedule (Intensive AVA). The second UK WT trial (UKWT2) ran between July 1986 and September 1991 accruing 448 patients. One hundred and six patients were diagnosed and treated for stage III disease. Six had clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) and seven had rhabdoid tumours of the kidney (RTK) and are analysed separately. One other patient was excluded from overall analysis. Ninety-two patients were followed for a median of 115 months. Seventy-five received standard chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy according to protocol. Seventeen had stage III disease at immediate nephrectomy, but radiotherapy was omitted by physician choice. Thirty-three patients had inoperable disease at diagnosis and received pre-nephrectomy chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) at 4 years for stage III favourable histology (FH) patients receiving abdominal RT was 83% (CI: 73-89). For children with stage III disease in whom RT was omitted the OS was 82% (CI: 59-97) and for inoperable disease 94% (CI: 78-98). The overall and event-free survival (EFS) of children with stage III CCSK was 100% and was achieved with the majority of patients not receiving radiotherapy (CI: 48-100). Three of seven children with RTK are alive EFS and OS 43% (CI: 10-73). For patients treated by abdominal radiotherapy the overall local control rate was 94.4% (CI: 86.4-98.5*%), 96.7% (CI: 88.5-99.6%) for flank RT and 83.3% (51.6-98.0%) for whole abdominal radiotherapy (WRT). The outcome for stage III FH disease was similar to that reported for UKWT1 and NWTS-3. The combination of abdominal RT together with 3-drug chemotherapy achieves a high abdominal tumour control rate. Flank RT is probably sufficient for localised tumour rupture. The high cure rates for children in this trial with

  19. WHK Student Internship Enrollment, Mentor Participation Up More than 50 Percent | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship Program (WHK SIP) has enrolled the largest class ever for the 2013–2014 academic year, with 66 students and 50 mentors. This enrollment reflects a 53 percent increase in students and a 56 percent increase in mentors, compared to 2012–2013 (43 students and 32 mentors), according to Julie Hartman, WHK SIP

  20. The influence of post-extrusion thermomechanical treatments on the tensile properties of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, R.G.; Shek, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    The production routes used for Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes are described. Tensile results (UTS) from laboratory tests which simulated modified production routes are presented and compared to UTS values of actual pressure tubes. Strengthening of stress relieved Zr-2.5 wt% Nb is discussed in terms of: a) sub-grain formation; b) transformation of the second phase; and c) reorientation of the second phase relative to the matrix. The strength of cold worked Zr-2.5 wt% Nb is not influenced by the prior cold worked grain size. (author)

  1. Experience with high percent step load decrease from full power in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    The control system of NPP Kriko, is designed to automatically control the reactor in the power range between 15 and 100 percent of rated power for the following designed transients; - 10 percent step change in load; 5 percent per minute loading and unloading; step full load decrease with the aid of automatically initiated and controlled steam dump. Because station operation below 15 percent of rated power is designed for a period of time during startup or standby conditions, automatic control below 15 percent is not provided. The steam dump accomplishes the following functional tasks: it permits the nuclear plants to accept a sudden 95 percent loss of load without incurring reactor trip; it removes stored energy and residual heat following a reactor trip and brings the plant to equilibrium no-load conditions without actuation of the steam generator safety valves; it permits control of the steam generator pressure at no-load conditions and permits a manually controlled cooldown of the plant. The first two functional tasks are controlled by Tavg. The third is controlled by steam pressure. Interlocks minimise any possibility of an inadvertent actuation of steam dump system. This paper discusses relationships between designed (described) characteristics of plant and the data which are obtained during startup and/or first ten years of operation. (author)

  2. United States home births increase 20 percent from 2004 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2011-09-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home increased from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The objective of this report was to examine the recent increase in home births and the factors associated with this increase from 2004 to 2008. United States birth certificate data on home births were analyzed by maternal demographic and medical characteristics. In 2008, there were 28,357 home births in the United States. From 2004 to 2008, the percentage of births occurring at home increased by 20 percent from 0.56 percent to 0.67 percent of United States births. This rise was largely driven by a 28 percent increase in the percentage of home births for non-Hispanic white women, for whom more than 1 percent of births occur at home. At the same time, the risk profile for home births has been lowered, with substantial drops in the percentage of home births of infants who are born preterm or at low birthweight, and declines in the percentage of home births that occur to teen and unmarried mothers. Twenty-seven states had statistically significant increases in the percentage of home births from 2004 to 2008; only four states had declines. The 20 percent increase in United States home births from 2004 to 2008 is a notable development that will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers. (BIRTH 38:3 September 2011). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Microstructural Evolution of Al-1Fe (Weight Percent) Alloy During Accumulative Continuous Extrusion Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-Guo; Tie, Di; Shang, Ying-Qiu; Jin, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Chao

    2018-04-01

    As a new microstructure refining method, accumulative continuous extrusion forming (ACEF) cannot only refine metal matrix but also refine the phases that exist in it. In order to detect the refinements of grain and second phase during the process, Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy was processed by ACEF, and the microstructural evolution was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the average grain size of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy decreased from 13 to 1.2 μm, and blocky Al3Fe phase with an average length of 300 nm was granulated to Al3Fe particle with an average diameter of 200 nm, after one pass of ACEF. Refinement of grain was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), and the granulation of Al3Fe phase included the spheroidization resulting from deformation heat and the fragmentation caused by the coupling effects of strain and thermal effect. The spheroidization worked in almost the entire deformation process, while the fragmentation required strain accumulation. However, fragmentation contributed more than spheroidization. Al3Fe particle stimulated the formation of substructure and retarded the migration of recrystallized grain boundary, but the effect of Al3Fe phase on refinement of grain could only be determined by the contrastive investigation of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy and pure Al.

  4. Self accommodation morphology of martensite variants in Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Madangopal, K.; Banerjee, S.; Ranganathan, S.

    1993-01-01

    The role of self accommodation of the different martensite variants in controlling the morphologies of the Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy martensite has been examined. Three distinct types of grouping of martensite variants have been found to be predominantly present. Crystallographic descriptions of these groups have been provided and the degrees of self accommodation for these have been estimated and compared with those corresponding to other possible variant groupings around the symmetry axes of the parent phase. The frequently observed 3-variant group, which shows an indentation mark morphology when viewed along β directions in the transmission electron microscope, has been seen to have the highest degree of self accommodation amongst the cases considered. Based on the observations made, a growth sequence leading to the formation of the final martensitic structure has been proposed

  5. Deformation effect on recrystallization of Al-3.94 wt%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abou-El Nasr, T.Z.A.; Higgy, E.S.M.; Taha, A.M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of cold-work and annealing temperature on the recrystallization of Al-3.94 wt%Cu was studied. As-received materials were annealed at both 400 0 C and 500 0 C before cold rolling. Cold-rolled specimens having 13%, 30%, 51% and 67% coldwork were isothermally annealed till 500 0 C, and then microscopically studied and hardness tested. Recrystallization process was found to be influenced by both deformation and annealing temperature. Grain-size increased with annealing temperature until 400 0 C, after which grain-size decreased. Cold-work decreased grain-size at all annealing temperatures. Hardness decreased with annealing temperature until 400 0 C, after which it increased sharply. Cold-work increased hardness, the increase was more pronounced at annealing temperatures below 400 0 C. (author)

  6. Mechanical properties of Al2O3-doped (2 wt.%) ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriki, Shina; Kawashima, Toshitaka

    2007-01-01

    We report a new method of evaluating the adhesion of Al 2 O 3 -doped (2 wt.%) ZnO (AZO) thin films. The AZO films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on plastic film (PET: polyethyleneterephthalate) at various sputtering pressures, power, and reactive gas-flow ratios. The adhesion test of the films was carried out using the nanoindentation system. The fracture point as determined by the load-displacement curve occurred at the time of separation between the thin film and the substrate. The integration value of load and displacement to the fracture point is defined as the degree of adhesion (S W ). The AZO films showed that adhesion increase as sputtering power increases and sputtering pressure decreases

  7. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de

    2010-01-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  8. Measurement of effective solvus temperature of hydrogen in Zr - 2. 5 wt % Nb using acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.E.; Ambler, J.F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of applied tensile stress on the solvus temperature of hydrogen in cold-worked Zr - 2.5 wt % Nb has been measured using acoustic emission. Hydrides are necessary for delayed hydrogen cracking and the lowest temperature at which hydride cracking cannot be detected by acoustic emission was taken as the solvus temperature. The results show that any effect of tensile stress on terminal solubility, Cs, is undetectable. Between about 2 and 100 ppM hydrogen, the results can be described by: C/sub s/ = 1.40 x 10/sup 5/ exp - (36100/RT) ppM. They also suggest that the equilibrium phase, delta-hydride, is responsible for delayed hydrogen cracking.

  9. Porosity Effect on Thermal Properties of Al-12 wt % Si/Graphite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Miguel Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of porosity on the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of composites obtained by infiltration of Al-12 wt % Si alloy into graphite particulate preforms has been determined. Highly irregular graphite particles were used to fabricate the preforms. The thermal conductivity of these composites gradually increases with the applied infiltration pressure given the inherent reduction in porosity. A simple application of the Hasselman-Johnson model in a two-step procedure (that accounts for the presence of both graphite particles and voids randomly dispersed in a metallic matrix offers a good estimation of the experimental results. As concerns the coefficient of thermal expansion, the results show a slight increase with saturation being approximately in the range 14.6–15.2 × 10−6 K−1 for a saturation varying from 86% up to 100%. Results lie within the standard Hashin-Strikman bounds.

  10. Porosity Effect on Thermal Properties of Al-12 wt % Si/Graphite Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José-Miguel; Rodríguez-Guerrero, Alejandro; Louis, Enrique; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Narciso, Javier

    2017-02-14

    The effect of porosity on the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of composites obtained by infiltration of Al-12 wt % Si alloy into graphite particulate preforms has been determined. Highly irregular graphite particles were used to fabricate the preforms. The thermal conductivity of these composites gradually increases with the applied infiltration pressure given the inherent reduction in porosity. A simple application of the Hasselman-Johnson model in a two-step procedure (that accounts for the presence of both graphite particles and voids randomly dispersed in a metallic matrix) offers a good estimation of the experimental results. As concerns the coefficient of thermal expansion, the results show a slight increase with saturation being approximately in the range 14.6-15.2 × 10 -6 K -1 for a saturation varying from 86% up to 100%. Results lie within the standard Hashin-Strikman bounds.

  11. Recovery of the mechanical properties on the Al-4wt%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemingui, M; Kassis, K; Khitouni, M; Masmoudi, J; Kolsi, A W

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of the mechanical properties on the Al-4%wtCu alloy was investigated by indentation after cold rolling. The microstructural evolution was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopies. The annealing at 200 deg. C of the quenched and rolled alloy gives higher mechanical qualities. At temperatures up to 200 deg. C, the alloy has no softening by recovery, but on the contrary a hardening behaviour was observed. This later is attributed to the presence of the intermediate θ'' and θ' phases. Nevertheless, the ageing in high temperature product the coalescence of iron particles and of Al 2 Cu precipitates. These phases are essentially localized in the grain boundaries, which caused the damage of the alloy.

  12. Solidification analysis of a centrifugal atomizer using the Al-32.7wt.% Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Matthew G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    A centrifugal atomizer (spinning disk variety) was designed and constructed for the production of spherical metal powders, 100-1,000 microns in diameter in an inert atmosphere. Initial atomization experiments revealed the need for a better understanding of how the liquid metal was atomized and how the liquid droplets solidified. To investigate particle atomization, Ag was atomized in air and the process recorded on high-speed film. To investigate particle solidification, Al-32.7 wt.% Cu was atomized under inert atmosphere and the subsequent particles were examined microscopically to determine solidification structure and rate. This dissertation details the experimental procedures used in producing the Al-Cu eutectic alloy particles, examination of the particle microstructures, and determination of the solidification characteristics (e.g., solidification rate) of various phases. Finally, correlations are proposed between the operation of the centrifugal atomizer and the observed solidification spacings.

  13. δ' precipitation in a binary Al-3.2 Wt % Li alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.; Mahalingam, K.; Liedl, G.L.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the early stages of Al 3 Li(δ') precipitation in a binary Al-3.2wt% Li alloy that was performed by X-ray scattering experiments. Efforts were made to understand the very early stages of precipitation. Particle size measurements were made on samples in the as quenched state and after isothermally aging for various times ranging from 5 minutes to 10 days at 433K, 453K and 473K. Short range order parameters and average atomic displacements were determined for early aging times. A simple simulation model based upon the particle size distribution is proposed to examine the implications of the experimental observations. This simulation fits the assumption that the particles are fully ordered and coherent with the matrix even in the very early stages of aging. Kinetics of the early stages were found to be consistent with data obtained for longer aging times and supports an early growth stage

  14. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Cu-0.8 wt.%Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened Cu-0.8 wt.%Y has been produced by a powder metallurgy route and subsequent consolidation by hot isostatic pressing at 1123 K and 172 MPa. A fully dense alloy has been obtained that exhibits a microstructure characterized by equiaxed grains with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 50 μm. Yttrium-rich particles with an average size of 0.92 μm have been observed inside the grains and decorating the grain boundaries. As expected, the tensile tests carried out from room temperature to 773 K have revealed that both the YS and the UTS decrease with increasing temperature. This alloy exhibits better tensile properties and microhardness than OFHC Cu. This improvement is attributed to the presence of the Y-rich particles.

  15. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Cu-0.8 wt.%Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, G., E-mail: gcarro@fis.uc3m.es; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.

    2015-10-15

    Dispersion strengthened Cu-0.8 wt.%Y has been produced by a powder metallurgy route and subsequent consolidation by hot isostatic pressing at 1123 K and 172 MPa. A fully dense alloy has been obtained that exhibits a microstructure characterized by equiaxed grains with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 50 μm. Yttrium-rich particles with an average size of 0.92 μm have been observed inside the grains and decorating the grain boundaries. As expected, the tensile tests carried out from room temperature to 773 K have revealed that both the YS and the UTS decrease with increasing temperature. This alloy exhibits better tensile properties and microhardness than OFHC Cu. This improvement is attributed to the presence of the Y-rich particles.

  16. Delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5% wt Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, Pablo; Haddad, Roberto; Domizzi, Gladys

    2003-01-01

    During service, pressure tubes of CANDU nuclear power reactor are prone to suffer crack growth by delayed hydride cracking (DHC). For a given H 2 plus D 2 concentration there is a critical temperature (T c ) below which DHC may occur. In this work, T c was measured for CCT specimens cut from Zr-2.5 Wt % Nb pressure tubes. Hydrogen was added to the specimens to get concentrations of 40, 59 and 72 ppm. It was found that T c is higher than the corresponding precipitation temperature. The axial crack velocity (V p ) was also measured. Decreasing temperature from T c makes V p increase until a maximum is attained at a temperature close to precipitation temperature. At lower temperatures, in the presence of precipitated hydrides, decreasing temperature implies lower velocities, following an Arrhenius law: Vp=Aexp(-Q/RT), with an activation energy Q= 66 KJ/mol K. (author)

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 Wt. % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Hussain, T.; Tauqir, A.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q.

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion behavior of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated. The results suggest that the steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking as the time to failure was always considerably shorter, as compared to those in air at the same stress level. The fracture mode was nearly intergranular and occasionally transgranular. There was no definite trend for the different modes of failure. The strain rate effect was also considered and the results show that the stress corrosion cracks were absent at strain rate high than 1.97 x 10/sup -4/S/sup -1/ and lower than 1.29 x 10/sup -7/S/sup -1/. The critical strain rate range was found to be between 6.4 x 10/sup -7/ to 3.24 x10/sup -5/S /sup -1/. (author)

  18. The effect of thermomechanical processing on second phase particle redistribution in U-10 wt%Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaowo; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2018-03-01

    The multi-pass hot-rolling process of an annealed uranium-10 wt% molybdenum coupon was studied by plane-strain compression finite element modeling. Two point correlation function (2PCF) was used to analyze the carbide particle distribution after each rolling reduction. The hot rolling simulation results show that the alignment of UC particles along grain boundaries will rotate during rolling until it is parallel to the rolling direction, to form stringer-like distributions which are typically observed in rolled products that contain inclusions. 2PCF analysis of simulation shows that the interparticle spacing shrinks along the normal direction. The number of major peaks of 2PCF along ND decreases after large reduction. The locations of major peaks indicate the inter-stringer distances.

  19. The Synthesis and Characterization of W- 1wt.% TiC Alloy Using a Chemical Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The tungsten and its alloys have been used in many applications due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties such as high melting point, high thermal conductivity, high strength at elevated temperatures, low sputtering yield in radiation environment and low tritium inventory. Moreover, many researchers consider tungsten alloys as the most promising candidate for plasma facing components for future nuclear fusion reactors. Three samples of W – 1.0 wt.% TiC composites with the different fabrication methods were successfully developed. The combined method of the wet chemical method and 3D mixing showed small amount of agglomeration of TiC particles, however, the TiC particle sizes were smaller than 3DM1 sample. Since the WCM1 showed the better mechanical property, microhardness, the main future plan is to achieve the same or improved mechanical property of W3D1.

  20. β-85 wt % Nb precipitates: the effect on in-reactor diametric creep of pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarce, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    By linking the microstructure evolution of an α-Zr crystal with the macroscopic behaviour, the deformation of an in-service reactor pressure tube is calculated. Microstructure evolution is considered through rate theory modelling of the interaction between point defects and sinks. Different densities of β-85 wt % Nb precipitates are proposed to be distributed inside the α grains and act as point defect sinks, doing a screening effect on the grain boundaries. From the interatomic pair potential which is used to describe the material, positive tangential deformation rates (on the other hand negatives) are obtained when these densities in the c-crystal direction are bigger than a minimum value. (author) [es

  1. The variation of work hardening characteristics of Al-5 wt% Mg alloy during phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.A.; Sobhy, M.; Abd El-Rehim, A.F.; Abdel Rahman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of aging conditions on the stress-strain behavior along with microstructure changes of the Al-5 wt% Mg alloy. Following solid solution treatment and aging of specimens at temperatures ranging from 373 to 573 K for various aging times (1/4 to 4 h), stress-strain tests were performed at different testing temperatures (313-343 K). The work hardening parameters (σ y , σ f , χ p and Y) were found to decrease continuously with pre-aging times at all aging and testing temperatures, where the softening parameters (ε f and L) oppose this behavior. The variation in stress-strain parameters with increasing aging temperatures and aging times was explained on the basis of structural transformations taking place in the Al-Mg alloy. A precipitate-dislocation intersections mechanism was assumed as the rate-controlling mechanism for alloy.

  2. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV_1_0 was reached. (author)

  3. Measurement and modeling of room temperature co-deformation in WC-10 wt.%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livescu, V. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: vlivescu@lanl.gov; Clausen, B. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Paggett, J.W. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Krawitz, A.D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Drake, E.F. [REEDHycalogTM/Grant Prideco, Houston, TX 77252 (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    In situ neutron diffraction measurements were performed on a tungsten carbide (WC)-10 wt.% cobalt (Co) cemented carbide composite subjected to compressive loading. The sample was subjected to consecutive load/unload cycles to -500, -1000, -2000 and -2100 MPa. Thermal residual stresses measured before loading reflected large hydrostatic tensile stresses in the binder phase and compressive stresses in the carbide phase. The carbide phase behaved elastically at all but the highest load levels, whereas plasticity was present in the binder phase from values of applied stress as low as -500 MPa. A finite element simulation utilizing an interpenetrating microstructure model showed remarkable agreement with the complex mean phase strain response during the loading cycles despite its under-prediction of thermal residual strains.

  4. Investigation of powdering ductile gamma U-10 wt%Mo alloy for dispersion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, R.M., E-mail: lealneto@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, C.J. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Urano de Carvalho, E. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Science and Technology Brazilian Institute, Innovating Nuclear Reactors (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Science and Technology Brazilian Institute, Innovating Nuclear Reactors (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianópolis (Brazil); Durazzo, M. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Science and Technology Brazilian Institute, Innovating Nuclear Reactors (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    This work forms part of the studies presently ongoing at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP investigating the feasibility of powdering ductile U-10 wt%Mo alloy by hydriding–milling–dehydriding of the gamma phase (HMD). Hydriding was conducted at room temperature in a Sievert apparatus following heat treatment activation. Hydrided pieces were fragile enough to be hand milled to the desired particle size range. Hydrogen was removed by heating the samples under high vacuum. X-ray diffraction analysis of the hydrided material showed an amorphous-like pattern that is completely reversed following dehydriding. The hydrogen content of the hydrided samples corresponds to a trihydride, i.e. (U,Mo)H{sub 3}. SEM analysis of HMD powder particles revealed equiaxial powder particles together with some plate-like particles. A hypothesis for the amorphous hydride phase formation is suggested.

  5. Fabrication of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel slug for SFR by Injection Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan B.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication technology of metal fuel has been developed by various methods such as rolling, swaging, wire drawing, and co-extrusion, but each of these methods had process limitations requiring an additional subsequent process, and needing the fabrication equipment is complex, which is not favorable for remote use. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, in the early 1950s, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, vacuum injection casting suitable for remote operation has been developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. Vacuum injection casting technique was developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. The appearance of the fabricated U-10wt.%Zr fuel was generally sound and the internal integrity was found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. Minimum fuel losses after casting relative to the initial charge amount of U-10wt.%Zr fuel slugs met the proposed goal of less than 0.1% fuel losses during fabrication. Modifications of the current facility system and advanced casting techniques are underway to produce higher quality fuel slugs

  6. Fabrication of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel slug for SFR by Injection Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The fabrication technology of metal fuel has been developed by various methods such as rolling, swaging, wire drawing, and co-extrusion, but each of these methods had process limitations requiring an additional subsequent process, and needing the fabrication equipment is complex, which is not favorable for remote use. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, in the early 1950s, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, vacuum injection casting suitable for remote operation has been developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. Vacuum injection casting technique was developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. The appearance of the fabricated U-10wt.%Zr fuel was generally sound and the internal integrity was found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. Minimum fuel losses after casting relative to the initial charge amount of U-10wt.%Zr fuel slugs met the proposed goal of less than 0.1% fuel losses during fabrication. Modifications of the current facility system and advanced casting techniques are underway to produce higher quality fuel slugs.

  7. Active Tension Control for WT Wheelchair Robot by Using a Novel Control Law for Holonomic or Nonholonomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactional characteristics between WT wheelchair robot and stair environment are analyzed, and possible patterns of WT wheelchair robot during the stair-climbing process are summarized, with the criteria of the wheelchair robot for determining the pattern proposed. Aiming at WT wheelchair robot's complicated mechanism with holonomic constraints and combined with the computed torque method, a novel control law that is called active tension control is presented for holonomic or nonholonomic robotic systems, by which the wheelchair robot with a holonomic or nonholonomic mechanism can track the reference input of the constraint forces of holonomic or nonholonomic constraints as well as tracking the reference input of the generalized coordinate of each joint. A stateflow module of Matlab is used to simulate the entire stair-climbing process for WT wheelchair robot. A comparison of output curve with the reference input curve of each joint is made, with the effectiveness of the presented control law verified.

  8. A comparison of methods of determining the 100 percent survival of preserved red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, C.R.; Pivacek, L.E.; Ouellet, R.; Gray, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were done to compare three methods to determine the 100 percent survival value from which to estimate the 24-hour posttransfusion survival of preserved red cells. The following methods using small aliquots of 51 Cr-labeled autologous preserved red cells were evaluated: First, the 125 I-albumin method, which is an indirect measurement of the recipient's red cell volume derived from the plasma volume measured using 125 I-labeled albumin and the total body hematocrit. Second, the body surface area method (BSA) in which the recipient's red cell volume is derived from a body surface area nomogram. Third, an extrapolation method, which extrapolates to zero time the radioactivity associated with the red cells in the recipient's circulation from 10 to 20 or 15 to 30 minutes after transfusion. The three methods gave similar results in all studies in which less than 20 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of between 80-100%), but not when more than 20 percent of the red cells were nonviable. When 21 to 35 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survivals of 65 to 79%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 5 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than values with the extrapolation method. When greater than 35 percent of the red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of less than 65%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 10 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than those obtained by the extrapolation method

  9. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-10-20

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  10. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements

  11. A Novel WT1 Gene Mutation in a Three-Generation Family with Progressive Isolated Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Gianluca; Malaventura, Cristina; Dagnino, Monica; Leonardi, Emanuela; Artifoni, Lina; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; Murer, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Wilms tumor-suppressor gene-1 (WT1) plays a key role in kidney development and function. WT1 mutations usually occur in exons 8 and 9 and are associated with Denys-Drash, or in intron 9 and are associated with Frasier syndrome. However, overlapping clinical and molecular features have been reported. Few familial cases have been described, with intrafamilial variability. Sporadic cases of WT1 mutations in isolated diffuse mesangial sclerosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have also been reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Molecular analysis of WT1 exons 8 and 9 was carried out in five members on three generations of a family with late-onset isolated proteinuria. The effect of the detected amino acid substitution on WT1 protein's structure was studied by bioinformatics tools. Results: Three family members reached end-stage renal disease in full adulthood. None had genital abnormalities or Wilms tumor. Histologic analysis in two subjects revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The novel sequence variant c.1208G>A in WT1 exon 9 was identified in all of the affected members of the family. Conclusions: The lack of Wilms tumor or other related phenotypes suggests the expansion of WT1 gene analysis in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, regardless of age or presence of typical Denys-Drash or Frasier syndrome clinical features. Structural analysis of the mutated protein revealed that the mutation hampers zinc finger-DNA interactions, impairing target gene transcription. This finding opens up new issues about WT1 function in the maintenance of the complex gene network that regulates normal podocyte function. PMID:20150449

  12. Ordering and reaccomodation processes for defects in Fe-6.5wt.% Si and its influence on magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, J.A; Lambri, O.A; Perez-Landazabal, J.I; Recarte, V

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy (MS) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were carried out in order to thoroughly study the effects of the order and reactions of the super dislocations in commercial alloys of Fe-6.5wt.% Si and Fe-3wt% Si with GOSS [110] texture during 1 hour, in a high vacuum, followed by tempering in water. The test pieces that were measured came from cut sheets provided by NKK Corp. The deadening and elastic module measurements were done with an inverted torsion pendulum, inside of which a 10 -5 Pa vacuum was made, expressed as a function of the temperature, and reaching three different final values: 973K, 1050K and 1273K. The magnetic measurements were carried out with an electromagnetic system that traced the hysteresis cycles. The behavior of deadening and the elastic module spectrum in Fe-6.5wt% Si is controlled by the relationship between the maximum temperature reached in the pendulum and the order-disorder transformation temperature. This dependence does not appear in the Fe-3wt% Si with GOSS [110] texture. The quenching defects recovery effects in Fe-3wt% Si are less than for the Fe-6.5wt% Si because of the absence of super dislocations and anti phase borders (APB) (CW)

  13. Reduction in WT1 gene expression during early treatment predicts the outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Charlotta; Li, Xingru; Lorenz, Fryderyk; Golovleva, Irina; Wahlin, Anders; Li, Aihong

    2012-12-01

    Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression has been suggested as an applicable minimal residual disease marker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the use of this marker in 43 adult AML patients. Quantitative assessment of WT1 gene transcripts was performed using real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assay. Samples from both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow were analyzed at diagnosis and during follow-up. A strong correlation was observed between WT1 normalized with 2 different control genes (β-actin and ABL1, P0.05). A≥1-log reduction in WT1 expression in bone marrow samples taken freedom from relapse (P=0.010) when β-actin was used as control gene. Furthermore, a reduction in WT1 expression by ≥2 logs in peripheral blood samples taken at a later time point significantly correlated with a better outcome for overall survival (P=0.004) and freedom from relapse (P=0.012). This result was achieved when normalizing against both β-actin and ABL1. These results therefore suggest that WT1 gene expression can provide useful information for minimal residual disease detection in adult AML patients and that combined use of control genes can give more informative results.

  14. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  15. WT1 Is Necessary for the Proliferation and Migration of Cells of Renin Lineage Following Kidney Podocyte Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Kaverina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 (WT1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and mesenchymal-epithelial balance in normal development and disease. Here, we show that following podocyte depletion in three experimental models, and in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and membranous nephropathy, WT1 increased significantly in cells of renin lineage (CoRL. In an animal model of FSGS in RenWt1fl/fl reporter mice with inducible deletion of WT1 in CoRL, CoRL proliferation and migration to the glomerulus was reduced, and glomerular disease was worse compared with wild-type mice. To become podocytes, CoRL undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation (MET, typified by reduced staining for mesenchymal markers (MYH11, SM22, αSMA and de novo expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin18. Evidence for changes in MET markers was barely detected in RenWt1fl/fl mice. Our results show that following podocyte depletion, WT1 plays essential roles in CoRL proliferation and migration toward an adult podocyte fate.

  16. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion behaviour of tin-20 wt.% zinc coatings electroplated from a non-cyanide alkaline bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; Mertens, M.L.A.D.; Saurat, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant deposits because they combine the barrier protection of tin with the cathodic protection afforded by zinc. The coatings containing 20 wt.% zinc, balance tin, offer excellent corrosion protection for steel and do not form gross voluminous white corrosion products like pure zinc or high zinc alloy deposits. In this study, the effects of variables of the process (i.e. cathodic current density, pH and temperature) on deposit composition have been evaluated using a Hull cell to obtain 20 wt.% zinc alloy coatings. The tin-20 wt.% zinc deposits, produced with electroplating optimized conditions, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). On the other hand, the corrosion behaviour of tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings on steel has been investigated using electrochemical methods in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution and the salt spray test. The performance of the deposits was compared with cadmium and zinc-nickel electrodeposited coatings. The results show that the corrosion resistance of tin-20 wt.% zinc alloy coating is superior to that of cadmium and zinc-12 wt.% nickel coatings. Finally, sliding friction tests were conducted.

  17. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion

  18. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xinyang; Lu, Changhe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas

  19. Cumulative percent energy deposition of photon beam incident on different targets, simulated by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandic, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Boreli, F.

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation (without secondary radiation) of the standard photon interactions (Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair protection) for the complex slab's geometry is used in numerical code ACCA. A typical ACCA run will yield: (a) transmission of primary photon radiation differential in energy, (b) the spectrum of energy deposited in the target as a function of position and (c) the cumulative percent energy deposition as a function of position. A cumulative percent energy deposition of photon monoenergetic beam incident on simplest and complexity tissue slab and Fe slab are presented in this paper. (author). 5 refs.; 2 figs

  20. A time course study demonstrating mRNA, microRNA, 18S rRNA, and U6 snRNA changes to estimate PMI in deceased rat's spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ye-hui; Ma, Kai-jun; Zhang, Heng; He, Meng; Zhang, Ping; Shen, Yi-wen; Jiang, Nan; Ma, Duan; Chen, Long

    2014-09-01

    Determining the postmortem interval (PMI) is important in criminal, civil, and forensic cases. We examined the feasibility of using the transcript abundances of mRNAs, 18S rRNA, U6 snRNA, and microRNAs as a means to estimate the PMI. We removed spleen tissues from rats at different PMIs under 4°C or 25°C and examined gene transcript abundances in these samples by RT-qPCR. Using the algorithm geNorm, we found that microRNAs to be appropriate control markers because they were less affected by PMI and temperature. We also characterized relationships between observed PMI and the transcript levels of the above-mentioned RNAs. GAPDH1 and ACTB1 fluctuated slightly like cubic curves, while GAPDH2 and ACTB2 decreased rapidly. 18S rRNA transcript level exhibited a parabolic-like trend at 25°C and exponential growth at 4°C, while U6 transcript level exhibited exponential decay at 25°C and a parabolic-like trend at 4°C. Following validation, we conclude that GAPDH2, ACTB2, and 18S rRNA are suitable makers in the accurate determination of PMI. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Gravity and magnetic data across the Ghost Dance Fault in WT-2 Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data were obtained in September 1993 along a 4,650 ft-long profile across the Ghost Dance Fault system in WT-2 Wash. Gravity stations were established every 150 feet along the profile. Total-field magnetic measurements made initially every 50 ft along the profile, then remade every 20 ft through the fault zone. These new data are part of a geologic and geophysical study of the Ghost Dance Fault (GDF) which includes detailed geologic mapping, seismic reflection, and some drilling including geologic and geophysical logging. The Ghost Dance Fault is the only through-going fault that has been identified within the potential repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Preliminary gravity results show a distinct decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 mGal over a 600-ft-wide zone to the east of and including the mapped fault. The gravity decrease probably marks a zone of brecciation. Another fault-offset located about 2,000 ft to the east of the GDF was detected by seismic reflection data and is also marked by a distinct gravity low. The ground magnetic data show a 200-ft-wide magnetic low of about 400 nT centered about 100 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault. The magnetic low probably marks a zone of brecciation within the normally polarized Topopah Spring Tuff, the top of which is about 170 ft below the surface, and which is known from drilling to extend to a depth of about 1,700 ft. Three-component magnetometer logging in drill hole WT-2 located about 2,700 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault shows that the Topopah Spring Tuff is strongly polarized magnetically in this area, so that fault brecciation of a vertical zone within the Tuff could provide an average negative magnetic contrast of the 4 Am -1 needed to produce the 400 nT low observed at the surface

  2. Frequency of WT1 and 11p15 constitutional aberrations and phenotypic correlation in childhood Wilms tumour patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, H; Kersseboom, R; Alders, M; Pieters, R; Wagner, A; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M

    2012-11-01

    In 9-17% of Wilms tumour patients a predisposing syndrome is present, in particular WT1-associated syndromes and overgrowth syndromes. Constitutional WT1 mutations or epigenetic changes on chromosome 11p15 have also been described in Wilms tumour patients without phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, the absence of phenotypic abnormalities does not exclude the presence of a genetic predisposition, suggesting that more Wilms tumour patients may have a constitutional abnormality. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of constitutional aberrations in combination with phenotype. Clinical genetic assessment, as well as molecular analysis of WT1 and locus 11p15 was offered to a single-centre cohort of 109 childhood Wilms tumour patients. Twelve patients (11%) had a WT1 aberration and eight patients (8%) had an 11p15 aberration. Of the 12 patients with a WT1 aberration, four had WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations and mental retardation), one had Denys-Drash syndrome, four had genitourinary anomalies without other syndromic features and three had bilateral disease with stromal-predominant histology at young age without congenital anomalies. Of the eight patients with an 11p15 aberration, four had Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), two had minor features of BWS and two had no stigmata of BWS or hemihypertrophy. Constitutional WT1 or 11p15 aberrations are frequent in Wilms tumour patients and careful clinical assessment can identify the majority of these patients. Therefore, we would recommend offering clinical genetic counselling to all Wilms tumour patients, as well as molecular analysis to patients with clinical signs of a syndrome or with features that may indicate a constitutional WT1 or 11p15 aberration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of concomitant temozolomide and radiation therapies on WT1-specific T-cells in malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Hashimoto, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the Wilms' tumour 1 gene product has been proven safe and effective for treating malignant glioma in a phase II clinical study. Currently, radiation/temozolomide therapy is the standard treatment with only modest benefit. Whether combining radiation/temozolomide therapy with WT1 immunotherapy will have a negating effect on immunotherapy is still controversial because of the significant lymphocytopaenia induced by the former therapy. To address this issue, we investigated the changes in frequency and number of WT1-specific T-cells in patients with malignant gliomas. Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma who received standard radiation/temozolomide therapy were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected before treatment and on the sixth week of therapy. The frequencies and numbers of lymphocytes, CD8 + T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, regulatory T-cells, natural killer cells and natural killer T-cells were measured and analysed using T-tests. Analysis of the frequency of T lymphocytes and its subpopulation showed an increase in regulatory T-cells, but no significant change was noted in the populations of T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells. Reductions in the total numbers of T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, NK cells and NKT cells were mainly a consequence of the decrease in the total lymphocyte count. Radiation/temozolomide therapy did not significantly affect the frequency of WT1-specific T-cells, suggesting that the combination with WT1 immunotherapy may be possible, although further assessment in the clinical setting is warranted. (author)

  4. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  7. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  8. 48 CFR 836.606-73 - Application of 6 percent architect-engineer fee limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... architect-engineer fee limitation. 836.606-73 Section 836.606-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.606-73 Application of 6 percent architect-engineer fee limitation...

  9. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or less...

  10. Identification of a novel percent mammographic density locus at 12q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Lindstrom, Sara; Scott, Christopher G; Thompson, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Alice; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Rider, David N; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Varghese, Jajini S; Audley, Tina; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Luben, Robert N; Warren, Ruth M L; Loos, Ruth J F; Wareham, Nicholas J; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Olson, Janet E; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B; Lee, Adam M; Heit, John A; DeAndrade, Mariza; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Cunningham, Julie M; Armasu, Sebastian M; Weinshilboum, Richard; Fridley, Brooke L; Batzler, Anthony; Ingle, James N; Boyd, Norman F; Paterson, Andrew D; Rommens, Johanna; Martin, Lisa J; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Stone, Jennifer; Apicella, Carmel; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Tamimi, Rulla M; Vachon, Celine M

    2012-07-15

    Percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and has a heritable component that remains largely unidentified. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent mammographic density to identify novel genetic loci associated with this trait. In stage 1, we combined three GWASs of percent density comprised of 1241 women from studies at the Mayo Clinic and identified the top 48 loci (99 single nucleotide polymorphisms). We attempted replication of these loci in 7018 women from seven additional studies (stage 2). The meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 data identified a novel locus, rs1265507 on 12q24, associated with percent density, adjusting for age and BMI (P = 4.43 × 10(-8)). We refined the 12q24 locus with 459 additional variants (stage 3) in a combined analysis of all three stages (n = 10 377) and confirmed that rs1265507 has the strongest association in the 12q24 region (P = 1.03 × 10(-8)). Rs1265507 is located between the genes TBX5 and TBX3, which are members of the phylogenetically conserved T-box gene family and encode transcription factors involved in developmental regulation. Understanding the mechanism underlying this association will provide insight into the genetics of breast tissue composition.

  11. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  12. Characterization of laser welds in Al-10 wt.%Si coated ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Jong Pan; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Jeong Kil; Uhm, Sang Ho; Woo, In Su; Lee, Jong Sub; Park, Bong Gyu; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-01-01

    409L stainless steel hot-dipped with Al-10 wt.%Si was welded using CO 2 laser and the microstructure and hardness of the weld were investigated. When the specimen was welded with laser power of 5 kW and welding speed of 5 m/min, full-penetrated sound weld was obtained. With that specimen, the relationship between the microstructure and hardness of the weld was examined. The hardness of the weld was the highest in the fusion zone (FZ) and decreased to the base metal (BM) via heat affected zone (HAZ). The hardness of the HAZ near bond line was also higher than that near the base metal. The maximum hardness in the fusion zone could be explained by the existence of the precipitates, that is, TiN, Ti(C,N), Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 + TiN mixed compounds with the size of 500 nm, and solution strengthening due to the elements Al and Si dissolved from the coating layer to the fusion zone. There were subgrains within the HAZ and more in the area near the bond line. In addition, fine TiC particles with the size under 50 nm was precipitated in the sub-grain boundaries. The formation of sub-grain boundaries and the particles precipitated in the boundaries might contributed to the high hardness in the HAZ.

  13. Hydride redistribution and crack growth in Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb stressed in torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, M.P.; Rogowski, A.J.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of applied shear stresses on zirconium hydride solubility in a zirconium alloy was investigated. Recent studies have shown that zirconium hydride precipiates probably nucleate and grow by means of a shear transformation mechanism. It is postulated that these transformation shear strains can interact with applied shear stress gradients in the same way that the dilatational strains can interact with a dilatational stress gradient, providing a driving force for hydride accumulation, hydride embrittlement and crack propagation. To test this proposition, crack growth experiments were carried out under torsional loading conditions on hydrided, round notched bar specimens of cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb cut from Pickering-type pressure tube material. Postmortem metallographic examination of the hydride distribution in these samples showed that, in many cases, the hydrides appeared to have reoriented in response to the applied shear stress and that hydride accumulation at the notch tip had occurred. However, except in a few cases, the rate of accumulation of reoriented hydrides at the notch tip due to applied shear stresses was much less than the rate due to corresponding applied uniaxial stresss. Moreover, the process in shear appears to be more sensitive to the inital hydride size. Attempts to elucidate the fracture mechanism by fractographic examination using scanning and replica transmission electron microscopy proved to be inconclusive because of smearing of the fracture face. (auth)

  14. Corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% chromium for the automobile exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-bing; Jiang, Zhou-hua; Feng, Hao; Zhu, Hong-chun; Sun, Bin-han; Li, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    The effect of chloride ion concentration, pH value, and grain size on the pitting corrosion resistance of a new ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% Cr was investigated using the anodic polarization method. The semiconducting properties of passive films with different chloride ion concentrations were performed using capacitance measurement and Mott-Schottky analysis methods. The aging precipitation and intergranular corrosion behavior were evaluated at 400-900°C. It is found that the pitting potential decreases when the grain size increases. With the increase in chloride ion concentration, the doping density and the flat-bland potential increase but the thickness of the space charge layer decreases. The pitting corrosion resistance increases rapidly with the decrease in pH value. Precipitants is identified as Nb(C,N) and NbC, rather than Cr-carbide. The intergranular corrosion is attributed to the synergistic effects of Nb(C,N) and NbC precipitates and Cr segregation adjacent to the precipitates.

  15. Development of rolled joints for zirconium-2.5 wt % niobium pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Samuel, K.A.; Joeman, V.

    1992-01-01

    Due to its higher strength and lower deuterium pick-up rate, as compared to the existing cold worked zircaloy-2 material, cold worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium (Zr-2.5%Nb) alloy is to be used as the pressure tube material in all forthcoming Indian PHWRs starting with KAPP-2. These pressure tubes, which carry the fuel bundles are to be joined to the S.S 403 end-fittings through rolled joints. Since the new pressure tubes have a lower wall thickness and higher room temperature yield stress, than zircaloy-2 tubes the design parameters of the rolled joint had to be developed afresh. Further, since Zr-2.5%Nb is susceptible to delayed hydride cracking, it is necessary to limit the residual stress near the rolled joint to a minimum. Since the high residual stress is due to the initial assembly clearance between the pressure tube and end-fitting, a modified rolled joint had to be developed, referred to as zero clearance rolled joint. This paper provides details of the work carried out at Reactor Engineering Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay towards the development of the design of the rolled joint as well as the tooling and procedures required for achieving zero-clearance fit-ups at site. The requirements to be met by the Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes for achieving acceptable rolled joints are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  16. In-reactor creep of zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium at 570 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Causey, A.R.; Fidleris, V.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of fast neutron flux at 570 K on the creep rate of specimens of zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy taken from tubes in various metallurgical conditions has been measured using both constant load tensile creep machines and bent-beam stress relaxation. Creep rates calculated from stress relaxation fit on the trend line for the constant load creep data. Between 114 MPa and 450 MPa the creep rate is proportional to neutron flux. The creep rate of specimens from the longitudinal direction is about twice that of specimens from the circumferential direction of a tube. This anisotropy in creep strength is attributed partly to crystallographic texture and partly to deformation substructure. Cold-work is detrimental to in-reactor creep strength; as-extruded material has higher creep strength. In cold-worked material at stresses below 100 MPa the stress exponent, n, is about 1; n gradually increases with stress being about 10 at 525 MPa and about 100 at 660 MPa. In laboratory tests, rupture ductility correlates inversely with n; the lower n the higher the ductility. In-reactor tests support this correlation thus pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, operating at 117 MPa where n approximately 1, should have good ductility. (Auth.)

  17. Influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of a Zr-4.6 wt.% Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, V.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on the room temperature mechanical properties of a Zr-4.6 wt.% Al alloy was investigated. Quenching from the beta phase produced a significant solid solution hardening. On aging the alloy at low temperatures for short periods aluminium rejection from the solid solution occurred and a fine dispersion of a metastable Zr 3 Al phase (DO 19 structure) formed. The strengthening caused by the presence of these ordered particles was found to more than compensate the softening brought about by decreasing supersaturation. The high strength corresponding to this structure could be explained in terms of the contributions from the coherency strains associated with and the state of order within the metastable particles. Aging at these temperatures for longer periods or at higher temperatures gave rise to a lamellar distribution of the α-zirconium (aluminium) and the equilibrium Zr 3 Al (Ll 2 structure) phases. The strength associated with this lamellar structure was found to be appreciably lower and to be strongly dependent on the interlamellar spacing. Investigations of the fracture surfaces showed that the modes of fracture associated with these different microstructures were different. An attempt was made to rationalize the observed strength properties in terms of existing theoretical models. (Auth.)

  18. Nb46, 5wt% Ti Eb-melting for AC and DC superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormio, C.; Ramos, M.J.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the superconductor alloy Nb46, 5wt % Ti which presents the best superconducting and mechanical properties for the systems Nb-Ti. The greatest difficulty in obtaining this alloy is related to the difference between the raw materials melting temperatures, which is about 700 degrees C. As a result the alloy homogeneity as well as Ti desired content, turn to be hard to control. The authors choose an electrode sandwich type, where Nb and Ti sheets are interposed. The electrode dimensions calculation is based on the Ti evaporation rate, energy balance and superficial tension of liquid titanium between Nb sheets. The ingots were electron beam melted. Herein, we present the following ingot results: Ti, intersticial and trace contents compared to international manufactures as well as its mechanical workability. This alloy will be used in NbTi wire production for AC and DC applications. The AC and DC wires are produced by coswaging and codrawing of NbTi bars and C u Ni-tubes for AC wires and Cu-tubes for DC wires. High area reductions of about 2 x 10 8 are reached without intermediate heat treatment, and they are essential since they are precursors of collective pinning centers, responsible for high critical current densities

  19. Solid solution in Al-4.5 wt% Cu produced by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogagnolo, J.B.; Amador, D.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Torralba, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical alloying has been used to produce oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic compounds, aluminium alloys and to obtain nanostructured and amorphous materials, as well as to extend the solid solution limit. In this work, Al and Cu elemental powders were subjected to high-energy milling to produce Al-4.5 wt% Cu powder alloy. The powders obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), aiming to explore if the copper is present in solid solution or as small particles after high-energy milling. Related to the formation of a supersaturated solid solution, the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are non-conclusive: the copper could be dispersed with a very small size, undetectable to both techniques. The Al 2 Cu precipitation at temperatures between 160 and 230 deg. C, verified by DSC and XRD analyses, substantiated that mechanical alloying had produced a supersaturated solid solution of copper in aluminium. The crystallite size as a function of milling time and annealing temperature was also determined by X-ray techniques

  20. Characterization of dispersion strengthened copper with 3wt%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Višeslava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper matrix has been dispersion strengthened with 3wt.%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying. Commercial alumina powder with an average particle size of 0.75mm was used for alloying. The mechanical alloying process was performed in a planetary ball mill up to 20h in air. After milling all powders were treated in H2 at 4000C for 1h, and finally hot pressing was used for compaction (800oC, 3h, Ar. Structure observations revealed a lamellar structure (Al2O3 particles largely restricted to interlamellar planes between adjacent copper lamellae accompanied also by structure refinement. These structural changes were mostly completed in the early stage of milling, and retained after compaction. Micro hardness was found to progressively increase with milling time. So, after 5h of milling the micro hardness of the Cu+3twt%Al2O3 compact was 1540MPa, i.e. 2.5 times greater than for the as-received electrolytic copper powder (638MPa compacted under identical conditions, while after 20h of milling it was 2370 MPa. However after exposing the tested compact at 800oC up to 5h, the achieved hardening effect vanished.

  1. Porous anodic film formation on an Al-3.5 wt% Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, M.A.; Bustos, O.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Wood, G.C.

    2000-03-01

    Anodic film growth has been undertaken on an electropolished Al-3.5 wt % Cu alloy to determine the influence of copper in solid solution on the anodizing behavior. At the commencement of anodizing of the electropolished alloy, in the presence of interfacial enrichment of copper, Al{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions egress and O{sup 2{minus}} ion ingress proceed; film growth occurs at the alloy/film interface though O{sup 2{minus}} ion ingress, with outwardly mobile Al{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions ejected at the film/electrolyte interface, and field-assisted dissolution proceeding at the bases of pores. Oxidation of copper, in the presence of the enriched layer, is also associated with O{sub 2} gas generation, leading to development of oxygen-filled voids. As a result of significant pressures in the voids, film rupture proceeds, with electrolyte access to the alloy, dissolution of the enriched interfacial layer and re-anodizing. The consequence of such processes in the development of anodic films of increased porosity and reduced efficiency of film formation compared with anodizing of superpure aluminum under similar conditions.

  2. The coarsening process of Ge precipitates in an Al-4 wt.% Ge alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the results of a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the precipitation process of Ge in an Al-4 wt.% Ge alloy are described. Two crystallographic orientation relationships between the irregular germanium precipitate and aluminum matrix were found to be [1 0 0]{sub Ge} || [1 1 0]{sub Al} and [1 1 4]{sub Ge} || [1 0 0]{sub Al}. The irregular germanium precipitates formed on [0 0 1]{sub Al} habit planes. The origin of the irregular shape is due to the existence of a highly anisotropic interfacial energy as well as in an isotropic growth rate along <1 1 0>{sub A1} directions. Particles sizes were determined for variety of isothermal ageing times at 348, 423 and 523 K. The coarsening of the different morphologies of Ge precipitates was found to obey Ostwald ripening kinetics. The TEM results showed that the coarsening of irregular particles was due to the interfacial coalescence between these particles. Nine different morphologies have been distinguished in the form of (i) irregular particles, (ii) spheres, (iii) hexagonal plates, (iv) rods, (v) triangular plates, (vi) laths, (vii) small tetrahedra, (viii) rectangular plates, and (ix) Lamellae shape.

  3. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J., E-mail: juergen.vehlow@partner.kit.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  4. Hydrogen absorption kinetics in powdered V + 80 wt.% LaNi5 composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tirpude, Amit; Taxak, Manju; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vanadium prevents the pulverization of LaNi 5 . •H absorption capacity LaNi 5 –V composite is higher than LaNi 5 . •H absorption kinetics of LaNi 5 –V composite is relatively faster than V and LaNi 5 . •Fermi energy level of LaNi 5 –V composite lowered by vanadium addition. -- Abstract: The hydrogen absorption behavior of V + 80 wt.% LaNi 5 composite, LaNi 5 and V has been investigated. The LaNi 5 –V composite was prepared by high energy ball-milling technique using high pure vanadium and LaNi 5 powder. Lattice expansion of the composite has been observed in X-ray analysis which indicates the solid solution formation. Presence of free V and traces of V 2 O 5 phase were also observed in the composite. The hydrogen absorption capacity and absorption kinetics of the composite showed improvement as compared to LaNi 5 . The improved kinetics of the composite has been co-related to the change in lattices parameter, Fermi energy level and catalytic property of vanadium. Integrity of the composite has found to be effective even after 20 numbers of hydriding and dehydriding cycles due to the presence of vanadium

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (wt%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Shuaiju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Hui, E-mail: yuhuidavid@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Huixing [Mechanical and Material School, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350 (China); Cui, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shangdong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Park, Sung Hyuk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Weiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); You, Bong Sun [Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-06

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a newly developed rare earth free Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (BAZ811, in wt%) alloy were investigated and compared with those of a commercial AZ31 alloy. The as-extruded BAZ811 alloy with much finer grain size shows more homogeneous dynamical recrystallized (DRXed) microstructure and weaker basal texture than those of AZ31 alloy. In addition, compared with bimodal structure AZ31 alloy containing only relatively coarse and sparse Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phases, the coexistence of strip-like fragmented Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitate and nano-size Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles in the microstructure was observed in BAZ811 alloy. Moreover, the BAZ811 alloy exhibits a tensile yield stress of 291 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 331 MPa, an elongation to failure of 14.6% as well as a reduction in yield asymmetry, which is mainly attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and micro-scale broken Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles together with nano-scale spherical Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitates. The strain hardening behavior of both BAZ811 and AZ31 alloys were also discussed in terms of microstructure variation.

  6. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  7. Analysis of irradiated U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel microstructures using automated image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Buesch, C. [Oregon State University, 1500 SW Jefferson St., Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Keiser, D.D.; Williams, W.; Miller, B.D.; Schulthess, J. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development (HPPRFD) program is responsible for developing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel substitutes for high performance reactors fueled with highly enriched uranium (HEU) that have not yet been converted to LEU. The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel system was selected for this effort. In this study, fission gas pore segmentation was performed on U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel samples at three separate fission densities using an automated image processing interface developed in MATLAB. Pore size distributions were attained that showed both expected and unexpected fission gas behavior. In general, it proved challenging to identify any dominant trends when comparing fission bubble data across samples from different fuel plates due to varying compositions and fabrication techniques. The results exhibited fair agreement with the fission density vs. porosity correlation developed by the Russian reactor conversion program. - Highlights: • Automated image processing is used to extract fission gas bubble data from irradiated U−Mo fuel samples. • Verification and validation tests are performed to ensure the algorithm's accuracy. • Fission bubble parameters are predictably difficult to compare across samples of varying compositions. • The 2-D results suggest the need for more homogenized fuel sampling in future studies. • The results also demonstrate the value of 3-D reconstruction techniques.

  8. Properties of WZ21 (%wt) alloy processed by a powder metallurgy route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2015-06-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of WZ21 (%wt) alloy prepared by a powder metallurgy route from rapidly solidified powders have been studied. Results were compared to those of the same alloy prepared through a conventional route of casting and extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded ingot consisted of α-Mg grains and Mg3Zn3Y2 (W-phase) and LPSO-phase particles located at grain boundaries. Moreover, stacking faults were also observed within α-Mg grains. The alloy processed by the powder metallurgy route exhibited a more homogeneous and finer microstructure, with a grain size of 2 μm. In this case W-phase and Mg24Y5 phase were identified, but not the LPSO-phase. The microstructural refinement induced by the use of rapidly solidified powders strengthened the alloy at room temperature and promoted superplasticity at higher strain rates. Corrosion behaviour in PBS medium evidenced certain physical barrier effect of the almost continuous arrangements of second phases aligned along the extrusion direction in conventionally processed WZ21 alloy, with a stable tendency around 7 mm/year. On the other hand, powder metallurgy processing promoted significant pitting corrosion, inducing accelerated corrosion rate during prolonged immersion times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field

  10. Precipitation under cyclic strain in solution-treated Al4wt%Cu I: mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrow, Adam M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laird, Campbell [UNIV OF PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Solution-treated AL-4wt%Cu was strain-cycled at ambient temperature and above, and the precipitation and deformation behaviors investigated by TEM. Anomalously rapid growth of precipitates appears to have been facilitated by a vacancy super-saturation generated by cyclic strain and the presence of a continually refreshed dislocation density to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites. Texture effects as characterized by Orientation Imaging Microscopy appear to be responsible for latent hardening in specimens tested at room temperature, with increasing temperatures leading to a gradual hardening throughout life due to precipitation. Specimens exhibiting rapid precipitation hardening appear to show a greater effect of texture due to the increased stress required to cut precipitates in specimens machined from rolled plate at an angle corresponding to a lower average Schmid factor. The accelerated formation of grain boundary precipitates appears to be partially responsible for rapid inter-granular fatigue failure at elevated temperatures, producing fatigue striations and ductile dimples coexistent on the fracture surface.

  11. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehlow, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made

  12. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  13. Classification of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce based on fluorescence spectra and WT-BCC-SVM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jun, Sun; Zhang, Bing; Jun, Wu

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the spectrum feature extracted by wavelet transform, a method combining wavelet transform (WT) with bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm and support vector machine (BCC-SVM) algorithm (WT-BCC-SVM) was proposed in this paper. Besides, we aimed to identify different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves in a novel and rapid non-destructive way by using fluorescence spectra technology. The fluorescence spectral data of 150 lettuce leaf samples of five different kinds of pesticide residues on the surface of lettuce were obtained using Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrometer. Standard normalized variable detrending (SNV detrending), Savitzky-Golay coupled with Standard normalized variable detrending (SG-SNV detrending) were used to preprocess the raw spectra, respectively. Bacterial colony chemotaxis combined with support vector machine (BCC-SVM) and support vector machine (SVM) classification models were established based on full spectra (FS) and wavelet transform characteristics (WTC), respectively. Moreover, WTC were selected by WT. The results showed that the accuracy of training set, calibration set and the prediction set of the best optimal classification model (SG-SNV detrending-WT-BCC-SVM) were 100%, 98% and 93.33%, respectively. In addition, the results indicated that it was feasible to use WT-BCC-SVM to establish diagnostic model of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves.

  14. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yang; Kang, Yijun; Li, Ding; Yu, Kun; Xiao, Tao; Wang, Qiyuan; Deng, Youwen; Fang, Hongjie; Jiang, Dayue; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Porous Mg-based scaffolds have been extensively researched as biodegradable implants due to their attractive biological and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were prepared by powder metallurgy using ammonium bicarbonate particles as space-holder particles. The effects of space-holder particle content on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were studied. The mean porosity and pore size of the open-cellular scaffolds were within the range 6.7-52.2% and 32.3-384.2 µm, respectively. Slight oxidation was observed at the grain boundaries and on the pore walls. The Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were shown to possess mechanical properties comparable with those of natural bone and had variable in vitro degradation rates. Increased content of space-holder particles negatively affected the mechanical behavior and corrosion resistance of the Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds, especially when higher than 20%. These results suggest that porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds are promising materials for application in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Differential evolution of a CXCR4-using HIV-1 strain in CCR5wt/wt and CCR5∆32/∆32 hosts revealed by longitudinal deep sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Q; Taylor, Jeremy; Dong, Winnie; McCloskey, Rosemary; Woods, Conan; Danroth, Ryan; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Poon, Art F Y; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-12-03

    Rare individuals homozygous for a naturally-occurring 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32/∆32) are resistant to infection by CCR5-using ("R5") HIV-1 strains but remain susceptible to less common CXCR4-using ("X4") strains. The evolutionary dynamics of X4 infections however, remain incompletely understood. We identified two individuals, one CCR5wt/wt and one CCR5∆32/∆32, within the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who were infected with a genetically similar X4 HIV-1 strain. While early-stage plasma viral loads were comparable in the two individuals (~4.5-5 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), CD4 counts in the CCR5wt/wt individual reached a nadir of 250 cells/mm(3) in the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual. Ancestral phylogenetic reconstructions using longitudinal envelope-V3 deep sequences suggested that both individuals were infected by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) X4 virus that differed at only one V3 site (codon 24). While substantial within-host HIV-1 V3 diversification was observed in plasma and PBMC in both individuals, the CCR5wt/wt individual's HIV-1 population gradually reverted from 100% X4 to ~60% R5 over ~4 years whereas the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual's remained consistently X4. Our observations illuminate early dynamics of X4 HIV-1 infections and underscore the influence of CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 V3 evolution.

  16. Corrosion behavior of Mg–5Al based magnesium alloy with 1 wt.% Sn, Mn and Zn additions in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dang Nam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion properties of four Mg–5Al alloys with M-alloying elements (tin, manganese and zinc in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were examined using electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The electrochemical results indicated that the addition of 1 wt.% M metal decreased the corrosion rate and hydrogen evolution rate of the Mg–5Al specimens. Moreover, the addition of 1Zn resulted in having the best corrosion resistance due to the interaction of Zn oxide with Mg and Al oxides which acted as a corrosion barrier.

  17. Effect of iron addition on the work-hardening characteristics of Al-16 wt%Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, F.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Abd El-Khalek, A.M.; Nada, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of pre-aging time (up to 120 min) and temperatures (428-498 K) on the stress-strain characteristics of Al-16 wt%Ag and Al-16 wt%Ag-0.28 wt%Fe alloys was investigated at different deformation temperatures in the range 353-413 K. The tensile parameters measured for both alloys showed general increase with increasing pre-aging time at 428 and 458 K, while the samples pre-aged at 498 K showed initial softening up to pre-aging time of 60 min followed by increased hardening for longer pre-aging times. The Fe-free samples were generally harder than the ternary samples. The activation energy of the fracture mechanism in both alloys was around 28 kJ/mol

  18. Microstructural study on gamma phase stability in U-9 wt% Mo alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Singh, R.P.; Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium exists in three polymorphic forms viz., orthorhombic α phase - stable up to 667 deg C, tetragonal β phase - stable between 667 deg C and 771 deg C and bcc γ phase - stable above 771 deg C. When alloying of uranium is done, the alloying additions alter the temperature ranges over which the α, β and γ phases are stable. In addition, they frequently retard the rates at which phase transformations occur. As a result, a number of metastable phases can be obtained in uranium alloys. It has been well known among reactor designers that a pure uranium metal is not suitable for power reactor fuel mainly because of (i) phase changes occurring at lower temperatures and (ii) poor irradiation behavior of α phase. γ phase uranium alloys containing small amount of another metal to stabilize the γ-U solid solution provides good prospects in this respect. U-Mo alloy is one of the prospective materials for low enrichment uranium fuel with high U loading because a solid solution of Mo in the γ-U phase possesses acceptable irradiation and mechanical properties and is formed over a wide range of Mo concentration. In the present work vacuum induction melted and cast U-9 wt% Mo alloy was subjected to different thermo mechanical processing to investigate the stability of the γ phase. The as cast alloy was rolled at 550 deg C and then homogenized at 1000 deg C in the γ phase field for 24 hours followed by (i) water quenching and (ii) furnace cooling to generate two different starting conditions. Two of the water-quenched samples were aged at 500 deg C for 5 days and 14 days and one as-rolled sample was aged at 500 deg C for 5 days. The as-cast, as-rolled, homogenized and aged samples were subjected to optical microscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) investigations. All the samples were also subjected to microhardness measurements. The as cast sample contained predominantly the gamma phase along with inclusions. After homogenizing the alloy at 1000 deg C and quenching in

  19. Modification and aging precipitation behavior of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy treated by P+Ce combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tested hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloys were prepared by modifying the melt using different proportions of P and Ce, and then applying T6 heat treatment. The modification effects and mechanism of P+Ce complex modifier on the Si phase of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy were studied, and the aging precipitation behavior after modification was characterized by means of tensile strength measurement, OM, SEM and TEM analysis. The results show that the massive primary silicon phase particles are significantly refined after modification, while the needle-like eutectic silicon crystals become fibrous and short. It was found that the mechanism of phosphorus modification on the primary silicon can be attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of AlP, while the modification mechanism of Ce can be explained by adsorbing-twinning theory. In the aged microstructure of the modified hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy, there existed some strengthening phases such as Al4Cu9, Al2Cu, AlCu3, and Al57Mn12. The P+Ce complex modifier not only affected the size of primary silicon and eutectic silicon, but also the aging behavior of alloys under the heat treatment process. When Al-21wt.%Si alloy was modified using 0.08%wt.P + 0.6wt.% Ce, the aging precipitates were dispersed uniformly in the alloy, and its mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures are optimized (Rm = 287.6 MPa at RT, Rm = 210 MPa at 300 ℃.

  20. Tensile properties of strip casting 6.5 wt% Si steel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao-Ze, E-mail: lhzqq83@163.com; Liu, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Tensile behaviors of strip casting 6.5 wt% Si steel are tested at elevated temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 800 °C. A detailed study of the morphology of the fracture surface and the ordered phase at each deforming temperature is carried out by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The results show that the deforming temperature rather than the ordered degree determines the tensile properties. As the deforming temperature increases, the stress level in the whole deforming stage continually decreases, whereas the elongation gradually increases. The ductile–brittle transition occurs around 350 °C. The elongation of 2% at 300 °C rapidly increases up to 16.4% at 350 °C and the corresponding fracture mode transforms from the complete cleavage fracture to the mixture of the very limited cleavage fracture, intergranular dimple fracture and the dimple fracture. Serrated flow is observed at 350 °C and 400 °C probably due to the occurrence of dynamic strain aging. Due to the gradually weakened grain boundary cohesion with the deforming temperature increasing, intergranular dimple pattern dominates the fracture surface at 600 °C and the elongation slowly increases from 16.4% at 350 °C to 22.8% at 600 °C. At 700 °C and 800 °C, the much more enhanced dynamic recovery, the substantially decreased stress levels which contribute to the inhibition of the intergranular dimple fracture, the much lower content of the B2 ordered phase at 700 °C, and the completely disordered state at 800 °C give rise to the dramatically improved elongations of 88.8% and 130.8%, respectively.

  1. Theory and practice of corrosion related to ashes and deposits in a WtE boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; De Greef, Johan; Van Caneghem, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of heat-exchanging components is one of the main operational problems in Waste-to-Energy plants, limiting the electrical efficiency that can be reached. Corrosion is mainly related to the devolatilization and/or formation of chlorides, sulphates and mixtures thereof on the heat-exchanging surfaces. Theoretical considerations on this corrosion were already put forward in literature, but this paper now for the first time combines theory with a large scale sampling campaign of several Waste-to-Energy plants. Based on the outcome of elemental and mineralogical analysis, the distribution of Cl and S in ashes sampled throughout the plant during normal operation is explained. Cl concentrations are high (15-20%) in the first empty pass, decrease in the second and third empty pass, but increase again in the convective part, whereas the S concentrations show an inverse behavior, with the highest concentrations (30%) observed in the second and third empty pass. Sampling of deposits on specific places where corrosion possibly occurred, gives a better insight in the mechanisms related to corrosion phenomena in real-scale WtE plants and provides practical evidence for some phenomena that were only assumed on the basis of theory or lab scale experiments before. More specific, it confirms the role of oxygen content, temperatures in the different stages of the boiler, the presence of polysulphates, Pb and Zb, and the concentrations of HCl and SO 2 in the flue gas for different types of boiler corrosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. WT-BIRD. Bird collision monitoring system for multi-megawatt wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    A new method for detection and registration of bird collisions has been developed that is suitable for continuous remote operation in both onshore and offshore wind farms. The characteristic sound of a collision is detected by sensors in the blades, which triggers the storage of video registrations and sends an alert message to the operator. A prototype has been tested successfully on a Nordex N80/2.5MW turbine at ECN's Wind turbine Test park Wieringermeer. Compared to other methods employed so far this monitoring system will reduce the uncertainty in the number of birds killed by collisions with wind turbines. Further, the system enables the operator to identify species and to study the collision mechanisms. It has been found that this system can also be used for monitoring of other events in order to save costs for inspection and repair after incidents. For offshore wind farms, the WT-Bird system is currently the only alternative to count the number of bird collisions. Functional tests with tennis balls that were shot against rotating blades showed that the majority of the impacts were detected. The flight track of these dummies and the collision events were clearly visible on the video registrations. During the monitoring period of about one year two bird collisions were detected. The video recordings confirmed that a collision took place and showed that the location of both collisions was near the blade root, which resulted that in both cases the bird was not (immediately) killed. Therefore no corpses could be found beneath the turbine after these events. Also during the rest of the monitoring period no corpses were found beneath the turbine.

  3. Hyperfine interactions and structural features of Fe–44Co–6Mo (wt.%) nanostructured powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumeni, Hayet; Nemamcha, Abderrafik; Alleg, Safia; Grenèche, Jean Marc

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe–44Co–6Mo (wt.%) powders have been prepared by high-energy ball milling from elemental Fe, Co and Mo pure powders in a P7 planetary ball mill. The obtained powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectrometry techniques. The influence of milling process and Mo substitution for Co in equiatomic FeCo have been examined in order to study structural evolution and formation mechanism of nanostructured Fe(CoMo) solid solution. XRD results show the formation of a BCC Fe(CoMo) solid solution (a = 0.2874 nm) where unmixed nanocrystalline Mo with a BCC structure is embedded. Disordered Fe(CoMo) solid solution is characterized by a broad hyperfine magnetic field distribution with two regions centered at B 1 = 35.0 T and B 2 = 30.7 T, respectively, attributed to disordered Fe(Co) solid solution and CoMo enriched environments. Prolonged milling and Mo addition cause the decrease of average hyperfine magnetic field while the average isomer shift remains nearly constant. - Highlights: ► BCC nanostructured Fe(CoMo) solid solution is prepared by milling of Fe, Co and Mo. ► Formation mechanism: Co diffusion into Fe lattice and Mo dissolution in Fe(Co). ► Crystallite size of Fe(CoMo) solid solution reaches 11 nm after 24 h of milling. ► Mössbauer analysis reveals 3 components: high field, enriched Co and low field

  4. Hyperfine interactions and structural features of Fe–44Co–6Mo (wt.%) nanostructured powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moumeni, Hayet, E-mail: hmoumeni@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Computationnelle et Nanostructures, Département des Sciences de la Matière, Faculté des Mathématiques et de l' Informatique et des Sciences de la Matière, Université 08 Mai 1945 - Guelma, B.P. 401, Guelma 24000 (Algeria); Nemamcha, Abderrafik [Laboratoire d' Analyses Industrielles et Génie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université 08 Mai 1945 - Guelma, B.P. 401, Guelma 24000 (Algeria); Alleg, Safia [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Annaba, B.P. 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Grenèche, Jean Marc [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condensé, UMR CNRS 6087, Institut de Recherche en Ingénierie Moléculaire et Matériaux Fonctionnels IRIM2F, FR CNRS 2575, Université du Maine, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe–44Co–6Mo (wt.%) powders have been prepared by high-energy ball milling from elemental Fe, Co and Mo pure powders in a P7 planetary ball mill. The obtained powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectrometry techniques. The influence of milling process and Mo substitution for Co in equiatomic FeCo have been examined in order to study structural evolution and formation mechanism of nanostructured Fe(CoMo) solid solution. XRD results show the formation of a BCC Fe(CoMo) solid solution (a = 0.2874 nm) where unmixed nanocrystalline Mo with a BCC structure is embedded. Disordered Fe(CoMo) solid solution is characterized by a broad hyperfine magnetic field distribution with two regions centered at B{sub 1} = 35.0 T and B{sub 2} = 30.7 T, respectively, attributed to disordered Fe(Co) solid solution and CoMo enriched environments. Prolonged milling and Mo addition cause the decrease of average hyperfine magnetic field while the average isomer shift remains nearly constant. - Highlights: ► BCC nanostructured Fe(CoMo) solid solution is prepared by milling of Fe, Co and Mo. ► Formation mechanism: Co diffusion into Fe lattice and Mo dissolution in Fe(Co). ► Crystallite size of Fe(CoMo) solid solution reaches 11 nm after 24 h of milling. ► Mössbauer analysis reveals 3 components: high field, enriched Co and low field.

  5. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  11. Phase-field simulation of peritectic solidification closely coupled with directional solidification experiments in an Al-36 wt% Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siquieri, R; Emmerich, H; Doernberg, E; Schmid-Fetzer, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present experimental and theoretical investigations of the directional solidification of Al-36 wt% Ni alloy. A phase-field approach (Folch and Plapp 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 011602) is coupled with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method to be able to simulate directional solidification of Al-Ni alloy including the peritectic phase Al 3 Ni. The model approach is calibrated by systematic comparison to microstructures grown under controlled conditions in directional solidification experiments. To illustrate the efficiency of the model it is employed to investigate the effect of temperature gradient on the microstructure evolution of Al-36 wt% Ni during solidification.

  12. Prompt neutron decay constant for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor with 20 wt % 235U enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of the prompt neutron decay constant at delayed criticality for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) using 20 wt % 235 U enriched fuel and compares these measurements with similar measurements using 93.2 wt % 235 U enriched fuel. This reactor parameter is of interest because it affects the transient behavior of the reactor in prompt criticality accident situations. This experiment is part of a program to investigate the differences in the performance of research reactors fueled with highly enriched and low enriched uranium. The prompt neutron decay constants were obtained using noise analysis measurement techniques for a core with newly fabricated, unirradiated fuel elements

  13. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  14. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  15. Nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and montmorillonite: effect of clay percent and dispersion state on thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaioncz, Soraia; Soares, Bluma G.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites of epoxy resin modified with PMMA and montmorillonite organophilic were synthesized with clay content equal to 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5 and 7 (wt %). Dispersion state and the nano structure of materials has been investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The nanocomposites containing 0.1 (wt %) of clay showed an exfoliated morphology, while the nanocomposites with higher clay content (1 to 7 wt %) show that the dispersion state is less uniform and that large aggregates coexist with tactoids stacks of two or three platelets. The nano structure of materials was correlated with its thermomechanical properties obtained by DMTA. The results showed an increase in Tg of the materials to clay content of up to 5 wt % and an increase in the storage modulus for the epoxy matrix. (author)

  16. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  17. Influence of ZnO nano-particles addition on thermal analysis, microstructure evolution and tensile behavior of Sn–5.0 wt% Sb–0.5 wt% Cu lead-free solder alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.N., E-mail: alynabieh@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez-Canal University, 41522 Ismailia (Egypt); Eid, E.A., E-mail: dr_eid_hti@yahoo.com [Basic Science Department, Higher Technological Institute, 44629 10th of Ramadan City (Egypt)

    2015-04-24

    Sn–5 wt%Sb–0.5 wt%Cu (plain SSC505) and Sn–5 wt%Sb–0.5 wt%Cu–0.5 wt% ZnO (SSC-ZnO) composite solder alloys have been studied. The variation in thermal behavior, microstructure and tensile characteristics associated with mixing of 0.5 wt% ZnO nano-metric particles to plain SSC505 solder were investigated. A slight increment in the melting temperature [ΔT{sub m}=0.89 °C] was recorded using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after addition of ZnO. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the existence of β-Sn, SbSn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) beside some of ZnO planes in SSC-ZnO composite solder. Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FE-SEM) investigation of SSC-ZnO composite solder revealed a homogenous uniform distribution, size refinement of IMCs and β-Sn grains. Addition of ZnO nano-metric particles into the plain SSC505 enhanced the yield stress σ{sub YS} by ~12% and improved the ultimate tensile strength σ{sub UTS} by ~13%. In addition, adding ZnO nano-metric particles was found to be effective for reducing ductility by ~43% of the plain solder due to the refinement of β-Sn grains within SSC-ZnO composite solder. - Highlights: • Melting point of SSC505-ZnO composite solder is slightly increased by 0.89 {sup ο}C compared with the plain SSC505 solder. • XRD and EDX analysis reflect the presence of SbSn, Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMCs. • EF-SEM images of SSC-ZnO composite solder revealed homogenous uniform distribution of β-Sn grains and fine IMC particles. • A detectable improvement in the Young modulus, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were observed after addition of 0.5 wt% ZnO nano-metric particles.

  18. Correlation between oxidation and stress corrosion cracking of U-4.5 wt.% Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, N.J.; Holloway, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms causing stress corrosion cracking on uranium alloys, the kinetics of crack propagation and oxide film growth for U-4.5 percent Nb were investigated at temperatures between 0 0 C and 200 0 C in oxygen, water vapor and oxygen-water vapor mixtures. Three regions of crack velocity rate versus stress intensity were observed in laboratory air. At low stress intensities (but above an effective K/sub ISCC/ of 22 MN/m/sup 3 / 2 /) crack velocity varied approximately as K 70 . In an intermediate stress intensity region (region II) the crack velocity was dependent upon K 4 . In the high stress intensity region, mechanical overloading was observed and crack velocities varied approximately as K 12 . Both cracking (region II) and oxidation rates were characterized by an activation energy of 7 kcal/mole. For stress corrosion cracking it was shown that oxygen was the primary stress corrodent, but a synergistic effect upon crack propagation rates was observed for oxygen-water vapor mixtures. Crack velocities were dependent upon the pressure of oxygen (P/sub O 2 //sup 1 / 3 /) and water vapor, while the oxidation rate was essentially independent of the pressure of these species. Stress sorption and oxide film formation stress corrosion cracking mechanisms were considered and reconciled with the stress corrosion and oxidation data

  19. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  20. Effect of Reinforcement Content and Technological Parameters on the Properties of Cu-4 wt.% Ni-TiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pushkar; Gautam, R. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh

    2017-10-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis and investigation of microstructure, density, and hardness behavior of Cu-4 wt.% Ni-TiC metal matrix composites, produced by high-energy ball milling, followed by compaction and sintering. Matrix of Cu-4 wt.% Ni was used, and different weight percentages (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8) of TiC particles were added. The uniform distribution of TiC particles in the matrix alloy was confirmed by characterizing these composite powders by using scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Both the density and the hardness of the composite containing 4 wt.% TiC were found to be the highest. The density was found to decrease with increasing TiC content beyond 4 wt.%, and it has been attributed to the agglomeration of TiC particles leading to the formation of pores when added in relatively larger amounts. The compressibility behaviors of the milled powders were studied by using Panelli and Ambrosio Filho equation.

  1. On the underlying micromechanisms in time-dependent anelasticity in Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, L.I.J.C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reveals potential micro mechanisms underlying time-dependent anelasticity observed in Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films. The analyzed deformation mechanisms involve dislocation motion and interaction with solute diffusion, grain boundaries and precipitates. In order to investigate the role of these

  2. Influence of high-energy ion implantation on the microstructure of Sn - 9,8 wt. % Zn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakova, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The results of investigation of influence of Xe ion implantation on the microstructure of Sn - 9,8 wt. % Zn alloy are represented/ Analysis of the experimental results shows that the high-energy ion implantation of Xe causes a change in the particle size of zinc. (authors)

  3. Correlation study on waist circumference-triglyceride (WT) index and coronary artery scores in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R-F; Liu, X-Y; Lin, Z; Zhang, G

    2015-01-01

    Coronary disease is analyzed through common lipid profiles, but these analyses fail to account for residual risk due to abdominal weight and elevated TG levels. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the waist circumference × triglyceride index (WT index) and the Coronary Artery Score (CAS) in patients with coronary heart disease. 346 patients in our Cardiology Department were recruited from September 2007 to August 2011 and divided into two groups according to whether the patients presented with metabolic syndrome. We performed coronary angiography using the standard Judkins method. The severity of coronary artery stenosis and the CAS were calculated and analyzed with a computerized quantitative analysis system. The signs index, which includes the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and waist-height-ratio, the blood glucose and blood lipid index of all the patients were collected and used to calculate the WT index (waist circumference x triglyceride index. We performed a correlative analysis with age, gender, body mass index, blood glucose and blood lipid, blood pressure and other risk indicators of all patients as the dependent variables and the CAS as the independent variable. We show that the CAS is positively correlated to the WT index. Several lipid profiles and waist circumference were significantly associated with the CAS. The WT index is correlated to the CAS and is a good predictor for the development of coronary artery disease; it can be applied in the clinic for early intervention in populations at risk for coronary heart disease.

  4. THE EFFECT OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS ON Cr PRECIPITATIONS IN A Cu-0.8WT%Cr ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewang Shuai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution of Cu-based alloys during aging was studied using a quantitative metallographic method. Samples were cut from ingots of Cu-0.8wt%Cr and Cu-0.8wt%Cr-RE alloys. These were solution treated at 1000 ºC for 1.5h and subsequently quenched in water, then separately aged at 480 ºC for different durations. The microstructures were observed by optical microscope, and the characteristic geometric parameters of precipitated Cr phase, including volume fraction VV, face density NA, mean diameter and roundness, were measured. These data provided more details about the process of aging. The results showed that precipitation of Cr phase occurred in the form of particles during aging. Rare earth elements promoted the precipitation of Cr phase and dispersed Cr particles. The phenomenon of overaging came earlier in Cu-Cr-RE than in Cu-Cr. In the present work, the optimal aging time at 480 ºC was 2 hrs for the Cu-0.8wt%Cr-RE alloy and 3 hours for the Cu-0.8wt%Cr alloy.

  5. 20 CFR 645.215 - What must a WtW operating entity that serves noncustodial parent participants do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and children who may be at risk of domestic violence, the operating entity must consult with domestic violence prevention and intervention organizations in the development of its WtW project serving... school, (B) Earning a general equivalency degree, or (C) Participating in other education directly...

  6. Automatic Artifact Removal in EEG of Normal and Demented Individuals Using ICA–WT during Working Memory Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing dementia is a global challenge in supporting personalized health care. The electroencephalogram (EEG is a promising tool to support the diagnosis and evaluation of abnormalities in the human brain. The EEG sensors record the brain activity directly with excellent time resolution. In this study, EEG sensor with 19 electrodes were used to test the background activities of the brains of five vascular dementia (VaD, 15 stroke-related patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 15 healthy subjects during a working memory (WM task. The objective of this study is twofold. First, it aims to enhance the recorded EEG signals using a novel technique that combines automatic independent component analysis (AICA and wavelet transform (WT, that is, the AICA–WT technique; second, it aims to extract and investigate the spectral features that characterize the post-stroke dementia patients compared to the control subjects. The proposed AICA–WT technique is a four-stage approach. In the first stage, the independent components (ICs were estimated. In the second stage, three-step artifact identification metrics were applied to detect the artifactual components. The components identified as artifacts were marked as critical and denoised through DWT in the third stage. In the fourth stage, the corrected ICs were reconstructed to obtain artifact-free EEG signals. The performance of the proposed AICA–WT technique was compared with those of two other techniques based on AICA and WT denoising methods using cross-correlation X C o r r and peak signal to noise ratio ( P S N R (ANOVA, p ˂ 0.05. The AICA–WT technique exhibited the best artifact removal performance. The assumption that there would be a deceleration of EEG dominant frequencies in VaD and MCI patients compared with control subjects was assessed with AICA–WT (ANOVA, p ˂ 0.05. Therefore, this study may provide information on post-stroke dementia particularly VaD and stroke

  7. Can T1 w/T2 w ratio be used as a myelin-specific measure in subcortical structures? Comparisons between FSE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios, GRASE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios and multi-echo GRASE-based myelin water fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nasir; Figley, Teresa D; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Figley, Chase R

    2018-03-01

    Given the growing popularity of T 1 -weighted/T 2 -weighted (T 1 w/T 2 w) ratio measurements, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the concordance between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios obtained using conventional fast spin echo (FSE) versus combined gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequences for T 2 w image acquisition, and to compare the resulting T 1 w/T 2 w ratios with histologically validated myelin water fraction (MWF) measurements in several subcortical brain structures. In order to compare these measurements across a relatively wide range of myelin concentrations, whole-brain T 1 w magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE), T 2 w FSE and three-dimensional multi-echo GRASE data were acquired from 10 participants with multiple sclerosis at 3 T. Then, after high-dimensional, non-linear warping, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to compare T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWF estimates (across participants and brain regions) in 11 bilateral white matter (WM) and four bilateral subcortical grey matter (SGM) structures extracted from the JHU_MNI_SS 'Eve' atlas. Although the GRASE sequence systematically underestimated T 1 w/T 2 w values compared to the FSE sequence (revealed by Bland-Altman and mountain plots), linear regressions across participants and ROIs revealed consistently high correlations between the two methods (r 2 = 0.62 for all ROIs, r 2 = 0.62 for WM structures and r 2 = 0.73 for SGM structures). However, correlations between either FSE-based or GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs were extremely low in WM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.000020; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.0014), low across all ROIs (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.053; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.029) and moderate in SGM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.20; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.17). Overall, our findings indicated a high degree of correlation (but not equivalence) between FSE-based and GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios, and low correlations between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs. This

  8. Influence of Nb content on grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mao, W.M., E-mail: weiminmao@263.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jing, J.; Cheng, M. [Taizhou Xinyu Precision Manufacture Company Limited, Jiangyan 225500, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-11-20

    The influence of Nb contents between 0.20 and 1.20 wt% on the grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel produced by investment casting was investigated. The average grain sizes of the three steels decreased apparently with increasing Nb content mainly due to the increasing number of pre-existing oxides formed at higher temperature, which were more likely to be the nuclei of heterogeneous nucleation. The thermodynamic analysis of Nb(C,N) formation was in conformity to the experimental result that the Nb(C,N) precipitates became larger with increasing Nb content. The as-cast specimen with the smallest grain size of steel C had the worse tensile strength and elongation in comparison with the as-cast specimens of steels A and B, mostly owing to the catenarian and dendritic Nb(C,N) particles distributed densely at the grain boundaries. The mechanical properties of specimens were not improved remarkably through high temperature solid-solution, whereas the mechanical properties of normalized specimens in the three steels were improved to different degrees. The coalescence and sparse distribution of smaller precipitates at grain boundaries after normalizing effectively weakened the local stress concentration arising from the reticular distribution of particles. The normalized specimen of steel A with 0.24 wt% Nb still showed good mechanical properties. Normalizing at 850 °C for 2 h is the appropriate heat treatment for the 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel. The comparatively rational Nb content of the ferritic stainless steel is between 0.20 and 0.40 wt% for investment casting production.

  9. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  10. Health plan auditing: 100-percent-of-claims vs. random-sample audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillup, George P; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative efficacy of two different methodologies for auditing self-funded medical claim expenses: 100-percent-of-claims auditing versus random-sampling auditing. Multiple data sets of claim errors or 'exceptions' from two Fortune-100 corporations were analysed and compared to 100 simulated audits of 300- and 400-claim random samples. Random-sample simulations failed to identify a significant number and amount of the errors that ranged from $200,000 to $750,000. These results suggest that health plan expenses of corporations could be significantly reduced if they audited 100% of claims and embraced a zero-defect approach.

  11. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  12. Influence of Macro-Topography on Damage Tolerance and Fracture Toughness of 0.1 wt % Multi-Layer Graphene/Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Atif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of topographical features on mechanical properties of 0.1 wt % Multi-Layer Graphene (MLG/clay-epoxy nanocomposites has been studied. Three different compositions were made: (1 0.1 wt % MLG-EP; (2 0.1 wt % clay-EP and (3 0.05 wt % MLG-0.05 wt % clay-EP. The objective of making hybrid nanocomposites was to determine whether synergistic effects are prominent at low weight fraction of 0.1 wt % causing an improvement in mechanical properties. The topographical features studied include waviness (Wa, roughness average (Ra, root mean square value (Rq and maximum roughness height (Rmax or Rz. The Rz of as-cast 0.1 wt % MLG-EP, clay-EP and 0.05 wt % MLG-0.05 wt % clay-EP nanocomposites were 43.52, 48.43 and 41.8 µm respectively. A decrease in Rz values was observed by treating the samples with velvet cloth and abrasive paper 1200P while increased by treating with abrasive papers 320P and 60P. A weight loss of up to 16% was observed in samples after the treatment with the abrasive papers. It was observed that MLG is more effective in improving the mechanical properties of epoxy than nanoclay. In addition, no significant improvement in mechanical properties was observed in hybrid nanocomposites indicating that 0.1 wt % is not sufficient to generate conspicuous synergistic effects.

  13. The predominant WT1 isoform (+KTS) encodes a DNA-binding protein targeting the planar cell polarity gene Scribble in renal podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Julie; Rivera, Miguel N; Kim, Woo Jae; Starbuck, Kristen; Haber, Daniel A

    2010-07-01

    WT1 encodes a tumor suppressor first identified by its inactivation in Wilms' Tumor. Although one WT1 splicing variant encodes a well-characterized zinc finger transcription factor, little is known about the function of the most prevalent WT1 isoform, whose DNA binding domain is disrupted by a three-amino acid (KTS) insertion. Using cells that conditionally express WT1(+KTS), we undertook a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and cloning analysis to identify candidate WT1(+KTS)-regulated promoters. We identified the planar cell polarity gene Scribble (SCRB) as the first WT1(+KTS) target gene in podocytes of the kidney. WT1 and SCRB expression patterns overlap precisely in developing renal glomeruli of mice, and WT1(+KTS) binds to a 33-nucleotide region within the Scribble promoter in mouse and human cell lines and kidneys. Together, our results support a role for the predominant WT1(+KTS) isoform in transcriptional regulation and suggest a link between the WT1-dependent tumor suppressor pathway and a key component of the planar cell polarity pathway.

  14. The predominant WT1 isoform (+KTS) encodes a DNA binding protein targeting the planar cell polarity gene Scribble in renal podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Julie; Rivera, Miguel N.; Kim, Woo Jae; Starbuck, Kristen; Haber, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    WT1 encodes a tumor suppressor, first identified by its inactivation in Wilms Tumor. While one WT1 splicing variant encodes a well-characterized zinc finger transcription factor, little is known about the function of the most prevalent WT1 isoform, whose DNA binding domain is disrupted by a three amino acid (KTS) insertion. Using cells which conditionally express WT1(+KTS), we undertook a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and cloning (ChIP-cloning) analysis to identify candidate WT1(+KTS) regulated promoters. We identified the planar cell polarity (PCP) gene Scribble (SCRB) as the first WT1(+KTS) target gene in podocytes of the kidney. WT1 and SCRB expression patterns overlap precisely in developing renal glomeruli of mice, and WT1(+KTS) binds to a 33 nucleotide region within the Scribble promoter in both mouse and human cell lines and kidneys. Together, our results support a role for the predominant WT1(+KTS) isoform in transcriptional regulation and suggest a link between the WT1-dependent tumor suppressor pathway and a key component of the planar cell polarity pathway. PMID:20571064

  15. Adsorption and transport of cadmium and rhodamine WT in pumice sand columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, L.; Close, M.; Greenfield, H.; Stanton, G.

    2004-01-01

    The transport and attenuation of cadmium (Cd) and rhodamine WT (RWT) in a pumice sand aquifer media was investigated using column experiments to study a scenario of point-source contamination. A pore-water velocity of 1.7-1.8 m/day, which is a typical field groundwater velocity in a pumice sand aquifer system, was applied to triplicate columns. A pulse of a solution containing Cd and RWT, together with the conservative tracer tritiated water ( 3 H 2 O) at pH = 7, was introduced into the columns. Experimental results showed that concentration breakthrough curves (BTCs) of 3 H 2 O were symmetrical and fitted well into an equilibrium model. In contrast, BTCs of Cd and RWT were asymmetrical with significant tailings and fitted well with a two-site adsorption/desorption model. The symmetric 3 H 2 O BTCs suggest that physical non-equilibrium was absent in the experimental system, therefore the asymmetrical BTCs of Cd and RWT were attributed to chemical non-equilibrium. Modelling results showed that, in comparison with 3 H 2 O, Cd was apparently retarded by 101-108 times in pumice sand aquifer media (apparent adsorption coefficient 7.33-9.24 ml/g) and underwent a mass loss of 20-30% that was probably because of precipitation of CdCO 3 . As CdCO 3 is extremely insoluble, Cd precipitation would be irreversible and therefore it would not contribute to the tailing of the Cd BTCs. The experimental results suggest that the adsorption and desorption of Cd in pumice sand aquifer media in hydrodynamic conditions was a kinetic process. Cd desorption rates were two orders-of-magnitude slower than its adsorption rates. This resulted in a prolonged mean residence time for Cd in pumice sand aquifer media, which was 10-12 days in the 18-cm-long columns under a flow velocity of 1.7-1.8 m/day. Since the mean residence time is only indicative for the arrival of the central of mass in a contaminant BTC, the time required for the total disappearance of Cd will be much longer than the mean

  16. Impact of beryllium additions on thermal and mechanical properties of conventionally solidified and melt-spun Al–4.5 wt.%Mn–x wt.%Be (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öz, Turan; Karaköse, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and mechanical properties of Al–Mn–Be alloys were investigated. • IQC Al–Mn–Be alloys were synthesized by the CS and MS techniques. • The volume fraction of IQC increases continuously with Be content. • The melting points of the QC i-phase were determined between 652 °C and 675 °C. • The maximum H V and σ values were found to be 124 kg/mm 2 and 458 MPa with the addition of 5% Be. - Abstract: The influence of beryllium (Be) addition on the quasicrystal-forming ability, thermal and mechanical properties of Al–4.5 wt.%Mn–x wt.%Be (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys was investigated in this study. Quasicrystalline Al–Mn–Be alloys were synthesized by the conventionally casting and melt spinning techniques. The microstructures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the phase composition was identified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The phase transition during the solidification process was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) under an Ar atmosphere. The mechanical properties of the conventionally solidified (CS) and melt-spun (MS) samples were measured by a Vickers micro-hardness indenter and tensile-strength tests. The Al–4.5 wt.%Mn alloy has a hexagonal structure and minor dendritic icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (IQC) precipitates surrounded by an α-Al matrix. Addition of Be into the Al–4.5 wt.%Mn alloy generates intermetallic Be 4 AlMn and IQC phases with the extinction of the hexagonal phase, and the fraction of IQC increases continuously with the increase in Be content. A considerable improvement in microhardness and tensile strength values was observed due to the addition of Be in different percentages into the composition

  17. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = -0.52, P marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r (2) = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) - 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.

  18. Relationship between depression with FEV1 percent predicted and BODE index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Hanum, H.; Abidin, A.; Hanida, W.

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported more than 3 million people die from COPD in 2012 and are expected to rank third after cardiovascular and cancer diseases in the future. Recent studies reported the prevalence of depression in COPD patients was higher than in control group. So, it’s important for clinicians to understand the relationship of depression symptoms with clinical aspects of COPD. For determining the association of depression symptoms with lung function and BODE index in patients with stable COPD, a cross-sectional study was in 98 stable COPD outpatients from January to June 2017. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman’s rank correlation. COPD patients with depression had higher mMRC scores, and lower FEV1 percent predicted, and then 6-Minutes Walk Test compared to those without depression. There was a moderate strength of correlation (r=-0.43) between depression symptoms and FEV1 percent predicted, and strong correlation (r=0.614) between depression symptoms and BODE index. It indicates that BODE index is more accurate to describe symptoms of depression in COPD patients.

  19. Physical and electrical properties of melt-spun Fe-Si (3–8 wt.%) soft magnetic ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Jiang, Xiujuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Clark, Trevor; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Coffey, Gregory; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Mathaudhu, Suveen N.

    2018-02-01

    Fe-Si alloys ranging from 3 to 8 wt% Si were rapidly solidified using melt spinning. Wheel speeds of 30 m/s and 40 m/s were employed to vary cooling rates. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicated the Si content significantly influenced the number of Fe sites, relative abundance of various Fe species, and internal magnetic fields/structural environments. Wheel speed altered Fe speciation only in the 3 wt% sample. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that increasing the wheel speed refined both the ribbon thickness and grain size. Electron backscatter diffraction results suggest tailoring melt spinning process parameters and alloy chemistry may offer the ability to manipulate {001} texture development. Electrical resistivity measurements were observed to increase in response to elevated Si content. Increased hardness was correlated to elevated Si content and wheel speed.

  20. Effects of strontium on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-5 wt.%Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Yungui; Zhao, Haofeng; Wei, Shanghai; Gao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The strontium (Sr) addition to the Mg-5 wt.%Sn alloy results in grain refinement and the formation of a rod-shaped and a bone-shaped MgSnSr intermetallic phase which are mainly straddle on the grain boundaries. The yield strength is improved, while the tensile strength and elongation first increased, and then decreased with a large addition of Sr. Optimum mechanical properties at ambient temperature are obtained at a content of 2.14 wt.%Sr. Tensile properties of the alloys at elevated temperatures are also improved, and the decrease of strength at elevated temperature slowed down with increasing Sr addition, indicating that Sr can improve the thermal stability of Mg-Sn alloys.

  1. Effect of graphenenano-platelets on the mechanical properties of Mg/3wt%Al alloy-nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravir; Kujur, MilliSuchita; Mallick, Ashis; Sandar Tun, Khin; Gupta, Manoj

    2018-04-01

    The bulk Mg/3%Al/0.1%GNP alloy-nano composite was fabricated using powder metallurgy route assisted with microwave sintering and followed by hot extrusion. The microstructural and Raman spectroscopy studies were performed to characterize the graphene nano-platelet(GNP).EDX tests confirmed the presence and the homogeneous distribution of Al and graphene nano-platelets in the magnesium alloy-nanocomposite. The addition of 3 wt% Al and 0.1wt%GNP to the Mg changed Vicker hardness, ultimate tensile strength and failure strain by +46.15%,+17.6% and -5% respectively. The fabricated composite offers higher resistance to the local deformation than monolithic Mg and Mg/3%Al alloy, revealed by the load/unload-indentation depth curve.

  2. Absorption of dissolved hydrogen from lithiated water during accelerated corrosion of zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolescu, A.V.; Mayer, P.; Rasile, E.M.; Mummenhoff, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was carried out to determine the extent of dissolved hydrogen absorption from lithiated water by zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy during corrosion. The material was exposed at 340 0 C to 1 M LiOH aqueous solution containing 0 to approximately 70 cm 3 /L of dissolved hydrogen. Results indicate that dissolved hydrogen has no effect on the corrosion rate or on the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the material

  3. Effect of nano size 3% wt TaC particles dispersion in two different metallic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, L.A.; Souza, C.P.; Menezes, R.C.; Furukava, M.; Torres, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the characteristics of two different metallic matrixes composites, ferritic and austenitic steels, reinforced with 3% wt nano size tantalum carbide by powder metallurgy. The starting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the nano sized carbide dispersion on the matrix microstructures and its consequences on the mechanical properties were identified. The preliminary results showed that the sintering were influenced by morphology and the distribution of carbide and the alloys. (author)

  4. The mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt.% W14Al86 alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.G.; Ma, X.F.; Zhao, W.; Cai, S.G.; Zhao, B.; Qiao, Z.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mg-based metal matrix composite reinforced by 10 wt.% W 14 Al 86 alloy particles has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming process. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of the composite. Microstructure characterization of the samples reveals the uniform distribution of fine W 14 Al 86 alloy. Mechanical properties characterization revealed that the reinforcement of W 14 Al 86 alloy lead to a significant increase in hardness and tensile strength of Mg and AZ91

  5. Carotid bifurcation calcium and correlation with percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Casey, Sean O.; Teksam, Mehmet; Truwit, Charles L.; Kieffer, Stephen; Lucato, Leandro T.; Smith, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between calcium burden (expressed as a volume) and extent of stenosis of the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by CT angiography (CTA). Previous studies have shown that calcification in the coronary arteries correlates with significant vessel stenosis, and severe calcification (measured by CT) in the carotid siphon correlates with significant (greater than 50% stenosis) as determined angiographically. Sixty-one patients (age range 50-85 years) underwent CT of the neck with intravenous administration of iodinated contrast for a variety of conditions. Images were obtained with a helical multidetector array CT scanner and reviewed on a three-dimensional workstation. A single observer manipulated window and level to segment calcified plaque from vascular enhancement in order to quantify vascular calcium volume (cc) in the region of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery/ICA origin, and to measure the extent of ICA stenosis near the origin. A total of 117 common carotid artery bifurcations were reviewed. A ''significant'' stenosis was defined arbitrarily as >40% (to detect lesions before they become hemodynamically significant) of luminal diameter on CTA using NASCET-like criteria. All ''significant'' stenoses (21 out of 117 carotid bifurcations) had measurable calcium. We found a relatively strong correlation between percent stenosis and the calcium volume (Pearson's r= 0.65, P<0.0001). We also found that there was an even stronger correlation between the square root of the calcium volume and the percent stenosis as measured by CTA (r= 0.77, P<0.0001). Calcium volumes of 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 cc were used as thresholds to evaluate for a ''significant'' stenosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that thresholds of 0.06 cc (sensitivity 88%, specificity 87%) and 0.03 cc (sensitivity 94%, specificity 76%) generated the best combinations of sensitivity and

  6. Fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si Ribbons by Melt Spinning Method on Large Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt spinning method has been widely applied for fabrication of Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline ribbons in industry. Compared with Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline alloys, Fe-6.5wt%Si high silicon steel is of low cost and has comparable excellent soft magnetic properties. Due to higher melting point and absence of supercooled liquid region, fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons is very hard and is only on lab scale. In this paper, we report that large scale fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons was successful and microstructures, ordered structures, and mechanical and soft magnetic properties of the ribbons were investigated. Due to rapid solidification rate, the ribbons were of ultrafine grains, and low degree of order and exhibited some extent of bending and tensile ductility. After heat treatment, excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained. Due to near-zero magnetostriction, the ribbons are promising to be used in electric devices with high frequencies where low noises are required.

  7. Etching characteristics of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH with addition of hydroxylamine for the fabrication of bulk micromachined MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. V. Narasimha; Swarnalatha, V.; Pal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Anisotropic wet etching is a most widely employed for the fabrication of MEMS/NEMS structures using silicon bulk micromachining. The use of Si{110} in MEMS is inevitable when a microstructure with vertical sidewall is to be fabricated using wet anisotropic etching. In most commonly employed etchants (i.e. TMAH and KOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) exhibits higher etch rate and provides improved anisotropy between Si{111} and Si{110} planes. In the manufacturing company, high etch rate is demanded to increase the productivity that eventually reduces the cost of end product. In order to modify the etching characteristics of KOH for the micromachining of Si{110}, we have investigated the effect of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in 20 wt% KOH solution. The concentration of NH2OH is varied from 0 to 20% and the etching is carried out at 75 °C. The etching characteristics which are studied in this work includes the etch rates of Si{110} and silicon dioxide, etched surface morphology, and undercutting at convex corners. The etch rate of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH + 15% NH2OH solution is measured to be four times more than that of pure 20 wt% KOH. Moreover, the addition of NH2OH increases the undercutting at convex corners and enhances the etch selectivity between Si and SiO2.

  8. Analysis of SNP rs16754 of WT1 gene in a series of de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Irene; Such, Esperanza; Cervera, Jose; Barragán, Eva; Jiménez-Velasco, Antonio; Dolz, Sandra; Ibáñez, Mariam; Gómez-Seguí, Inés; López-Pavía, María; Llop, Marta; Fuster, Óscar; Oltra, Silvestre; Moscardó, Federico; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Senent, M Leonor; Gascón, Adriana; Montesinos, Pau; Martín, Guillermo; Bolufer, Pascual; Sanz, Miguel A

    2012-12-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16754 of the WT1 gene has been previously described as a possible prognostic marker in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Nevertheless, the findings in this field are not always reproducible in different series. One hundred and seventy-five adult de novo AML patients were screened with two different methods for the detection of SNP rs16754: high-resolution melting (HRM) and FRET hybridization probes. Direct sequencing was used to validate both techniques. The SNP was detected in 52 out of 175 patients (30 %), both by HRM and hybridization probes. Direct sequencing confirmed that every positive sample in the screening methods had a variation in the DNA sequence. Patients with the wild-type genotype (WT1(AA)) for the SNP rs16754 were significantly younger than those with the heterozygous WT1(AG) genotype. No other difference was observed for baseline characteristic or outcome between patients with or without the SNP. Both techniques are equally reliable and reproducible as screening methods for the detection of the SNP rs16754, allowing for the selection of those samples that will need to be sequenced. We were unable to confirm the suggested favorable outcome of SNP rs16754 in de novo AML.

  9. A fuzzy neural network model to forecast the percent cloud coverage and cloud top temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processes are highly nonlinear. A small group at the METU in Ankara has been working on a fuzzy data driven generic model of nonlinear processes. The model developed is called the Middle East Technical University Fuzzy Neural Network Model (METU-FNN-M. The METU-FNN-M consists of a Fuzzy Inference System (METU-FIS, a data driven Neural Network module (METU-FNN of one hidden layer and several neurons, and a mapping module, which employs the Bezier Surface Mapping technique. In this paper, the percent cloud coverage (%CC and cloud top temperatures (CTT are forecast one month ahead of time at 96 grid locations. The probable influence of cosmic rays and sunspot numbers on cloudiness is considered by using the METU-FNN-M.

  10. Phased Acoustic Array Measurements of a 5.75 Percent Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Nathan J.; Horne, William C.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Cheng, Rui; Brusniak, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Detailed acoustic measurements of the noise from the leading-edge Krueger flap of a 5.75 percent Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft model were recently acquired with a traversing phased microphone array in the AEDC NFAC (Arnold Engineering Development Complex, National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The spatial resolution of the array was sufficient to distinguish between individual support brackets over the full-scale frequency range of 100 to 2875 Hertz. For conditions representative of landing and take-off configuration, the noise from the brackets dominated other sources near the leading edge. Inclusion of flight-like brackets for select conditions highlights the importance of including the correct number of leading-edge high-lift device brackets with sufficient scale and fidelity. These measurements will support the development of new predictive models.

  11. Estimation of the volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Atushi

    1988-01-01

    The volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen were estimated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-phytate. Clinical usefulness of these parameters was evaluated by comparison with other liver function tests in 87 patients including 25 normal controls, 24 liver cirrhosis and 16 other chronic liver diseases. SPECT images were obtained by Maxi Camera 400T. Cut-off level for reconstruction of images and relationship between counts and activity (mCi) were obtained from phantom studies. Volumes estimated using SPECT and computed tomography were compared in 16 patients. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Optimal cut-off level for measurement of volumes for the liver was 37 % and for the spleen was 42 %. 2) Correlation between organ volumes estimated with CT and SPECT was good (r = 0.92 for the liver and r = 0.96 for the spleen), although volumes measured with SPECT were larger than those with CT. 3) Significant differences of percent uptake were observed between normal controls and liver cirrhosis. 4) Better correlation between spleen volumes and uptake was recognized in cases without liver cirrhosis than in cases with liver cirrhosis. The spleen uptake in liver cirrhosis was higher than those in others in comparison with the volume. 5) The liver/spleen ratio of 99m Tc-phytae uptake could most clearly differentiate liver cirrhosis from others. 6) Negative correlation was observed between liver volume or uptake and ICG (R 15 ). Estimation of volume and uptake of the liver and spleen could be a useful procedure to assess liver function, probably related with effective hepatic blood flow in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  12. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  13. 26 CFR 1.46-9 - Requirements for taxpayers electing an extra one-half percent additional investment credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent additional investment credit for property described in section 46(a)(2)(D). Paragraph (c) of this...-half percent additional investment credit. 1.46-9 Section 1.46-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in...

  14. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  15. 40 CFR 63.5885 - How do I calculate percent reduction to demonstrate compliance for continuous lamination/casting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I calculate percent reduction to... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5885 How do I calculate percent reduction to demonstrate compliance for continuous lamination/casting...

  16. SERIAL PERCENT-FREE PSA IN COMBINATION WITH PSA FOR POPULATION-BASED EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Gelfond, Jonathan; Goros, Martin; Herrera, Jesus; Strobl, Andreas; Thompson, Ian M.; Hernandez, Javier; Leach, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the diagnostic properties of serial percent-free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in relation to PSA in a multi-ethnic, multi-racial cohort of healthy men. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6,982 percent-free PSA and PSA measures were obtained from participants in a 12 year+ Texas screening study comprising 1625 men who never underwent biopsy, 497 who underwent one or more biopsies negative for prostate cancer, and 61 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Area underneath the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC) for percent-free PSA, and the proportion of patients with fluctuating values across multiple visits were determined according to two thresholds (under 15% versus 25%) were evaluated. The proportion of cancer cases where percent-free PSA indicated a positive test before PSA > 4 ng/mL did and the number of negative biopsies that would have been spared by percent-free PSA testing negative were computed. RESULTS Percent-free PSA fluctuated around its threshold of PSA tested positive earlier than PSA in 71.4% (34.2%) of cancer cases, and among men with multiple negative biopsies and a PSA > 4 ng/mL, percent-free PSA would have tested negative in 31.6% (65.8%) instances. CONCLUSIONS Percent-free PSA should accompany PSA testing in order to potentially spare unnecessary biopsies or detect cancer earlier. When near the threshold, both tests should be repeated due to commonly observed fluctuation. PMID:26979652

  17. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  18. The oncogenic properties of EWS/WT1 of desmoplastic small round cell tumors are unmasked by loss of p53 in murine embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Thomas, David M; Algar, Elizabeth; Ekert, Paul G; Jabbour, Anissa M; Riffkin, Christopher; Salmanidis, Marika; Gordon, Lavinia; Popovski, Dean; Rigby, Lin; Ashley, David M; Watkins, David N

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is characterized by the presence of a fusion protein EWS/WT1, arising from the t (11;22) (p13;q12) translocation. Here we examine the oncogenic properties of two splice variants of EWS/WT1, EWS/WT1-KTS and EWS/WT1 + KTS. We over-expressed both EWS/WT1 variants in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of wild-type, p53 +/- and p53 -/- backgrounds and measured effects on cell-proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, clonogenicity after serum withdrawal, and sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and gamma irradiation in comparison to control cells. We examined gene expression profiles in cells expressing EWS/WT1. Finally we validated our key findings in a small series of DSRCT. Neither isoform of EWS/WT1 was sufficient to transform wild-type MEFs however the oncogenic potential of both was unmasked by p53 loss. Expression of EWS/WT1 in MEFs lacking at least one allele of p53 enhanced cell-proliferation, clonogenic survival and anchorage-independent growth. EWS/WT1 expression in wild-type MEFs conferred resistance to cell-cycle arrest after irradiation and daunorubicin induced apoptosis. We show DSRCT commonly have nuclear localization of p53, and copy-number amplification of MDM2/MDMX. Expression of either isoform of EWS/WT1 induced characteristic mRNA expression profiles. Gene-set enrichment analysis demonstrated enrichment of WNT pathway signatures in MEFs expressing EWS/WT1 + KTS. Wnt-activation was validated in cell lines with over-expression of EWS/WT1 and in DSRCT. In conclusion, we show both isoforms of EWS/WT1 have oncogenic potential in MEFs with loss of p53. In addition we provide the first link between EWS/WT1 and Wnt-pathway signaling. These data provide novel insights into the function of the EWS/WT1 fusion protein which characterize DSRCT

  19. Morphoproteomic profiling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (EWS/WT1), Ewing's sarcoma (EWS/FLI1) and Wilms' tumor(WT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Brown, Robert E; Jiang, Yunyun; Buryanek, Jamie; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Kurzrock, Razelle; Anderson, Pete M

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare sarcoma in adolescents and young adults. The hallmark of this disease is a EWS-WT1 translocation resulting from apposition of the Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) gene with the Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene. We performed morphoproteomic profiling of DSRCT (EWS-WT1), Ewing's sarcoma (EWS-FLI1) and Wilms' tumor (WT1) to better understand the signaling pathways for selecting future targeted therapies. This pilot study assessed patients with DSRCT, Wilms' tumor and Ewing's sarcoma. Morphoproteomics and immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect: p-mTOR (Ser2448); p-Akt (Ser473); p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204); p-STAT3 (Tyr 705); and cell cycle-related analytes along with their negative controls. In DSRCT the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is constitutively activated by p-Akt (Ser 473) expression in the nuclear compartment of the tumor cells and p-mTOR phosphorylated on Ser 2448, suggesting mTORC2 (rictor+mTOR) as the dominant form. Ewing's sarcoma had upregulated p-Akt and p-mTOR, predominantly mTORC2. In Wilm's tumor, the mTOR pathway is also activated with most tumor cells moderately expressing p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic compartments. This coincides with the constitutive activation of one of the downstream effectors of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, namely p-p70S6K (Thr 389). There was constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway p-ERK 1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) expression in the Wilms tumor and metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, but not in the DSRCT. MORPHOPROTEOMIC TUMOR ANALYSES REVEALED CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE MTOR PATHWAY AS EVIDENCED BY: (a) expression of phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-p70S6K; (b) mTORC 2 in EWS and DSRCT; (c) ERK signaling was seen in the advanced setting indicating these as resistance pathways to IGF1R related therapies. This is the first morphoproteomic study of such pathways in these rare malignancies and may have potential therapeutic implications. Further study using morphoproteomic

  20. Melting, casting, and alpha-phase extrusion of the uranium-2.4 weight percent niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Beck, D.E.; Kollie, T.G.; Zorinsky, E.J.; Jones, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    The experimental details of the melting, casting, homogenization, and alpha-phase extrusion process used to fabricate the uranium-2.4 wt % niobium alloy into 46-mm-diameter rods is described. Extrusion defects that were detected by an ultrasonic technique were eliminated by proper choice of extrusion parameters; namely, reduction ratio, ram speed, die angle, and billet preheat temperature

  1. Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Aronson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants. Because no single survey dataset contains top wealth holders and data about country of origin, this paper uses two publicly-available data sets: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Multiple imputation is used to impute country of birth from the SIPP into the SCF. Descriptive statistics are used to demonstrate reliability of the method, to estimate the prevalence of immigrants among top wealth holders, and to document patterns of asset ownership among affluent immigrants. Significant numbers of top wealth holders who are usually classified as white natives may be immigrants. Many top wealth holders appear to be European and Canadian immigrants, and increasing numbers of top wealth holders are likely from Asia and Latin America as well. Results suggest that of those in the top one percent of wealth holders, approximately 3% are European and Canadian immigrants, .5% are from Mexico or Cuban, and 1.7% are from Asia (especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and India). Ownership of key assets varies considerably across affluent immigrant groups. Although the percentage of top wealth holders who are immigrants is relatively small, these percentages represent large numbers of households with considerable resources and corresponding social and political influence. Evidence that the propensity to allocate wealth to real and financial assets varies across immigrant groups suggests that

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ TiC and Nd2O3 particles reinforced Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjiang; Li, Yibin; Song, Guangping; Sun, Yue; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yuxin; He, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → (TiC + Nd 2 O 3 )/Ti-4.5 wt.%Si composites were in situ synthesized. → The phase components and microstructures of the composites were investigated. → In situ reinforcements improve the mechanical properties of the matrix alloy. -- Abstract: (TiC + Nd 2 O 3 )/Ti-4.5 wt.%Si composites were in situ synthesized by a non-consumable arc-melting technology. The phases in the composites were identified by X-ray diffraction. Microstructures of the composites were observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The composite contains four phases: TiC, Nd 2 O 3 , Ti 5 Si 3 and Ti. The TiC and Nd 2 O 3 particles with dendritic and near-equiaxed shapes are well distributed in Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy matrix, and the fine Nd 2 O 3 particles exist in the network Ti + Ti 5 Si 3 eutectic cells and Ti matrix of the composites. The hardness and compressive strength of the composites are markedly higher than that of Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy. When the TiC content is fixed as 10 wt.% in the composites, the hardness is enhanced as the Nd 2 O 3 content increases from 8 wt.% to 13 wt.%, but the compressive strength peaks at the Nd 2 O 3 content of 8 wt.%.

  3. 20 CFR 645.125 - What are the roles of the local and State governmental partners in the governance of the WtW...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inconsistent with the WtW statute or regulations or with State policies. (b) States should establish policies... policies, interpretations, guidelines and definitions are not inconsistent with the WtW statute or regulations. (c) The Secretary, in consultation with other Federal Agencies, as appropriate, may publish...

  4. Role of percent tissue altered on ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Smadja, David; Wilson, Steven E; Krueger, Ronald R; Monteiro, Mario L R; Randleman, J Bradley

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association of the percent tissue altered (PTA) with the occurrence of ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious preoperative corneal topography. This retrospective comparative case-control study compared associations of reported ectasia risk factors in 129 eyes, including 57 eyes with suspicious preoperative Placido-based corneal topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (suspect ectasia group), 32 eyes with suspicious topography that remained stable for at least 3 years after LASIK (suspect control group), and 30 eyes that developed ectasia with bilateral normal topography (normal topography ectasia group). Groups were subdivided based on topographic asymmetry into high- or low-suspect groups. The PTA, preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT), residual stromal bed (RSB), and age (years) were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Average PTA values for normal topography ectasia (45), low-suspect ectasia (39), high-suspect ectasia (36), low-suspect control (32), and high-suspect control (29) were significantly different from one another in all comparisons (P topography ectasia groups, and CCT was not significantly different between any groups. Stepwise logistic regression revealed the PTA as the most significant independent variable (P topography. Less tissue alteration, or a lower PTA value, was necessary to induce ectasia in eyes with more remarkable signs of topographic abnormality, and PTA provided better discriminative capabilities than RSB for all study populations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  6. Detection of viability by percent thallium uptake with conventional thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kamon; Araki, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Kou-ichi; Yumikura, Sei; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kan-matsuse, Katsuo; Hagiwara, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) is used for diagnosis of viability in infarcted myocardium before coronary revascularization. Underestimation of viability by TMS has been reported by many investigators. To evaluate viability precisely, thallium re-injection method or 24 hour delayed imaging is performed. However, these techniques are not convenient and are difficult to perform in clinical practice. Percent T1-uptake method was developed for predicting myocardial viability. To evaluate usefulness of this method, TMS was performed before and after PTCA in 23 patients with myocardial infarction. Left ventricle was divided into 3 layers, then each layer was divided into 4 segments (12 segments in total). Forth three segments showed recovery of perfusion on TMS after PTCA. Viability in infarcted myocardium is predicted by 1) redistribution (RD), 2) %T1-uptake≥45% on the image immediately after exercise (TE), and 3) %T1-uptake≥45% on delayed image (TD). Sensitivity was RD: 60%, TE: 90% and TD: 95% (p<0.001 vs. RD). Specificity was RD: 74%, TE: 68%, and TD: 60% (NS). Predictive accuracy (PA) was RD: 69%, TE: 77%, TD: 73% (NS). Compared with RD, %T1-uptake, either TE or TD, increased sensitivity with slightly improved PA, but decreased specificity slightly. Therefore %T1-uptake would be a sensitive and useful predictor to find patients who are most likely to benefit from re-vascularization. (author)

  7. EPIC Studies: Governments Finance, On Average, More Than 50 Percent Of Immunization Expenses, 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan; Schütte, Carl; Goguadze, Keti; Valdez, Werner; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Guthrie, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Governments in resource-poor settings have traditionally relied on external donor support for immunization. Under the Global Vaccine Action Plan, adopted in 2014, countries have committed to mobilizing additional domestic resources for immunization. Data gaps make it difficult to map how well countries have done in spending government resources on immunization to demonstrate greater ownership of programs. This article presents findings of an innovative approach for financial mapping of routine immunization applied in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda, and Zambia. This approach uses modified System of Health Accounts coding to evaluate data collected from national and subnational levels and from donor agencies. We found that government sources accounted for 27-95 percent of routine immunization financing in 2011, with countries that have higher gross national product per capita better able to finance requirements. Most financing is channeled through government agencies and used at the primary care level. Sustainable immunization programs will depend upon whether governments have the fiscal space to allocate additional resources. Ongoing robust analysis of routine immunization should be instituted within the context of total health expenditure tracking. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  9. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  10. Investigating the effect of multiple grain-grain interfaces on electric transport behavior of [50 wt% BaFe12O19-50 wt% Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3] magnetoelectric nanocomposite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Ranjit; Raut, Subhajit; Dash, Tapan; Mohapatra, Soumyaranjan; Muduli, Rakesh; Panigrahi, Simanchala

    2017-05-01

    Polycrystalline [50 wt% BaFe12O19 (BaM)-50 wt% Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT)] particulate novel magnetoelectric nanocomposite system was successfully fabricated by solid state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction pattern was provided the evidence about the pure phase formation of desired nanocomposite system as well as the presence of both ferrimagnetic (FM) BaM & ferroelectric (FE) NBT phases separately. The Field Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM) and Scanning Tunneling Electron Micrograph (STEM) explored the information about grain size and connectivity of the composite system. The XPS study was helped to examine the presence of oxygen vacancy (Ov) as well as multi oxidation states of transition metal ions for nanocomposite system. In this report we have systematically examined the conduction mechanism of different interfaces (BaM-BaM, BaM-NBT and NBT-NBT) by the help of complex impedance spectroscopy technique. From our investigation it was observed that, different interfaces activates at different temperature ranges. Due to absence of OV, BaM-NBT interfaces conduction dominants over BaM-BaM interfaces conduction even at room temperature (RT). The mechanism behind the appeared high dielectric loss (tanδ) at RT which was reduced when NBT-NBT interfaces were activates at higher temperature was explained by Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization concept.

  11. Examination of temperature-induced shape memory of uranium--5.3-to 6.9 weight percent niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    The uranium-niobium alloy system was examined in the range of 5.3-to-6.9 weight percent niobium with respect to shape memory, mechanical properties, metallography, Coefficients of linear thermal expansion, and differential thermal analysis. Shape memory increased with increasing niobium levels in the study range. There were no useful correlations found between shape memory and the other tests. Coefficients of linear thermal expansion tests of as-quenched 5.8 and 6.2 weight percent niobium specimens, but not 5.3 and 6.9 weight percent niobium specimens, had a contraction component on heating, but the phenomenon was not a contributor to shape memory

  12. Hurst's Exponent Determination for Radial Distribution Functions of In, Sn and In-40 wt%Sn Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yong-Zhi; Li Mei; Geng Hao-Ran; Yang Zhong-Xi; Sun Chun-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Hurst's exponent of radial distribution functions (RDFs) within the short-range scope of In, Sn and In-40 wt % Sn melts are determined by the rescaled range analysis method. Hurst's exponents H are between 0.94 and 0.97, which display long-range dependence. Within short-range scope, the number of particles from a reference particle belongs to fractional Brownian motion. After RDF serials are randomly scrambled, Hurst's exponents all dramatically dropped, which proves long-range dependence. H irregularly varies as the temperature rises, but the change tendency is not consistent with the correlation radius r c . (general)

  13. Effect of Al and AlP on the microstructure of Mn-30 wt.%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Effect of Al and AlP particles on the microstructure of near eutectic Mn-Si alloy (Mn-30 wt.%Si) was studied by Electron Probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Crystal lattice correspondence analyses show that both Al and AlP have good lattice matching coherence relationships with MnSi phase, and the addition of Al and AlP particles results in an abnormal eutectic structure, i.e. the eutectic constitution MnSi and Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} precipitate separately: MnSi precipitates firstly, and then the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase.

  14. Critical experiments with 4.31 wt % 235U-enriched UO2 rods in highly borated water lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, B.M.; Bierman, S.R.; Clayton, E.D.

    1982-08-01

    A series of critical experiments were performed with 4.31 wt % 235 U enriched UO 2 fuel rods immersed in water containing various concentrations of boron ranging up to 2.55 g/l. The boron was added in the form of boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ). Critical experimental data were obtained for two different lattice pitches wherein the water-to-uranium oxide volume ratios were 1.59 and 1.09. The experiments provide benchmarks on heavily borated systems for use in validating calculational techniques employed in analyzing fuel shipping casks and spent fuel storage systems that may utilize boron for criticality control

  15. Effects of laser power during laser assisted cold spraying of Al-12wt%Si on stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available as they help improve the integrity of coatings1. Tissue engineering is one application under which metal coatings can undergo corrosion and wear. The results are not desirable given the amount of toxicity associated with them. In tissue engineering...W. Porosity values are (a) 2.64%, (b) 0.16% and (c) 4.12%. ? We have successfully deposited Al-12wt%Si on stainless steel substrate; ? Laser power has significant impact on the adhesion properties of power particles on metals as well as the coating...

  16. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  17. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D R; Mangelinck-Noël, N; Thi, H Nguyen; Billia, B; Gandin, Ch-A; Zimmermann, G; Sturz, L

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement. (paper)

  18. Effect of microwave irradiation on hydrogen sorption properties of hand mixed MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, A.S. [Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB-CNRS, 87 Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, F-33600 Pessac (France); LCPM/PR2N, Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences 2, 90656 Jdeidet El Matn (Lebanon); Nakhl, M.; Zakhour, M. [LCPM/PR2N, Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences 2, 90656 Jdeidet El Matn (Lebanon); Santos, S.F.; Souza, F.L. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Avenida dos Estados 5001, 09210-580 Santo André – SP (Brazil); Bobet, J.-L., E-mail: jean-louis.bobet@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB-CNRS, 87 Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2016-08-15

    The effect of microwave (MW) irradiation on the hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium powder is explored in the present work. MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs (CFs = Carbons Fibers) was prepared by hand mixing, dehydrogenated under microwave irradiation for 20 s and then hydrogenated/dehydrogenated at about 300 °C – 1 MPa and 330 °C–0.03 MPa to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the solid/gas sorption properties. It has to be noted that the hydrogen absorption capacity and sorption kinetics of the MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture increased after dehydriding under MW irradiation. The MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture dehydrogenated by microwave irradiation can absorb about 5.8 wt.% and 5.3 wt.% H at 330 and 300 °C, respectively, within 2 h while the as-prepared MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture absorb only 4.6 wt.% H within the same duration. It is also demonstrated that MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture dehydrogenated by microwave irradiation exhibited good hydrogen desorption properties and, as an example, a microwave irradiated sample could release 5.8 wt.% H within 1 h at 330 °C in comparison to the as-prepared MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture which desorbed 4.4 wt.% H within 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the particle sizes of the MW dehydrogenated mixture decreased after several solid/gas sorption cycles. This contribute to the improvement of hydrogen storage properties of the microwaves dehydrogenated MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture. In addition, the hydrogenated MgH{sub 2} – 10 wt.% CFs mixture show reproducible and better microwave-assisted dehydriding reaction during second microwaves cycle. - Highlights: • Dehydriding reaction of MgH{sub 2} by microwave method. • Effect of microwaves treatment on the hydrogen sorption properties of Mg. • Effect of discontinuous microwaves irradiation.

  19. Percent relative cumulative frequency analysis in indirect calorimetry: application to studies of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, Marc; Himms-Hagen, Jean; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2004-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess characteristics of energy expenditure. Respiration chambers in indirect calorimetry allow measurements over long periods of time (e.g., hours to days) and thus the collection of large sets of data. Current methods of data analysis usually involve the extraction of only a selected small proportion of data, most commonly the data that reflects resting metabolic rate. Here, we describe a simple quantitative approach for the analysis of large data sets that is capable of detecting small differences in energy metabolism. We refer to it as the percent relative cumulative frequency (PRCF) approach and have applied it to the study of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) deficient and control mice. The approach involves sorting data in ascending order, calculating their cumulative frequency, and expressing the frequencies in the form of percentile curves. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the PRCF approach for analyses of oxygen consumption (.VO2) as well as respiratory exchange ratio data. Statistical comparisons of PRCF curves are based on the 50th percentile values and curve slopes (H values). The application of the PRCF approach revealed that energy expenditure in UCP1-deficient mice housed and studied at room temperature (24 degrees C) is on average 10% lower (p lower environmental temperature, there were no differences in .VO2 between groups. The latter is likely due to augmented shivering thermogenesis in UCP1-deficient mice compared with controls. With the increased availability of murine models of metabolic disease, indirect calorimetry is increasingly used, and the PRCF approach provides a novel and powerful means for data analysis.

  20. Increased circulating fibrocytes are associated with higher reticulocyte percent in children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafin, Matthew S; Dogra, Shibani; Rodeghier, Mark; Burdick, Marie; Mehrad, Borna; Rose, C Edward; Strieter, Robert M; DeBaun, Michael R; Strunk, Robert C; Field, Joshua J

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease is common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Fibrocytes are circulating cells implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and airway remodeling in asthma. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that fibrocyte levels are: (1) increased in children with SCA compared to healthy controls, and (2) associated with pulmonary disease. Cross-sectional cohort study of children with SCA who participated in the Sleep Asthma Cohort Study. Fibrocyte levels were obtained from 45 children with SCA and 24 controls. Mean age of SCA cases was 14 years and 53% were female. In children with SCA, levels of circulating fibrocytes were greater than controls (P < 0.01). The fibrocytes expressed a hierarchy of chemokine receptors, with CXCR4 expressed on the majority of cells and CCR2 and CCR7 expressed on a smaller subset. Almost half of fibrocytes demonstrated α-smooth muscle actin activation. Increased fibrocyte levels were associated with a higher reticulocyte count (P = 0.03) and older age (P = 0.048) in children with SCA. However, children with increased levels of fibrocytes were not more likely to have asthma or lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) or FEV1 than those with lower fibrocyte levels. Higher levels of fibrocytes in children with SCA compared to controls may be due to hemolysis. Longitudinal studies may be able to better assess the relationship between fibrocyte level and pulmonary dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of breast percent density estimation from raw versus processed digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diane; Gavenonis, Sara; Conant, Emily; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    We compared breast percent density (PD%) measures obtained from raw and post-processed digital mammographic (DM) images. Bilateral raw and post-processed medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images from 81 screening studies were retrospectively analyzed. Image acquisition was performed with a GE Healthcare DS full-field DM system. Image post-processing was performed using the PremiumViewTM algorithm (GE Healthcare). Area-based breast PD% was estimated by a radiologist using a semi-automated image thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Comparison of breast PD% between raw and post-processed DM images was performed using the Pearson correlation (r), linear regression, and Student's t-test. Intra-reader variability was assessed with a repeat read on the same data-set. Our results show that breast PD% measurements from raw and post-processed DM images have a high correlation (r=0.98, R2=0.95, p<0.001). Paired t-test comparison of breast PD% between the raw and the post-processed images showed a statistically significant difference equal to 1.2% (p = 0.006). Our results suggest that the relatively small magnitude of the absolute difference in PD% between raw and post-processed DM images is unlikely to be clinically significant in breast cancer risk stratification. Therefore, it may be feasible to use post-processed DM images for breast PD% estimation in clinical settings. Since most breast imaging clinics routinely use and store only the post-processed DM images, breast PD% estimation from post-processed data may accelerate the integration of breast density in breast cancer risk assessment models used in clinical practice.

  2. Does One Know the Properties of a MICE Solid or Liquid Absorber to Better than 0.3 Percent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the report discusses whether the MICE absorbers can be characterized to ±0.3 percent, so that one predict absorber ionization cooling within the absorber. This report shows that most solid absorbers can be characterized to much better than ±0.3 percent. The two issues that dominate the characterization of the liquid cryogen absorbers are the dimensions of the liquid in the vessel and the density of the cryogenic liquid. The thickness of the window also plays a role. This report will show that a liquid hydrogen absorber can be characterized to better than ±0.3 percent, but a liquid helium absorber cannot be characterized to better and ±1 percent

  3. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover along camera tows and ROV tracks in the Auau Channel, Island of Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery. Optical data were...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Percent of Each 12-Digit HUC in the Contiguous U.S. with Potentially Restorable Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percent of each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) subwatershed in the contiguous U.S. with potentially restorable wetlands. Beginning...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Percent Land Cover with Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land per 12-Digit HUC - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percent land cover with potentially restorable wetlands on agricultural land for each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) watershed in...

  6. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover and sand along camera tows and ROV tracks of West Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral and sand overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery. Optical...

  7. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U3Si2 fuel rods from NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Primeau, M.F.; Buchanan, C.; Rose, D.

    1997-01-01

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U 3 Si 2 (3.15 gU/cm 3 ) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U 3 Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U 3 Si 2 powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37 degrees C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U 3 Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL's research reactors

  8. Corrosion control of copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution by Domperidone: Experimental and Theoretical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Xiang, Bin; Liang, Yuanpeng; Song, Shan; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Domperidone has good inhibition effect for copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • Domperidone acts as an anodic type inhibitor. • The SEM and AFM analyses support the weight loss, polarization, and EIS data. • Molecular dynamics (MD) method simulates the adsorption model of domperidone on Cu surface. • The adsorption of domperidone on copper surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: Inhibition of copper corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by domperidone was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results revealed that domperidone was an anodic inhibitor with a maximum achievable inhibition efficiency of 94.2%. The results of SEM and AFM studies further confirmed the inhibition action of domperidone. Quantum chemical calculation and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that the domperidone molecule could be adsorbed on copper surface through the imidazolidinone ring, benzene ring and N atom of hexaheterocyclic. Adsorption of domperidone was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  9. In situ photoelectrochemistry and Raman spectroscopic characterization on the surface oxide film of nickel electrode in 30 wt.% KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Junmin; Yang Yong; Lin Zugeng

    2006-01-01

    The oxide films of nickel electrode formed in 30 wt.% KOH solution under potentiodynamic conditions were characterized by means of electrochemical, in situ PhotoElectrochemistry Measurement (PEM) and Confocal Microprobe Raman spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that a composite oxide film was produced on nickel electrode, in which aroused cathodic or anodic photocurrent depending upon polarization potentials. The cathodic photocurrent at -0.8 V was raised from the amorphous film containing nickel hydroxide and nickel monoxide, and mainly attributed to the formation of NiO through the separation of the cavity and electron when laser light irradiates nickel electrode. With the potential increasing to more positive values, Ni 3 O 4 and high-valence nickel oxides with the structure of NiO 2 were formed successively. The composite film formed in positive potential aroused anodic photocurrent from 0.33 V. The anodic photocurrent was attributed the formation of oxygen through the cavity reaction with hydroxyl on solution interface. In addition, it is demonstrated that the reduction resultants of high-valence nickel oxides were amorphous, and the oxide film could not be reduced completely. A stable oxide film could be gradually formed on the surface of nickel electrode with the cycling and aging in 30 wt.% KOH solution

  10. Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg Alloy Manufactured by Twin Roll Strip Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Baek, Min-Seok; Euh, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the microstructure, tensile and fatigue properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg alloy manufactured by twin roll strip casting. Strips cast as a fabricated (F) specimen and a specimen heat treated (O) at 400 °C/5 h were produced and compared. In the F specimen, microstructural observation discovered clustered precipitates in the center area, while in the O specimen precipitates were relatively more evenly distributed. Al, Al6(Mn, Fe), Mg2Al3 and Mg2Si phases were observed. However, most of the Mg2Al3 phase in the heat-treated O specimen was dissolved. A room temperature tensile test measured yield strength of 177.7 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 286.1 MPa and elongation of 11.1% in the F specimen and 167.7 MPa (YS), 301.5 MPa (UTS) and 24.6% (EL) in the O specimen. A high cycle fatigue test measured a fatigue limit of 145 MPa in the F specimen and 165 MPa in the O specimen, and the O specimen achieved greater fatigue properties in all fatigue stress conditions. The tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces of the above-mentioned specimens were observed, and this study attempted to investigate the tensile and fatigue deformation behavior of strip cast Al-5 wt.%Mg based on the findings.

  11. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Cu (75 wt%) – 316L grade stainless steels synthesized by ball milling and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Bholanath, E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chabri, Sumit [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Sardar, Gargi [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 Parganas, 743610 (India); Bhowmik, Nandagopal [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Sinha, Arijit, E-mail: arijitsinha2@yahoo.co.in [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental powders of Cu (75 wt%) and 316-stainless steel (25 wt%) has been subjected to ball milling upto 70 h followed by isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350–750 °C for 1 h to investigate the microstructural evolution along with magnetic and mechanical properties. After 40 h of milling, the bcc Fe is almost dissolved in the solid solution of Cu but no significant change has been observed in the XRD pattern after 70 h of milling, Annealing of the alloy has resulted in precipitation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe in Cu which triggers the soft ferromagnetic properties. The extensive mechanical characterization has been done at the microstructural scale by nanoindentation technique which demonstrates a hardening behavior of the compacted and annealed alloys due to possible precipitation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe in Cu. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline phases with partial amorphorization obtained after 70 h of milling. • Precipitation and grain coarsening of Fe and Cu after annealing as observed by XRD. • Annealing of the ball milled sample upto 550 {sup o}C has evolved ferromagnetic behavior. • Nanoindentation predicts a hardening behavior of annealed ball milled samples.

  12. Tribological Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3-20 wt.%TiO2 Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shiyu; Miao, Qiang; Liang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Yi; Ren, Beilei

    2017-05-01

    Al2O3-20 wt.% TiO2 ceramic coatings were deposited on the surface of Grade D steel by plasma spraying of commercially available powders. The phases and the microstructures of the coatings were investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The Al2O3-20 wt.% TiO2 composite coating exhibited a typical inter-lamellar structure consisting of the γ-Al2O3 and the Al2TiO5 phases. The dry sliding wear behavior of the coating was examined at 20 °C using a ball-on-disk wear tester. The plasma-sprayed coating showed a low wear rate ( 4.5 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1), which was matrix ( 283.3 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1), under a load of 15 N. In addition, the tribological behavior of the plasma-sprayed coating was analyzed by examining the microstructure after the wear tests. It was found that delamination of the Al2TiO5 phase was the main cause of the wear during the sliding wear tests. A suitable model was used to simulate the wear mechanism of the coating.

  13. Inhibition effect of 4-amino-antipyrine on the corrosion of copper in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Song; Chen Wen; Luo Hongqun [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Nianbing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-Amino-antipyrine (AAP) has inhibition behaviour for copper corrosion in 3.0 wt.% NaCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AAP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor with anodic predominance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of AAP on the copper surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations were applied to explain the experimental results. - Abstract: The effect of 4-amino-antipyrine (AAP) on the corrosion of copper in 3.0 wt.% NaCl was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that AAP acts as a mixed-type inhibitor with more pronounced effect on anodic domain and the inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing the temperature. The adsorption of AAP was found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. Surface characterisation was performed using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Quantum chemical calculations show that AAP has large negative charge in nitrogen and oxygen atoms, which facilitates the adsorption of AAP on the copper surface.

  14. Microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solidification cooling rates on the as-cast microstructural morphologies of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy, and to correlate the resulting microstructure with the corresponding electrochemical corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Cylindrical low-carbon steel and insulating molds were employed permitting the two extremes of a significant range of solidification cooling rates to be experimentally examined. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response of Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy samples. It was found that lower cooling rates are associated with coarse cellular arrays which result in better corrosion resistance than fine cells which are related to high cooling rates. The experimental results have shown that that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance. (author)

  15. Study of scrap recovery for mixed oxide pellet by means of UO2+5wt.%CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang Young; Kim, Si Hyung; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Yong Woo

    2000-01-01

    The recovery method of scrap powder was established using UO 2 -5wt.%CeO 2 powder in the way of of technology development of scrap recovery and recycle in the mixed oxide pellet fabrication process. And pellet density and microstructure, which depend on quantity of scrap, powder treatment method, and sintering condition, was analyzed. As a result of oxidation of sintered pellet in the air the powdering at below 400 degrees C occurred smoothly, and at above 400 degrees C powdering process was not proceeding well as temperature increased and powder particle size grew bigger. M 3 O 8 scrap powder which was powdered through oxidation method was added to UO 2 -5wt.%CeO 2 mixed powder. The results after the powder was treated by means of mixing, crushing, attrition milling, pelletizing, and sintering showed that its density and grain size in the case of reductive sintering decreased as scrap addition increased, but the result in the case of crushing showed increase in grain size. In attrition milling case both density and grain size showed the tendency of increase, particularly grain size grew up to 12 μm. In the oxidative sintering with scrap added mixed powder sintering was accelerated under the oxygen environment and the effect of powder treatment showed the tendency of relatively decreasing. (Hong, J. S.)

  16. FINANCIAL PROBLEMS OF BOTTOM 40 PERCENT BUMIPUTERA IN MALAYSIA: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION THROUGH WAQF-BASED CROWDFUNDING

    OpenAIRE

    Abidullah ABID; Muhammad Hakimi Mohd SHAFIAI

    2017-01-01

    Low savings by the bottom 40 percent Bumiputera triggered low wealth accumulation and greater wealth inequality. The issue behind the low savings is the increase in food prices, taxes, and interest rates for the borrowers. In response to these problems, the Malaysian government provides cash transfer BRIM as one of redistributive measures. However, it is still not enough as many of the bottom 40 percent are neglected to avail the facility. In such circumstances, the role of community-based ca...

  17. U-8 wt %Mo and 7 wt %Mo alloys powder obtained by an hydride-de hydride process; Obtencion de polvo de aleaciones U-8% Mo y U-7% Mo (en peso) mediante hidruracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balart, Silvia N; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S; Gribaudo, Luis M.J.; Hermida, Jorge D; Ovejero, Jose; Rubiolo, Gerardo H; Vicente, Eduardo E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    2000-07-01

    Uranium-molybdenum alloys are been tested as a component in high-density LEU dispersion fuels with very good performances. These alloys need to be transformed to powder due to the manufacturing requirements of the fuels. One method to convert ductile alloys into powder is the hydride-de hydride process, which takes advantage of the ability of the U-{alpha} phase to transform to UH{sub 3}: a brittle and relatively low-density compound. U-Mo alloys around 7 and 8 wt % Mo were melted and heat treated at different temperature ranges in order to partially convert {gamma} -phase to {alpha} -phase. Subsequent hydriding transforms this {alpha} -phase to UH{sub 3}. The volume change associated to the hydride formation embrittled the material which ends up in a powdered alloy. Results of the optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction during different steps of the process are shown. (author)

  18. Helicase-like transcription factor (Hltf regulates G2/M transition, Wt1/Gata4/Hif-1a cardiac transcription networks, and collagen biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Helmer

    Full Text Available HLTF/Hltf regulates transcription, remodels chromatin, and coordinates DNA damage repair. Hltf is expressed in mouse brain and heart during embryonic and postnatal development. Silencing Hltf is semilethal. Seventy-four percent of congenic C57BL/6J Hltf knockout mice died, 75% within 12-24 hours of birth. Previous studies in neonatal (6-8 hour postpartum brain revealed silencing Hltf disrupted cell cycle progression, and attenuated DNA damage repair. An RNA-Seq snapshot of neonatal heart transcriptome showed 1,536 of 20,000 total transcripts were altered (p < 0.05 - 10 up- and 1,526 downregulated. Pathway enrichment analysis with MetaCore™ showed Hltf's regulation of the G2/M transition (p=9.726E(-15 of the cell cycle in heart is nearly identical to its role in brain. In addition, Brca1 and 12 members of the Brca1 associated genome surveillance complex are also downregulated. Activation of caspase 3 coincides with transcriptional repression of Bcl-2. Hltf loss caused downregulation of Wt1/Gata4/Hif-1a signaling cascades as well as Myh7b/miR499 transcription. Hltf-specific binding to promoters and/or regulatory regions of these genes was authenticated by ChIP-PCR. Hif-1a targets for prolyl (P4ha1, P4ha2 and lysyl (Plod2 collagen hydroxylation, PPIase enzymes (Ppid, Ppif, Ppil3 for collagen trimerization, and lysyl oxidase (Loxl2 for collagen-elastin crosslinking were downregulated. However, transcription of genes for collagens, fibronectin, Mmps and their inhibitors (Timps was unaffected. The collective downregulation of genes whose protein products control collagen biogenesis caused disorganization of the interstitial and perivascular myocardial collagen fibrillar network as viewed with picrosirius red-staining, and authenticated with spectral imaging. Wavy collagen bundles in control hearts contrasted with collagen fibers that were thin, short and disorganized in Hltf null hearts. Collagen bundles in Hltf null hearts were tangled and

  19. Microstructure evolution in undercooled Al–8 wt%Fe melts: Comparison between terrestrial and parabolic flight conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Lengsdorf, R.; Henein, H.; Herlach, D.M.; Dahlborg, U.; Calvo-Dahlborg, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A comparison between the solidification using electromagnetic levitation of Al–8 wt%Fe under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions is shown. ► The microstructure evolution during solidification of Al–8 wt%Fe is formulated with the aid of a comprehensive set of complementary characterization techniques. ► Identification of Al–Fe intermetallics using TEM and Rietveld analysis. -- Abstract: Al–8 wt%Fe, a hypereutectic alloy, was studied under electromagnetic levitation (EML) solidification conditions in both terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions. The latter was carried out on the A300 aircraft using the TEMPUS facility. The solidified samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques. The results are interpreted in the light of the temperature–time measurements taken in situ during the solidification process in the EML. It is shown that both samples experienced some undercooling for the solidification of the primary Al–Fe intermetallic phase, which is likely Al m Fe. The solidification path continues with the nucleation and growth of Al 13 Fe 4 followed by primary α-Al. These last two phases do not seem to show any measureable undercooling and recalescence events. Finally, the metastable Al x Fe (where x = 5) nucleates starting with the formation of eutectic. This metastable intermetallic continues the eutectic growth as Al 13 Fe 4 . The morphology differences of the intermetallics growing under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions are clear with acicular morphology for the former and a star like morphology for the latter. The primary α-Al has a clear strong textured structure in the reduced gravity sample, while a weak one is observed in the terrestrially processed sample. The difference in texture is attributed to the weaker fluid flow occurring in the droplet under reduced gravity conditions while the difference in

  20. Development and Cross-Validation of Equation for Estimating Percent Body Fat of Korean Adults According to Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyong Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Using BMI as an independent variable is the easiest way to estimate percent body fat. Thus far, few studies have investigated the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent body fat of Korean adults according to the BMI. The goals of this study were the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent fat of representative Korean adults using the BMI. Methods : Samples were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. The samples from 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 were labeled as the validation group (n=10,624 and the cross-validation group (n=8,291, respectively. The percent fat was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the body mass index, gender, and age were included as independent variables to estimate the measured percent fat. The coefficient of determination (R², standard error of estimation (SEE, and total error (TE were calculated to examine the accuracy of the developed equation. Results : The cross-validated R² was 0.731 for Model 1 and 0.735 for Model 2. The SEE was 3.978 for Model 1 and 3.951 for Model 2. The equations developed in this study are more accurate for estimating percent fat of the cross-validation group than those previously published by other researchers. Conclusion : The newly developed equations are comparatively accurate for the estimation of the percent fat of Korean adults.

  1. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  2. Development of an environmentally friendly protective coating for the depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Donald F.; Chidambaram, Devicharan; Clayton, Clive R.; Halada, Gary P.; Derek Demaree, J.

    2006-01-01

    Molybdenum oxide-based conversion coatings have been formed on the surface of the depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium alloy using either concentrated nitric acid or fluorides for surface activation prior to coating formation. The acid-activated surface forms a coating that offers corrosion protection after a period of aging, when uranium species have migrated to the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the protective coating is primarily a polymolybdate bound to a uranyl ion. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) on the acid-activated coatings also shows uranium dioxide migrating to the surface. The fluoride-activated surface does not form a protective coating and there are no uranium species on the surface as indicated by XPS. The coating on the fluoride-activated samples has been found to contain a mixture of molybdenum oxides of which the main component is molybdenum trioxide and a minor component of an Mo(V) oxide

  3. Effect of annealing treatment on soft magnetic properties of Fe-6.5 wt% Si wide ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.K.; Panda, A.K.; Ghosh, M.; Mitra, A.; Ghosh, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    The 25 mm wide ribbons of Fe-6.5 wt% Si alloy have been developed by melt spinning technique, showing sufficient ductility and white silver appearance. Two magnetic transitions take place at 676 and 760 deg. C due to the formation of B2 ordered phase and A2 disordered paramagnetic phase, respectively. The saturation magnetization of the ribbon is 17.5 kG under the applied field of 12 kG. The as-cast ribbons consist of disordered A2 structure with a low volume of B2 phases while the annealed microstructure comprises a dispersion of B2 domains in the disordered A2 matrix. The alloy shows the enhancement of the soft magnetic properties with a reduction in coercivity from 150 A/m in the as-cast state to 45 A/m in the annealed condition at 850 deg. C.

  4. The solidification and structure of Al-17wt.%Si alloy modified with intermetallic phases containing Ti and Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of casting and solidification of Al-17wt.%Si alloy that have been modified with composite powdercontaining the intermetallic phases of Ti and Fe. The chemical and phase composition of the applied modifier was described with thefollowingformula:FeAlx–TiAlx–Al2O3. Applying the method of thermal analysis ATD, the characteristic parameters of the solidificationprocess were determined, and exo-and endothermic effects of the modifying powder on the run of the silumin solidification curves wereobserved. By the methods of light, scanning, and X-ray microscopy, the structure of alloy and the chemical composition of the dispersionhardening precipitates were examined. A change in the morphology of Al-Si eutectic from the lamellar to fibrous type was reportedtogether with changes in the form of complex eutectics of an Al-Si-Ti and Al-Si-Fe type and size reduction of primary silicon crystals.

  5. Effect of Mg contents on the mechanical proprieties and precipitation kinetics in Al–3.3 wt.% Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Fatmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of additional Mg on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and transformation kinetics during aging in Al–3.3 wt.% Cu alloy was studied. The compositions and microstructure were examined by X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The results show that the Mg in the Al–Cu alloy mainly precipitated to the grain boundaries during the process of transformation and formed a ternary Al2CuMg metallic compound and the rate of discontinuous precipitation reaction decreases with increasing concentration of Mg. The activation energy of crystallization was evaluated by applying the Kissinger equation.

  6. Non-destructive measurement of residual stresses in U-0.8 wt.% Ti by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, A.; Root, J.H.; Holden, T.M.; Macewen, S.R.; Ludtka, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The macroscopic residual stress distribution in γ-quenched and stress levelled U-0.8wt% Ti alloy tubes was studied using neutron diffraction techniques. Residual strains were evaluated from the difference in d-spacings measured in the tubes and in small reference samples machined from each tube. Residual stresses were calculated with the isotropic bulk value of the elastic constraints for polycrystalline α-U. Quenching from the γ field resulted in a nearly equi-biaxial stress state at every point across the wall thickness of the tube. The magnitude of the radial stress was very small compared with that of the axial and hoop stresses which were compressive at the surfaces and tensile in the interior. Stress levelling relieved almost completely the hoop residual stress without affecting the radial stress. The axial residual stress becomes tensile through the wall thickness and remains constant at about 20% of its magnitude in the as-quenched condition

  7. Study on microstructure change of Uranium nitride coated U-7wt%Mo powder by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woo Hyoung; Park, Jae Soon; Lee, Hae In; Kim, Woo Jeong; Yang, Jae Ho; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Uranium-molybdenum alloy particle dispersion fuel in an aluminum matrix with a high uranium density has been developed for a high performance research reactor in the RERTR program. In order to retard the fuel-matrix interaction in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel in which the U-Mo fuel particles were dispersed in Al matrix, nitride layer coated U-Mo fuel particle has been designed and techniques to fabricate nitride-layer coated U-7wt%Mo particles have been developed in our lab. In this study, uranium nitride coated U-Mo particle has heat treatment for several times and degree. And we suggested for interaction layer remedy in U-Mo dispersion fuel. We investigate effect of heat treatment interaction layer evolution on uranium nitride coated U-Mo powder. The EDS and XRD analysis to investigate the phase evolution in uranium nitride coated layer is also a part of the present work

  8. Mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped (2 wt.%) ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Shina [Core Technology Development Group, Core Component Business Unit, Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)], E-mail: Shina.Kuriki@jp.sony.com; Kawashima, Toshitaka [Core Technology Development Group, Core Component Business Unit, Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)], E-mail: Toshitaka.Kawashima@jp.sony.com

    2007-10-15

    We report a new method of evaluating the adhesion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped (2 wt.%) ZnO (AZO) thin films. The AZO films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on plastic film (PET: polyethyleneterephthalate) at various sputtering pressures, power, and reactive gas-flow ratios. The adhesion test of the films was carried out using the nanoindentation system. The fracture point as determined by the load-displacement curve occurred at the time of separation between the thin film and the substrate. The integration value of load and displacement to the fracture point is defined as the degree of adhesion (S{sub W}). The AZO films showed that adhesion increase as sputtering power increases and sputtering pressure decreases.

  9. Microstructural investigation of Sr-modified Al-15 wt%Si alloys in the range from micrometer to atomic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpel, M; Wanderka, N; Vinod Kumar, G S; Banhart, J

    2011-05-01

    Strontium-modified Al-15 wt%Si casting alloys were investigated after 5 and 60 min of melt holding. The eutectic microstructures were studied using complementary methods at different length scales: focused ion beam-energy selective backscattered tomography, transmission electron microscopy and 3D atom probe. Whereas the samples after 5 min of melt holding show that the structure of eutectic Si changes into a fine fibrous morphology, the increase of prolonged melt holding (60 min) leads to the loss of Sr within the alloy with an evolution of an unmodified eutectic microstructure displaying coarse interconnected Si plates. Strontium was found at the Al/Si eutectic interfaces on the side of the eutectic Al region, measured by 3D atom probe. The new results obtained using 3D atom probe shed light on the location of Sr within the Al-Si eutectic microstructure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal and pseudoelastic cycling in Cu-14.1Al-4.2Ni (wt%) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastien, R.; Corbellani, C.E.; Sade, M.; Lovey, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Thermally and stress induced martensitic transformations between β and a mixture of martensitic structures, β' and γ', were studied in Cu-14.1Al-4.2Ni (wt%) single crystals. In this way information on the relative stability between β' and γ' martensites, compared to the β phase, was obtained. The measurement of electrical resistance as a function of temperature was used to follow the evolution of thermally induced transitions. The stress induced transformations were analyzed in the small temperature range at which the pseudoelastic behavior between β and a mixture of both martensites plays the main role. A clear inhibition of the γ' martensite is detected as the number of cycles increases, no matter which thermodynamic coordinate is varied to induce the phase transition, i.e., temperature or stress. An evaluation of the magnitude of the relative stabilization of the β' martensite compared with γ' was obtained by a suitably designed experiment

  11. Study and characterization of the BNO (BiNbO_4) ceramic added with 3 wt. % CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, A.J.M.; Pires Junior, G.F.M.; Rodrigues, H.O.; Sombra, A.S.B.; Sales, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize the BNO (BiNbO_4) ceramic added with 3 wt. % CuO to improvements in densification. The BNO was prepared by conventional ceramic method. The powders milled for 2 h were calcined at 850 °C for 3 h. After calcination the powders we re characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The detailed characterization of XRD was performed using the program DBWS9807a which uses the Rietveld method for refinement of crystal structures. The refinement confirmed the acquisition of isolated α-BNO phase with orthorhombic crystal structure (a = 5.6792Å, and b = 11.7081Å c = 4.9823Å; α = β = γ = 90) and density of the unit cell calculated 6.61g/cm3. Micrographs, to analyze densification behavior and grain size were obtained using a Scanning Electron Microscope model TESCAN manufactured by Bruker AXS detector. (author)

  12. Aging between 300 and 450 deg C of wrought martensitic 13-17 wt-%Cr stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yrieix, B.; Guttmann, M.

    1993-06-01

    Martensitic stainless steels containing 13-17 wt-% Cr, some also containing nickel and some having precipitation hardening additions, have been aged between 300 and 450 deg C for times up to 30 000 h. For all the steels examined, the aging response takes the form of an increase of strength and hardness, correlated with embrittlement. The rate and intensity of aging increase with increasing chromium and molybdenum concentrations. In addition, two steels exhibit some temper embrittlement on long term aging at 400 deg C; such embrittlement of these materials is not expected in service at temperatures up to 300 deg C. A general method of prediction of the mechanical properties of these steels as a function of aging conditions is proposed. (authors). 11 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Investigation of coupling of magnetohydrodynamic modes by soft x-ray computer tomography on the WT-3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Maekawa, Takashi; Terumichi, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    The internal structure of the stationary m=1 and m=2 modes in an ohmic heating plasma and the double m=1 mode structure in a lower hybrid current drive plasma are investigated on the WT-3 tokamak [Maehara et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 39 (1998)] using computer tomography after the application of the singular value decomposition to the soft x-ray signals. The results show that, in both cases, two coexisting modes have the same frequency and have a fixed mutual phase relation, indicating that two modes are coupled and rotate as one body in the toroidal direction. It is found that the mutual inductance of two loops of helical current filaments for producing magnetic islands always takes the maximum at the experimentally observed positions of two-mode structures. This result means not only that the electromagnetic coupling of two current loops is at the maximum, but also that the two loops are in the dynamically stable position

  14. L2 droplet interaction with α-Al during solidification of hypermonotectic Al-8 wt.% Bi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, P.L.; Mathiesen, R.H.; Arnberg, L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of Al-based hypermonotectics have so far focused mainly on droplet motion and coagulation dynamics, with limited attention given to the interaction between droplets and the advancing solidification front which is decisive for the final distribution of the second phase within the α-Al matrix. The current work presents results from directional solidification experiments with Al-8 wt.% Bi alloys. It was found that droplets with large radii were frequently pushed and small droplets were engulfed. This is contradictory to the many models that have been proposed to explain pushing/engulfment of solid particles and can in part be ascribed to the fact that while solid-particle models only consider single, non-interacting particles that remain unaffected by solutal gradients ahead of the advancing solidification front, droplet-droplet interaction and local solute gradients have been found to be critical for droplet pushing/engulfment behaviour in hypermonotectic alloys.

  15. Axillary Temperature, as Recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, Well Represents Core Temperature in Adults Having Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lijian; Huang, Yuguang; Mao, Guangmei; Sessler, Daniel I

    2018-03-01

    Core temperature can be accurately measured from the esophagus or nasopharynx during general anesthesia, but neither site is suitable for neuraxial anesthesia. We therefore determined the precision and accuracy of a novel wireless axillary thermometer, the iThermonitor, to determine its suitability for use during neuraxial anesthesia and in other patients who are not intubated. We enrolled 80 adults having upper abdominal surgery with endotracheal intubation. Intraoperative core temperature was measured in distal esophagus and was estimated at the axilla with a wireless iThermonitor WT701 (Raiing Medical, Boston MA) at 5-minute intervals. Pairs of axillary and reference distal esophageal temperatures were compared and summarized using linear regression and repeated-measured Bland-Altman methods. We a priori determined that the iThermonitor would have clinically acceptable accuracy if most estimates were within ±0.5°C of the esophageal reference, and suitable precision if the limits of agreement were within ±0.5°C. There were 3339 sets of paired temperatures. Axillary and esophageal temperatures were similar, with a mean difference (esophageal minus axillary) of only 0.14°C ± 0.26°C (standard deviation). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow, with the estimated upper limit at 0.66°C and the lower limit at -0.38°C, thus ±0.52°C, indicating good agreement across the range of mean temperatures from 34.9°C to 38.1°C. The absolute difference was within 0.5°C in 91% of the measurements (95% confidence interval, 88%-93%). Axillary temperature, as recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, well represents core temperature in adults having noncardiac surgery and thus appears suitable for clinical use.

  16. Development of heat treated Zr-2.5 Wt% Nb pressure tube and its microstructural characterization using electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2010-01-01

    Two phase Zr-2.5 wt % Nb alloy is widely used for manufacture of pressure tubes for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). These tubes are used in cold worked and stress relieved (CWSRs) condition and are manufactured by cold drawing or pilgering routes. The microstructure of the CWSR tube is characterized with presence of discontinuous β phase stringers sandwiched between elongated α-phase. Pressure tube undergoes dimensional changes and micro structural deterioration under the reactor operating conditions of temperature, pressure and neutron flux. This limits the life of the component and the availability of the power reactors. There is renewed interest in increasing the life of the pressure tube by bringing about a change in the microstructure of Zr-2.5 Nb material using various thermo mechanical processes during its manufacturing. Heat treatment of this two-phase alloy has been understood to uniquely stabilize the microstructure, which prevents degradation, under in-reactor service condition. This paper illustrates various heat treatment cycles carried out at intermediate cold working stage. Heat treatment involves solutionization of the Zr-2.5 wt % Nb tube from different temperatures followed by two types of quenching process viz, gas quenching and water quenching. The OIM-TEM studies were carried out for characterization of final tube. The technique confirmed the presence of β-phase relatively enriched in Nb content. The resulting SEM microstructures after ageing treatment at different soaking temperatures and time have been presented. Mechanical properties of heat treated pressure tubes, both at room temperature and elevated temperature have been compared with conventional CWSR pressure tube used in PHWRs. (author)

  17. Pengaruh unsur Tembaga (Cu terhadap fluiditas paduan Al-Si 11.8 wt% (ADC 12 dengan metode Vacuum Suction Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Suharno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si 11.8 wt% alloy which classified to eutectic Al-Si composition usually used to produce a flat casting product with high pressure die casting process. Alloying element become an important things to determine behavior and characteristic of aluminum. Copper added into aluminum to improve strength and hardness, but there has no many studies on the effect of copper on fluidity. This fluidity study is using vacuum suction test method and the microstructure is observed with SEM/EDS. Spectrometer test has been used to find out chemical composition of sample. The result of this study shows that with copper addition from 2.25 wt% to 3.11 wt%, the fluidity value has increased 24.11% on 680oC pouring temperature. On 3.11 wt% copper composition, fluidity value has increased 14.38% from 640oC pouring temperature to 700oC pouring temperature.

  18. Effect of {gamma}` and {gamma} (Ag{sub 2}Al) precipitates on the steady state creep of Al-16wt%Ag alloys with and without Zr addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Youssef, S.B. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Mahmoud, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-16

    The steady state creep behaviour of Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys has been studied at constant load (= 137.2 MPa) and tested at different working temperatures for samples aged at temperatures favouring the formation of {gamma}` and {gamma} precipitates. It was found that addition of Zr to Al-16 wt% Ag alloy accelerates the precipitations {gamma}` and {gamma} due to the formation of the metastable phase Al{sub 3}Zr. For both alloys, two values of activation energy have been obtained as (34 {+-} 0.3) kJ/mol for viscous glide of dislocations due to the existence of {gamma}` precipitates and (68 {+-} 0.3) kJ/mol for grain boundary diffusion due to the existence of {gamma} precipitates. TEM investigations of {gamma}` and {gamma} precipitates confirmed the above-mentioned effect of Zr addition. (orig.)

  19. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-12-17

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  20. The observing campaign on the deep-space debris WT1190F as a test case for short-warning NEO impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Marco; Buzzoni, Alberto; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Perozzi, Ettore; Hainaut, Olivier; Lemmens, Stijn; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Foppiani, Italo; Nomen, Jaime; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Marinello, Wladimiro; Pizzetti, Gianpaolo; Soffiantini, Andrea; Fan, Siwei; Frueh, Carolin

    2018-04-01

    On 2015 November 13, the small artificial object designated WT1190F entered the Earth atmosphere above the Indian Ocean offshore Sri Lanka after being discovered as a possible new asteroid only a few weeks earlier. At ESA's SSA-NEO Coordination Centre we took advantage of this opportunity to organize a ground-based observational campaign, using WT1190F as a test case for a possible similar future event involving a natural asteroidal body.

  1. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements

  2. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  3. Effects of samarium (Sm) additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and hot-extruded Mg-5 wt%Al-3 wt%Ca-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyeon-Taek; Lee, Jae-Seol; Kim, Dae-Guen; Yoshimi, Kyosuke; Maruyama, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Samarium (Sm) additions to as-cast Mg-5Al-3Ca-based alloys result in changes, such as equiaxed grains and a refined grain size. The microstructure of as-cast Mg-5Al-3Ca-xSm alloys consists of an α-Mg matrix, a (Mg, Al) 2 Ca eutectic phase, and an Al 2 Sm intermetallic compound. In as-cast alloys, the (Mg, Al) 2 Ca eutectic phase was located at grain boundaries with a chain structure, and the Al 2 Sm intermetallic compounds were homogeneously distributed at the α-Mg matrix and grain boundaries. The eutectic phase of the extruded alloys was elongated in the extrusion direction and crushed into fine particles because of severe deformation during hot extrusion, and the grain size was refined with an increased amount of Sm addition. The maximum values of the yield strength and tensile strength were 313 MPa and 330 MPa at 2 wt%Sm alloy content, respectively

  4. Real-time piscicide tracking using Rhodamine WT dye for support of application, transport, and deactivation strategies in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Patrick Ryan; Lageman, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Piscicide applications in riverine environments are complicated by the advection and dispersion of the piscicide by the flowing water. Proper deactivation of the fish toxin is required outside of the treatment reach to ensure that there is minimal collateral damage to fisheries downstream or in connecting and adjacent water bodies. In urban settings and highly managed waterways, further complications arise from the influence of industrial intakes and outfalls, stormwater outfalls, lock and dam operations, and general unsteady flow conditions. These complications affect the local hydrodynamics and ultimately the transport and fate of the piscicide. This report presents two techniques using Rhodamine WT dye for real-time tracking of a piscicide plume—or any passive contaminant—in rivers and waterways in natural and urban settings. Passive contaminants are those that are present in such low concentration that there is no effect (such as buoyancy) on the fluid dynamics of the receiving water body. These methods, when combined with data logging and archiving, allow for visualization and documentation of the application and deactivation process. Real-time tracking and documentation of rotenone applications in rivers and urban waterways was accomplished by encasing the rotenone plume in a plume of Rhodamine WT dye and using vessel-mounted submersible fluorometers together with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and global positioning system (GPS) receivers to track the dye and map the water currents responsible for advection and dispersion. In this study, two methods were used to track rotenone plumes: (1) simultaneous injection of dye with rotenone and (2) delineation of the upstream and downstream boundaries of the treatment zone with dye. All data were logged and displayed on a shipboard laptop computer, so that survey personnel provided real-time feedback about the extent of the rotenone plume to rotenone application and deactivation personnel. Further

  5. Spray forming of Cu–11.85Al–3.2Ni–3Mn (wt%) shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cava, Régis D., E-mail: regis_cava@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Bolfarini, Claudemiro; Kiminami, Cláudio S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Mazzer, Eric M. [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil); Botta Filho, Walter J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Gargarella, Piter; Eckert, Jürger [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • We characterized a Cu-based shape memory alloy produced by spray forming. • The deposit presented equiaxial grains and monoclinic martensite β′ microstructure. • The deposit’s shape memory properties varied as a function of the cooling rates. • The results opened a new window in the manufacture of Cu shape memory materials. - Abstract: Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMA) in the range of Cu–(11.8–13.5)Al–(3.2–4)Ni–(2–3)Mn (wt%) exhibit high thermal and electrical conductivity, combine good mechanical properties with a pronounced shape memory effect, and are low cost (Dutkiewicz et al., 1999). Their processing requires high cooling rates to reduce grain size, prevent decomposition of the ß phase into equilibrium phases, and induce martensite transformation. In this investigation, Cu–11.85Al–3.2Ni–3Mn (wt%) shape memory alloy was processed by spray forming, a rapid solidification technique that involves cooling rates of 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 4} K/s, to determine the potential of producing deposits with adequate microstructure, homogeneity and porosity for the manufacture of SMA near net shape parts. To this end, 5.2 kg of alloy with nominal composition was atomized with nitrogen gas under a pressure of 0.5 MPa and a gas–metal ratio (GMR) of 1.93. The atomized material was deposited at 60 rpm on a rotating steel substrate positioned 350 mm below the gas nozzle. The microstructure of the deposit was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The deposit with an effective diameter of 240 mm and 75 mm height presented equiaxial grains with a martensite microstructure. Grain sizes varied from 25 μm in the lower region (contact with the steel substrate) to 160 μm in the upper region of the deposit. Measurements of the reverse martensite transformation temperature of the deposit in different regions revealed its strong influence on the grain size.

  6. 40 CFR 63.8055 - How do I comply with a weight percent HAP limit in coating products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP limit in coating products? 63.8055 Section 63.8055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.8055 How do I comply with a weight percent HAP limit in coating products? (a) As an alternative to complying with the requirements in Table 1...

  7. 26 CFR 1.46-8 - Requirements for taxpayers electing additional one-percent investment credit (TRASOP's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conversion price which is no greater than the fair market value of that common stock at the time the plan... subject to a limitation, then stock representing at least 50 percent of the fair market value of the... common stock, Class A and Class B. Their fair market values per share are $1 and $.50, respectively, and...

  8. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Math Academy: Dining Out! Explorations in Fractions, Decimals, & Percents. Book 4: Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbey, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Dining Out! Explorations in Fractions, Decimals, and Percents," which teachers can use…

  10. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., verifying organic certification of the operations producing such ingredients, and: Provided further, That... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products...

  11. 17 CFR 210.3-09 - Separate financial statements of subsidiaries not consolidated and 50 percent or less owned persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements of subsidiaries not consolidated and 50 percent or less owned persons. (a) If any of... consolidated financial statements required by §§ 210.3-01 and 3-02. However, these separate financial... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate financial statements...

  12. Denys-Drash syndrome associated WT1 glutamine 369 mutants have altered sequence-preferences and altered responses to epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Mutations in human zinc-finger transcription factor WT1 result in abnormal development of the kidneys and genitalia and an array of pediatric problems including nephropathy, blastoma, gonadal dysgenesis and genital discordance. Several overlapping phenotypes are associated with WT1 mutations, including Wilms tumors, Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), Frasier syndrome (FS) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation). These conditions vary in severity from individual to individual; they can be fatal in early childhood, or relatively benign into adulthood. DDS mutations cluster predominantly in zinc fingers (ZF) 2 and 3 at the C-terminus of WT1, which together with ZF4 determine the sequence-specificity of DNA binding. We examined three DDS associated mutations in ZF2 of human WT1 where the normal glutamine at position 369 is replaced by arginine (Q369R), lysine (Q369K) or histidine (Q369H). These mutations alter the sequence-specificity of ZF2, we find, changing its affinity for certain bases and certain epigenetic forms of cytosine. X-ray crystallography of the DNA binding domains of normal WT1, Q369R and Q369H in complex with preferred sequences revealed the molecular interactions responsible for these affinity changes. DDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, implying a gain of function by mutant WT1 proteins. This gain, we speculate, might derive from the ability of the mutant proteins to sequester WT1 into unproductive oligomers, or to erroneously bind to variant target sequences.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of the expression of 14 genes with individual prognostic value in myelodysplastic syndrome patients at diagnosis: WT1 detection in peripheral blood adversely affects survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Carlos; Ramos, Fernando; Puig, Noemi; Barragán, Eva; de Paz, Raquel; Pedro, Carme; Insunza, Andrés; Tormo, Mar; Del Cañizo, Consuelo; Diez-Campelo, María; Xicoy, Blanca; Salido, Eduardo; Sánchez del Real, Javier; Hernández, Montserrat; Chillón, Carmen; Sanz, Guillermo F; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F; González, Marcos

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have evaluated the prognostic value of the individual expression of certain genes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, none of them includes their simultaneous analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We evaluated relative expression levels of 14 molecular markers in 193 peripheral blood samples from untreated MDS patients using real-time PCR. Detectable WT1 expression levels, low TET2, and low IER3 gene expression were the only markers showing in univariate analysis a poor prognostic value for all treatment-free (TFS), progression-free (PFS), and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, molecular parameters associated with a shorter TFS were: WT1 detection (p = 0.014), low TET2 (p = 0.002), and low IER3 expression (p = 0.025). WT1 detection (p = 0.006) and low TET2 (p = 0.006) expression were associated with a shorter PFS when multivariate analysis was carried out by including only molecular markers. Molecular values with an independent value in OS were: WT1 detection (p = 0.003), high EVI1 expression (p = 0.001), and undetectatable p15-CDKN2B (p = 0.037). WT1 expressers were associated with adverse clinical-biological features, high IPSS and WPSS scoring, and unfavorable molecular expression profile. In summary, detectable WT1 expression levels, and low TET2 and low IER3 expression in peripheral blood showed a strong association with adverse prognosis in MDS patients at diagnosis. However, WT1 was the only molecular marker displaying an independent prognostic value in both OS and TFS.

  14. Combined effects of ultrasonic vibration and manganese on Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si alloy with 3wt.%Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research studied the combined effects of ultrasonic vibration (USV and manganese on the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si-3Fe-2Cu-1Ni (wt.% alloys. The results showed that, without USV, the alloys with 0.4wt.% Mn or 0.8wt.% Mn both contain a large amount of coarse plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase and long needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase. When the Mn content changes from 0.4wt.% to 0.8wt.% in the alloys, the amount and the length of needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase decrease and the plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase becomes much coarser. After USV treatment, the Fe-containing compounds in the alloys are refined and exist mainly as δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 particles with an average grain size of about 20 μm, and only a small amount of β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase remains. With USV treatment, the ultimate tensile strengths (UTS of the alloys containing 0.4wt.%Mn and 0.8wt.%Mn at room temperature are 253 MPa and 262 MPa, respectively, and the ultimate tensile strengths at 350 °C are 129 MPa and 135 MPa, respectively. It is considered that the modified morphology and uniform distribution of the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds, which are caused by the USV process, are the main reasons for the increase in the tensile strength of these two alloys.

  15. Texture and microstructure analysis of epitaxial oxide layers prepared on textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehne, R; Kursumovic, A; Tomov, R I; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holzapfel, B [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Evetts, J E [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-07

    Oxide layers for the preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} coated conductors were grown on highly textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes in pure oxygen using surface oxidation epitaxy at temperatures between 1000 deg. C and 1300 deg. C. Microstructural investigations revealed a layered oxide structure. The upper layer consists mainly of dense cube textured NiO. This is followed by a porous layer containing NiO and NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. A detailed texture analysis showed a cube-on-cube relationship of the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel to the metal substrate. Untextured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a nickel matrix were found in a third layer arising from internal oxidation of the alloy. A high surface roughness and mechanical instability of the oxide were observed, depending on oxidation temperature and film thickness. However, mechanically stable oxide layers have been prepared using an additional annealing step in a protective atmosphere. Additionally, mechanical polishing or a second buffer layer, which grows with a higher smoothness, may be applied to reduce the surface roughness for coated conductor applications.

  16. Post-irradiation examination of Al-61 wt% U3Si fuel rods from the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the post-irradiation examination of 4 intact low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel rods from the national research universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. The rods were irradiated during the period 1993 through 1995, under typical driver fuel operating conditions in NRU, i.e., nominal D 2 O coolant inlet temperature 37E C, inlet pressure 654 kPa and mass flow 12.4 L/s. Irradiation exposures ranged from 147 to 251 full-power days, corresponding to 40 to 84 atom % 235 U burnup. The maximum rod power was ∼2 MW, with element linear power ratings up to 68 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations, conducted in 1997, focused on optical metallography to measure cladding oxide thickness and fuel core and cladding microstructural examinations. The cladding oxide was approximately 24 : m thick at the mid-plane of fuel rods irradiated to 251 full-power days, with small areas up to 34 : m thick on the fins. The cladding retained significant ductility after irradiation, and its microstructure appeared unchanged. Fuel core diametral increases were small (up to 4%) and within the range previously observed on Al-61 wt% U 3 Si fuel irradiated in the NRU reactor. (author)

  17. Post-irradiation examination of A1-61 wt % U3Si fuel rods from the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the post-irradiation examination of 4 intact low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel rods from the national research universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. The rods were irradiated during the period 1993 through 1995, under typical driver fuel operating conditions in NRU, i.e., nominal D 2 0 coolant inlet temperature 37 degrees C, inlet pressure 654 kPa and mass flow 12.4 L/s. Irradiation exposures ranged from 147 to 251 full-power days, corresponding to 40 to 84 atom % 235 U burnup. The maximum rod power was ∼2 MW, with element linear power ratings up to 68 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations, conducted in 1997, focused on optical metallography to measure cladding oxide thickness and fuel core and cladding microstructural examinations. The cladding oxide was approximately 24 μm thick at the mid-plane of fuel rods irradiated to 251 full-power days, with small areas up to 34 μm thick on the fins. The cladding retained significant ductility after irradiation, and its microstructure appeared unchanged. Fuel core diametral increases were small (up to 4%) and within the range previously observed on A1-61 wt % U 3 Si fuel irradiated in the NRU reactor. (author)

  18. Day-ahead electricity prices forecasting by a modified CGSA technique and hybrid WT in LSSVM based scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Ghasemi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a hybrid CGSA-LSSVM scheme for price forecasting. • Considering uncertainties for filtering in input data and feature selection to improve efficiency. • Using DWT input featured LSSVM approach to classify next-week prices. • Used three real markets to illustrate performance of the proposed price forecasting model. - Abstract: At the present time, day-ahead electricity market is closely associated with other commodity markets such as fuel market and emission market. Under such an environment, day-ahead electricity price forecasting has become necessary for power producers and consumers in the current deregulated electricity markets. Seeking for more accurate price forecasting techniques, this paper proposes a new combination of a Feature Selection (FS) technique based mutual information (MI) technique and Wavelet Transform (WT) in this study. Moreover, in this paper a new modified version of Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) optimization based chaos theory, namely Chaotic Gravitational Search Algorithm (CGSA) is developed to find the optimal parameters of Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) to predict electricity prices. The performance and price forecast accuracy of the proposed technique is assessed by means of real data from Iran’s, Ontario’s and Spain’s price markets. The simulation results from numerical tables and figures in different cases show that the proposed technique increases electricity price market forecasting accuracy than the other classical and heretical methods in the scientific researches

  19. An examination of the interparticle contact area during sintering of W-0.3 wt pct Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitlin, D.; German, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    As a powder compact sinters, its microstructure evolves. One way to quantify the scale of the microstructure is to consider the interparticle contact area. This study examines two known models for calculating the interparticle contact area: the classic two-sphere model and the Voronoi cell model. Both models have particular assumptions about the microstructure that make them not applicable for treating densification to near full density with concurrent grain growth. The classic two-sphere model assumes a regular packing of particles and a perfectly spherical particle geometry and neglects an increasing particle coordination number with sintering. The Voronoi cell model assumes that the scale of the microstructure remains constant; i.e., as long as the compact is densifying, grain growth does not occur. The authors propose a modified Voronoi cell that accounts for an increasing grain size, making it applicable to a general case where grain growth occurs during sintering. The three models are compared to the interparticle contact area data, obtained by stereology techniques, for W-0.3 wt pct Co sintered from green state to near full density. The original Voronoi cell model fits the data only at low temperatures, before the onset of grain growth. Below approximately 90 pct relative density, the two-sphere model with an assumed coordination number of six (coordination number in a green compact) and the modified Voronoi cell model provide a good fit to the data. At higher densities, both models overestimate the interparticle contact area

  20. The Effect of Heat Treatments on Alloying of Pre-mixed Al + 4.5 wt. % Cu Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra KÖPRÜLÜ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 4.5 wt. % Cu powder was added to Al powder and mixed for 45 minutes to produce premixed metal powders. Premixed powders were compacted by cold pressing at 20 MPa. After that these samples were pressed at 500℃ under 200 MPa for 30 minutes by hot pressed method. Hot pressed block samples were subjected to diffusion annealing at 540 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 hours. These samples, produced by powder metallurgy, are used at metallographic and microscopic researches to investigate the diffusion process. During the diffusion annealing, it was determined that significant amount of copper powder particles was dissolved in the Al matrix by diffusion. Diffusion annealing was followed by aging heat treatment, characterized by metallographic and mechanical tests. According to the increasing the annealing time, the homogeneity of the chemical composition is not provided, however the increasing of the heat treatment (T6 capability of the produced parts, and partial porosity which is believed to be due to atomic diffusion, have been observed. Moreover, in the XRD analyses, it was determined that the phases of -Al,  and  were formed in the microstructure.