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Sample records for tyrosine-based signal plays

  1. Artificial Neural Network for the Prediction of Tyrosine-Based Sorting Signal Recognition by Adaptor Complexes

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    Debarati Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of transmembrane proteins to various intracellular compartments depends on specific signals present within their cytosolic domains. Among these sorting signals, the tyrosine-based motif (YXXØ is one of the best characterized and is recognized by μ-subunits of the four clathrin-associated adaptor complexes (AP-1 to AP-4. Despite their overlap in specificity, each μ-subunit has a distinct sequence preference dependent on the nature of the X-residues. Moreover, combinations of these residues exert cooperative or inhibitory effects towards interaction with the various APs. This complexity makes it impossible to predict a priori, the specificity of a given tyrosine-signal for a particular μ-subunit. Here, we describe the results obtained with a computational approach based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN paradigm that addresses the issue of tyrosine-signal specificity, enabling the prediction of YXXØ-μ interactions with accuracies over 90%. Therefore, this approach constitutes a powerful tool to help predict mechanisms of intracellular protein sorting.

  2. Looking for a needle in a haystack: Cellular proteins that may interact with the tyrosine-based sorting signal of the TGEV S protein.

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    Trincone, Anna; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel

    2015-04-16

    The spike protein S of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an Alphacoronavirus, contains a tyrosine-based sorting signal that is responsible for ERGIC retention and may be important for a correct viral assembly process. To find out whether the S protein interacts with cellular proteins via this sorting signal, a pulldown assay with GST fusion proteins was performed. Filamin A has been identified as a putative interaction candidate. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed a co-localization between the TGEV S protein and filamin A. Further experiments have to be performed to prove a significant impact of filamin A on TGEV infection. Different approaches of several researchers for the identification of cellular interaction candidates relevant for coronavirus replication are summarized. These results may help in the future to identify the role of cellular proteins during coronavirus assembly at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Play.

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    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  4. Unveiling the "secret" of play in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): Asymmetry and signals.

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    Cordoni, Giada; Nicotra, Velia; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Due to their playful propensity, dogs are a good model to test some hypotheses about play dynamics (length, asymmetry, features of players) and communication (play bow [PBOW]; relaxed open-mouth [ROM] display). We video-recorded 203 play sessions between dogs in an off-leash dog park in Palermo, Italy. Contrary to the expectation, play asymmetry (particularly high in this species) did not differ between stranger and familiar dogs, thus suggesting the limited role of play in forming dominance relationships. Asymmetry negatively affected the duration of the session, whereas the increasing number of players was positively linked to the duration of playful interactions. The number of PBOWs exchanged by players may exert a certain influence on the session length as well. PBOWs were performed independently from the kind of play (locomotor vs. contact) the dogs were engaging in. Conversely, ROMs were preferentially emitted during contact play when "face-to-face" interactions were more likely. Body closeness is also required in case opening the mouth has not a signal function but only preludes a bite. However, in the 82% of cases play bites did not follow a ROM, thus suggesting that dogs place ROMs in the appropriate context to optimize signal detectability. In conclusion, 2 tactics may concur in coping with the asymmetry and unpredictability of play sessions in dogs. First, whenever the asymmetry increases dogs shorten the duration of their sessions thus limiting the risk of possible escalation. Second, dogs make use of a good communicative system based on the reciprocal exchange of playful signals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. ALV-J GP37 molecular analysis reveals novel virus-adapted sites and three tyrosine-based Env species.

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    Jianqiang Ye

    Full Text Available Compared to other avian leukosis viruses (ALV, ALV-J primarily induces myeloid leukemia and hemangioma and causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry. The ALV-J Env protein is hypothesized to be related to its unique pathogenesis. However, the molecular determinants of Env for ALV-J pathogenesis are unclear. In this study, we compared and analyzed GP37 of ALV-J Env and the EAV-HP sequence, which has high homology to that of ALV-J Env. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five groups of ALV-J GP37 and two novel ALV-J Envs with endemic GP85 and EAV-HP-like GP37. Furthermore, at least 15 virus-adapted mutations were detected in GP37 compared to the EAV-HP sequence. Further analysis demonstrated that three tyrosine-based motifs (YxxM, ITIM (immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and ITAM-like (immune tyrosine-based active motif like associated with immune disease and oncogenesis were found in the cytoplasmic tail of GP37. Based on the potential function and distribution of these motifs in GP37, ALV-J Env was grouped into three species, inhibitory Env, bifunctional Env and active Env. Accordingly, 36.91%, 61.74% and 1.34% of ALV-J Env sequences from GenBank are classified as inhibitory, bifunctional and active Env, respectively. Additionally, the Env of the ALV-J prototype strain, HPRS-103, and 17 of 18 EAV-HP sequences belong to the inhibitory Env. And models for signal transduction of the three ALV-J Env species were predicted. Our findings and models provide novel insights for identifying the roles and molecular mechanism of ALV-J Env in the unique pathogenesis of ALV-J.

  6. JAK/STAT signalling: STAT cannot play with Ken and Barbie.

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    Hombría, James Castelli-Gair; Sotillos, Sol

    2006-02-07

    Transcriptional responses to the activation of a signalling pathway are cell-specific. New data show that the sequence-specific transcriptional repressors of the KEN/BCL-6 family play an important role in the selection of STAT targets in vertebrates and invertebrates, indicating that all STAT proteins may share this ancestral mechanism.

  7. Arabidopsis PYL8 Plays an Important Role for ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Responses

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    Chae Woo Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are frequently exposed to numerous environmental stresses such as dehydration and high salinity, and have developed elaborate mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays a critical role as an integrator of plant responses to water-limited condition to activate ABA signal transduction pathway. Although perception of ABA has been suggested to be important, the function of each ABA receptor remains elusive in dehydration condition. Here, we show that ABA receptor, pyrabactin resistance-like protein 8 (PYL8, functions in dehydration conditions. Transgenic plants overexpressing PYL8 exhibited hypersensitive phenotype to ABA in seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. We found that hypersensitivity to ABA of transgenic plants results in high degrees of stomatal closure in response to ABA leading to low transpiration rates and ultimately more vulnerable to drought than the wild-type plants. In addition, high expression of ABA maker genes also contributes to altered drought tolerance phenotype. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of ABA signaling by ABA receptor in stomata during defense response to drought stress.

  8. Microtubule-Mediated Inositol Lipid Signaling Plays Critical Roles in Regulation of Blebbing.

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    Tatsuroh Sugiyama

    Full Text Available Cells migrate by extending pseudopods such as lamellipodia and blebs. Although the signals leading to lamellipodia extension have been extensively investigated, those for bleb extension remain unclear. Here, we investigated signals for blebbing in Dictyostelium cells using a newly developed assay to induce blebbing. When cells were cut into two pieces with a microneedle, the anucleate fragments vigorously extended blebs. This assay enabled us to induce blebbing reproducibly, and analyses of knockout mutants and specific inhibitors identified candidate molecules that regulate blebbing. Blebs were also induced in anucleate fragments of leukocytes, indicating that this assay is generally applicable to animal cells. After cutting, microtubules in the anucleate fragments promptly depolymerized, followed by the extension of blebs. Furthermore, when intact cells were treated with a microtubule inhibitor, they frequently extended blebs. The depolymerization of microtubules induced the delocalization of inositol lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate from the cell membrane. PI3 kinase-null cells frequently extended blebs, whereas PTEN-null cells extended fewer blebs. From these observations, we propose a model in which microtubules play a critical role in bleb regulation via inositol lipid metabolism.

  9. Pgrmc1/BDNF Signaling Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Glia-Neuron Cross Talk.

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    Sun, Fen; Nguyen, Trinh; Jin, Xin; Huang, Renqi; Chen, Zhenglan; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone (P4) exerts robust cytoprotection in brain slice cultures (containing both neurons and glia), yet such protection is not as evident in neuron-enriched cultures, suggesting that glia may play an indispensable role in P4's neuroprotection. We previously reported that a membrane-associated P4 receptor, P4 receptor membrane component 1, mediates P4-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release from glia. Here, we sought to determine whether glia are required for P4's neuroprotection and whether glia's roles are mediated, at least partially, via releasing soluble factors to act on neighboring neurons. Our data demonstrate that P4 increased the level of mature BDNF (neuroprotective) while decreasing pro-BDNF (potentially neurotoxic) in the conditioned media (CMs) of cultured C6 astrocytes. We examined the effects of CMs derived from P4-treated astrocytes (P4-CMs) on 2 neuronal models: 1) all-trans retinoid acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and 2) mouse primary hippocampal neurons. P4-CM increased synaptic marker expression and promoted neuronal survival against H2O2. These effects were attenuated by Y1036 (an inhibitor of neurotrophin receptor [tropomysin-related kinase] signaling), as well as tropomysin-related kinase B-IgG (a more specific inhibitor to block BDNF signaling), which pointed to BDNF as the key protective component within P4-CM. These findings suggest that P4 may exert its maximal protection by triggering a glia-neuron cross talk, in which P4 promotes mature BDNF release from glia to enhance synaptogenesis as well as survival of neurons. This recognition of the importance of glia in mediating P4's neuroprotection may also inform the design of effective therapeutic methods for treating diseases wherein neuronal death and/or synaptic deficits are noted.

  10. TGFβ signaling plays a critical role in promoting alternative macrophage activation

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    Gong Dapeng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon stimulation with different cytokines, macrophages can undergo classical or alternative activation to become M1 or M2 macrophages. Alternatively activated (or M2 macrophages are defined by their expression of specific gene products and play an important role in containing inflammation, removing apoptotic cells and repairing tissue damage. Whereas it is well-established that IL-4 can drive alternative activation, if lack of TGFβ signaling at physiological levels affects M2 polarization has not been addressed. Results Vav1-Cre x TβRIIfx/fx mice, lacking TβRII function in hematopoietic cells, exhibited uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation and developed a lethal autoimmune syndrome at young age. This was accompanied by significantly increased numbers of splenic neutrophils and T cells as well as elevated hepatic macrophage infiltration and bone marrow monocyte counts. TβRII-/- CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lymph nodes and spleen expressed increased cell surface CD44, and CD69 was also higher on CD4+ lymph node T-cells. Loss of TβRII in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs did not affect the ability of these cells to perform efferocytosis. However, these cells were defective in basal and IL-4-induced arg1 mRNA and Arginase-1 protein production. Moreover, the transcription of genes that are typically upregulated in M2-polarized macrophages, such as ym1, mcr2 and mgl2, was also decreased in peritoneal macrophages and IL-4-stimulated TβRII-/- BMDMs. We found that cell surface and mRNA expression of Galectin-3, which also regulates M2 macrophage polarization, was lower in TβRII-/- BMDMs. Very interestingly, the impaired ability of these null mutant BMDMs to differentiate into IL-4 polarized macrophages was Stat6- and Smad3-independent, but correlated with reduced levels of phospho-Akt and β-catenin. Conclusions Our results establish a novel biological role for TGFβ signaling in controlling expression of genes

  11. Analysis of EEG signals regularity in adults during video game play in 2D and 3D.

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    Khairuddin, Hamizah R; Malik, Aamir S; Mumtaz, Wajid; Kamel, Nidal; Xia, Likun

    2013-01-01

    Video games have long been part of the entertainment industry. Nonetheless, it is not well known how video games can affect us with the advancement of 3D technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the EEG signals regularity when playing video games in 2D and 3D modes. A total of 29 healthy subjects (24 male, 5 female) with mean age of 21.79 (1.63) years participated. Subjects were asked to play a car racing video game in three different modes (2D, 3D passive and 3D active). In 3D passive mode, subjects needed to wear a passive polarized glasses (cinema type) while for 3D active, an active shutter glasses was used. Scalp EEG data was recorded during game play using 19-channel EEG machine and linked ear was used as reference. After data were pre-processed, the signal irregularity for all conditions was computed. Two parameters were used to measure signal complexity for time series data: i) Hjorth-Complexity and ii) Composite Permutation Entropy Index (CPEI). Based on these two parameters, our results showed that the complexity level increased from eyes closed to eyes open condition; and further increased in the case of 3D as compared to 2D game play.

  12. The EBI2 signalling pathway plays a role in cellular crosstalk between astrocytes and macrophages.

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    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; O'Sullivan, Sinead A; Christen, Isabelle; Zhang, Juan; Sailer, Andreas W; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2016-05-11

    EBI2 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by oxysterol 7α, 25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α25HC) and regulates T cell-dependant antibody response and B cell migration. We recently found EBI2 is expressed in human astrocytes, regulates intracellular signalling and modulates astrocyte migration. Here, we report that LPS treatment of mouse astrocytes alters mRNA levels of EBI2 and oxysterols suggesting that the EBI2 signalling pathway is sensitive to LPS-mediated immune challenge. We also find that conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated mouse astrocytes induces macrophage migration, which is inhibited by the EBI2 antagonist NIBR189. These results demonstrate a role for the EBI2 signalling pathway in astrocytes as a sensor for immune challenge and for communication with innate immune cells such as macrophages.

  13. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

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    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  14. CACN-1/Cactin plays a role in Wnt signaling in C. elegans.

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    Melissa LaBonty

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is tightly regulated during animal development and controls cell proliferation and differentiation. In C. elegans, activation of Wnt signaling alters the activity of the TCF/LEF transcription factor, POP-1, through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathways. In this study, we have identified CACN-1 as a potential regulator of POP-1 in C. elegans larval development. CACN-1/Cactin is a well-conserved protein of unknown molecular function previously implicated in the regulation of several developmental signaling pathways. Here we have used activation of POPTOP, a POP-1-responsive reporter construct, as a proxy for Wnt signaling. POPTOP requires POP-1 and SYS-1/β-catenin for activation in L4 uterine cells. RNAi depletion experiments show that CACN-1 is needed to prevent excessive activation of POPTOP and for proper levels and/or localization of POP-1. Surprisingly, high POPTOP expression correlates with increased levels of POP-1 in uterine nuclei, suggesting POPTOP may not mirror endogenous gene expression in all respects. Genetic interaction studies suggest that CACN-1 may act partially through LIT-1/NLK to alter POP-1 localization and POPTOP activation. Additionally, CACN-1 is required for proper proliferation of larval seam cells. Depletion of CACN-1 results in a loss of POP-1 asymmetry and reduction of terminal seam cell number, suggesting an adoption of the anterior, differentiated fate by the posterior daughter cells. These findings suggest CACN-1/Cactin modulates Wnt signaling during larval development.

  15. Pannexin 1 channels play essential roles in urothelial mechanotransduction and intercellular signaling.

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    Hiromitsu Negoro

    Full Text Available Urothelial cells respond to bladder distension with ATP release, and ATP signaling within the bladder and from the bladder to the CNS is essential for proper bladder function. In other cell types, pannexin 1 (Panx1 channels provide a pathway for mechanically-induced ATP efflux and for ATP-induced ATP release through interaction with P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs. We report that Panx1 and P2X7R are functionally expressed in the bladder mucosa and in immortalized human urothelial cells (TRT-HU1, and participate in urothelial ATP release and signaling. ATP release from isolated rat bladders induced by distention was reduced by the Panx1 channel blocker mefloquine (MFQ and was blunted in mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Hypoosmotic shock induced YoPro dye uptake was inhibited by MFQ and the P2X7R blocker A438079 in TRT-HU1 cells, and was also blunted in primary urothelial cells derived from mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Rinsing-induced mechanical stimulation of TRT-HU1 cells triggered ATP release, which was reduced by MFQ and potentiated in low divalent cation solution (LDPBS, a condition known to enhance P2X7R activation. ATP signaling evaluated as intercellular Ca2+ wave radius was significantly larger in LDPBS, reduced by MFQ and by apyrase (ATP scavenger. These findings indicate that Panx1 participates in urothelial mechanotransduction and signaling by providing a direct pathway for mechanically-induced ATP release and by functionally interacting with P2X7Rs.

  16. A redundant role of the CD3 gamma-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in mature T cell function

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    Haks, MC; Cordaro, TA; van den Brakel, JHN; Haanen, JBAG; de Vries, EFR; Borst, J; Krimpenfort, P; Kruisbeek, AM

    2001-01-01

    At least four different CD3 polypeptide chains are contained within the mature TCR complex, each encompassing one (CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, and CD3 epsilon) or three (CD3 zeta) immunoreceptof tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within their cytoplasmic domains. Why so many ITAMs are required is

  17. Insulin and insulin signaling play a critical role in fat induction of insulin resistance in mouse

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    Ning, Jie; Hong, Tao; Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The primary player that induces insulin resistance has not been established. Here, we studied whether or not fat can cause insulin resistance in the presence of insulin deficiency. Our results showed that high-fat diet (HFD) induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The HFD-induced insulin resistance was prevented largely by the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced moderate insulin deficiency. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD-induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and gastrocnemius. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD- or insulin-induced increase in hepatic expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which are necessary for fatty acid activation. HFD increased mitochondrial contents of long-chain acyl-CoAs, whereas it decreased mitochondrial ADP/ATP ratio, and these HFD-induced changes were prevented by the STZ-induced insulin deficiency. In cultured hepatocytes, we observed that expressions of ACSL1 and -5 were stimulated by insulin signaling. Results in cultured cells also showed that blunting insulin signaling by the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 prevented fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to either insulin or oleate plus sera that normally contain insulin. Finally, knockdown of the insulin receptor prevented the oxidative stress and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin or oleate plus sera. Together, our results show that insulin and insulin signaling are required for fat induction of insulin resistance in mice and cultured mouse hepatocytes. PMID:21586696

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

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    Wai-Hong Tham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  19. FGF10/FGFR2b signaling plays essential roles during in vivo embryonic submandibular salivary gland morphogenesis

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    Hajihosseini Mohammad K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of Fgf10 and Fgfr2b mutant mice, as well as human studies, suggest that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling may play an essential, nonredundant role during embryonic SMG development. To address this question, we have analyzed the SMG phenotype in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygous and null mutant mice. In addition, although previous studies suggest that the FGF10/FGFR2b and FGF8/FGFR2c signaling pathways are functionally interrelated, little is known about the functional relationship between these two pathways during SMG development. We have designed in vivo and in vitro experiments to address this question. Results We analyzed Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygous mutant and null mice and demonstrate dose-dependent SMG phenotypic differences. Hypoplastic SMGs are seen in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygotes whereas SMG aplasia is seen in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b null embryos. Complementary in vitro studies further indicate that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling regulates SMG epithelial branching and cell proliferation. To delineate the functional relationship between the FGF10/FGFR2b and FGF8/FGFR2c pathways, we compared the SMG phenotype in Fgfr2c+/Δ/Fgf10+/- double heterozygous mice to that seen in wildtype, Fgf10+/- (Fgfr2c+/+/Fgf10+/- and Fgfr2c+/Δ (Fgfr2c+/Δ/Fgf10+/+ single heterozygous mutant littermates and demonstrate genotype-specific SMG phenotypes. In addition, exogenous FGF8 was able to rescue the abnormal SMG phenotype associated with abrogated FGFR2b signaling in vitro and restore branching to normal levels. Conclusion Our data indicates that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling is essential for the SMG epithelial branching and histodifferentiation, but not earliest initial bud formation. The functional presence of other endogenous signaling pathways could not prevent complete death of embryonic SMG cells in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b null mice. Though we were able to rescue the abnormal phenotype associated with reduced in vitro FGF10/FGFR2b signaling with exogenous FGF8

  20. L-tyrosine-based backbone-modified poly(amino acids).

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    Gupta, Anirban Sen; Lopina, Stephanie T

    2002-01-01

    Tyrosine-based pseudo-peptide polymers, first introduced in 1987 by Kohn and Langer, have been identified for potential biomaterial applications. These materials combine the desired polypeptide properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and non-immunogenicity with good processing properties including solubility, thermal stability, and moldability which arise from alternating non-amide bonds along the polymer backbone. This paper focuses on the analysis of two such polymers based on the natural amino acid L-tyrosine. Starting from L-tyrosine and its deaminated analogue, 3-(4-para-hydroxy)-phenylpropionic acid, a diphenolic structure containing an amide linkage, was synthesized following standard procedures of peptide synthesis. This diphenolic structure was then used as a monomer to synthesize a polyiminocarbonate using a cyanogen bromide-initiated reaction and a polycarbonate using a triphosgene-initiated reaction. The polyiminocarbonate has iminocarbonate linkages and the polycarbonate has carbonate linkages alternating with amide linkages in the respective polymer backbone. Analytical studies were performed regarding the feasibility of the reaction procedures, the physical properties of the polymers, and their degradation processes, to gain insight into the potential biomaterial applications of these polymers. These results independently reaffirm the studies published by Kohn et al. working on similar polymeric systems.

  1. Retinoic acid signaling plays a restrictive role in zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis.

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    Dong Liang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is known to regulate definitive myelopoiesis but its role in vertebrate primitive myelopoiesis remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis is restricted by RA in a dose dependent manner mainly before 11 hpf (hours post fertilization when anterior hemangioblasts are initiated to form. RA treatment significantly reduces expressions of anterior hemangioblast markers scl, lmo2, gata2 and etsrp in the rostral end of ALPM (anterior lateral plate mesoderm of the embryos. The result indicates that RA restricts primitive myelopoiesis by suppressing formation of anterior hemangioblasts. Analyses of ALPM formation suggest that the defective primitive myelopoiesis resulting from RA treatment before late gastrulation may be secondary to global loss of cells for ALPM fate whereas the developmental defect resulting from RA treatment during 10-11 hpf should be due to ALPM patterning shift. Overexpressions of scl and lmo2 partially rescue the block of primitive myelopoiesis in the embryos treated with 250 nM RA during 10-11 hpf, suggesting RA acts upstream of scl to control primitive myelopoiesis. However, the RA treatment blocks the increased primitive myelopoiesis caused by overexpressing gata4/6 whereas the abolished primitive myelopoiesis in gata4/5/6 depleted embryos is well rescued by 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde, a retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor, or partially rescued by knocking down aldh1a2, the major retinal dehydrogenase gene that is responsible for RA synthesis during early development. Consistently, overexpressing gata4/6 inhibits aldh1a2 expression whereas depleting gata4/5/6 increases aldh1a2 expression. The results reveal that RA signaling acts downstream of gata4/5/6 to control primitive myelopoiesis. But, 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde fails to rescue the defective primitive myelopoiesis in either cloche embryos or lycat morphants. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RA signaling restricts

  2. Do interictal microembolic signals play a role in higher cortical dysfunction during migraine aura?

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    Petrusic, I; Podgorac, A; Zidverc-Trajkovic, J; Radojicic, A; Jovanovic, Z; Sternic, N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical impact of interictal microembolic signals (MES) in patients suffering from migraine with higher cortical dysfunction (HCD), such as language and memory impairment, during an aura. This study was carried out on 34 migraineurs with language and memory impairment during aura (HCD group), 31 migraineurs with only visual or visual and somatosensory symptoms during aura (Control group I), and 34 healthy controls (Control group II). We used a Doppler instrument to detect microemboli. Demographic data, disease features and the detection of MES between these groups, as well as the predictors of HCD during the aura, were analyzed. The duration of aura was longer and the frequency of aura was higher among patients with language and memory impairment during aura compared to Control group I. MES was detected in 29.4% patients from the HCD group, which was significantly higher compared to 3.2% in Control group I and 5.9% in Control group II. Regarding the absence or presence of MES, demographic and aura features were not different in the HCD subgroups. A longer duration of aura, the presence of somatosensory symptoms during the aura and the presence of interictal MES were independent predictors of HCD during the aura. The present findings indicate that HCD and MES are related in patients with migraine with aura. Further research is needed to better understand the exact pathophysiological mechanism. © International Headache Society 2015.

  3. Immersive audiomotor game play enhances neural and perceptual salience of weak signals in noise.

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    Whitton, Jonathon P; Hancock, Kenneth E; Polley, Daniel B

    2014-06-24

    All sensory systems face the fundamental challenge of encoding weak signals in noisy backgrounds. Although discrimination abilities can improve with practice, these benefits rarely generalize to untrained stimulus dimensions. Inspired by recent findings that action video game training can impart a broader spectrum of benefits than traditional perceptual learning paradigms, we trained adult humans and mice in an immersive audio game that challenged them to forage for hidden auditory targets in a 2D soundscape. Both species learned to modulate their angular search vectors and target approach velocities based on real-time changes in the level of a weak tone embedded in broadband noise. In humans, mastery of this tone in noise task generalized to an improved ability to comprehend spoken sentences in speech babble noise. Neural plasticity in the auditory cortex of trained mice supported improved decoding of low-intensity sounds at the training frequency and an enhanced resistance to interference from background masking noise. These findings highlight the potential to improve the neural and perceptual salience of degraded sensory stimuli through immersive computerized games.

  4. Physiological Signal Analysis for Evaluating Flow during Playing of Computer Games of Varying Difficulty

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    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person–artifact–task model, we selected computer games (tasks with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy and shyness (personality as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40 played the games. Moreover, the associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated through a series of repeated-measures analyses. The results showed that the flow experience is related to a faster respiratory rate, deeper respiration, moderate heart rate (HR, moderate HR variability, and moderate SC. The main effect of shyness was non-significant, whereas the interaction of shyness and difficulty influenced the flow experience. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of arousal and valence. The results indicate that the flow state is a state of moderate mental effort that arises through the increased parasympathetic modulation of sympathetic activity.

  5. To whom the play signal is directed: a study of headshaking in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

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    Pellis, Sergio M; Pellis, Vivien C

    2011-02-01

    Spider monkeys shake their heads so as to facilitate amicable social contact. This occurs frequently during vigorous play fighting, and so is common during the juvenile period. Occasionally, juvenile spider monkeys use headshakes during nonsocial locomotor play. In this study, head shaking in early infancy and in adulthood was studied in a captive troop of spider monkeys, with a total of 8 infants studied from shortly after birth to just before weaning. Three hypotheses to account for these nonsocial headshakes were tested. The play as the experience of the unexpected hypothesis was found wanting because nonsocial headshakes were most common in early infancy, before the onset of the juvenile peak in play. The immature misdirection of signals hypothesis was also found wanting because the headshakes were correctly directed at other monkeys, but not at inanimate objects that were grabbed and mouthed. Both also failed to predict the occurrence of the observed nonsocial headshakes in adults. The hypothesis best supported by the data is that, under some situations, headshakes are self-directed to promote action when confronting contexts of uncertainty.

  6. HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection.

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    Zhen Luo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD, and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Intracellular TLRs must traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the endolysosomal network from where they initiate complete signaling, leading to inflammatory response. This study reveals a novel mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR7 signaling during EV71 infection. Initially, we show that multiple cytokines are differentially expressed during viral infection and demonstrate that EV71 infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines through regulating TLR7-mediated p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Further studies reveal that the expression of the endosome-associated protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS is upregulated and highly correlated with the expression of TLR7 in EV71 infected patients, mice, and cultured cells. Virus-induced HRS subsequently enhances TLR7 complex formation in early- and late-endosome by interacting with TLR7 and TAB1. Moreover, HRS is involved in the regulation of the TLR7/NF-κB/p38 MAPK and the TLR7/NF-κB/IRF3 signaling pathways to induce proinflammatory cytokines and interferons, respectively, resulting in the orchestration of inflammatory and immune responses to the EV71 infection. Therefore, this study demonstrates that HRS acts as a key component of TLR7 signaling to orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses during EV71 infection, and provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of host inflammation and innate immunity during EV71 infection.

  7. HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen; Ge, Maolin; Chen, Junbo; Geng, Qibin; Tian, Mingfu; Qiao, Zhi; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Chengliang; Xiong, Ying; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Intracellular TLRs must traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the endolysosomal network from where they initiate complete signaling, leading to inflammatory response. This study reveals a novel mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR7 signaling during EV71 infection. Initially, we show that multiple cytokines are differentially expressed during viral infection and demonstrate that EV71 infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines through regulating TLR7-mediated p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Further studies reveal that the expression of the endosome-associated protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) is upregulated and highly correlated with the expression of TLR7 in EV71 infected patients, mice, and cultured cells. Virus-induced HRS subsequently enhances TLR7 complex formation in early- and late-endosome by interacting with TLR7 and TAB1. Moreover, HRS is involved in the regulation of the TLR7/NF-κB/p38 MAPK and the TLR7/NF-κB/IRF3 signaling pathways to induce proinflammatory cytokines and interferons, respectively, resulting in the orchestration of inflammatory and immune responses to the EV71 infection. Therefore, this study demonstrates that HRS acts as a key component of TLR7 signaling to orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses during EV71 infection, and provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of host inflammation and innate immunity during EV71 infection.

  8. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling plays an essential role in homeostasis of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Amlan; Wilmanski, Jeanette; Forsman, Huamei; Hrncir, Tomas; Hao, Liming; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2011-01-01

    A healthy intestinal tract is characterized by controlled homeostasis due to the balanced interaction between commensal bacteria and the host mucosal immune system. Human and animal model studies have supported the hypothesis that breakdown of this homeostasis may underlie the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not well understood how intestinal microflora stimulate the intestinal mucosal immune system and how such activation is regulated. Using a spontaneous, commensal bacteria-dependent colitis model in IL-10-deficient mice, we investigated the role of TLR and their negative regulation in intestinal homeostasis. In addition to IL-10(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice, IL-10(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced colitis compared to IL-10(-/-) mice, indicating that TLR4 signaling plays an important role in inducing colitis. Interestingly, the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, is dependent on intestinal commensal flora, as IRAK-M expression was reduced in mice re-derived into a germ-free environment, and introduction of commensal bacteria into germ-free mice induced IRAK-M expression. IL-10(-/-) IRAK-M(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated colitis with increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Therefore, this study indicates that intestinal microflora stimulate the colitogenic immune system through TLR and negative regulation of TLR signaling is essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. IL-13/STAT6 signaling plays a critical role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Hong; Wan, Ledong; Zhang, Honghe; Huang, Qiong; Xu, Enping; Lai, Maode

    2016-09-20

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide due to the distant metastases. Compelling evidence has reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in promoting cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) could induce an aggressive phenotype displaying EMT by enhancing the expression of EMT-promoting factor ZEB1. Importantly, STAT6 signaling inhibitor and STAT6 knockdown significantly reversed IL-13-induced EMT and ZEB1 induction in CRC cells, whereas ectopic STAT6 expression in STAT6null CRC cell line markedly promoted EMT in the present of IL-13. ChIP-PCR and Luciferase assays revealed that activated STAT6 directly bound to the promoter of ZEB1. Otherwise, we found IL-13 also up-regulated the stem cell markers (nanog, CD44, CD133 and CD166) and promoted cell migration and invasion through STAT6 pathway. We also found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-13Rα1 could reverse IL-13-induced ZEB1 and EMT changes by preventing STAT6 signaling. Finally, we demonstrated positive correlation between IL-13Rα1 and ZEB1 at mRNA levels in human CRC samples. Taken together, our findings first demonstrated that IL-13/IL-13Rα1/STAT6/ZEB1 pathway plays a critical role in promoting EMT and aggressiveness of CRC.

  10. The conserved dileucine- and tyrosine-based motifs in MLV and MPMV envelope glycoproteins are both important to regulate a common Env intracellular trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Vergès Sandra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrovirus particles emerge from the assembly of two structural protein components, Gag that is translated as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm of the host cells, and Env, a type I transmembrane protein. Because both components are translated in different intracellular compartments, elucidating the mechanisms of retrovirus assembly thus requires the study of their intracellular trafficking. Results We used a CD25 (Tac chimera-based approach to study the trafficking of Moloney murine leukemia virus and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Env proteins. We found that the cytoplasmic tails (CTs of both Env conserved two major signals that control a complex intracellular trafficking. A dileucine-based motif controls the sorting of the chimeras from the trans-Golgi network (TGN toward endosomal compartments. Env proteins then follow a retrograde transport to the TGN due to the action of a tyrosine-based motif. Mutation of either motif induces the mis-localization of the chimeric proteins and both motifs are found to mediate interactions of the viral CTs with clathrin adaptors. Conclusion This data reveals the unexpected complexity of the intracellular trafficking of retrovirus Env proteins that cycle between the TGN and endosomes. Given that Gag proteins hijack endosomal host proteins, our work suggests that the endosomal pathway may be used by retroviruses to ensure proper encountering of viral structural Gag and Env proteins in cells, an essential step of virus assembly.

  11. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an ever-expanding role in stem cell self-renewal, tumorigenesis and cancer chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Maryam K.; Shao, Connie; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xin; Collier, Zachary; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Fugui; Huang, Jiayi; Guo, Dan; Lu, Minpeng; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianxiang; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lewis L.; Athiviraham, Aravind; He, Tong-Chuan; Lee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling transduces evolutionarily conserved pathways which play important roles in initiating and regulating a diverse range of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, calcium homeostasis, and cell polarity. The role of Wnt signaling in control of cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal is primarily carried out through the canonical pathway, which is the best characterized among the multiple Wnt signaling branches. The past 10 years has seen a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of this pathway, as many new components of Wnt signaling have been identified and linked to signaling regulation, stem cell functions, and adult tissue homeostasis. Additionally, a substantial body of evidence links Wnt signaling to tumorigenesis of many cancer types and implicates it in the development of cancer drug resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which dysregulation of Wnt signaling precedes the development and progression of human cancer may hasten the development of pathway inhibitors to augment current therapy. This review summarizes and synthesizes our current knowledge of the canonical Wnt pathway in development and disease. We begin with an overview of the components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and delve into the role this pathway has been shown to play in stemness, tumorigenesis, and cancer drug resistance. Ultimately, we hope to present an organized collection of evidence implicating Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance to facilitate the pursuit of Wnt pathway modulators that may improve outcomes of cancers in which Wnt signaling contributes to aggressive disease and/or treatment resistance. PMID:27077077

  12. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianquan; Lan, Yu; Baek, Jin-A; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Rulang

    2009-01-01

    Classical tissue recombination studies demonstrated that initiation of tooth development depends on activation of odontogenic potential in the mesenchyme by signals from the presumptive dental epithelium. Although several members of the Wnt family of signaling molecules are expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the beginning of tooth initiation, whether Wnt signaling is directly involved in the activation of the odontogenic mesenchyme has not been characterized. In this report, we...

  13. Butyrate plays differential roles in cellular signaling in cancerous HCT116 and noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects in colon. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate plays differential roles in cancerous and non-cancerous cells through si...

  14. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  15. Interleukin-15 plays a central role in human kidney physiology and cancer through the γc signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Giron-Michel

    Full Text Available The ability of Interleukin-15 (IL-15 to activate many immune antitumor mechanisms renders the cytokine a good candidate for the therapy of solid tumors, particularly renal cell carcinoma. Although IL-15 is being currently used in clinical trials, the function of the cytokine on kidney's components has not been extensively studied; we thus investigated the role of IL-15 on normal and tumor renal epithelial cells. Herein, we analyzed the expression and the biological functions of IL-15 in normal renal proximal tubuli (RPTEC and in their neoplastic counterparts, the renal clear cell carcinomas (RCC. This study shows that RPTEC express a functional heterotrimeric IL-15Rαβγc complex whose stimulation with physiologic concentrations of rhIL-15 is sufficient to inhibit epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT commitment preserving E-cadherin expression. Indeed, IL-15 is not only a survival factor for epithelial cells, but it can also preserve the renal epithelial phenotype through the γc-signaling pathway, demonstrating that the cytokine possess a wide range of action in epithelial homeostasis. In contrast, in RCC in vitro and in vivo studies reveal a defect in the expression of γc-receptor and JAK3 associated kinase, which strongly impacts IL-15 signaling. Indeed, in the absence of the γc/JAK3 couple we demonstrate the assembly of an unprecedented functional high affinity IL-15Rαβ heterodimer, that in response to physiologic concentrations of IL-15, triggers an unbalanced signal causing the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin, favoring RCC EMT process. Remarkably, the rescue of IL-15/γc-dependent signaling (STAT5, by co-transfecting γc and JAK3 in RCC, inhibits EMT reversion. In conclusion, these data highlight the central role of IL-15 and γc-receptor signaling in renal homeostasis through the control of E-cadherin expression and preservation of epithelial phenotype both in RPTEC (up-regulation and RCC (down-regulation.

  16. The TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway of Cyclina sinensis plays vital roles in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yipeng; Ding, Dan; Pan, Baoping; Bu, Wenjun

    2017-11-01

    Toll-like receptors, the best known pattern recognition receptors, play important roles in recognizing non-self molecules and binding pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the innate immune system. In the present research, the cDNA and protein characterization of the TLR signalling pathway genes including IRAK4, TRAK6 and IKKα (named CsIRAK4, CsTRAF6 and CsIKKα, respectively) with the typical motifs from Cyclina sinensis showed significant similarity with their homologues from other shellfish. Furthermore, the mRNA transcripts of these three genes are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested and are dominantly expressed in C. sinensis haemocytes (P sinensis by RNA interference and immune challenges. The results suggested the mRNA expression patterns of CsMyD88, CsIRAK4, CsTRAF6, CsIKKα, CsIκB, CsNF-κB, CsC-LYZ and CsAMP were all down-regulated (P sinensis haemocytes, revealing the involvement of the TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway in innate immunity by positively adjusting internal signalling factors and immune-related genes. In summary, a TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway exists and plays vital roles in innate immune responses in C. sinensis. These findings collectively lay the foundation for studying the functional characterization of internal signalling factors and establishing a regulatory network for the TLR signalling pathway in molluscs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immuno-PET Imaging of HER3 in a Model in which HER3 Signaling Plays a Critical Role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Yuan

    Full Text Available HER3 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including colorectal cancer (CRC, which is associated with poor prognosis, and is involved in the development of therapy resistance. Thus, an in vivo imaging technique is needed to evaluate the expression of HER3, an important therapeutic and diagnostic target. Here, we report successful HER3 PET imaging using a newly generated anti-human HER3 monoclonal antibody, Mab#58, and a mouse model of a HER3-overexpressing xenograft tumor. Furthermore, we assessed the role of HER3 signaling in CRC cancer tissue-originated spheroid (CTOS and applied HER3 imaging to detect endogenous HER3 in CTOS-derived xenografts. Cell binding assays of 89Zr-labeled Mab#58 using the HER3-overexpressing cell line HER3/RH7777 demonstrated that [89Zr]Mab#58 specifically bound to HER3/RH7777 cells (Kd = 2.7 nM. In vivo biodistribution study in mice bearing HER3/RH7777 and its parent cell xenografts showed that tumor accumulation of [89Zr]Mab#58 in HER3/RH7777 xenografts was significantly higher than that in the control from day 1 to day 4, tending to increase from day 1 to day 4 and reaching 12.2 ± 4.5%ID/g. Radioactivity in other tissues, including the control xenograft, decreased or remained unchanged from day 1 to day 6. Positron emission tomography (PET in the same model enabled clear visualization of HER3/RH7777 xenografts but not of RH7777 xenografts. CTOS growth assay and signaling assay revealed that CRC CTOS were dependent on HER3 signaling for their growth. In PET studies of mice bearing a CRC CTOS xenograft, the tumor was clearly visualized with [89Zr]Mab#58 but not with the 89Zr-labeled control antibody. Thus, tumor expression of HER3 was successfully visualized by PET with 89Zr-labeled anti-HER3 antibody in CTOS xenograft-bearing mice, a model that retains the properties of the patient tumor. Non-invasive targeting of HER3 by antibodies is feasible, and it is expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

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    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  19. Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Lyu, Yihua; Richlen, Mindy; Anderson, Donald M; Cai, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS.

  20. β2-Adrenergic signal transduction plays a detrimental role in subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joint in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Li, Qi-hong; Ren, Gao-tong; Zhao, Chang-ming; Liu, Yun-dong; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-qing

    2015-07-29

    The present study tested whether activation of the sympathetic tone by aberrant joint loading elicits abnormal subchondral bone remodeling in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Abnormal dental occlusion was created in experimental rats, which were then intraperitoneally injected by saline, propranolol or isoproterenol. The norepinephrine contents, distribution of sympathetic nerve fibers, expression of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and remodeling parameters in the condylar subchondral bone were investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from condylar subchondral bones were harvested for comparison of their β-ARs, pro-osteoclastic gene expressions and pro-osteoclastic function. Increases in norepinephrine level, sympathetic nerve fiber distribution and β2-AR expression were observed in the condylar subchondral bone of experimental rats, together with subchondral bone loss and increased osteoclast activity. β-antagonist (propranolol) suppressed subchondral bone loss and osteoclast hyperfunction while β-agonist (isoproterenol) exacerbated those responses. MSCs from experimental condylar subchondral bone expressed higher levels of β2-AR and RANKL; norepinephrine stimulation further increased their RANKL expression and pro-osteoclastic function. These effects were blocked by inhibition of β2-AR or the PKA pathway. RANKL expression by MSCs decreased after propranolol administration and increased after isoproterenol administration. It is concluded that β2-AR signal-mediated subchondral bone loss in TMJ osteoarthritisis associated with increased RANKL secretion by MSCs.

  1. Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Lyu, Yihua; Richlen, Mindy; Anderson, Donald M.; Cai, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS. PMID:28966438

  2. Cis and trans regulatory mechanisms control AP2-mediated B cell receptor endocytosis via select tyrosine-based motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Busman-Sahay

    Full Text Available Following antigen recognition, B cell receptor (BCR-mediated endocytosis is the first step of antigen processing and presentation to CD4+ T cells, a crucial component of the initiation and control of the humoral immune response. Despite this, the molecular mechanism of BCR internalization is poorly understood. Recently, studies of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL have shown that mutations within the BCR subunit CD79b leads to increased BCR surface expression, suggesting that CD79b may control BCR internalization. Adaptor protein 2 (AP2 is the major mediator of receptor endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits. The BCR contains five putative AP2-binding YxxØ motifs, including four that are present within two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs. Using a combination of in vitro and in situ approaches, we establish that the sole mediator of AP2-dependent BCR internalization is the membrane proximal ITAM YxxØ motif in CD79b, which is a major target of mutation in ABC DLBCL. In addition, we establish that BCR internalization can be regulated at a minimum of two different levels: regulation of YxxØ AP2 binding in cis by downstream ITAM-embedded DCSM and QTAT regulatory elements and regulation in trans by the partner cytoplasmic domain of the CD79 heterodimer. Beyond establishing the basic rules governing BCR internalization, these results illustrate an underappreciated role for ITAM residues in controlling clathrin-dependent endocytosis and highlight the complex mechanisms that control the activity of AP2 binding motifs in this receptor system.

  3. Insulin receptor signaling in the GnRH neuron plays a role in the abnormal GnRH pulsatility of obese female mice.

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    Sara A DiVall

    Full Text Available Infertility associated with obesity is characterized by abnormal hormone release from reproductive tissues in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. These tissues maintain insulin sensitivity upon peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin receptor signaling may play a role in the dysregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion in obesity, but the interdependence of hormone secretion in the reproductive axis and the multi-hormone and tissue dysfunction in obesity hinders investigations of putative contributing factors to the disrupted GnRH secretion. To determine the role of GnRH insulin receptor signaling in the dysregulation of GnRH secretion in obesity, we created murine models of diet-induced obesity (DIO with and without intact insulin signaling in the GnRH neuron. Obese control female mice were infertile with higher luteinizing hormone levels and higher GnRH pulse amplitude and total pulsatile secretion compared to lean control mice. In contrast, DIO mice with a GnRH specific knockout of insulin receptor had improved fertility, luteinizing hormone levels approaching lean mice, and GnRH pulse amplitude and total secretion similar to lean mice. Pituitary responsiveness was similar between genotypes. These results suggest that in the obese state, insulin receptor signaling in GnRH neurons increases GnRH pulsatile secretion and consequent LH secretion, contributing to reproductive dysfunction.

  4. Cyr61/CCN1 is regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and plays an important role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Zhi-Qiang Li

    Full Text Available Abnormal activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Transcription of Wnt target genes is regulated by nuclear β-catenin, whose over-expression is observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC tissue. Cyr61, a member of the CCN complex family of multifunctional proteins, is also found over-expressed in many types of tumor and plays dramatically different roles in tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Cyr61 and β-catenin in HCC. We found that while Cyr61 protein was not expressed at a detectable level in the liver tissue of healthy individuals, its expression level was elevated in the HCC and HCC adjacent tissues and was markedly increased in cancer-adjacent hepatic cirrhosis tissue. Over-expression of Cyr61 was positively correlated with increased levels of β-catenin in human HCC samples. Activation of β-catenin signaling elevated the mRNA level of Cyr61 in HepG2 cells, while inhibition of β-catenin signaling reduced both mRNA and protein levels of Cyr61. We identified two TCF4-binding elements in the promoter region of human Cyr61 gene and demonstrated that β-catenin/TCF4 complex specifically bound to the Cyr61 promoter in vivo and directly regulated its promoter activity. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of Cyr61 in HepG2 cells promoted the progression of HCC xenografts in SCID mice. These findings indicate that Cyr61 is a direct target of β-catenin signaling in HCC and may play an important role in the progression of HCC.

  5. Synthetic PAMPS gel activates BMP/Smad signaling pathway in ATDC5 cells, which plays a significant role in the gel-induced chondrogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Kimura, Taichi; Kitamura, Nobuto; Semba, Shingo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Matsukura, Satoko; Tsuda, Masumi; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ping Gong, Jian; Tanaka, Shinya; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify signaling pathways that were specifically activated in ATDC5 cells cultured on poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) gel in insulin-free maintenance medium and to evaluate the significance of the determined signaling pathways in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by this gel. In this study, ATDC5 cells cultured on PAMPS gel using the maintenance medium without insulin (PAMPS Culture) were compared with cells cultured on polystyrene using the differentiation medium containing insulin (PS-I Culture). The microarray analysis, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway was significantly enhanced at Days 1, 2, and 3 in the PAMPS Culture when compared with the PS-I Culture. Inhibition of the BMP type-I receptor reduced the phosphorylation level of Smad1/5 and expression of type-2 collagen and aggrecan mRNA in the cells accompanied by a reduction in cell aggregation at Day 13 in the PAMPS Culture. The inhibition of the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway significantly inhibited the chondrogenic differentiation induced by the PAMPS gel. The present study demonstrated that synthetic PAMPS gel activates the TGF-β/BMP/Smad signaling pathway in the ATDC5 cells in the absence of insulin, and that this activation plays a significant role in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by PAMPS gel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 734-746, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Plectin regulates the signaling and trafficking of the HIV-1 co-receptor CXCR4 and plays a role in HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yun; Zhang Li; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Wang Ziqing; Liu Bingdong; Zhang Jingwu; Fan Guohuang

    2008-01-01

    The CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 play an important role in inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cancer metastasis. The signal transduction and intracellular trafficking of CXCR4 are involved in these functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the CXCR4 formed a complex with the cytolinker protein plectin in a ligand-dependent manner in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CXCR4 C-terminal fusion proteins co-precipitated with the full-length and the N-terminal fragments of plectin isoform 1 but not with the N-terminal deletion mutants of plectin isoform 1, thereby suggesting an interaction between the N-terminus of plectin and the C-terminus of CXCR4. This interaction was confirmed by confocal microscopic reconstructions showing co-distribution of these two proteins in the internal vesicles after ligand-induced internalization of CXCR4 in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. Knockdown of plectin with RNA interference (RNAi) significantly inhibited ligand-dependent CXCR4 internalization and attenuated CXCR4-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4 and of Jurkat T cells was inhibited by the plectin RNAi. Moreover, CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 infection in MAGI (HeLa-CD4-LTR-Gal) cells was inhibited by the RNAi of plectin. Thus, plectin appears to interact with CXCR4 and plays an important role in CXCR4 signaling and trafficking and HIV-1 infection

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 plays a pro-life role in experimental brain stem death via nitric oxide synthase I/protein kinase G signaling at rostral ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Kuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its clinical importance, a dearth of information exists on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin brain stem death. A suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation on brain stem death resides in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM because it is the origin of a life-and-death signal that sequentially increases (pro-life and decreases (pro-death to reflect the advancing central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction during the progression towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that heme oxygnase-1 (HO-1 may play a pro-life role as an interposing signal between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 and nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I/protein kinase G (PKG cascade in RVLM, which sustains central cardiovascular regulatory functions during brain stem death. Methods We performed cardiovascular, pharmacological, biochemical and confocal microscopy experiments in conjunction with an experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol bilaterally into RVLM of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results Western blot analysis coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that augmented HO-1 expression that was confined to the cytoplasm of RVLM neurons occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death and was antagonized by immunoneutralization of HIF-1α or HIF-1β in RVLM. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic presence of HO-2 in RVLM neurons manifested insignificant changes during both phases. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of HO-1 or knockdown of ho-1 gene in RVLM blunted the augmented life-and-death signals exhibited during the pro-life phase. Those pretreatments also blocked the upregulated pro-life NOS I/PKG signaling without affecting the pro-death NOS II/peroxynitrite cascade in RVLM. Conclusions We conclude that transcriptional

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling plays a key role in transformation induced by the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene and decreased PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Longjiang; Wang, Jianghua; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Feng, Shu; Zhang, Yiqun; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

    2018-03-06

    Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. Correlative studies in human prostate cancers reveal a frequent association of the TMPRSS2/ERG (TE) fusion gene with loss of PTEN and studies in mouse models reveal that ERG expression and PTEN loss synergistically promote prostate cancer progression. To determine the mechanism by which ERG overexpression and PTEN loss leads to transformation, we overexpressed the TE fusion gene and knocked down PTEN in an immortalized but non-transformed prostate epithelial cell line. We show that ERG overexpression in combination with PTEN loss can transform these immortalized but non-tumorigenic cells, while either alteration alone was not sufficient to fully transform these cells. Expression microarray analysis revealed extensive changes in gene expression in cells expressing the TE fusion with loss of PTEN. Among these gene expression changes was increased expression of multiple FGF ligands and receptors. We show that activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling plays a key role in transformation induced by TE fusion gene expression in association with PTEN loss. In addition, in vitro and in silico analysis reveals PTEN loss is associated with widespread increases in FGF ligands and receptors in prostate cancer. Inhibitors of FGF receptor signaling are currently entering the clinic and our results suggests that FGF receptor signaling is a therapeutic target in cancers with TE fusion gene expression and PTEN loss.

  9. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  10. Recruitment of SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and signalling by a chimeric T-cell receptor-killer inhibitory receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M D; Geisler, C

    2000-01-01

    Receptors expressing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail play an important role in the negative regulation of natural killer and B-cell activation. A subpopulation of T cells expresses the ITIM containing killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR), which...... recognize MHC class I molecules. Following coligation of KIR with an activating receptor, the tyrosine in the ITIM is phosphorylated and the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is recruited to the ITIM via its SH2 domains. It is still not clear how SHP-1 affects T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling....... In this study, we constructed a chimeric TCR-KIR receptor. We demonstrated that SHP-1 is recruited to the chimeric TCR-KIR receptor following T-cell stimulation with either anti-TCR monoclonal antibody (MoAb) or superantigen. However, in spite of this we could not detect any effect of SHP-1 on TCR signalling...

  11. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein plays a major role in induction of the fish innate immune response against RNA and DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; LeBerre, Monique; Lamoureux, Annie; Louise, Yoann; Lauret, Emilie; Boudinot, Pierre; Brémont, Michel

    2009-08-01

    Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses through cellular sensor molecules which activate multiple signaling cascades that induce the production of interferons (IFN) and other cytokines. The recent identification of mammalian cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and their mitochondrial adaptor, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), also called IPS-1, VISA, and Cardif, highlights the significance of these molecules in the induction of IFN. Teleost fish also possess a strong IFN system, but nothing is known concerning the RLRs and their downstream adaptor. In this study, we cloned MAVS cDNAs from several fish species (including salmon and zebrafish) and showed that they were orthologs of mammalian MAVS. We demonstrated that overexpression of these mitochondrial proteins in fish cells led to a constitutive induction of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). MAVS-overexpressing cells were almost fully protected against RNA virus infection, with a strong inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication (1,000- and 10,000-fold decreases, respectively). Analyses of MAVS deletion mutants showed that both the N-terminal CARD-like and C-terminal transmembrane domains, but not the central proline-rich region, were indispensable for MAVS signaling function. In addition, we cloned the cDNAs encoding a RIG-I-like molecule from salmonid and cyprinid cell lines. Like the case with MAVS, overexpression of RIG-I CARDs in fish cells led to a strong induction of both IFN and ISGs, conferring on fish cells full protection against RNA virus infection. This report provides the first demonstration that teleost fish possess a functional RLR pathway in which MAVS may play a central role in the induction of the innate immune response.

  12. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  13. The ERK5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways play opposing regulatory roles during chondrogenesis of adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Brent E; Matsche, Alexander I; Chen, Faye H; Tuan, Rocky S

    2010-07-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) are able to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types, including chondrocytes, and are considered a promising candidate cell source for use in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we examined the regulation of MPC chondrogenesis by mitogen-activated protein kinases in an attempt to better understand how to generate hyaline cartilage in the laboratory that more closely resembles native tissue. Specifically, we employed the high-density pellet culture model system to assess the roles of ERK5 and ERK1/2 pathway signaling in MPC chondrogenesis. Western blotting revealed that high levels of ERK5 phosphorylation correlate with low levels of MPC chondrogenesis and that as TGF-beta 3-enhanced MPC chondrogenesis proceeds, phospho-ERK5 levels steadily decline. Conversely, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 paralleled the progression of MPC chondrogenesis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK5 pathway components MEK5 and ERK5 resulted in increased MPC pellet mRNA transcript levels of the cartilage-characteristic marker genes SOX9, COL2A1, AGC, L-SOX5, and SOX6, as well as enhanced accumulation of SOX9 protein, collagen type II protein, and Alcian blue-stainable proteoglycan. In contrast, knockdown of ERK1/2 pathway members MEK1 and ERK1 decreased expression of all chondrogenic markers tested. Finally, overexpression of MEK5 and ERK5 also depressed MPC chondrogenesis, as indicated by diminished activity of a co-transfected collagen II promoter-luciferase reporter construct. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role for the ERK5 pathway as an important negative regulator of adult human MPC chondrogenesis and illustrate that the ERK5 and ERK1/2 kinase cascades play opposing roles regulating MPC cartilage formation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. LeCTR2, a CTR1-like protein kinase from tomato, plays a role in ethylene signalling, development and defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhefeng; Alexander, Lucy; Hackett, Rachel; Grierson, Don

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis AtCTR1 is a Raf-like protein kinase that interacts with ETR1 and ERS and negatively regulates ethylene responses. In tomato, several CTR1-like proteins could perform this role. We have characterized LeCTR2, which has similarity to AtCTR1 and also to EDR1, a CTR1-like Arabidopsis protein involved in defence and stress responses. Protein–protein interactions between LeCTR2 and six tomato ethylene receptors indicated that LeCTR2 interacts preferentially with the subfamily I ETR1-type ethylene receptors LeETR1 and LeETR2, but not the NR receptor or the subfamily II receptors LeETR4, LeETR5 and LeETR6. The C-terminus of LeCTR2 possesses serine/threonine kinase activity and is capable of auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of myelin basic protein in vitro. Overexpression of the LeCTR2 N-terminus in tomato resulted in altered growth habit, including reduced stature, loss of apical dominance, highly branched inflorescences and fruit trusses, indeterminate shoots in place of determinate flowers, and prolific adventitious shoot development from the rachis or rachillae of the leaves. Expression of the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and chitinase B was upregulated in transgenic plants, but ethylene production and the level of mRNA for the ethylene biosynthetic gene ACO1 was unaffected. The leaves and fruit of transgenic plants also displayed enhanced susceptibility to infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which was associated with much stronger induction of pathogenesis-related genes such as PR1b1 and chitinase B compared with the wild-type. The results suggest that LeCTR2 plays a role in ethylene signalling, development and defence, probably through its interactions with the ETR1-type ethylene receptors of subfamily I. PMID:18346193

  15. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  16. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  17. Tyrosine-Based Ionic Liquid Crystals: Switching from a Smectic A to a Columnar Mesophase by Exchange of the Spherical Counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, Manuel M; Wolfrum, Manpreet; Beardsworth, Stuart; Wöhrle, Tobias; Frey, Wolfgang; Baro, Angelika; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Giesselmann, Frank; Laschat, Sabine

    2016-11-07

    Synthetic strategies were developed to prepare l-tyrosine-based ionic liquid crystals with structural variations at the carboxylic and phenolic OH groups as well as the amino functionality. Salt metathesis additionally led to counterion variation. The liquid-crystalline properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (WAXS, SAXS). The symmetrical ILC chlorides bearing the same alkyl chain at both the ester and ether but either an acyclic or cyclic guanidinium group displayed enantiotropic SmA 2 mesophases with phase widths of 31-88 K irrespective of the head group. It was particularly the replacement of chloride in the acyclic guanidinium ILC by hexafluorophosphate that induced a phase change from SmA 2 to Col r . This phase change was attributed to a higher curvature of the interface due to the larger anion, which increased the effective head group cross-sectional area of the amphiphilic ILC. The unsymmetrical acyclic guanidinium chlorides, bearing a constant C 14 ester and variable alkyl chains on the phenolic position, formed enantiotropic SmA 2 phases. The derivative with the largest difference in chain lengths, however, displayed a Col r phase, resulting from discoid aggregates of the cone-shaped guanidinium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of the packing parameters, which indicate that the phase behaviour of the thermotropic tyrosine-based ILCs shows analogies to those of lyotropic liquid crystals. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cross Talk between inhibitory immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motif-Signaling and Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirsch, Ivan; Janovec, Václav; Stranska, R.; Bendriss-Vermare, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Apr 7 (2017), č. článku 394. ISSN 1664-3224 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : plasmacytoid dendritic cell * conventional dendritic cells * macrophage * toll-like receptors * regulatory receptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 6.429, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00394/full

  19. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  20. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  1. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  2. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  3. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision and u...

  4. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... the future of public libraries, especially in relation to children as a particular user group. This paper explores play culture, and takes a stance especially in the project ‘Families at play in the library’, but also in experiences from related projects. The focus is on families playing together...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  5. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our......t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...

  6. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  7. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  8. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  9. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  10. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  11. Regulation of jasmonate metabolism and activation of systemic signaling in Solanum nigrum: COI1 and JAR4 play overlapping yet distinct roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDoorn, Arjen; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Schmidt, Dominik D; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-05-01

    • Jasmonates are ubiquitous messengers in land plants essential for the activation of defense responses. However, their signaling properties, accumulation and metabolism vary substantially among species. Solanum nigrum is a wild Solanaceous species developed as a model to study defense responses. • Solanum nigrum plants transformed to silence the expression of key genes in jasmonate production (SnLOX3), conjugation (SnJAR4) and perception (SnCOI1) were generated to analyze the function of these genes in jasmonate accumulation and metabolism (studied by a combination of LC-MS/MS and (13) C-isotope labeling methods) and in signaling [studied by the systemic elicitation of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity]. • In contrast with the early single jasmonic acid (JA) burst induced by wounding in wild-type (WT) plants, elicitation with insect oral secretions induced a later, second burst that was essential for the induction of systemic LAP activity, as demonstrated by ablation experiments. This induction was dependent on SnLOX3 and SnCOI1, but not on SnJAR4. In addition, the local accumulation of JA-glucose and JA-isoleucine was dependent on SnCOI1, whereas the accumulation of hydroxylated jasmonates was dependent on both SnCOI1 and SnJAR4. • The results demonstrate that SnLOX3, SnCOI1 and SnJAR4 have overlapping yet distinct roles in jasmonate signaling, differentially controlling jasmonate metabolism and the production of a systemic signal. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities....... Those artefacts are recent examples of the history of mass-production, mass-distribution, and mass-consumption of music. Since children do get into touch with the mass-phenomenon of popular music and artists, concerns may be articulated that this can have problematic effects on children’s lives. By help...... of, among others, Marx Wartofsky’s artefact theory, the article tries to get beyond “black-or-white” prejudices concerning technologies and their limited insight; this is done by suggesting to focus on the children’s own perspectives and how music-play activities may be meaningful in relation...

  13. Perceptual consequences of different signal changes due to binaural noise reduction: do hearing loss and working memory capacity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, ) investigated whether pure-tone average (PTA) hearing loss and working memory capacity (WMC) modulate benefit from different binaural noise reduction (NR) settings. Results showed that listeners with smaller WMC preferred strong over moderate NR even at the expense of poorer speech recognition due to greater speech distortion (SD), whereas listeners with larger WMC did not. To enable a better understanding of these findings, the main aims of the present study were (1) to explore the perceptual consequences of changes to the signal mixture, target speech, and background noise caused by binaural NR, and (2) to determine whether response to these changes varies with WMC and PTA. As in the previous study, four age-matched groups of elderly listeners (with N = 10 per group) characterized by either mild or moderate PTAs and either better or worse performance on a visual measure of WMC participated. Five processing conditions were tested, which were based on the previously used (binaural coherence-based) NR scheme designed to attenuate diffuse signal components at mid to high frequencies. The five conditions differed in terms of the type of processing that was applied (no NR, strong NR, or strong NR with restoration of the long-term stimulus spectrum) and in terms of whether the target speech and background noise were processed in the same manner or whether one signal was left unprocessed while the other signal was processed with the gains computed for the signal mixture. Comparison across these conditions allowed assessing the effects of changes in high-frequency audibility (HFA), SD, and noise attenuation and distortion (NAD). Outcome measures included a dual-task paradigm combining speech recognition with a visual reaction time (VRT) task as well as ratings of perceived effort and overall preference. All measurements were carried out using headphone simulations of a frontal target speaker in a busy cafeteria. Relative to no NR, strong NR was found

  14. Ecdysone and insulin signaling play essential roles in readjusting the altered body size caused by the dGPAT4 mutation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Hanqing; Lindström-Battle, Anya; Jiao, Renjie

    2015-09-20

    Body size is one of the features that distinguish one species from another in the biological world. Animals have developed mechanisms to control their body size during normal development. However, how animals cope with genetic alterations and/or environmental stresses to develop into normal-sized adults remain poorly understood. The ability of the animals to develop into a normal-sized adult after the challenges of genetic alterations and/or environmental stresses reveals a robustness of body size control. Here we show that the mutation of dGPAT4, a de novo synthase of lysophosphatidic acid, is a genetic alteration that triggers such a robust response of the animals to body size challenges in Drosophila. Loss of dGPAT4 leads to a severe delay of development, slow growth and resultant small-sized animals during the larval stages, but results in normal-sized adult flies. The robust body size adjustment of the dGPAT4 mutant is likely achieved by corresponding changes in ecdysone and insulin signaling, which is also manifested by compromised food intake. Thus, we propose that a strategy has been evolved by the animals to reach final body size when challenged by genetic alterations, which requires the coordinated ecdysone and insulin signaling. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG plays an important role in JAK3/STAT5 signaling pathways in HTLV-1 infection cell line HUT-102].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Q; Tan, H; Fu, Z P; Ma, Q; Song, J L

    2017-08-14

    Objective: To analyze whether heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) be involved in a permanently abnormal activated JAK/STAT signaling in ATL cells in vitro. Methods: The effect of 17-AAG on proliferation of ATL cell lines HUT-102 was assessed using CCK8 at different time points. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The specific proteins HSP90, STAT5, p-STAT5 and JAK3 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Overexpression of HSP90 in HUT-102 cell lines was disclosed ( P AAG led to reduced cell proliferation, but there was no significant change in terms of cell proliferation when the concentration of 17-AAG between 2 000-8 000 nmol/L ( P >0.05) . 17-AAG induced cell apoptosis in different time-points and concentrations. 17-AAG don't affect the expression of JAK3 gene. Conclusion: This study indicated that JAK3 as HSP90 client protein was aberrantly activated in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, leading to constitutive activation of p-STAT5 in JAK/STAT signal pathway, which demonstrated that HSP90-inhibitors 17-AAG inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines by reducing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.

  16. Bergenin Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role via the Modulation of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in a Mouse Model of LPS-Induced Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Guo, Meng-yao; Zhang, Ze-cai; Wang, Tian-cheng; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease in humans and other animals and is characterized by mammary gland inflammation. It is a major disease of the dairy industry. Bergenin is an active constituent of the plants of genus Bergenia. Research indicates that bergenin has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and mechanism of bergenin on the mammary glands during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. In this study, mice were treated with LPS to induce mammary gland mastitis as a model for the disease. Bergenin treatment was initiated after LPS stimulation for 24 h. The results indicated that bergenin attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased the concentration of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, bergenin downregulated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins in mammary glands with mastitis. In conclusion, bergenin reduced the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, and it may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis.

  17. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (Nsmf) plays a novel role in myoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Myogenesis, the formation and regeneration of muscular tissue, is a fundamental factor in embryonic development. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (Nsmf) mediates NMDA receptor endocytosis in GnRH neuronal cells. NMDA receptor is involved in myoblast differentiation by regulating Ca2 (+) dependent fusion of myocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of Nsmf in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry results showed that the Nsmf expression levels increased during both the differentiation and proliferation of myocytes. Knockdown of Nsmf in myocytes by siRNA did not affect the myocyte differentiation marker myogenin. However, flow cytometry showed that the proliferation rate of the Nsmf-knockdown cells was reduced compared to the control cells. Therefore, our results indicate that Nsmf is a novel myogenic factor that can enhance myoblast proliferation. Furthermore, Nsmf may be an important therapeutic target in diseases associated with aging, muscular dystrophy, or cachexia.

  18. Drosophila tensin plays an essential role in cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis by mediating integrin-dependent extracellular signals to actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, In Jun; Lee, Jang Ho; Cho, Kyoung Sang; Lee, Sung Bae

    2017-03-11

    Oogenesis in Drosophila involves very dynamic cellular changes such as cell migration and polarity formation inside an ovary during short period. Previous studies identified a number of membrane-bound receptors directly receiving certain types of extracellular inputs as well as intracellular signalings to be involved in the regulation of these dynamic cellular changes. However, yet our understanding on exactly how these receptor-mediated extracellular inputs lead to dynamic cellular changes remains largely unclear. Here, we identified Drosophila tensin encoded by blistery (by) as a novel regulator of cell migration and planar polarity formation and characterized the genetic interaction between tensin and integrin during oogenesis. Eggs from by mutant showed decreased hatching rate and morphological abnormality, a round-shape, compared to the wild-type eggs. Further analyses revealed that obvious cellular defects such as defective border cell migration and planar polarity formation might be primarily associated with the decreased hatching rate and the round-shape phenotype of by mutant eggs, respectively. Moreover, by mutation also induced marked defects in F-actin organization closely associated with both cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis of Drosophila. Notably, all these defective phenotypes observed in by mutant eggs became much severer by reduced level of integrin, indicative of a close functional association between integrin and tensin during oogenesis. Collectively, our findings suggest that tensin acts as a crucial regulator of dynamic cellular changes during oogenesis by bridging integrin-dependent extracellular signals to intracellular cytoskeletal organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geniposide plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating TLR4 and downstream signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Tiancheng; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Geniposide is a medicine isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia for the treatment of inflammation, brain diseases, and hepatic disorders. Mastitis is a highly prevalent and important infectious disease. In this study, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse mastitis model and LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of geniposide. Using intraductal injection of LPS as a mouse model of mastitis, we found that geniposide significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). To further investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we used LPS-stimulated mMECs as an in vitro mastitis model. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that geniposide inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that geniposide could suppress the phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Geniposide also inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the LPS-stimulated mMECs. In conclusion, geniposide exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by regulating TLR4 expression, which affected the downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Thus, geniposide may be a potential drug for mastitis therapy.

  20. IGF-1 Signaling Plays an Important Role in the Formation of Three-Dimensional Laminated Neural Retina and Other Ocular Structures From Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellough, Carla B; Collin, Joseph; Khazim, Mahmoud; White, Kathryn; Sernagor, Evelyne; Steel, David H W; Lako, Majlinda

    2015-08-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that retinal cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells under defined culture conditions. While both cell types can give rise to retinal derivatives in the absence of inductive cues, this requires extended culture periods and gives lower overall yield. Further understanding of this innate differentiation ability, the identification of key factors that drive the differentiation process, and the development of clinically compatible culture conditions to reproducibly generate functional neural retina is an important goal for clinical cell based therapies. We now report that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can orchestrate the formation of three-dimensional ocular-like structures from hESCs which, in addition to retinal pigmented epithelium and neural retina, also contain primitive lens and corneal-like structures. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor signaling significantly reduces the formation of optic vesicle and optic cups, while exogenous IGF-1 treatment enhances the formation of correctly laminated retinal tissue composed of multiple retinal phenotypes that is reminiscent of the developing vertebrate retina. Most importantly, hESC-derived photoreceptors exhibit advanced maturation features such as the presence of primitive rod- and cone-like photoreceptor inner and outer segments and phototransduction-related functional responses as early as 6.5 weeks of differentiation, making these derivatives promising candidates for cell replacement studies and in vitro disease modeling. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  1. The extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans possesses a c-di-GMP signalling pathway that could play a significant role during bioleaching of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, L M; Castro, M; Barriga, A; Jerez, C A; Guiliani, N

    2012-02-01

      The primary goal of this study was to characterize the existence of a functional c-di-GMP pathway in the bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.   A bioinformatic search revealed that the genome sequence of At. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 codes for several proteins involved in the c-di-GMP pathway, including diguanylate cyclases (DGC), phosphodiesterases and PilZ effector proteins. Overexpression in Escherichia coli demonstrated that four At. ferrooxidans genes code for proteins containing GGDEF/EAL domains with functional DGC activity. MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of c-di-GMP in nucleotide preparations obtained from At. ferrooxidans cells. In addition, c-di-GMP levels in cells grown on the surface of solid energetic substrates such as sulfur prills or pyrite were higher than those measured in ferrous iron planktonic cells.   At. ferrooxidans possesses a functional c-di-GMP pathway that could play a key role in At. ferrooxidans biofilm formation during bioleaching processes.   This is the first global study about the c-di-GMP pathway in an acidophilic bacterium of great interest for the biomining industry. It opens a new way to explore the regulation of biofilm formation by biomining micro-organisms during the bioleaching process. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Rai

    Full Text Available CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  3. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shinya; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Mai; Ogoh, Honami; Taniguchi, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yasuyoshi; Shimada, Takahiro; Tanimura, Akira; Matsui, Keiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Oritani, Kenji; Tanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Matsumura, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK) cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT) MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  4. The Signal Peptide of a Recently Integrated Endogenous Sheep Betaretrovirus Envelope Plays a Major Role in Eluding Gag-Mediated Late Restriction ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armezzani, Alessia; Arnaud, Frédérick; Caporale, Marco; di Meo, GiuliaPia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Murgia, Claudio; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with highly related and biologically active endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs). The endogenous enJS56A1 locus possesses a defective Gag polyprotein which blocks the late replication steps of related exogenous and endogenous retroviruses by a mechanism known as JSRV late restriction (JLR). Conversely, enJSRV-26, which most likely integrated into the sheep genome less than 200 years ago, is able to escape JLR. In this study, we demonstrate that the ability of enJSRV-26 to escape JLR is due to a single-amino-acid substitution in the signal peptide (SP) of its envelope glycoprotein. We show that enJSRV-26 SP does not localize to the nucleolus, unlike the functional SPs of related exogenous and endogenous sheep betaretroviruses. In addition, enJSRV-26 SP function as a posttranscriptional regulator of viral gene expression is impaired. enJSRV-26 JLR escape relies on the presence of the functional enJS56A1 SP. Moreover, we show that the ratio between enJSRV-26 and enJS56A1 Gag is critical to elude JLR. Interestingly, we found that the domestic sheep has acquired, by genome amplification, several copies of the enJS56A1 provirus. These data further reinforce the notion that transdominant enJSRV proviruses have been positively selected in domestic sheep, and that the coevolution between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host is still occurring. PMID:21593182

  5. ErbB-2 signaling plays a critical role in regulating androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chen, Siu-Ju; Lin, Fen-Fen; Wang, Zhengzhong; Mehta, Parmender P; Batra, Surinder K; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-11-01

    While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) reduces tumor burden, autocrine growth factor loops such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB-2/neu) have been proposed to contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) survival and relapse. However, the role of ErbB-2 in regulating androgen-sensitive (AS) and castration-resistant (CR) cell proliferation remains unclear. Here, we determined the role of ErbB-2 in PCa progression and survival under steroid-reduced conditions using two independent PCa cell progression models. In AR-positive androgen-independent (AI) PCa cells that exhibit the CR phenotype, ErbB-2 was constitutively activated, compared to corresponding AS PCa cells. In AS LNCaP C-33 cells, androgen-induced ErbB-2 activation through ERK1/2 mediates PCa cell proliferation. Further, the ErbB-2-specific but not EGFR-specific inhibitor suppresses basal and androgen-stimulated cell proliferation and also blocks ERK1/2 activation. ErbB-2 ectopic expression and cPAcP siRNA transfection of LNCaP C-33 cells each increases ErbB-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, correlating with increased AI PSA secretion and cell proliferation. Conversely, trapping ErbB-2 by transfected endoplasmic reticulum-targeting ScFv5R expression vector abolished DHT-induced LNCaP C-33 cell growth. Moreover, inhibition of ErbB-2 but not EGFR in AI LNCaP C-81 and MDA PCa2b-AI PCa cells significantly abolished AI cell growth. In contrast to androgens via ErbB-2/ERK1/2 signaling in AS PCa cells, the inhibition of ErbB-2 abrogated AI cell proliferation by inhibiting the cell survival protein Akt in those AI cells. These results suggest that ErbB-2 is a prominent player in mediating the ligand-dependent and -independent activation of AR in AS and AI/CR PCa cells respectively for PCa progression and survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IL-4/5 signalling plays an important role during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection, influencing both immune system regulation and tissue pathology in the thoracic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Manuel; Tamadaho, Ruth S; Feid, Judith; Vogel, Wenzel; Wiszniewsky, Katharina; Perner, Sven; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E

    2017-12-01

    -/- mice. In summary, this study unravels the essential role of IL-4/IL-5 signalling in controlling immunity against filarial infections and demonstrates the requirement of this pathway for the host to control ensuing pathology and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced Toll-like receptor responses in the absence of signaling adaptor DAP12.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamerman, Jessica A; Tchao, Nadia K; Lowell, Clifford A; Lanier, Lewis L

    2005-01-01

    DAP12 is a signaling adaptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) that pairs with receptors on myeloid cells and natural killer cells. We examine here the responses of mice lacking DAP12 to stimulation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Unexpectedly, DAP12-deficient macrophages produced higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli. Additionally, macrophages deficient in spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which signal...

  8. A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Andrea N; Villinger, Clarissa; Becker, Stefan; Frick, Manfred; von Einem, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi compartment-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 proteins fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) identified amino acids 23 to 34 as important determinants for its Golgi complex localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YXXΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YXXΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection. Mutation of both the tyrosine residue and the entire YXXΦ motif resulted in an altered distribution of mutant pUL71 at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm during infection. Both YXXΦ mutant viruses exhibited similarly decreased focal growth and reduced virus yields in supernatants. Ultrastructurally, mutant-virus-infected cells exhibited impaired secondary envelopment manifested by accumulations of capsids undergoing an envelopment process. Additionally, clusters of capsid accumulations surrounding the vAC were observed, similar to the ultrastructural phenotype of a UL71-deficient mutant. The importance of endocytosis and thus the YXXΦ motif for targeting pUL71 to the Golgi complex was further demonstrated when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by coexpression of the C-terminal part of cellular AP180 (AP180-C) or by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both conditions resulted in a plasma membrane accumulation of pUL71. Altogether, these data reveal the presence of a functional N-terminal endocytosis motif that is an important determinant for intracellular localization of pUL71 and that is furthermore required for the function of pUL71 during secondary envelopment of HCMV capsids at the vAC. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of birth defects among congenital virus infections and can

  9. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  10. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  11. Reactive oxygen species and PI3K/Akt signaling play key roles in the induction of Nrf2-driven heme oxygenase-1 expression in sulforaphane-treated human mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Jeong, Hyang-Yun; Kim, Yong-Bae; Lee, Yong-Jin; Won, Seong Youn; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sang-Han

    2012-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction plays cytoprotective roles against oxidative injury, apoptosis, and anticancer therapy; however, little is known about its regulation in human mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells. In this study, we investigated Nrf2/HO-1 induction in response to sulforaphane and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process. Sulforaphane treatment decreased cell viability and triggered a rapid and transient increase in the intracellular ROS levels. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented sulforaphane-induced cytotoxicity. Erk1/2 was activated within 1h of sulforaphane addition, whereas Akt phosphorylation was suppressed until the first 8h, and was then maintained at an elevated level until 72h, displaying a biphasic regulatory feature. Nrf2 protein levels in both nuclear and whole cell lysates were increased after sulforaphane treatment and were decreased by pretreatment with NAC, actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 system after sulforaphane treatment was suppressed by pretreatment with NAC or Ly294002, a PI3K inhibitor. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA decreased cell viability and attenuated sulforaphane-induced HO-1 up-regulation. Overall, our results indicate that ROS generation and/or activation of PI3K/Akt signaling regulate cell survival and Nrf2-driven HO-1 expression in sulforaphane-treated MSTO-211H cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Playing To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, George S.; Rusher, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies the concepts and skills young children learn through play and describes ways to implement a successful play program in early-childhood settings. Includes discussions of planning for play activities, providing props and other materials, contextualizing play, assessing learning during play, and explaining the play curriculum to families…

  13. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... the range of play, the value of playful experiences, and explore the potential of design for play with the goal of generating a more playful world. With its participatory approach, Design for Play includes strong elements of making, engaging and co-creating with users, and thereby ways to learn from...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  14. The Uses of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  15. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...

  16. Designing for Immediate Play

    OpenAIRE

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play situations. After a detailed explanation of immediate play, we analyze the context of the immediate play situation, which is mostly characterized by an overlap between different realities of the exper...

  17. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children′s healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist′s narration of the child′s play.

  18. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split ... Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game ...

  19. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped....... In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from international research in museums and interaction design. Specifically, we explore four aspects of play first proposed by Huizinga (2002) — the ‘free-choice’ aspect of play, play as distinct from ‘real life,’ play...... as an ordering structure, and the role of play in bridging communities. We argue that play provides museums with ready-made structures and concepts which help them plan for visitor learning....

  20. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  1. Identification of a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing molecule, STAM2, by mass spectrometry and its involvement in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Fernandez, M M; Steen, H

    2000-01-01

    to epidermal growth factor receptor-induced phosphorylation, this required the ITAM domain since mutants lacking this region did not undergo tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, overexpression of wild type STAM2 led to an increase in IL-2-mediated induction of c-Myc promoter activation indicating...

  2. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  3. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  4. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  5. Why do Dolphins Play?

    OpenAIRE

    Stan A. Kuczaj; Holli C. Eskelinen

    2014-01-01

    Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play...

  6. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...

  7. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  8. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related......In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...

  9. FairyPlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  10. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  11. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  12. Play, Toys and Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougere, Gilles

    In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…

  13. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  14. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  15. Let's Just Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  16. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...

  17. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  18. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  19. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...

  20. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  1. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  2. Facilitating play through communication: significance of teeth exposure in the gorilla play face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Cherry, Lyndsay

    2012-02-01

    Primate facial expressions (FEs) likely play an important role in primate society: through facial signals, individuals can potentially send and receive information and may benefit from coordinating their behavior accordingly. Many primates use a relaxed open mouth (ROM) facial display or “play face” (PF) during play behavior, where the mouth is open but teeth are covered. In addition to this conventional PF, however, Western Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) also use a full PF where the upper teeth are exposed. As the teeth are similarly exposed in the bared-teeth expression (which is a signal of appeasement, submission and/or affiliation), the full PF may be a blend of the PF and bared-teeth face, and have a different signal function to the PF alone. Focal animal sampling of captive Western Lowland gorillas (N=10) showed that the full PF was more often observed in intense rather than gentle play, and intense play bouts that featured the full PF were longer than those that featured only the PF. Both expressions were associated with an increase in affinitive behavior between sender and receiver postplay, but only the full PF was associated with an increase higher than that of play alone. Overall, the findings suggest that the full PF has an additional role in coordinating and maintaining play, possibly though reducing uncertainty in the receiver and confirming that play is only play.

  3. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  4. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops...... the critical argument against this academic technique by going back to the history of cultural anthropology of play. This history did not develop in a linear way, but by shifts between different periods of colonial and anticolonial positions, as well as between more positivistic and more relativist approaches....... The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  5. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  6. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... related to open and distributed innovation models. From this experience, we induce that a game can be useful to teach certain open innovation concepts and practices. We also highlight some possible caveats of using the game and of actual open innovation practices alike, such as a tendency towards too much...

  7. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...

  8. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20th...... century, has a long history and was only recently applied to HCI (Nardi 1996) and games (P. Barr et al. 2007), where Barr succeeded in situating play in the Activity Theory framework. Based on his work to establish a framework for analysing systems of values in games, this paper maps different levels...

  9. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  10. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Blood Typing Control of the Cell Cycle Diabetes and Insulin DNA - RNA - Protein DNA - the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles ...

  11. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Blood Typing Control of the Cell Cycle Diabetes and Insulin DNA - RNA - Protein DNA - the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles ...

  12. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Blood Typing Control of the Cell Cycle Diabetes and Insulin DNA - RNA - Protein DNA - the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles ...

  13. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Blood Typing Control of the Cell Cycle Diabetes and Insulin DNA - RNA - Protein DNA - the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles ...

  14. Want to Play Geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Matthew L.; Bomer, Megan A.; Powell, Nancy Norem

    2009-01-01

    Students enter the geometry classroom with a strong concept of fairness and a sense of what it means to "play by the rules," yet many students have difficulty understanding the postulates, or rules, of geometry and their implications. Although they may never have articulated the properties of an axiomatic system, they have gained a practical…

  15. Playful Hyper Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    . We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...

  16. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of activity that carry through the rest of childhood. So an active toddler is likely to remain active later. Developing Skills Playing and learning are completely natural for toddlers, so mastering physical skills should be fun and games for them. Parents should give toddlers many opportunities ...

  17. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  18. Playing with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Gaming is becoming an effective form of learning and assessment and shouldn't be overlooked in an increasingly technological world. The games described in this article ("Impulse," "Quantum Spectre," and "Ravenous"), entertaining enough to be played by the general public, are also appropriate and useful in a classroom…

  19. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The objectives of the study are to know whether play therapy can facilitate the self- healing process, to improve the academic performance, increase the attentive level, and to ensure self-confidence and esteem of children under difficult circumstances. Data for this study were the case works of the researcher (for ...

  20. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2011-01-01

    participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...

  1. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...

  2. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  3. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the...... visitors), challenged by ticketing and refreshed by coffee, are struggling towards the goal: the exhibition. By applying the game metaphor we hope to unearth a new understanding of the lobby. In the workshop we are going to make small simple boardgames of cardboard that resemble the game of the lobby....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...

  4. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  5. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  6. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies...... with children and adults and from group analysis. Most of the examples are with hateful or resigned children and adults who have been exposed to extremely damaging or unhelpful environments, and who demonstrate convincingly some of the devastating consequences that abuse of power in the real world may have...

  7. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  8. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  9. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... are intrinsically concerned with processes of social identities, both those that are anchored in the social reality as well as those anticipated and imagined...

  10. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  11. Pathways to Play: Developing Play Skills in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sandra; Hewitt, Deborah

    Play skills are vital to a child's overall healthy development. However, the training many caregivers receive may not include extensive information on play skills. This book presents a play checklist to help caregivers observe children's play skills, pinpoint play skills on which children need to work, and plan goals for improving those play…

  12. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  13. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecules Slam and cancers: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Gregory; Marcq, Ingrid; Debuysscher, Véronique; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Bengrine, Abderrahmane; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Naassila, Mickael; Bouhlal, Hicham

    2018-03-23

    Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecules (SLAM) family receptors are initially described in immune cells. These receptors recruit both activating and inhibitory SH2 domain containing proteins through their Immunoreceptor Tyrosine based Switch Motifs (ITSMs). Accumulating evidence suggest that the members of this family are intimately involved in different physiological and pathophysiological events such as regulation of immune responses and entry pathways of certain viruses. Recently, other functions of SLAM, principally in the pathophysiology of neoplastic transformations have also been deciphered. These new findings may prompt SLAM to be considered as new tumor markers, diagnostic tools or potential therapeutic targets for controlling the tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the major observations describing the implications and features of SLAM in oncology and discuss the therapeutic potential attributed to these molecules.

  14. Does God play dice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooft, G. ' t [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrech (Netherlands)]. E-mail: g.thooft@phys.uu.nl; Witten, E. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (United States)]. E-mail: witten@ias.edu; Dowker, F. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: f.dowker@imperial.ac.uk; Davies, P. [Australian Centre for Astrobiology, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: pdavies@els.mq.edu.au

    2005-12-01

    Einstein was one of the founders of quantum mechanics, yet he disliked the randomness that lies at the heart of the theory. God does not, he famously said, play dice. However, quantum theory has survived a century of experimental tests, although it has yet to be reconciled with another of Einstein's great discoveries - the general theory of relativity. Below four theorists - Gerard t'Hooft, Edward Witten, Fay Dowker and Paul Davies - outline their views on the current status of quantum theory and the way forward. Gerard 't Hooft argues that the problems we face in reconciling quantum mechanics with general relativity could force us to reconsider the basic principles of both theories. (U.K.)

  15. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years......, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function...

  16. Playing Second Fiddle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future......This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio...... are discussed in the book, namely, Europe as a promise, a bogeyman, a contested ideal and an anachronism. The book features contributions by ten scholars representing six European countries and displays a careful blend of well established and junior academic writers in the field....

  17. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  18. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Technological advances open up creative avenues with which to explore, analyse, and challenge apparent human performance limitations. Possibilities are thus offered to optimise the involved learning potentials, and thereby improve children’s quality of life in different ways depending on their ne......Technological advances open up creative avenues with which to explore, analyse, and challenge apparent human performance limitations. Possibilities are thus offered to optimise the involved learning potentials, and thereby improve children’s quality of life in different ways depending...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  19. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  20. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  1. Interactions between Signaling and Repeated Play with Borrower Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    the private and social gains causes the quality and size of the market to diminish. In the most extreme case, the market can collapse...qualitative properties of the two-period contracts are very similar to those determined for the single-loan case, the intertemporal trade -offs between expected...increasing the borrower’s share of the potential gain . 0 *This research was supported by the Office of Naval

  2. Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein, and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, proinflammatory, or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine-based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases, or endocytic adaptors as well as nontyrosine-based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Playing with molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Recent philosophy of science has seen a number of attempts to understand scientific models by looking to theories of fiction. In previous work, I have offered an account of models that draws on Kendall Walton's 'make-believe' theory of art. According to this account, models function as 'props' in games of make-believe, like children's dolls or toy trucks. In this paper, I assess the make-believe view through an empirical study of molecular models. I suggest that the view gains support when we look at the way that these models are used and the attitude that users take towards them. Users' interaction with molecular models suggests that they do imagine the models to be molecules, in much the same way that children imagine a doll to be a baby. Furthermore, I argue, users of molecular models imagine themselves viewing and manipulating molecules, just as children playing with a doll might imagine themselves looking at a baby or feeding it. Recognising this 'participation' in modelling, I suggest, points towards a new account of how models are used to learn about the world, and helps us to understand the value that scientists sometimes place on three-dimensional, physical models over other forms of representation.

  4. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  5. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  6. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  7. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple construct...

  8. Activatory and Inhibitory Fcγ Receptors Augment Rituximab-mediated Internalization of CD20 Independent of Signaling via the Cytoplasmic Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T.; Chan, Claude H. T.; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J.; Beers, Stephen A.; Cragg, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes. PMID:25568316

  9. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  10. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  11. Play, Creativity, and Schools Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Barbara K.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to take a playful outlook is important to creative thought, but too often schools recognize the legitimacy of structured games only, squelching creative play. Schools should cultivate natural playfulness so that children can adapt to our fast-changing world and learn to create new rules. (Author/WD)

  12. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  13. Retrograde signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario Michael

    2016-01-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids...... of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde...

  14. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  15. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of estrogen receptor β-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription via the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling plays an important role in 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Kei; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays a role in cancer development in addition to its role in glucose metabolism. The natural ligand of PPAR-γ, namely, 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ), has been shown to possess antineoplastic activity in cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity remains to be elucidated. Inhibition of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major determinant of telomerase activity, reportedly induces rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ 2 on hTERT expression. We found that 15d-PGJ 2 induced apoptosis in the MIAPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dose-dependently decreased hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Down-regulation of hTERT expression by hTERT-specific small inhibitory RNA also induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated the DNA binding of estrogen receptor (ER). MIAPaCa-2 expressed only ERβ, and although its expression did not decrease due to 15d-PGJ 2 , its phosphorylation was suppressed. Additionally, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor decreased ERβ phosphorylation, and 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated MAPK activity. We conclude that hTERT down-regulation by 15d-PGJ 2 plays an important role in the proapoptotic property of the latter. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 inhibits ERβ-mediated hTERT gene transcription by suppressing ERβ phosphorylation via the inhibition of MAP kinase signaling

  17. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Smuts, Barbara; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on pla...

  19. Playing the game or played by the game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between cannabis use and educational trajectories among 42 young drug users, recruited at addiction treatment centres in Denmark. Quantitative research shows regular cannabis use to be associated with poor school performance and drop-out. However, these stud......, we show how regular cannabis plays into the ‘illusio’ of different fields, challenging the interviewees’ playing of educational games....

  20. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  1. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  2. [Progress on Hedgehog signaling transduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Cheng, Steven

    2014-08-25

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role during embryonic development and pattern formation. Disruption of Hh pathway results in various developmental disorders and increasing cancer incidence. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the pathway members, focusing on how mammalian Hh regulates the Gli family of transcription factors through its downstream members, the so-called "canonical signaling pathway". Hh signaling pathway is highly conserved among species, and primary cilia plays an important role as a "signaling center" during vertebrate signal transduction. Further, in the past few years, numerous studies have shown that Hh signal can also be transduced through Gli-independent ways collectively referred to as "non-canonical signaling pathways", which can be subdivided into two modules: (i) those not requiring Smo and (ii) those downstream of Smo that do not require Gli transcription factors. Thus, we review the rapid progress on canonical and non-canonical Hh pathways.

  3. The Internet of Playful Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....

  4. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  5. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in

  6. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  7. The Fractal Self at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  8. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  9. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  10. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…

  11. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  12. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  13. Engaging Families through Artful Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…

  14. Play in Practice - innovation through play in the postgraduate curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sophy

    2017-01-01

    Play is well-established as central to the learning processes of young children (including Anning (2015) Moyles (2015) and Wood and Attfield (2005)) and is included in UK state legislation, central to the Statutory Framework for Early Years Foundation Stage (2017). This chapter will counter the assumption that play-based learning is of value only to Early Years teaching and learning by outlining how it has been used to develop and carry-out research within a Higher Education postgraduate prog...

  15. Playful mediation and virtual sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem NAJJAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.

  16. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a desire to learn how one determines blood types, their differences and which ones are compatible for blood transfusions. ” See a Video about the Blood Typing Game 3 min. Play 1. ploster 3480 2. Yokota ...

  17. The Origins of Exploratory Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenson, Larry; Schell, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses developmental changes in visual exploration and manipulative investigation among children from birth to six months, six to 12 months, and 12 to 36 months of age. Also discusses pretend play in terms of decentration, decontextualization, and integration. (RH)

  18. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cordoni

    Full Text Available Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases.

  19. Play and Space - Towards a Formal Definition of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a formal definition of the aspect of play generally known as ‘make-believe’. ‘Make-believe’ is defined in relation to theory of place and Dasein’s being- in-the-world as presented by Martin Heidegger in Being and time. From this point of view ‘make-believe’ can...... be defined as a uniform and situational spatial dyad where being is doubled, characterized by the presence of the physically absent. I will apply this definition after a survey of central and influential aspects of the history of the theory of play to demonstrate its relevance for a formal definition of play....

  20. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  2. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  3. Playful learning in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Increased focus on quantifiable performance and assessment in higher education is creating a learning culture characterised by fear of failing, avoidance of risk, and extrinsic goal-oriented behaviours. In this article, we explore possibilities of a more playful approach to teaching and learning...... in higher education through the metaphor of the ‘magic circle’. This approach stimulates intrinsic motivation and educational drive, creates safe spaces for academic experimentation and exploration, and promotes reflective risk-taking, ideation, and participation in education. We present a model of playful...

  4. Rapport. Play and Learn Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline

    Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....

  5. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  6. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  7. Developmental Studies of Pretend Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Claire

    This paper briefly reports on a series of studies that explore the relationship between symbolic or pretend modes of reasoning and cognitive processes which underlie conservation of quantity. It is hypothesized that the mental transformations which the child makes while playing a game of make-believe, namely, the transformation from his original…

  8. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  9. Using Play to Teach Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential of play in the teaching of college composition. Drawing primarily on the theoretical framework of D. W. Winnicott, the author describes how he used ludic pedagogies to provide first-year writing students a "potential space" in which to explore a range of course elements including composing conventions,…

  10. Designing Play for Dark Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…

  11. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship betwe...

  12. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  13. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah. General Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 36-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Playing to (self-)rehabilitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Hald, Kasper; Richter, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress...

  15. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  16. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  17. Creating Outdoor Play & Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Randy; Stoecklin, Vicki L.

    Why typical playgrounds are designed the way they are by adults is discussed, including what the ideal outdoor play/learning environment for children is and how the outdoor space should be considered as an extension of the classroom. The paper emphasizes the importance of nature to children, discusses the criteria playground designers should…

  18. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  19. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    stages of pregnancy. Serum cortisol correlates positively with chloride and potassium inversely with bicarbonate. Conclusion: Cortisol plays a central role in biochemical changes that occurs in pregnancy. It increase is an indicator of emotional stress and physiological challenges in pregnancy and also, possible risk signal.

  20. Disrupting the Industry with Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2016-01-01

    or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care......Decades of research into intelligent, playful technology and user-friendly man-machine interfaces has provided important insight into the creation of robotic systems and intelligent interactive systems which are much more user-friendly, safer and cheaper than what appeared possible merely a decade...... sector. This includes playful robotics, LEGO robots for kids, minimal robot systems, user-friendly, behavior-based, biomimetic, modular robotics and intelligent systems. The insight into these components and the use in synthesis for designing robots and intelligent systems allows anybody, anywhere...

  1. The psychophysiology of flow during piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Orjan; Theorell, Töres; Harmat, László; Ullén, Fredrik

    2010-06-01

    Expert performance is commonly accompanied by a subjective state of optimal experience called flow. Previous research has shown positive correlations between flow and quality of performance and suggests that flow may function as a reward signal that promotes practice. Here, piano playing was used as a flow-inducing behavior in order to analyze the relationship between subjective flow reports and psychophysiological measures. Professional classical pianists were asked to play a musical piece and then rate state flow. The performance was repeated five times in order to induce a variation in flow, keeping other factors constant, while recording the arterial pulse pressure waveform, respiration, head movements, and activity from the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. A significant relation was found between flow and heart period, blood pressure, heart rate variability, activity of the zygomaticus major muscle, and respiratory depth. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of emotion, attention, and expertise, and flow is proposed to be a state of effortless attention, which arises through an interaction between positive affect and high attention.

  2. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  3. Phosphoinositide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Wendy F; Im, Yang Ju

    2012-01-01

    "All things flow and change…even in the stillest matter there is unseen flux and movement." Attributed to Heraclitus (530-470 BC), from The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, was thinking on a much larger scale than molecular signaling; however, his visionary comments are an important reminder for those studying signaling today. Even in unstimulated cells, signaling pathways are in constant metabolic flux and provide basal signals that travel throughout the organism. In addition, negatively charged phospholipids, such as the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids, provide a circuit board of on/off switches for attracting or repelling proteins that define the membranes of the cell. This template of charged phospholipids is sensitive to discrete changes and metabolic fluxes-e.g., in pH and cations-which contribute to the oscillating signals in the cell. The inherent complexities of a constantly fluctuating system make understanding how plants integrate and process signals challenging. In this review we discuss one aspect of lipid signaling: the inositol family of negatively charged phospholipids and their functions as molecular sensors and regulators of metabolic flux in plants.

  4. Animal Welfare: Could Adult Play be a False Friend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Blois-Heulin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus regarding the functions of play. As play behavior is a characteristic of young stages of development, it has been suggested that the higher prevalence of adult play observed in domestic animals could be the result of their “neotenic retardation.” Functional hypotheses have dealt with the long term benefits, such as “rehearsal,” “motor training” for future adult competencies or “training for the unexpected.” However, there is little consistent experimental evidence favoring a particular hypothesis. The present study aimed to test the functional significance of adult play as a potential reliable indicator of good welfare, a by-product of domestication or a tool for social cohesion. Observations of both a domestic species (the horse and wild/captive animals (cercopithecids confirm the literature data that show the greater prevalence of adult play in the domestic/captive situations. This convergence between a domestic and a wild species argue against the idea that adult play may be a mere product of domestication. Moreover, animals living in naturalistic situations had the same low level of adult play as observed in wild animals suggesting that captive/domestic animals do not play only because they are stress free or well fed. Play is not a reliable indicator of welfare: Horses and adult macaques that played the most were also those that exhibited the greatest signals of poor welfare as stereotypic behaviors. Furthermore, adult play was more frequent at times of social disturbances and instability. Adult play is a sign showing that the adult organism needs to evacuate stress.

  5. Jakob Kelemina on Shakespeare's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jurak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Among Slovene scholars in English and German studies Jakob Kelemina (19 July 1882- 14 May 1957 has a very important  place. Janez Stanonik justly places him among the founding fathers of the University of Ljubljana (Stanonik 1966: 332. From 1920 Kelemina was professor of Germanic philology and between 1920 and 1957 he was also the Chair of the Deparment ofGermanic Languages and Literatures at the Faculty of Arts of this university. The major part of Kelemina's research was devoted to German and Austrian literatures,  German  philology, German-Slovene cultural relations, and literary theory; his work in these fields has already been discussed  by severa! Slovene scholars. However, in the first two decades of the twentieth century Kelemina also wrote severa! book reviews of Slovene and Croatian translations of Shakespeare's plays as well as three introductory essays to Slovene translations  of Shakespeare's plays. They are considered  as the first serious studies on Shakespeare in Slovenia (Moravec 1974: 437, and have not been analysed yet. Therefore this topic presents the core of my study, together with an evaluation  of Kelemina's contribution  to Slovene translations  of Shakespeare's plays done by Oton Župančič (1878-1949 during the first half of the twentieth century. Župančič's translations  became the criterion  for all further translations  of Shakespeare's dramatic works in Slovene. Župančič is stili one of our most important  poets and translators of this time and Kelemina's advice and criticism undoubtedly  also helped him to achieve such a high standard in his translations. In the central part of my study I also include some new material (e.g. Kelernina's letters, which is relevant for our understanding  of his co-operation with Oton Župančič  and other Slovene authors and critics. In order to put Kelemina's work into a historical perspective I present at the beginning of my study a brief survey of the

  6. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Seductive play in digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    Illusion (A Game Against)”. Games and Culture 2007; 2 Juul. J. (2005). Half-real. Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press Leino. O. (2009). “Understanding Games as Played: Sketch for a first-person perspective for computer game analysis” The Philosophy of Computer......A prevailing understanding of how games convey meaning relates to the idea of games as rule-based systems as expressed by Juul (2005) “A game is a rule-based system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values(…)". This understanding of games...... highlights formal aspects of a game, such as the rules or the mechanics, as the game elements that describe what the player can do in the game and how. These formal aspects thus become the meaning-carriers that shapes the game-play by giving the player information about how she can interact with the game...

  8. Play for All. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin C.; Goltsman, Susan M.

    A CD-ROM provides a tour of some of the world's greatest play environments, presenting 94 photographic images that illustrate the key concepts and recommendations from Play For All guidelines. It is organized into 10 categories covering a range of play area settings, including play equipment, sand settings, water settings, play props, and animal…

  9. Wnt signaling in limb organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi; Nimmagadda, Suresh; Scaal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been found to play a central role in controlling embryonic development of a wide range of taxa from Hydra to humans. The most extensively studied Wnt signaling pathway is the canonical Wnt pathway, which controls gene expression by stabilizing β-catenin, and regulates a multitude of developmental processes. More recently, noncanonical Wnt pathways, which are β-catenin-independent, have been found to be important developmental regulators. Und...

  10. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  11. Playful participation in social games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce social games as a new terrain for studies in participatory culture. Social games defy easy classification and cannot be appropriately understood from existing research perspectives. Initially, we therefore attempt to define social games by comparing it with related game...... genres, notably serious games and health games. To further increase knowledge of social games we introduce a typology of playful participation in social games. The typology is build up by using formal concepts from theories of participatory art. Its range of application is then demonstrated through...... an empirical analysis of eight social game prototypes that are designed as part of an on-going 3-year research project called Social Games against Crime. The purpose of this project is to develop socialgames that can help children build resilience towards many of the personal and social problems...

  12. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can always...... win if n is even/odd) and Evans’s theorem (for even n, the acute corner is a winning opening move for the first player). Also, for even n ≥ 4, we find another first-player winning opening (adjacent to the acute corner, on the first player’s side), and for odd n ≥ 3, and for each first-player opening......, we find second-player winning replies. Finally, in response to comments by Martin Gardner, for each n ≤ 5, we give a simple winning strategy for the n × n board....

  13. Chin force in violin playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  14. Superhero Play: What's a Teacher to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karen L.; Dettore, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Examines the appeal of superheroes to children and adults' beliefs about superhero play, and suggests some potential benefits of such play. Offers examples of ways to successfully incorporate superhero play into an early childhood classroom. (Author/KB)

  15. Wavelet analysis for nonstationary signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Maria Libardi da

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical vibration signals play an important role in anomalies identification resulting of equipment malfunctioning. Traditionally, Fourier spectral analysis is used where the signals are assumed to be stationary. However, occasional transient impulses and start-up process are examples of nonstationary signals that can be found in mechanical vibrations. These signals can provide important information about the equipment condition, as early fault detection. The Fourier analysis can not adequately be applied to nonstationary signals because the results provide data about the frequency composition averaged over the duration of the signal. In this work, two methods for nonstationary signal analysis are used: Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and wavelet transform. The STFT is a method of adapting Fourier spectral analysis for nonstationary application to time-frequency domain. To have a unique resolution throughout the entire time-frequency domain is its main limitation. The wavelet transform is a new analysis technique suitable to nonstationary signals, which handles the STFT drawbacks, providing multi-resolution frequency analysis and time localization in a unique time-scale graphic. The multiple frequency resolutions are obtained by scaling (dilatation/compression) the wavelet function. A comparison of the conventional Fourier transform, STFT and wavelet transform is made applying these techniques to: simulated signals, arrangement rotor rig vibration signal and rotate machine vibration signal Hanning window was used to STFT analysis. Daubechies and harmonic wavelets were used to continuos, discrete and multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The results show the Fourier analysis was not able to detect changes in the signal frequencies or discontinuities. The STFT analysis detected the changes in the signal frequencies, but with time-frequency resolution problems. The wavelet continuos and discrete transform demonstrated to be a high efficient tool to detect

  16. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  17. Play and Playing Processes of the Young Child in Early Education Programs: A Piagetian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Silvern, Steven B.

    This paper reviews Piaget's stages of play and discusses the implications of play for early childhood education. The three stages of play identified in Piaget's research are: (1) practice play, (2) symbolic or make believe play and (3) games with rules. The characteristics of each type of play are presented and examples of play at each stage are…

  18. Continuous signaling of CD79b and CD19 is required for the fitness of Burkitt lymphoma B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Kläsener, Kathrin; Iype, Joseena M; Becker, Martin; Maity, Palash C; Cavallari, Marco; Nielsen, Peter J; Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2018-04-18

    Expression of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential not only for the development but also for the maintenance of mature B cells. Similarly, many B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), require continuous BCR signaling for their tumor growth. This growth is driven by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas9 to delete BCR and B-cell co-receptor genes in the human BL cell line Ramos. We find that Ramos B cells require the expression of the BCR signaling component Igβ (CD79b), and the co-receptor CD19, for their fitness and competitive growth in culture. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of any other BCR component, Igβ can be expressed on the B-cell surface, where it is found in close proximity to CD19 and signals in an ITAM-dependent manner. These data suggest that Igβ and CD19 are part of an alternative B-cell signaling module that use continuous ITAM/PI3K signaling to promote the survival of B lymphoma and normal B cells. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  20. Canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ma, Jian-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common eye complication of diabetes, and the pathogenic mechanism of DR is still under investigation. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt signaling regulates expression of multiple genes that control retinal development and eye organogenesis, and dysregulated Wnt signaling plays pathophysiological roles in many ocular diseases, including DR. This review highlights recent progress in studies of Wnt signaling in DR. We discuss Wnt signaling regulation in the retina and dysregulation of Wnt signaling associated with ocular diseases with an emphasis on DR. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of modulating Wnt signaling in DR. Continued studies in this field will advance our current understanding on DR and contribute to the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activatory and inhibitory Fcγ receptors augment rituximab-mediated internalization of CD20 independent of signaling via the cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Chan, Claude H T; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-02-27

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The orexin receptor OX1R in colon cancer: a promising therapeutic target and a new paradigm in G protein-coupled receptor signalling through ITIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe, Marc; Voisin, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    An exciting aspect of the heptahelical orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) has emerged recently, when it was shown that it drives apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines. Here we review recent findings related to the role of OX1R in colorectal cancers and the unexpected mechanism whereby this G protein-coupled receptor works. The OX1R is aberrantly expressed at all steps of primary colorectal tumour progression and after local (lymph node) or distant (liver, lung) metastasis. No OX1R is detected in normal colonic epithelial cells. Treatment of human colon cancer cells in culture with orexins promotes robust apoptosis and subsequent reduction of growth including in cells that are resistant to 5-fluorouracil, the most commonly used drug in chemotherapy. When human colon cancer cells are xenografted in nude mice, treatment with orexins dramatically slows tumour growth and even reverses the development of established tumours. Thus, OX1R agonists might be novel candidates for colon cancer therapy. Activation of OX1R drives apoptosis through Gq protein but independently of classical Gαq activation of phospholipase C. In fact, it is the freed βγ dimer of Gq that plays a pivotal role by stimulating Src-tyrosine kinase. This results in phosphorylation of two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in OX1R and subsequent recruitment by OX1R of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is activated thereby. Downstream events include release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7. The role of ITIMs in OX1R-driven apoptosis represents a new paradigm of G protein-coupled receptor signalling. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-6. To view the 2010 themed section on the same topic visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.2010.159.issue-5

  3. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  4. Superman Comes to Preschool: Superhero TV Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kathleen E.; Johnson, Zita M.

    Systematic efforts at the Arizona State Child Study Laboratory were successful in replacing children's undesirable superhero play with other types of sociodramatic play. Teachers found superhero play undesirable because it was aggressive and noisy and was accompanied by an increase in random activity. Observations indicated that superhero play had…

  5. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…

  6. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  7. How the Brain Makes Play Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the empirical studies that have investigated whether play (mostly social play) is rewarding. He then discusses the brain circuits and neurotransmitters that underlie the pleasurable aspects of play. He concludes that the pleasure of play has the ability to reinforce learning activities and that the brain's…

  8. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  9. The development of early sociodramatic play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deunk, M.I.; Berenst, J.; de Glopper, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study the beginnings of sociodramatic play. We examine the pretend play interactions of a Dutch girl, Peggy, and focus on her transition into sociodramatic play. Initially, Peggy interprets only some elements of her play interactions at the pretend level. At age 2;9, Peggy shows

  10. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  11. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  12. Play Therapy: Facilitative Use of Child's Play in Elementary School Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews five major developments in play therapy: psychoanalysis, release therapy, relationship therapy, nondirective therapy, and play therapy in school settings. Suggests ways school counselors can use play therapy. Describes play therapy facilities, location selection, and play materials. Lists objectives of play therapy and how teachers can aid…

  13. High-Affinity Ligands Can Trigger T Cell Receptor Signaling Without CD45 Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ameen Al-Aghbar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How T cell receptors (TCRs are triggered to start signaling is still not fully understood. It has been proposed that segregation of the large membrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 from engaged TCRs initiates signaling by favoring phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs in the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 molecules. However, whether CD45 segregation is important to initiate triggering is still uncertain. We examined CD45 segregation from TCRs engaged to anti-CD3 scFv with high or low affinity and with defined molecular lengths on glass-supported lipid bilayers using total internal reflection microscopy. Both short and elongated high-affinity anti-CD3 scFv effectively induced similar calcium mobilization, Zap70 phosphorylation, and cytokine secretion in Jurkat T cells but CD45 segregated from activated TCR microclusters significantly less for elongated versus short anti-CD3 ligands. In addition, at early times, triggering cells with both high and low affinity elongated anti-CD3 scFv resulted in similar degrees of CD3 co-localization with CD45, but only the high-affinity scFv induced T cell activation. The lack of correlation between CD45 segregation and early markers of T cell activation suggests that segregation of CD45 from engaged TCRs is not mandatory for initial triggering of TCR signaling by elongated high-affinity ligands.

  14. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Smuts, Barbara; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months) and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months) to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  15. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere

    Full Text Available Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  16. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    signalling can cause reverse price reactions resembling the crowding-out of pre-existing motives for prosocial behavior seen in situations of volunteering and charitable giving. Using a unique combination of questionnaire and purchase panel data, it presents evidence of such reputation-driven reverse price...... reactions in the Danish market for organic milk. The second paper proposes a self-image model to account consumers’ behaviour under PWYW. It finds that when a good’s fixed price is lower than an exogenously given threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility, which may lead to lower purchase rate...

  17. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  18. From online to offline game/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thea Juhl Roloff

    2015-01-01

    Children love to play digital games. But how should we relate to children's use of digital games. When children play they use signs from online games into offline games. There will in the paper be pointed out, media pedagogy weaknesses and strengths. And the media didactic challenges that pedagogs...... be able to motivate digital natives for play and learning, it is important to know the rules of the game/play...

  19. Playing Fair: An Essential Element in Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…

  20. Participatory Republics: Play and the Political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a critical reading of Sicart’s concept of political play, and we suggest an alternative framework that expands his work. We will apply Chantal Mouffe’s political theory to the core ideas in Play Matters, with the purpose of focusing and further developing the understanding...... of the political in the play activity....

  1. Development of Intersubjectivity in Social Pretend Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncu, Artin

    1993-01-01

    Discusses processes in the development of shared pretend representations: adoption of shared pretend focus; metacommunication defining the activity as pretend play; and communication within pretend play. Examines claims that children's play becomes intersubjective only after three years of age. Concludes that intersubjectivity in peer pretend play…

  2. Curious Play: Children's Exploration of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen; Sanderud, Jostein Rønning

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the concept of "curious play" as a theoretical framework to understand and communicate children's experiences of free play in nature. The concept emerged interactively from three sources of inspiration: an ethnographically inspired study of children playing in nature; as a critique of the concept of "risky…

  3. Play as Education in the School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Friedrich Froebel, an early advocate of the use of play in kindergarten teaching, argued that the ultimate goal of education was developing the creative person. According to Froebel, teachers could promote creativity through play by using gifts, occupations, and mother play songs. By contrast, Johann Herbart called for a subject centered…

  4. From Playable to Playful : The Humorous City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edirisinghe, Chamari; Nijholt, Anton; Cheok, Adrian David

    2017-01-01

    This writing is focusing on the concept of play in the city. In pursuit of ideal city, the concept of play has been neglected, pushed to labelled corners, assigned to certain age bracket. Playable city movement has brought the play in to the dialogue on city, the contemporary smart city, underlining

  5. Superheroes: An Opportunity for Prosocial Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Souza, Desalyn; Radell, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Superhero play has long been thought of as violent, aggressive, and disruptive. Some argue that aggressive play should not be allowed because it exposes children to inappropriate concepts and attitudes and sends the message that the use of aggression can achieve a desired goal. However, educators know that pretend play is an avenue for healthy…

  6. Play under Siege: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Edward F.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    In this updated version of their chapter from "Children's Play: The Roots of Reading" (published by ZERO TO THREE in 2004), the authors describe the recent attack on play, in both early childhood and elementary education. They provide a historical overview of the contentious relationship between play and cognitive development. The authors stress…

  7. Montessori and Play: Theory vs. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Montessori preprimary teachers concerning attitudes toward pretend play in the classroom. Found mixed feelings among teachers toward pretend play. By a margin of 2 to 1, teachers were dissatisfied with the training they had received regarding the role of children's play in Montessori settings. (KB)

  8. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  9. The Richness of Open-ended Play - Rules, feedback and adaptation mechanisms in intelligent play environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepijn Rijnbout

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How can we design intelligent play environments for open-ended play that support richness in play? Rich play can be described as ongoing play that changes over time in character, form and nature. This paper elaborates on our initial insights on how rules and goals develop from interaction opportunities of the system, based on two pilot studies with an interactive play environment for open-ended play. Furthermore we will discuss the roles of feedback and adaptation mechanisms in the environment. Those system properties will change the interaction opportunities to match with the current situation in the play environment and to support richness in play.

  10. Plays Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jandyra Cunha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of presenting his drama in a completely inovating way, Richard Morris writes about the same Universal themes that have been worrying his companion playwriters:life and death, love and war. He uses archetypes which are very well known in Literature such as "Time's winged chariot", the ostrich, the drunkard, the dog, and many others. Morris dresses his plot with a modern gown by hinting fairly new issues (doping, John Lennon - Ioko Ono television, Volkswagen, poor people's rights, women's rights and yet he expresses a longing for bygone days or, at least, he is a eulo gizer of the past "our time".

  11. Communities of Play - a collective unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of play in organizations and its ability to create a community of play regarded as a group of people deeply engaged in play. The elaboration is based on an empirical study of adults playing in the Danish international toy company LEGO. The study confirms that play can...... support organizations in solving present day challenges, such as learning, communication, innovation and collaboration. But before talking about solving anything, this paper argues – primarily through the perspective of Gadamer – that it is equally intriguing to look into what play as a universal life....... By introducing the new term ‘community of play’ into the discussion of play among adults in organizational contexts, the paper tries to spark an existential inquiry into the more intangible and human aspects of organizations....

  12. MHC signaling during social communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S.; Nelson, Adam C.; Kubinak, Jason L.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2016-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been known to play a critical role in immune recognition since the 1950s. It was a surprise, then, in the 1970s when the first report appeared indicating MHC might also function in social signaling and in mate choice. Since this seminal discovery, MHC signaling has been found throughout vertebrates and its known functions have expanded beyond mate choice to include a suite of behaviors from kin-biased cooperation, parent-progeny recognition to pregnancy block. The widespread occurrence of MHC in social signaling has revealed conserved behavioral-genetic mechanisms that span vertebrates and includes humans. The identity of the signal’s chemical constituents and the receptors responsible for the perception of the signal have remained elusive, but recent advances have enabled the identification of the key components of the behavioral circuit. In this chapter we organize recent findings from the literature and discuss them in relation to four non-mutually exclusive models wherein MHC functions as a signal of (i) individuality, (ii) relatedness, (iii) genetic compatibility and (iv) quality. We also synthesize current mechanistic studies, showing how knowledge about the molecular basis of MHC signaling can lead to elegant and informative experimental manipulations. Finally, we discuss current evidence relating to the primordial functions of the MHC, including the possibility that its role in social signaling may be ancestral to its central role in adaptive immunity. PMID:22399386

  13. EGFR Signaling in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Komposch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by several ligands leading to the activation of diverse signaling pathways controlling mainly proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The EGFR signaling axis has been shown to play a key role during liver regeneration following acute and chronic liver damage, as well as in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC highlighting the importance of the EGFR in the development of liver diseases. Despite the frequent overexpression of EGFR in human HCC, clinical studies with EGFR inhibitors have so far shown only modest results. Interestingly, a recent study has shown that in human HCC and in mouse HCC models the EGFR is upregulated in liver macrophages where it plays a tumor-promoting function. Thus, the role of EGFR in liver diseases appears to be more complex than what anticipated. Further studies are needed to improve the molecular understanding of the cell-specific signaling pathways that control disease development and progression to be able to develop better therapies targeting major components of the EGFR signaling network in selected cell types. In this review, we compiled the current knowledge of EGFR signaling in different models of liver damage and diseases, mainly derived from the analysis of HCC cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs.

  14. Adaptor Protein Complex-2 (AP-2) and Epsin-1 Mediate Protease-activated Receptor-1 Internalization via Phosphorylation- and Ubiquitination-dependent Sorting Signals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Dores, Michael R.; Grimsey, Neil; Canto, Isabel; Barker, Breann L.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by β-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of β-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the μ2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:21965661

  15. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  16. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...

  17. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistichuman pathogen that routinely appears near the top ofpublic health threat lists worldwide. P. aeruginosa causes in-fections by secreting a wealth of exceptionally active exo-products, leading to tissue damage. The synthesis of manyof these virulence factors...... is now known to be under the con-trol of the quorum sensing (QS) system. Over the last15 years, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) has beenfound to play a crucial role in QS by linking the two seg-ments (las and rhl) of the P. aeruginosa N-acylhomoserinelactone-dependent QS signaling pathways. Herein...

  18. Play as production – production as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...... for the play foray of market and state. These empirical phenomena lead to some more theoretical questions. One question concerns the connection between play and Danishness. How are patterns of play and cultural identity related to each other? Other questions concern the relation between play and production...

  19. Playful teaching between freedom and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    and play culture – to explore an alternative more ‘playful approach’ to teaching and learning. Here, we highlight the potentials of playful teaching through adopting a ‘lusory attitude’ oscillating between free-form play and rule-bound systems. This development of a more playful approach to HE is promising...... as it invites for a different type of teaching and learning environment, providing a safe educational space, in which mistake-making is not only encouraged, but engrained into the system. Taking up a ‘lusory attitude’ in the magic circle can create freedom, support playfulness and intrinsic motivation, and make...... HE emerge as an open educational process rather than as high-score assessment product....

  20. The playful and reflective game designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A group of first-semester engineering students participated in a game design course. The aim of the course was to learn how to design computer games and programming skills by creating their own games, thereby applying their game-playing experiences to gain knowledge about game design...... they are constructed. The students used the GameMaker programming tool, which can be used without any prior programming knowledge. The tool allows for the easy development of 2D game prototypes.The didactic approach was based on play as a lever for the design process, and on constructionistic and reflective learning...... philosophies. Playing games constituted an integral element of the design process; new code added to the program was tested by playing the game. The students were constantly alternating between playing and adding and revising code. The learning environment where games were played and developed could...

  1. Playing and therapeutic action in child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, L C; Cohen, D J

    1993-12-01

    From its inception, child psychoanalysis has used fantasy play as a window to both the content and process of children's inner worlds. Because of the link to action and primary process, young children's imaginary play is rich in symbolic expressions that facilitate analytic interpretive interventions addressing the conflicts impeding development. There are inevitable tensions between allowing play to emerge as a therapeutic process in its own right and the usual psychoanalytic emphasis on clarification, verbalisation and, above all, interpretation within and about the transference. For many children, the very act of playing carries much of the therapeutic work aimed toward facilitating their return to developmentally appropriate and adaptive psychic functioning. The mobilisation of capacities for play in the analysis allows children to do what is needed for their development to continue and makes use of the developmentally restorative functions of play in the service of therapeutic action.

  2. Transition problems and play as transitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2005-01-01

    functions, among others the development of children's learning motive. From the view of activity theori, transition to formal education entails crossing boundaries from the activity system play to the activity system of school learning. The transition can be facilitated by developing a 'transitory activity......Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap betwen pre-school and schoo. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental...... system', which mediates between the two systems, ensuring that the result of one system serves as a tool for the next. Advanced forms of play might make up a transitory activity system. The paper describes different forms of play crossing the boundaies of role play (frame-play, aesthetic theme play...

  3. The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful and mobile activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from international...... research in museums and interaction design. We argue that play and mobility provide museums with ready-made structures and concepts which help them plan for visitor learning....

  4. Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jen-Chang; Hsin-Cheng Li; Kuo-Cheng Huang; Shu-Wei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot) for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of...

  5. Outdoor motor play: analysis, speculations, research paths

    OpenAIRE

    Ceciliani, Andrea; Bortolotti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In our rapidly changing contemporary society, it has become apparent that children spend significantly less time playing outdoors than their parents did. Therefore, considerable attention must be paid by professionals to engage this challenge, especially within early educational contexts. The goal of this study was to first explore the continual drive of play in educational growth and, second, the ways in which children play outdoors at school, in order to reap the developmental benefits of o...

  6. Smog signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick, S.; Shilts, E.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas is created when fossil fuels are burned. Hot spots of NO 2 pollution in the troposphere have been identified by researchers at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In addition to traffic, the biggest emitters of NO 2 include power plants, heavy industry and oil refineries. The City of Shanghai in China ranks with Los Angeles and Mexico City as the urban areas with the highest NO 2 concentrations in the world. NO 2 combines with particles in the air to create a smog that hangs over larger cities in the summer and plays a role in the production of ground-level ozone, both of which cause a variety of respiratory problems. According to the World Health Organization, such air pollution reduces the life of the average European by 8.6 months. This article included a map indicating NO 2 concentrations around the world. The high levels at Fort McMurray, Alberta can be attributed to the NO 2 emitted by oil sands plants. Individual power plants in Chandrapur and Ramagundam in India and oil refineries around the Persian Gulf also revealed high levels, as did the Highveld area outside of Johannesburg in South Africa, where a number of power plants sit on a plateau. At high altitude, NO 2 lingers longer in the air. In the past decade in Europe and eastern North America, cleaner technology in cars and power plants has led to declines in NO 2 in those regions. However, huge increases in emissions in East Asia mean the air will remain smoggy. 1 fig

  7. Pretend play enhances creativity and imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shallu Sansanwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence. Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and Review

  8. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  9. How children create their space for play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby Saragih, John Freddy; Tedja, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of children’s play in the urban area in Indonesia has experienced a shift; they are often seen playing in the street, sidewalk and drainage. This shift raises the question: what is interesting about the space, so that they use it as a space for play? There are metaphysical based of space that can be grasped by children senses when they utilize that particular space. This qualitative research based involving children aged between 6 and 12 years found that spatial manifestation; such as freedom, excitement and surprise are the main motivations when they use the space as their playing area.

  10. Creative interactive play for disabled children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    The workshop addresses the emerging field of research on robotics, assistive technologies and interaction design promoting play for physically, visually, and hearing impaired children and for emotionally and mentally handicapped children. Interactive devices including toys, pets and educational...... tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....

  11. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    the protocols that can fulfill the stringent requirements of P3C case studies in general. In this part, after a thorough review of available Access and Routing protocols in industrial wireless networks, a combination of a deterministic Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol and a clustered flooding-based routing......D project are presented in two distinct areas which are: 1) Signal propagation in underground and confined areas, and 2) Access and Networking protocols that accommodate the required flexibility, scalability, and quality of services for plug and play control systems. The first category finds application...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  12. Chinese and German Teachers' Conceptions of Play and Learning and Children's Play Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen; Rao, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Commonalities and distinctions in Hong Kong-Chinese and German kindergarten teachers' conceptions of play and learning were examined. Six video clips of play episodes reflecting common play behavior and themes were selected from observations made during free play in two kindergartens in Hong Kong and two in Germany. Ten Chinese and seven German…

  13. History Plays As/Or Counterhistory Plays: A Study of Suzan-Lori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... whether Parks's plays are history or counterhistory plays. To this end, the essay first cites Foucault's definitions of history and counterhistory and then examines a number of literary devices Parks has employed in her plays to answer the question. Keywords: Suzan-Lori Parks, history plays, counterhistory, Michel Foucault ...

  14. Parents' Play Beliefs and Engagement in Young Children's Play at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xunyi; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Play is a fundamental concept in early childhood development and education. As partners in the child's learning, parents play a crucial role in how play is defined, valued, and practised. The present study explores the constructs of parents' beliefs about and engagement in young children's play in two coastal cities in China. A sample of 483…

  15. Playing with Mathematics: Play in Early Childhood as a Context for Mathematical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Play is an essential part of young children's lives. This symposium highlights the integral role of play in young children's mathematics learning and examines the teacher's role in facilitating and extending this. Papers examine key tenets of play, contributing to theoretical understandings and presenting data on teacher's perceptions of play and…

  16. Simulated evolution of signal transduction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mobashir

    Full Text Available Signal transduction is the process of routing information inside cells when receiving stimuli from their environment that modulate the behavior and function. In such biological processes, the receptors, after receiving the corresponding signals, activate a number of biomolecules which eventually transduce the signal to the nucleus. The main objective of our work is to develop a theoretical approach which will help to better understand the behavior of signal transduction networks due to changes in kinetic parameters and network topology. By using an evolutionary algorithm, we designed a mathematical model which performs basic signaling tasks similar to the signaling process of living cells. We use a simple dynamical model of signaling networks of interacting proteins and their complexes. We study the evolution of signaling networks described by mass-action kinetics. The fitness of the networks is determined by the number of signals detected out of a series of signals with varying strength. The mutations include changes in the reaction rate and network topology. We found that stronger interactions and addition of new nodes lead to improved evolved responses. The strength of the signal does not play any role in determining the response type. This model will help to understand the dynamic behavior of the proteins involved in signaling pathways. It will also help to understand the robustness of the kinetics of the output response upon changes in the rate of reactions and the topology of the network.

  17. Brief Report: Prompted Pretend Play in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    1997-01-01

    A study of 22 children with autism and 19 children with mental retardation found that, when prompted, school-age and adolescent subjects with autism did not differ from children with mental retardation in production of functional play acts and situationally appropriate object substitution, but did produce fewer novel pretend play acts. (CR)

  18. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  19. The Common Core's First Casualty: Playful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdon, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Although the Common Core standards do not prescribe pedagogy or forbid playful learning, kindergarten teachers will find it challenging to maintain a playful classroom under this reform. Kindergarten teachers have to cover a more rigorous and accelerated curriculum now, and they are doing so in a context that rewards procedural teaching.

  20. African Elephant Play, Competence and Social Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis C. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play in African elephants (Loxodonta africana is a life-long activity, with both males and females engaging in a variety of forms of play into their 40s and 50s. Play represents a potentially enriching social and physical activity for elephants, but also one with energetic costs and other risks. Having followed a cohort of individually recognized elephants from birth to adulthood in Amboseli, Kenya, we suggest here some long-term consequences for the role of play in the development of social and physical skills in elephants. Playful elephant calves appeared to be individuals with greater capacity to resist growth insults or stresses and had a reduced risk of dying as adults. The sexes differed in the social contexts and consequences of their early play experiences. Juvenile males used play as a mechanism to enable relaxed contacts with relative strangers, providing vital physical and behavioral information about future friends, associates and reproductive competitors. Females, by contrast, used play as one of the many mechanism for sustaining their social, protective and leadership roles within families.

  1. Playing with Technology: Is It All Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Ruslan; Slutsky, Mindy; DeShelter, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology now plays a very large role in the way children of all ages play. Children want access to technology, so parents and teachers must determine the best ways to present it to them. Computers are a popular form of technology for children as young as age three. With that in mind, computer games should be problem-solving oriented and…

  2. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  3. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  4. Understanding Nonsocial Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Alicia J.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Nonsocial play continues to be perceived as a behavior that is detrimental young children's development. The research evidence in this area is mixed but lends itself to a more positive view of nonsocial play. Despite the substantial amount of literature available, the terminology used fails to be consistent and may prove to be distracting and…

  5. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  6. Helping Young Children See Math in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Blom, Diana Chang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for recognizing meaningful mathematics in common play contexts in early childhood classrooms and to offer suggestions for how teachers might intervene in these moments to help children attend to the mathematical ideas embedded in their play. In particular, the author's focus on the concepts of…

  7. Developing a virtual piano playing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrushin, V.; Broersen, Alexander; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kinshuk, X.; Galeev, I.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the framework for a multimedia platform called ADRI is described which aids in playing the piano. A 3D-piano with visualisation of notes was built in a virtual environment and connected with a real synthesizer using Midi to interact with a user. Multiple users can play together on the

  8. Games as art : Playing with story & rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jef Folkerts

    2015-01-01

    In het kader van de tentoonstelling Playing with Rules organiseert het CBK Drenthe op dinsdag 8 december om 20.00 uur de lezing “Games as Art – Playing with Story & Rules” door dr. Jef Folkerts. Folkerts promoveerde aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen met zijn onderzoek naar videogames als kunstvorm.

  9. Women Do Not Play Their Aces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Czibor, Eszter; Van Praag, Mirjam

    , competitive and male-dominated environment. We observe gender differences in playing behavior consistent with women being more averse towards risk and competition. Moreover, we demonstrate how "shying away" makes female players less successful: despite no gender gap in playing skills, women accumulate lower...

  10. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  11. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  12. The Heteroglossic World of Preschoolers' Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This inquiry applied Bakhtin's dialogic process to the pretend play of preschool children using an interpretive approach. It used vignettes from videotaped data and Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and heteroglossia to provide an understanding of how children appropriate social roles and rules in pretend play and use a variety of "voices"…

  13. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  14. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Dynamics of Costly Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott O. Wagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Costly signaling is a mechanism through which the honesty of signals can be secured in equilibrium, even in interactions where communicators have conflicting interests. This paper explores the dynamics of one such signaling game: Spence’s model of education. It is found that separating equilibria are unlikely to emerge under either the replicator or best response dynamics, but that partially communicative mixed equilibria are quite important dynamically. These mixtures are Lyapunov stable in the replicator dynamic and asymptotically stable in the best response dynamic. Moreover, they have large basins of attraction, in fact larger than those of either pooling or separating equilibria. This suggests that these mixtures may play significant, and underappreciated, roles in the explanation of the emergence and stability of information transfer.

  16. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...... and medulloblastoma. In this chapter we will cover the present findings of Notch signaling in human glioma and medulloblastoma and try to create an overall picture of its relevance in the pathogenesis of these tumors....

  17. Hedgehog signaling in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Daniel; Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Zavros, Yana

    2016-12-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection. Dysregulation of the Shh signaling pathway leads to the disruption of gastric differentiation, loss of gastric acid secretion and the development of cancer. In this chapter, we will review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric physiology, regeneration, and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ligand binding and signaling of dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR is modulated by the glycosylation of the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Bloem

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are innate receptors expressed on antigen-presenting cells that are involved in the recognition of glycosylated pathogens and self-glycoproteins. Upon ligand binding, internalization and/or signaling often occur. Little is known on the glycan specificity and ligands of the Dendritic Cell Immunoreceptor (DCIR, the only classical C-type lectin that contains an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM. Here we show that purified DCIR binds the glycan structures Lewis(b and Man3. Interestingly, binding could not be detected when DCIR was expressed on cells. Since DCIR has an N-glycosylation site inside its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD, we investigated the effect of this glycan in ligand recognition. Removing or truncating the glycans present on purified DCIR increased the affinity for DCIR-binding glycans. Nevertheless, altering the glycosylation status of the DCIR expressing cell or mutating the N-glycosylation site of DCIR itself did not increase glycan binding. In contrast, cis and trans interactions with glycans induced DCIR mediated signaling, resulting in a decreased phosphorylation of the ITIM sequence. These results show that glycan binding to DCIR is influenced by the glycosylation of the CRD region in DCIR and that interaction with its ligands result in signaling via its ITIM motif.

  19. Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jen-Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of keyboard instrument. The piano-playing robot is capable of control linear motor, servo-motor and pneumatic devices in accordance with the notes and rhythm in order to drive the mechanical structure to proper positions for pressing the keys and generating music. The devices used for this robot are mainly crucial components produced by HIWIN Technology Corp. The design of robotic hand is based on the direction of anthropomorphic hand such that five fingers will be used for playing piano. The finger actuations include actions of finger rotation, finger pressing, and finger lifting; time required for these 3 stages must meet the requirement of rhythm. The purpose of entertainment robot can be achieved by playing electric piano with robotic hand, and we hope this research can contribute to the development of domestic entertainment music playing robots.

  20. Pretend Play: Antecedent of Adult Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature in the area of pretend play as a predictor of adult creativity. There is strong evidence that processes expressed in pretend play are associated with measures of creativity, especially with divergent thinking. There is some evidence from longitudinal studies that this association is stable over time. Converging evidence suggests that cognitive and affective processes in pretend play are involved in adult creative production. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to whether engaging in pretend play actually facilitates creative thinking. In addition, many other variables (opportunity, tolerance for failure, motivation, work ethic, etc.) determine whether children with creative potential are actually creative in adulthood. In spite of the many methodological challenges in conducting research in the play area, it is important to continue investigating specific processes expressed in play and their developmental trajectories. Large samples in multisite studies would be ideal in investigating the ability of specific play processes to predict these creative processes and creative productivity in adulthood. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Playful Play with Games: Linking Level Editing to Learning in Art and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Engeli, Maia

    2005-01-01

    There are different ways how meaning is creating in and around games. What I am presenting here as "Playful Play with Games" is about creative involvement with games mainly game modding and re-appropriating of games. Playful play means to become a creator or writer in addition to a reader and player, but nonetheless with a playful attitude and a good understanding of the game at hand. Three levels of meaning produced in and around games can be distinguished: Meaningful play, meaning beyond pl...

  2. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Teachers and Children Playing with Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    on the critical incident technique (Bitner et al. 2010), so to identify specific occurrences, which can be referred to children’s sense making and the emerging cooperation between children and teachers. The goal of the test is to find out how to support learning of abstract concepts, from an individual......Teachers and children playing with factorization: putting Prime Slaughter to the test. Last year the prime slaughter game was designed and implemented, to enable primary and early secondary school students to play with prime numbers and factorization, within two different game contexts: a 2D...... two were individuated: a competitive form of play, which was mapped into the 2D adventure game, and a designerly-creative play, which was mapped into a puzzle game (Valente and Marchetti 2011). This paper presents empirical results of a qualitative test, conducted with Danish primary school students...

  4. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... in relation to actual phenomena in mediatized popular culture (such as computer games) or to storytelling in organizations, but also in relation to role-playing as a tradition and theoretical consideration within education, theatre, and the social sciences. The points and discussions are based on our book...... Rollespil - i æstetisk, pædagogisk og kulturel sammenhæng (2006), which is the first Danish academic anthology on role-playing as an aesthetic, educational, and cultural phenomenon....

  5. Playful subversions: young children and tablet use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion to conceptu......Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion...... to conceptualize the different kinds of technology appropriation and the pleasures of playful tinkering. We identify four aspects of playful subversion in relation to tablets – invention, definition, assignation, and performance, and argue for a less normative understanding of children´s interactions...

  6. Deep Learning for Video Game Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Niels; Bontrager, Philip; Togelius, Julian; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review recent Deep Learning advances in the context of how they have been applied to play different types of video games such as first-person shooters, arcade games, and real-time strategy games. We analyze the unique requirements that different game genres pose to a deep learning system and highlight important open challenges in the context of applying these machine learning methods to video games, such as general game playing, dealing with extremely large decision spaces...

  7. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  8. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  9. Golden Jubilee Photos: Theorists at play

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Alvaro De Rújula and John Ellis, two of the best-known theorists at CERN, on stage for the 1983 Theory Division play. The stereotype of theoretical physicists has them with their heads in the clouds. But CERN theorists have turned this notion on its head with their annual satirical plays. The first, in 1978, poked fun at the conflict between two competing groups who wanted the chance to perform the second experiment with the then-new Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Theorist John Ellis, who has been involved with most of the plays over the years, says the theorists "came up with the idea of defusing the tension by having the play." Each year, they base the play on a theme or symbol that will resonate with people from any culture. This first play was loosely based on l'Escalade, Geneva's annual celebration of having repelled the Duke of Savoy's attack in 1602. In the 1980s they staged "CERN lake," inspired by the ballet "Swan Lake"-and by the problems in digging the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider's tu...

  10. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  13. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  14. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  15. More Play, Please: The Perspective of Kindergarten Teachers on Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    ?The past decade has seen an increase in research documenting the benefi?ts of children learning through play. However, the amount of play in American kindergarten classes remains on a steady decline. ?This article compares the ?findings from a netnographic study of seventy-eight kindergarten teachers' message board discussions about play in…

  16. Observing and Assessing Young Children's Digital Play in the Early Years: Using the Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Bird, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education settings are characterized by the use of play-based learning and the assessment of children's play by teachers to promote further learning. A problem with technology use in early childhood settings is that little is known about how children learn to use technologies through play. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult…

  17. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  18. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  19. Play as Self-Realization: Toward a General Theory of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    In a wide-ranging essay that reviews the major theories of plays and relates them to significant notions of the self, the author addresses the question of why we play. He does so to argue that play is a biologically driven project of self-understanding and self-realization, one that humans--although they also share the experience with other…

  20. Play and Productivity: Enhancing the Creative Climate at Workplace Meetings with Play Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel E.; Hoff, Eva; Carlsson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigate the links between playfulness and creative organizational climates established by other research, using play cues--objects and sweets--they provide participants halfway through workplace meetings. Their findings suggest such cues significantly enhance the creative climate and playfulness in workplace meetings without…

  1. The "State of Play" in Australia: Early Childhood Educators and Play-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Sue; McArdle, Felicity; Shield, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Education Meets Play study that will investigate early childhood educators' use of play-based learning, now mandatory under the "National Quality Standard". By building on what can be gleaned about educators' approaches to play-based learning prior to the implementation of the "Early Years…

  2. Taking Play Seriously: Children and Play in Early Childhood Education--An Exciting Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    In the book the author presents from different perspectives what is understood by the phenomenon of children's play, why it is important, and how children's play challenge and stimulate the educator or caregiver in regard of educational values and practice, with the conclusion: play has to be taken seriously. A selection of theories is introduced…

  3. Pedagogical Positioning in Play--Teachers Being inside and outside of Children's Imaginary Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of play pedagogy in early childhood education, teachers have mostly taken a passive role in children's play. There are relatively few studies of the pedagogical roles adults take from inside of children's imaginary play. This paper seeks to fill this gap through presenting the findings of a study where the play…

  4. Towards a playful organization ideal-type : Values of a playful organizational culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, H.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous organizations have embarked on playful endeavors such as serious gaming (playing games with a learning/training purpose) and ‘gamification’ (applying game technology and principles to make existing practices more game-like). One could consequently theorize about the dawn of playful or

  5. Pigs, Planes, and Play-Doh: Children's Perspectives on Play as Revealed through Their Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Pauline Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Play, an elusive concept despite the extensive literature on the subject, remains especially problematic for research focused on the perspective of children. The author discusses her study on children's perspectives about play, exploring drawing as a method for learning how young children conceptualize play within a social-semiotic framework. Her…

  6. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  7. Self-Play and Using an Expert to Learn to Play Backgammon with Temporal Difference Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A promising approach to learn to play board games is to use reinforcement learning algorithms that can learn a game position evaluation function. In this paper we examine and compare three different methods for generating training games: 1) Learning by self-play, 2) Learning by playing against an

  8. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  9. Canonical WNT Signalling Controls Hair Follicle Spacing

    OpenAIRE

    Schlake, Thomas; Sick, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Canonical WNT signals play an important role in hair follicle development. In addition to being crucial for epidermal appendage initiation, they control the interfollicular spacing pattern and contribute to the spatial orientation and largely parallel alignment of hair follicles. However, owing to the complexity of canonical WNT signalling and its interconnections with other pathways, many details of hair follicle formation await further clarification. Here, we discuss the recently suggested ...

  10. Local Measurement and Reconstruction for Noisy Graph Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohan; Chen, Jiaxuan; Gu, Yuantao

    2015-01-01

    The emerging field of signal processing on graph plays a more and more important role in processing signals and information related to networks. Existing works have shown that under certain conditions a smooth graph signal can be uniquely reconstructed from its decimation, i.e., data associated with a subset of vertices. However, in some potential applications (e.g., sensor networks with clustering structure), the obtained data may be a combination of signals associated with several vertices,...

  11. Play and optimal welfare: Does play indicate the presence of positive affective states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Espinosa, Julia; Mason, Georgia

    2017-11-16

    Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs). Furthermore, research in children suggests that beyond the frequency or total duration of play, poor welfare may additionally be reflected in qualitative aspects of this heterogeneous behaviour (e.g. display of solitary over social play; and the 'fragmentation' of play bouts) that are often overlooked in animals. There are surprisingly few studies of play in subjects with pre-existing optimal welfare or in unambiguously highly positive affective states, making it currently impossible to determine whether play can distinguish optimal or good welfare from merely neutral welfare. This therefore represents an important and exciting area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bluetooth as a Playful Public Art Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukoff, Maria N.

    This chapter investigates how the application of emergent communication technologies assisted in the design of playful art experience in a public place. Every Passing Moment (EPM), was a mobile public artwork that tracked and recorded any discoverable Bluetooth device to automatically seed a flower in a virtual garden projected onto an urban screen. The EPM was the first public art work to run blu_box, a custom-designed Bluetooth system for mobile telephony. The aim of blu_box was to build a system that supported playful interactions between the public and an urban screen, openly accessible to anyone with a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone. This participatory engagement was observed in EPM on three levels, namely; unconscious, conscious, and dynamic play. Furthermore, this chapter highlights how sound and face-to-face communication proved imperative in the play dynamics of EPM. In conclusion, this chapter proposes ways in which the use of emergent communication technologies in public places, especially when interfaced with urban screening platforms, can construct playful city spaces for the public at large.

  13. Play Golf with the CERN Golf Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Golf Club

    2014-01-01

    The snow has gone, the grass is getting greener and the golf courses open up to hibernating golfers; The CERN golf club committee has been busy organising the program for the coming golf season, with many attractive outings to nearby courses. Are you new to CERN? And you play golf? or would like to learn ? then join us, playing golf and having fun. You can find all you need to know on our web-page; don’t hesitate to contact any of the committee members who will answer your questions.  Take a look at the provisional schedule below, sign-up and take part!  Besides these regular outings, as a CERN Golf Club member, you have also the opportunity to play in our “Corpo” team, in the competitions organised by the Golf Entreprise Rhone-Alpes. You can also play in our match play-tournament, and for new to the game, we organise some group–lessons with a local Pro. See:  http://club-golf.web.cern.ch/club-golf/index.php

  14. The polyimage poetics in Ibsen's late plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique poetics of polyimage implied in Ibsen’s late plays can be excavated with aesthetic reading. The term polyimage is coined to describe Ibsen’s original design in aesthetic form and ingenious realm in aesthetic reaction in his late plays; that is, beyond an imagery realm, another imagery realm exists, which construct a deep vision of significance. In each of the excellent late plays, what Ibsen creates is one or more veiled holistic imagery realms in addition to an ordinary entire imagery realm perceived by most audiences. The “layers of imagery realm” result from Ibsen’s “double self-examinations”, including self-examination of soul and of art. It is these “double self-examinations” that make polyimage possible in his late plays and generates the attribute of “meta-art” in these works. Compared with polyphony in Dostoevsky’s novels, the polyimage in Ibsen’s late plays contains a unique modernity, which is of great significance to modern artistic creation.

  15. Phase synchronization of instrumental music signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Signal analysis is one of the finest scientific techniques in communication theory. Some quantitative and qualitative measures describe the pattern of a music signal, vary from one to another. Same musical recital, when played by different instrumentalists, generates different types of music patterns. The reason behind various patterns is the psycho-acoustic measures - Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm, varies in each time. However, the psycho-acoustic study of the music signals does not reveal any idea about the similarity between the signals. For such cases, study of synchronization of long-term nonlinear dynamics may provide effective results. In this context, phase synchronization (PS) is one of the measures to show synchronization between two non-identical signals. In fact, it is very critical to investigate any other kind of synchronization for experimental condition, because those are completely non identical signals. Also, there exists equivalence between the phases and the distances of the diagonal line in Recurrence plot (RP) of the signals, which is quantifiable by the recurrence quantification measure τ-recurrence rate. This paper considers two nonlinear music signals based on same raga played by two eminent sitar instrumentalists as two non-identical sources. The psycho-acoustic study shows how the Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm vary for the two music signals. Then, long term analysis in the form of phase space reconstruction is performed, which reveals the chaotic phase spaces for both the signals. From the RP of both the phase spaces, τ-recurrence rate is calculated. Finally by the correlation of normalized tau-recurrence rate of their 3D phase spaces and the PS of the two music signals has been established. The numerical results well support the analysis.

  16. Freud on play, games, and sports fanaticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowchak, M Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written in the secondary literature on Freud's aggression-release perspective vis-à-vis competitive sports. Very little has been written, however, on Freud's own explicit contribution to play, games, and sport. That is likely the result of Freud's reluctance to take up them--especially from the gamesman's and sportsman's points of view. One can, however, tease out the development of Freud's thoughts on games, play, and sport through a careful examination of his corpus over time. In doing so, one finds an early view of play and games, where the drives behind those activities are self- and other-preservative, and a later view, where Freud introduces his death drive. The article ends with some notions on what Freud might have said on the fanaticism that accompanies competitive sport, had he expressly taken up the issue.

  17. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Mańdziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. PMID:26380375

  18. Recent Advances in General Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Mańdziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing.

  19. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Świechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of General Game Playing (GGP has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014 in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI related to universal game playing.

  20. MOVING EDUCATIONAL ROLE-PLAY BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duus Henriksen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning games more gamish seems to have an inhibiting effect on designing and thinking games beyond mere skill acquisition. By emphasising the role-play based process as a conflictual negotiation between distinctive categories of knowledge, this paper presents the explorative application of knowledge, while framing the facilitation of reflective processes as the key for transcending knowledge from the game’s context to that of the participants. While pointing towards the compatibility issues between current conceptions of learning games and the facilitation of reflective processes, the paper emphasises the need for thinking the learning game as a part of a didactic design, rather than something beneficial in itself.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi mimics a B cell antigen receptor-like activation signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latent membrane protein (LMP 2A of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is expressed during different latency stages of EBV-infected B cells in which it triggers activation of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases. Early studies revealed that an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM in the cytoplasmic N-terminus of LMP2A can trigger a transient increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration similar to that observed in antigen-activated B cells when expressed as a chimeric transmembrane receptor. Even so, LMP2A was subsequently ascribed an inhibitory rather than an activating function because its expression seemed to partially inhibit B cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling in EBV-transformed B cell lines. However, the analysis of LMP2A signaling has been hampered by the lack of cellular model systems in which LMP2A can be studied without the influence of other EBV-encoded factors. Results We have reanalyzed LMP2A signaling using B cells in which LMP2A is expressed in an inducible manner in the absence of any other EBV signaling protein. This allowed us for the first time to monitor LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi as it occurs during the EBV life cycle in vivo. We show that mere expression of LMP2A not only stimulated protein tyrosine kinases but also induced phospholipase C-γ2-mediated Ca2+ oscillations followed by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induction of the lytic EBV gene bzlf1. Furthermore, expression of the constitutively phosphorylated LMP2A ITAM modulated rather than inhibited BCR-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Conclusion Our data establish that LMP2A expression has a function beyond the putative inhibition of the BCR by generating a ligand-independent cellular activation signal that may provide a molecular switch for different EBV life cycle stages and most probably contributes to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

  2. Role playing research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    Role playing games as we know them today evolved as a merging between war games, fantasy literature and, shortly thereafter, historical enactment. Historically, practices akin to role-playing and simulation is quite a bit older as tools for learning or social meaning making, but after the birth...... that early 20th century social psychologists conducted quite a few experiments of the effects of taking on alien roles and perspectives on attitudes and personality (Bowman & Lieberoth, in review). This presentation reviews what a hundred years of forgotten non-gaming psychology studies revealed about...

  3. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  4. On the playful use of digital media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. On the playful use of digital media. Invited article (formatted as an interview). In: Goethe-Institut, Brasil. Games of the South, 2016. Available online, https://www.goethe.de/ins/br/en/kul/sup/sds/sud/20824177.html.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. On the playful use of digital media. Invited article (formatted as an interview). In: Goethe-Institut, Brasil. Games of the South, 2016. Available online, https://www.goethe.de/ins/br/en/kul/sup/sds/sud/20824177.html....

  5. Scaffolded filmmaking in PlayOFF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    How is it possible to make an entire short film in only 48 hours? This task was carried out in the global online film contest, called PlayOFF, held by Odense International Film Festival (OFF) in August 2010 and -11. Contestants from all over the world - as different countries as Palestine, China...... the productions. This article is based on an empirical study of film processes in PlayOFF 2010 and -11, and I will point out how these findings could be used in developing creativity. Based on my empirical studies I will suggest a learning design for scaffolded filmmaking and propose some ideas of how to transfer...

  6. Learning by Playing with Digital Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Nana

    2006-01-01

    Construction Games in Schools. The project is an exploration of how elements of play can be integrated in a technology-based learning environment. I will use examples of empirical data gathered during spring 2006 to demonstrate that play can function as a useful learning strategy, and also point out barriers...... strategy might lead to changes on three interrelated levels: the teaching material, the educational context (i.e. teaching style, use of the physical facilities and schools organisational structure) and the cultural-historical way schools function within Danish in society....

  7. HCI Lessons From PlayStation VR

    OpenAIRE

    Habgood, Jacob; Wilson, David; Moore, David; Alapont, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    PlayStation VR has quickly built up a significant user-base of over a million headsets and its own ecosystem of games across a variety of genres. These games form part of a rapidly evolving testing ground for design solutions which can usefully inform HCI design for virtual reality. This paper reviews every PlayStation VR title released in the first three months of its lifecycle in order to identify emerging themes for locomotion. These themes are discussed with respect to the lessons learned...

  8. Playing Muller Games in a Hurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fearnley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the following question: can plays in a Muller game be stopped after a finite number of moves and a winner be declared. A criterion to do this is sound if Player 0 wins an infinite-duration Muller game if and only if she wins the finite-duration version. A sound criterion is presented that stops a play after at most 3^n moves, where n is the size of the arena. This improves the bound (n!+1^n obtained by McNaughton and the bound n!+1 derived from a reduction to parity games.

  9. Playing Muller Games in a Hurry

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John; Zimmermann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the following question: can plays in a Muller game be stopped after a finite number of moves and a winner be declared. A criterion to do this is sound if Player 0 wins an infinite-duration Muller game if and only if she wins the finite-duration version. A sound criterion is presented that stops a play after at most 3^n moves, where n is the size of the arena. This improves the bound (n!+1)^n obtained by McNaughton and the bound n!+1 derived from a reduction to parity games.

  10. Acoustic Signaling by Singing Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae: What Role Does Reverberation Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mercado

    Full Text Available When humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae sing in coastal waters, the units they produce can generate reverberation. Traditionally, such reverberant acoustic energy has been viewed as an incidental side-effect of high-amplitude, long-distance, sound transmission in the ocean. An alternative possibility, however, is that reverberation actually contributes to the structure and function of songs. In the current study, this possibility was assessed by analyzing reverberation generated by humpback whale song units, as well as the spectral structure of unit sequences, produced by singers from different regions. Acoustical analyses revealed that: (1 a subset of units within songs generated narrowband reverberant energy that in some cases persisted for periods longer than the interval between units; (2 these highly reverberant units were regularly repeated throughout the production of songs; and (3 units occurring before and after these units often contained spectral energy peaks at non-overlapping, adjacent frequencies that were systematically related to the bands of reverberant energy generated by the units. These findings strongly suggest that some singing humpback whales not only produce sounds conducive to long-duration reverberation, but also may sequentially structure songs to avoid spectral overlap between units and ongoing reverberation. Singer-generated reverberant energy that is received simultaneously with directly transmitted song units can potentially provide listening whales with spatial cues that may enable them to more accurately determine a singer's position.

  11. Acoustic Signaling by Singing Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): What Role Does Reverberation Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    When humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) sing in coastal waters, the units they produce can generate reverberation. Traditionally, such reverberant acoustic energy has been viewed as an incidental side-effect of high-amplitude, long-distance, sound transmission in the ocean. An alternative possibility, however, is that reverberation actually contributes to the structure and function of songs. In the current study, this possibility was assessed by analyzing reverberation generated by humpback whale song units, as well as the spectral structure of unit sequences, produced by singers from different regions. Acoustical analyses revealed that: (1) a subset of units within songs generated narrowband reverberant energy that in some cases persisted for periods longer than the interval between units; (2) these highly reverberant units were regularly repeated throughout the production of songs; and (3) units occurring before and after these units often contained spectral energy peaks at non-overlapping, adjacent frequencies that were systematically related to the bands of reverberant energy generated by the units. These findings strongly suggest that some singing humpback whales not only produce sounds conducive to long-duration reverberation, but also may sequentially structure songs to avoid spectral overlap between units and ongoing reverberation. Singer-generated reverberant energy that is received simultaneously with directly transmitted song units can potentially provide listening whales with spatial cues that may enable them to more accurately determine a singer's position.

  12. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  13. Signal Processing and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.; Slump, C.H.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.M.; de With, P.H.N.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) concerns the theoretical and practical aspects of representing information-bearing signals in digital form and the use of processors or special purpose hardware to extract that information or to transform the signals in useful ways. Areas where digital signal

  14. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  15. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism.

  16. Safety Management for Water Play Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Modern aquatic facilities, which include wave pools, water slides, and shallow water activity play pools, have a greater potential for injuries and lawsuits than conventional swimming pools. This article outlines comprehensive safety management for such facilities, including potential accident identification and injury control planning. (MT)

  17. Making the Most of Water Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    Notes that in early childhood classrooms or outdoors, a water center can be the catalyst for building concepts, developing language, and promoting social skills. Discusses how to set up such a center and the teacher's role in facilitating learning through this medium. Includes 25 ideas for promoting discovery learning in water play. (HTH)

  18. Superman play and pediatric blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, J M; Gyuro, J; Losek, J D

    1996-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with life-threatening intra-abdominal injuries associated with Superman play are presented. The cases illustrate the importance of knowing the mechanism of injury in the assessment of children with blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes and the controversies surrounding the radiographic assessment of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma are presented.

  19. The Commercial Side of Virtual Play Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, Tolga

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, virtual play spaces have become enormously popular among young children around the world. As yet, though, there has been relatively little research into the ways in which children interact on such sites and what they learn in the process. This article describes a study of kids' experiences with one such virtual world, Club…

  20. Learning fair play in industrial symbiotic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Murat; Yazdanpanah, Vahid; Fraccascia, Luca; Mancuso, Erika; Fantin, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide practical decision support to managers in firms involved in Industrial Symbiotic Relations (ISRs) in terms of strategy development and test the hypothesis that in the long-term, playing a fair strategy for sharing obtainable ISR-related benefits is dominant. We employ

  1. Problem Solvers: Solutions--Playing Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…

  2. Scaffolding Productive Language Skills through Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews how a receptive, bilingual four-year-old increased her Spanish productive-language skills over five weeks as she engaged in Spanish-language play sessions with bilingual peers. The data show her growing participation in group verbal interactions along with her growing production of her weaker language. In addition, a…

  3. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  4. Expert Behavior in Children's Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…

  5. Sport and Play in a Digital World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hilvoorde, I.M.

    Digital technology plays an important role in the everyday lives of people. New types of ‘digital sports’, (sport) gaming, exergaming, cybersport and eSports increase in popularity all over the world and are even challenging the modern and hegemonic concept of sport. Modern games can hardly be

  6. Wagogo boys playing 'giraffe', c.1919

    OpenAIRE

    Westgate, Thomas Buchanan Reginald, fl 1899-1936, missionary

    2004-01-01

    110 x 155 mm. Showing a group of boys playing 'giraffe'. This consists of a pair of boys holding a third aloft, this last with his hands above his head in imitation of the neck of a giraffe (see 'Mission world', 1919, March, p.117).

  7. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  8. The Family Reunification Role-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werrbach, Gail B.

    1993-01-01

    Reports a teaching strategy drawn from current family reunification training materials that enhance social work students' use of collaboration in child and family settings. Students participate in a videotaped role play of a family reunification case planning conference. Discusses the strategy's theoretical background, learning objectives,…

  9. Outdoor Motor Play: Analysis, Speculations, Research Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Andrea; Bortolotti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In our rapidly changing contemporary society, it has become apparent that children spend significantly less time playing outdoors than their parents did. Therefore, considerable attention must be paid by professionals to engage this challenge, especially within early educational contexts. The goal of this study was to first explore the continual…

  10. Endowment Investing: Time for a Sustainability Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Managers of university endowment funds are paying closer attention to investing in "green" industries, commonly bundled under the umbrella "cleantech." Cleantech offers the possibility of buying in while prices are low "and" making a "green" investment play, but it also harbors the risks inherent in any emerging industry. Cleantech has varying…

  11. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  12. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  13. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of…

  14. Some Roles Children Play in Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)

  15. Gaming: Eat Breakfast, Drink Milk, Play Xbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Plagued by one of the most overweight populaces in the country, the state of West Virginia was looking for a solution to its obesity problem that would appeal to the school-age crowd. It turned to Linda Carson, a professor at West Virginia University's School of Physical Education. Carson recalled witnessing kids lining up in an arcade to play a…

  16. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  17. The Growing Culture of Nature Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The importance of nature-based play has gradually become forefront in an array of research fields. From the more obvious physical benefits to the complex mental benefits, nature has proved time and time again to be the cure-all for a variety of common ailments. Richard Louv, author of the famed "Last Child in the Woods," has spawned a…

  18. An Integrated Playful Music Learning Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Frimodt-Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instru- ment. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various ac- tivities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help in...

  19. Playing around in Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susina, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mathematician Charles Dodgson's love of play and his need for rules came together in his use of popular games as part of the structure of the two famous children's books, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass," he wrote under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The author of this article looks at the interplay between…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Language Use in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Sohyun

    2013-01-01

    Preschool teachers' language use has been described in recent research, as preschoolers' language development is found to be an important preparation for later reading development. Based on existing research on teachers' language use in sociodramatic play, however, it is still unclear how teachers use their language specifically in sociodramatic…

  1. Gender and Topicality in Onwueme's Plays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... century Nigerian social reality. This, one figures, is one of the preoccupations of Onwueme's plays What Mama said and No Vacancy. A second concern is to underscore the sensitivity of the playwright to topical issues of both national and global hue and colour and draw conclusions on her perspective and ...

  2. Should College Athletes Be Paid to Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Is playing big-time college sports an extracurricular activity or a job? Two law professors at Michigan State University, Robert and Amy McCormick, think it is definitely a job for football and basketball players on athletic scholarships at Division I schools. The married couple has added a new dimension to the long debate over paying athletes by…

  3. The Importance of Play: Part Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Several membership companies of the International Playground Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) are helping differently-abled children to have access to play equipment and opportunities. These IPEMA membership companies, and others, are driven by the principles of Universal Design (UD), a new concept in playground design that helps ensure…

  4. More playful user interfaces: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we embed recent research advances in creating playful user interfaces in a historical context. We have observations on spending leisure time, in particular predictions from previous decades and views expressed in Science Fiction novels. We confront these views and predictions with

  5. Odaminodaa Ojibwemong!! = Let's Play in Ojibwe!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James L.

    The booklet contains directions for designing six word games to provide motivation, reinforcement, and review for students of all ages, from children to adults, as they learn the Ojibwe language. Step-by-step instructions are provided for making and playing Quiz Board, Tic-Tac-Toe, Concentration, Lottery, Lingo (Bingo), and Incocomp. Suggestions…

  6. PLAY DIRECTING AND DIRECTORS: AN EVOLUTIONARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the theatre director can be seen as the `god of the theatre', he/she can also be seen as a priest and a carrier who must coordinate human and material resources a master and a messenger. Drawing from the above, this paper traces the evolution of play directing and the theatre director in different theatres of the world ...

  7. Simplify Volleying through Modified Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Bob; Grube, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Volleyball, by its very nature, is a difficult game to play. Players at all ages have a hard time hitting the ball to their intended targets, resulting in rallies that rarely last more than one or two hits. The resulting game, then, is slow paced and boring, with a lot of standing around and little activity time. In an attempt to ease the…

  8. Rhythmic Reading and Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarbdo, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Children listen, act out and recite nursery rhymes and thus learn about rhyming words, absorb the rhythm of English language, and begin to develop speech sound awareness in an interactive and fun way, which can further enhance reading achievement. Encouraging children to dramatize the rhymes leads to role plays which uses basic vocabulary sight…

  9. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  10. The benefits of playing video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, I.; Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children’s and adolescents’ lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of “gaming” has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence,

  11. Super Role-Playing: Labor and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foegen, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Although role-playing is far from a new idea as far as training programs go, it has seldom been employed in labor relations. Having union and company officials "trade places" would be an effective way of increasing mutual understanding on the job. (AN)

  12. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Moen (Maaike); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes); M. Maas (Mario); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple

  13. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M. H.; Reurink, G.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Maas, M.; Goudswaard, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple methodological limitations, including retrospective

  14. A Child's Power in Game-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie; Lin, Lin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first of its series that studies the power children have in game-play and examines its implications for teaching and learning. As a start, the paper describes a framework of power based on a synthesis of various types of power underlined in literature. The paper then looks into the power issue through observation and interviews…

  15. Hospital Clowning as Play Stimulus in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A serious illness, a chronic medical condition or a hospital bed should not deny any child her/his basic right to play, a right essential for children’s development and general wellbeing. In fact, it is in these frightening and anxious moments that play and the stimulus that it provides can help the most. This article will focus on the impacts and benefits of professional hospital clowning for the wellbeing and recovery process of ill and hospitalized children. Our experience has shown that through interactive play and humor, “clowndoctors” can create an enabling and supportive environment that facilitates children’s adaptation to the hospital setting and improves their acceptance of medical procedures and staff. While moving from bedside to bedside, RED NOSES clowndoctors encourage children’s active participation and support their natural instinct to play, fully including them in the interaction, if the children wish to do so. Therefore, clowndoctor performances offer ill children much needed stimulus, self-confidence and courage, elements fundamental to reducing their vulnerability. In this piece, a special emphasis will be put on the various approaches used by RED NOSES clowndoctors to bond and reach out to children suffering from different medical conditions.

  16. Educational role-play: moving beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    This paper presents a controversial approach to innovating educational role-play. It is argued that we should stop thinking games as an entertaining mean for facilitating participation, and instead try to see games as a content provider and feedback mechanism. A theoretical model is presented...

  17. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  18. Expressivity in Open-ended Constructive Play: Building and Playing Musical Lego Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kasper; Stougaard, Jeppe; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2016-01-01

    and performed with their instruments on stage. The workshop was facilitated by a tangible music-making platform called Hitmachine, aiming to empower children to collectively make expressive music without the need for prior musical skills. The findings show how age influenced the children’s expressivity......This paper presents the findings from a case study in designing for open-ended constructive play for children. The study is based on a workshop where more that 150 children in ages 3-13 built and played their own musical instruments from Lego. The children used different sensors for playing......, and gives insight into the open-ended qualities of constructive play with music. Based on these findings we propose the Constructive Play Expressivity Model, as a tool for guiding designers’ way of thinking about different areas of expressivity, when designing for constructive play interaction....

  19. Active play opportunities at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for children's health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children's PA. An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children's activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  1. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essler, Jennifer L; Cafazzo, Simona; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  2. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Essler

    Full Text Available Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  3. Wnt secretion and signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt proteins are a highly conserved family of signaling molecules that play a central role during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt proteins regulate a variety of biological processes, ranging from cell proliferation and cell fate determination to cell migration, axon guidance and

  4. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  5. Endocannabinoids in amygdala and nucleus accumbens mediate social play reward in adolescent rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Manduca, Antonia; Petrosino, Stefania; Van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Zhou, Yeping; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The brain endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in emotional processes. We have previously identified an important role for endocannabinoids in social play behavior, a highly rewarding form of social interaction in adolescent rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endocannabinoid modulation of social play behavior occurs in brain regions implicated in emotion and motivation. Social play increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not in prefrontal cortex or hippocampus of 4–5 week old male Wistar rats. Furthermore, social play increased phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala. Systemic administration of the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 increased social play behavior, and augmented the associated elevation in anandamide levels in the amygdala, but not the NAc. Infusion of URB597 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) increased social play behavior, and blockade of BLA CB1 cannabinoid receptors with the antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A prevented the play-enhancing effects of systemic administration of URB597. Infusion of URB597 into the NAc also increased social play, but blockade of NAc CB1 cannabinoid receptors did not antagonize the play-enhancing effects of systemic URB597 treatment. Last, SR141716A did not affect social play after infusion into the core and shell subregions of the NAc, while it reduced social play when infused into the BLA. These data show that increased anandamide signalling in the amygdala and NAc augments social play, and identify the BLA as a prominent site of action for endocannabinoids to modulate the rewarding properties of social interactions in adolescent rats. PMID:23100412

  6. Gremlin1 plays a key role in kidney development and renal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Church, Rachel H.; Ali, Imran; Tate, Mitchel; Lavin, Deborah; Krishnakumar, Arjun; Kok, Helena M.; Hombrebueno, Jose R.; Dunne, Philip D.; Bingham, Victoria; Goldschmeding, Roel; Martin, Finian; Brazil, Derek P.

    2017-01-01

    Gremlin1 (Grem1), an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, plays a key role in embryogenesis. A highly specific temporospatial gradient of Grem1 and bone morphogenetic protein signaling is critical to normal lung, kidney, and limb development. Grem1 levels are increased in renal fibrotic

  7. City Beats: A Creative Community Partnership Initiative at ArtPlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, Neryl; Brown, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The City of Melbourne's ArtPlay is open to children and young people aged 3-13 years, and provides a wide range of artist-led programs that serve a broad community within and outside the municipality. Its sister facility, Signal, caters for young people 13-22 years. An Australia Council of the Arts funded Creative Community Partnership Initiative,…

  8. Does song repertoire size in Common Blackbirds play a role in an intra-sexual context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Bird song is thought to have a function in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts with song complexity serving as an honest signal of male quality. Theory predicts that males use repertoire sizes to estimate rivals’ fighting ability. Here we tested whether element repertoire size plays a role...

  9. Exploring the enjoyment of playing browser games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimmt, Christoph; Schmid, Hannah; Orthmann, Julia

    2009-04-01

    Browser games--mostly persistent game worlds that can be used without client software and monetary cost with a Web browser--belong to the understudied digital game types, although they attract large player communities and motivate sustained play. The present work reports findings from an online survey of 8,203 players of a German strategy browser game ("Travian"). Results suggest that multiplayer browser games are enjoyed primarily because of the social relationships involved in game play and the specific time and flexibility characteristics ("easy-in, easy-out"). Competition, in contrast, seems to be less important for browser gamers than for users of other game types. Findings are discussed in terms of video game enjoyment and game addiction.

  10. p600 Plays Essential Roles in Fetal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nakaya

    Full Text Available p600 is a multifunctional protein implicated in cytoskeletal organization, integrin-mediated survival signaling, calcium-calmodulin signaling and the N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis. While push, the Drosophila counterpart of p600, is dispensable for development up to adult stage, the role of p600 has not been studied during mouse development. Here we generated p600 knockout mice to investigate the in vivo functions of p600. Interestingly, we found that homozygous deletion of p600 results in lethality between embryonic days 11.5 and 13.5 with severe defects in both embryo and placenta. Since p600 is required for placental development, we performed conditional disruption of p600, which deletes selectively p600 in the embryo but not in the placenta. The conditional mutant embryos survive longer than knockout embryos but ultimately die before embryonic day 14.5. The mutant embryos display severe cardiac problems characterized by ventricular septal defects and thin ventricular walls. These anomalies are associated with reduced activation of FAK and decreased expression of MEF2, which is regulated by FAK and plays a crucial role in cardiac development. Moreover, we observed pleiotropic defects in the liver and brain. In sum, our study sheds light on the essential roles of p600 in fetal development.

  11. Grammar J, as in Jazzing Around: The Roles "Play" Plays in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Hans

    This paper asks what role "play" plays in writing and how it can help a writer, whatever dread, boredom, skill, or ethnicity he/she brings to writing. Some of the ideas in the paper come from Africa, courtesy of Robert Farris Thompson. In his "philosophy of discourse" discussed in the paper, Thompson speaks of the "big…

  12. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Louws, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of

  13. Player Types, Play Styles, and Play Complexity: Updating the Entertainment Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher Mena, Ricardo Javier

    2012-01-01

    In a previous work the author created the Education and Entertainment Grid by combining various taxonomies from the fields of play and learning. In this paper, a section of this grid known as the Entertainment Grid will be extended by including previously unused elements of Richard Bartle's online player types and Robert Caillois' play complexity.…

  14. Cancer Survivors Who Play Recreational Computer Games: Motivations for Playing and Associations with Beneficial Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Francis, Diane B; Marshall, Laura Heisner; Puglia, Deanna R

    2016-08-01

    Playing recreational videogames is a common activity, yet little is known about its role in the lives of people who are coping with serious illness. These individuals may experience depression and isolation and may turn to games to help alleviate negative experiences and support well-being. We explored these possibilities in the context of cancer survivors. The study aimed to discover motivations underlying game play and the extent to which motivations are associated with psychological health and well-being. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of survivors who play recreational games (N = 794). Key variables were motivations and indicators of psychological health, including self-efficacy in cancer communications, resilient coping, and beliefs that one is living a fulfilling and meaningful life (flourishing). Participants were most likely to be motivated to play for stimulation and a sense of accomplishment (intrinsic rewards), followed by development of self, sense of community, and personal affirmation. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive associations between playing for intrinsic rewards and all three psychological health outcomes. Playing for a sense of community was also positively associated with coping and flourishing. Playing recreational videogames, particularly to receive intrinsic rewards and to connect with others, may play a supportive role in the psychological health of survivors. Findings suggest future areas for research and implications for development of serious games.

  15. Play on: Retrospective Reports of the Persistence of Pretend Play into Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2012-01-01

    Piaget (1962) asserted that children stop engaging in pretend play when they enter the concrete operational stage because they become able to accommodate reality and no longer need to assimilate it to their wishes. Consistent also with the views of Vygotsky, discussion of pretend play in developmental psychology is typically confined to early…

  16. In Defense of Play: Beginning the Dialog about the Power of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This article provides early childhood practitioners a way to develop a common understanding of the importance of play in the early learning experience of young children. Meaningful discussion among teachers, parents, administrators, and teacher candidates regarding play in early childhood education programs is critical to ensure the growth and…

  17. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  18. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  19. Reflections of Play and Toys on Impressionist Painting Children and Play as a Pictorial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Eda; Yazgin, Yucel

    2018-01-01

    Play is a significant event and opportunity for experience and discovery for children to find their place in the society, to search for themselves and their identity. This study aimed to analyze how the images of children and play were reflected on impressionist painting in Europe in the 19th century. First, the works of impressionist painters…

  20. Play to Learn, Learn to Play: Language Learning through Gaming Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongwan

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated learning through playing games. However, after playing games, players often go online to establish and participate in the online community where they enrich their game experiences, discuss game-related issues, and create fan-fictions, screenshots, or scenarios. Although these emerging activities are an essential…

  1. Pretending to Play or Playing to Pretend: The Case of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Chang, Ya-Chih; Patterson, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    An article by Angeline S. Lillard and others published in the January 2013 issue of "Psychological Bulletin" about the impact of pretend play on child development raised a number of issues about play studies and child psychology. The article claimed that, contrary to current theories on the subject, the evidence of many studies does not…

  2. Development of the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment: Selection of play materials and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dender, Alma; Stagnitti, Karen

    2011-02-01

    There is a need for culturally appropriate assessments for Australian Indigenous children. This article reports the selection of culturally appropriate and gender-neutral play materials, and changes in administration identified to develop further the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (I-ChIPPA). Twenty-three typically developing children aged four to six years from the Pilbara region in Western Australia participated in the study. Children were presented with four sets of play materials and frequency counts were recorded for each time the child used one of the play materials in a pretend play action. Twelve of the 23 children came to play in pairs. Both boys and girls used the Pilbara toy set including the dark coloured dolls and Pilbara region animals, more frequently than the standardised play materials from the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This study reports the first steps in the development of the I-ChIPPA. Future development will include the refinement of the administration and scoring with pairs of children, and then validity testing the assessment. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  3. Is it play? Towards a reconceptualisation of role-play from an activity theory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).

  4. The experiences of context on role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue in question relates to the preparation that has the staff, for the use of the experiences of the context of children of preschool grade of primary school, in the role plays, for evidence that the social aspect that own the game, being a prerequisite for the formation and development of the child's personality, and being a problem under investigation in educational practice in all aspects of Early Childhood Education.

  5. Outdoor learnig and play in nursery school

    OpenAIRE

    Hegedič, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the field of outdoor learning and play, within it represents the forest education as the concept with many positive effects on the child's overall growth. The theoretical part of the thesis describes the development of the concept and establishing of the first forest school and nursery school, which are located into the natural environment and provide a regular visit to nature in all seasons. They give emphasis on constructivist and experiential learning through unstructu...

  6. The benefits of playing video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  8. Playing with Others: Head Start Children's Peer Play and Relations with Kindergarten School Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Castle, Sherri; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Time-sampled observations of Head Start preschoolers' (N = 264; 51.5% boys; 76% Mexican American; M = 53.11 and SD = 6.15 months of age) peer play in the classroom were gathered during fall and spring semesters. One year later, kindergarten teachers rated these children's school competence. Latent growth models indicated that, on average, children's peer play was moderately frequent and increased over time during preschool. Children with higher initial levels or with higher slopes of peer play in Head Start had higher levels of kindergarten school competence. Results suggest that Head Start children's engagement with peers may foster development of skills that help their transition into formal schooling. These findings highlight the importance of peer play, and suggest that peer play in Head Start classrooms contributes to children's adaptation to the demands of formal schooling. PMID:24882941

  9. Guided play and free play in an enriched environment: Impact on motor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Stock Palma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of guided play and free play in an enriched environmentintervention programs using motor skill development in kindergarten children. Seventy-one children attending kindergarten classes were assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 before and after the intervention period. Results revealed that both boys and girls in the guided play group showed motor skill improvement, whereas no changes were observed in motor development in the boys and girls assigned to the free play in enriched environment group, nor in those in the control group. These findings indicate that the teacher's role in the guided play intervention was crucial to help preschool children to improve their performance.

  10. Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis; Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    in the same transdisciplinary discourse? The research questions to be addressed in this panel are: • Which is your theoretical framework and why have you chosen it as relevant for the 21st century? • How do you conceive the concept of play in relation to concepts of e.g. culture, media, learning, design, age......BIN Norden conference 2014 Accepted panel ________________________________________ Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century Participants in the panel are: Associate professor Herdis Toft, University of Southern Denmark (organizer), Professor Beth Juncker, University of Copenhagen....... For several centuries western theorists, for instance Baumgarten, Schiller, Huizinga, Caillois, Sutton Smith, Vygotsky, Bateson, Salen & Zimmerman, Flemming Mouritsen and later on the panel participants, have discussed the concept of play and play culture. They have presented their own theoretical...

  11. From Team Play to Squad Play: The Militarisation of Interactions in Multiplayer FPS Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of E-sports we have seen the development from casual players to professional players who push the boundary of game mastery to new heights via coordinated team play. In this short paper I explore how a group of video game players adopt military-style communication methods and strategies to coordinate their actions in the popular tactical First Person Shooter (FPS video game DayZ (Bohemia Interactive, 2014.  Utilising the key components of team interaction in the context of distributed and ad-hoc military teams (Pascual et al., 1997, I show how a group of players evolved their interactions from team play to squad play. I argue that squad play is an advancement of the strategic and tactical thinking embodied in team play through the adoption of real-world military interaction and communication strategies.

  12. Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Widbiller, Matthias; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-09-01

    Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerves (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), or fibroblasts (fibroblast growth factor) may induce reparative dentin formation. Mainly the formation of atubular dentin (osteodentin) has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration. Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far. Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically. Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules, the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules, and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary. Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin. By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation. The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp. However, better characterization and standardization of the

  13. Signal sciences workshop. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing

  14. Traffic signal timing manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This report serves as a comprehensive guide to traffic signal timing and documents the tasks completed in association with its development. The focus of this document is on traffic signal control principles, practices, and procedures. It describes th...

  15. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  16. Impact of Changes in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Pain in String Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Judith; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Guay, Manon

    2018-03-01

    During their training, musicians must develop good work habits that they will carry on throughout their professional career in order to avoid potential chronic health problems, such as musculoskeletal pain. The effect of sudden changes in instrument playing-time on the development of playing-related musculoskeletal pain (PRMP) has not been thoroughly investigated in music students playing bowed string instruments (BSI), even though they are regularly exposed to such changes to perfect their playing skills. To explore the association between sudden changes in instrument playing-time and changes in PRMP in BSI players. A prospective cohort study was completed with BSI students attending a summer music camp offering high-level training. Participants completed a self-administered 23-item questionnaire designed for the study upon arrival at camp (T1) and then 7 days later (T2). Ninety-three BSI students (16±4 yrs old) completed the questionnaires, for a 23% response rate. Their playing-time increased by 23±14 hrs between T1 and T2. Complaints in pain frequency (e.g., from never to most of the time) and intensity (19±24 mm on VAS) significantly increased between T1 and T2 and were correlated with an increase in playing-time. A sudden increase in playing-time, such as that experienced by elite BSI students attending an intensive music camp, was related to an increase in PRMP. However, in this study, changes in pain characteristics were only partly explained by the change in playing-time.

  17. Wnt Signaling in Kidney Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Zhou, Chengji J; Liu, Youhua

    2018-01-01

    Wnt signal cascade is an evolutionarily conserved, developmental pathway that regulates embryogenesis, injury repair, and pathogenesis of human diseases. It is well established that Wnt ligands transmit their signal via canonical, β-catenin-dependent and noncanonical, β-catenin-independent mechanisms. Mounting evidence has revealed that Wnt signaling plays a key role in controlling early nephrogenesis and is implicated in the development of various kidney disorders. Dysregulations of Wnt expression cause a variety of developmental abnormalities and human diseases, such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, cystic kidney, and renal carcinoma. Multiple Wnt ligands, their receptors, and transcriptional targets are upregulated during nephron formation, which is crucial for mediating the reciprocal interaction between primordial tissues of ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. Renal cysts are also associated with disrupted Wnt signaling. In addition, Wnt components are important players in renal tumorigenesis. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin is instrumental for tubular repair and regeneration after acute kidney injury. However, sustained activation of this signal cascade is linked to chronic kidney diseases and renal fibrosis in patients and experimental animal models. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls a diverse array of biologic processes, such as cell cycle progression, cell polarity and migration, cilia biology, and activation of renin-angiotensin system. In this chapter, we have reviewed recent findings that implicate Wnt signaling in kidney development and diseases. Targeting this signaling may hold promise for future treatment of kidney disorders in patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPdb – a signal peptide database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Tin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal peptide plays an important role in protein targeting and protein translocation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This transient, short peptide sequence functions like a postal address on an envelope by targeting proteins for secretion or for transfer to specific organelles for further processing. Understanding how signal peptides function is crucial in predicting where proteins are translocated. To support this understanding, we present SPdb signal peptide database http://proline.bic.nus.edu.sg/spdb, a repository of experimentally determined and computationally predicted signal peptides. Results SPdb integrates information from two sources (a Swiss-Prot protein sequence database which is now part of UniProt and (b EMBL nucleotide sequence database. The database update is semi-automated with human checking and verification of the data to ensure the correctness of the data stored. The latest release SPdb release 3.2 contains 18,146 entries of which 2,584 entries are experimentally verified signal sequences; the remaining 15,562 entries are either signal sequences that fail to meet our filtering criteria or entries that contain unverified signal sequences. Conclusion SPdb is a manually curated database constructed to support the understanding and analysis of signal peptides. SPdb tracks the major updates of the two underlying primary databases thereby ensuring that its information remains up-to-date.

  19. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to

  20. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.; Morgan, Craig D.; McClure, Kevin; Willis, Grant C.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are

  1. Learning to Play Efficient Coarse Correlated Equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2018-03-10

    The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific coarse correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm, which guarantees that the agents’ collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient coarse correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  2. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  3. Signaling filopodia in avian embryogenesis: formation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Draga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates and invertebrates specialized cellular protrusions, called signaling filopodia or cytonemes, play an important role in cell-cell communication by carrying receptors and ligands to distant cells to activate various signaling pathways. In the chicken embryo, signaling filopodia were described in limb bud mesenchyme and in somite epithelia. The formation of signaling filopodia depends on the activity of Rho GTPases and reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Here, we give a short overview on the present knowledge on avian signaling filopodia and discuss the molecular basis of cytoskeletal rearrangements leading to filopodia formation.

  4. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  5. Plug ‘n’ Play with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Korgaard, Jaide V.

    Synthetic biology has evolved dramatically within the past decade, which calls for a revolution of the Standard Assembly method that makes the foundation of BioBricks. We believe that iGEM should be about fast assembly of BioBricks, where any thinkable part, device or existing BioBrick can be com...... be combined for any type of organism within one day. Therefore, we have designed a new BioBrick Kit based on a novel assembly standard; called “Plug 'n' Play with DNA”....

  6. Playing a quantum game with a qutrit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Urbasi [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L3G1 and Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Kolenderski, Piotr [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L3G1 and Institute of Physics, Copernicus University, Grudziqdzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Youning, Li [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. (China); Zhao, Tong; Volpini, Matthew; Laflamme, Raymond; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L3G1 (Canada); Cabello, Adan [Departmento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012, Sevilla, Spain and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-12-04

    The Aharon Vaidman (AV) quantum game [1] demonstrates the advantage of using simple quantum systems to outperform classical strategies. We present an experimental test of this quantum advantage by using a three-state quantum system (qutrit) encoded in a spatial mode of a single photon passing through a system of three slits [2,3]. We prepare its states by controlling the photon propagation and the number of open and closed slits. We perform POVM measurements by placing detectors in the positions corresponding to near and far field. These tools allow us to perform tomographic reconstructions of qutrit states and play the AV game with compelling evidence of the quantum advantage.

  7. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  8. An ethnomathematical study of play in minecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørhsen, Kim Louis; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how children engaged in playing Minecraft in an afterschool program develop mathematical approaches in their in-game activities. The investigation is framed as ethnomathematical in the sense that, rather than searching for specific curricular concepts, it explores the problem...... situations and explanatory systems that children develop. Aesthetics, symmetry, collaboration, copying, and efficient building strategies all lead to local problem-solving and explanatory systems and can therefore be characterised as steps towards ethnomathematics. In the explored example, collaboration...... between the children and the afterschool program’s attitude towards children’s collaborative gaming are crucial factors in the way Minecraft supports the development of mathematical thinking....

  9. Motivations for play in online games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nick

    2006-12-01

    An empirical model of player motivations in online games provides the foundation to understand and assess how players differ from one another and how motivations of play relate to age, gender, usage patterns, and in-game behaviors. In the current study, a factor analytic approach was used to create an empirical model of player motivations. The analysis revealed 10 motivation subcomponents that grouped into three overarching components (achievement, social, and immersion). Relationships between motivations and demographic variables (age, gender, and usage patterns) are also presented.

  10. To Play or Not to Play: Diverse Motives for Latino and Euro-American Parent-Child Play in a Children's Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBianca Fasoli, Allison

    2014-01-01

    A popular social discourse in the United States is that play is important for children's learning and that parental involvement maximizes play's learning potential. Past research has concluded that parents who hold this view of play are more likely to play with their children than those who do not. This study investigated the prevalence…

  11. Optimal Signal Quality Index for Photoplethysmogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoplethysmogram (PPG is a noninvasive circulatory signal related to the pulsatile volume of blood in tissue and is typically collected by pulse oximeters. PPG signals collected via mobile devices are prone to artifacts that negatively impact measurement accuracy, which can lead to a significant number of misleading diagnoses. Given the rapidly increased use of mobile devices to collect PPG signals, developing an optimal signal quality index (SQI is essential to classify the signal quality from these devices. Eight SQIs were developed and tested based on: perfusion, kurtosis, skewness, relative power, non-stationarity, zero crossing, entropy, and the matching of systolic wave detectors. Two independent annotators annotated all PPG data (106 recordings, 60 s each and a third expert conducted the adjudication of differences. The independent annotators labeled each PPG signal with one of the following labels: excellent, acceptable or unfit for diagnosis. All indices were compared using Mahalanobis distance, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine with leave-one-out cross-validation. The skewness index outperformed the other seven indices in differentiating between excellent PPG and acceptable, acceptable combined with unfit, and unfit recordings, with overall F 1 scores of 86.0%, 87.2%, and 79.1%, respectively.

  12. Optimal Signal Quality Index for Photoplethysmogram Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2016-09-22

    A photoplethysmogram (PPG) is a noninvasive circulatory signal related to the pulsatile volume of blood in tissue and is typically collected by pulse oximeters. PPG signals collected via mobile devices are prone to artifacts that negatively impact measurement accuracy, which can lead to a significant number of misleading diagnoses. Given the rapidly increased use of mobile devices to collect PPG signals, developing an optimal signal quality index (SQI) is essential to classify the signal quality from these devices. Eight SQIs were developed and tested based on: perfusion, kurtosis, skewness, relative power, non-stationarity, zero crossing, entropy, and the matching of systolic wave detectors. Two independent annotators annotated all PPG data (106 recordings, 60 s each) and a third expert conducted the adjudication of differences. The independent annotators labeled each PPG signal with one of the following labels: excellent, acceptable or unfit for diagnosis. All indices were compared using Mahalanobis distance, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine with leave-one-out cross-validation. The skewness index outperformed the other seven indices in differentiating between excellent PPG and acceptable, acceptable combined with unfit, and unfit recordings, with overall F 1 scores of 86.0%, 87.2%, and 79.1%, respectively.

  13. Expression pattern of Wnt signaling components in the adult intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Pinto, D.; Begthel, H.; Destree, O.; Kielman, M.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the intestine, the canonical Wnt signaling cascade plays a crucial role in driving the proliferation of epithelial cells. Furthermore, aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. Despite this evidence, little is known

  14. Identification of alternatively translated Tetherin isoforms with differing antiviral and signaling activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J Cocka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 is an IFN induced transmembrane protein that restricts release of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Important features required for Tetherin activity and regulation reside within the cytoplasmic domain. Here we demonstrate that two isoforms, derived by alternative translation initiation from highly conserved methionine residues in the cytoplasmic domain, are produced in both cultured human cell lines and primary cells. These two isoforms have distinct biological properties. The short isoform (s-Tetherin, which lacks 12 residues present in the long isoform (l-Tetherin, is significantly more resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated downregulation and consequently more effectively restricts HIV-1 viral budding in the presence of Vpu. s-Tetherin Vpu resistance can be accounted for by the loss of serine-threonine and tyrosine motifs present in the long isoform. By contrast, the l-Tetherin isoform was found to be an activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling whereas s-Tetherin does not activate NF-κB. Activation of NF-κB requires a tyrosine-based motif found within the cytoplasmic tail of the longer species and may entail formation of l-Tetherin homodimers since co-expression of s-Tetherin impairs the ability of the longer isoform to activate NF-κB. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for control of Tetherin antiviral and signaling function and provide insight into Tetherin function both in the presence and absence of infection.

  15. Children’s play and subjectivity: reflections upon the little house play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sommerhalder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dialogue with psychoanalysis as its theoretical foundation, the paper aims to address constitutive aspects of children’s play in a school toy library environment. For doing this, the study presents a reflection on the results of six sessions of observation of the ”little house play” among kindergarten children. The observation of this ludic activity was completed by the record in a field diary containing the actions and speech of the thirteen children participating in the study. It shows that children’s play constitutes a subjective space and it is a preferred vehicle for the symbolic fulfillment of desires and fantasies, the reality transformation, and the creation of new knowledge. Therefore, the importance of appreciating the toy library at school isstressed as a way of recalling and executing children’s play in kindergarten educationand the study highlights the value of this ludic play for the learning and development of children in this education level.

  16. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively

  17. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Muscle fatigue during football match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Drust, Barry; Clarke, Neil

    2008-01-01

    One of the consequences of sustaining exercise for 90 minutes of football match-play is that the capability of muscle to generate force declines. This impairment is reflected in the decline of work-rate towards the late part of the game. Causes of this phenomenon, which is known as fatigue, and some of its consequences are considered in this article. The stores of muscle glycogen may be considerably reduced by the end of the game, especially if there has not been a tapering of the training load. Thermoregulatory strain may also be encountered, resulting in a fall in physical performance, or there may be a reduced central drive from the nervous system. The decline in muscle strength may increase the predisposition to injury in the lower limbs. Central fatigue may also occur with implications for muscle performance. Strategies to offset fatigue include astute use of substitutions, appropriate nutritional preparation and balancing pre-cooling and warm-up procedures. There is also a role for endurance training and for a pacing strategy that optimizes the expenditure of energy during match-play.

  19. Domain-specific knowledge as playful interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Starting from reflections on designing games for learning, aimed at providing a tangible grounding to abstract knowledge, we designed Prime Slaughter, a game to support learning of factorisation and prime numbers, targeted to primary and early secondary school children. This new study draws upon ...... on activity theory, aimed at facilitating the transposition of abstract knowledge into playful interactions, so to develop new learning games of this kind, also keeping into account children’s individual needs regarding play.......Starting from reflections on designing games for learning, aimed at providing a tangible grounding to abstract knowledge, we designed Prime Slaughter, a game to support learning of factorisation and prime numbers, targeted to primary and early secondary school children. This new study draws upon...... the design process of Prime Slaughter, to move further in developing a general approach in developing games, aimed at effectively conveying knowledge from a specific domain. Hence this paper will discuss the past design process, as a concrete case, and then formulate a theoretical framework, based...

  20. Playing Nabokov: Performances by Himself and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Elizabeth Sweeney

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1918, in the Crimea, the adolescent Vladimir Nabokov devised a new pastime: "parodizing a biographic approach" by narrating his own actions aloud. In this self-conscious "game," he orchestrated changes in grammatical person, gender, and tense in order to transform his present experiences into a third-person past, as remembered by a female friend in an imaginary future. Staging his own biography in this fashion allowed Nabokov to resolve the inherent conflict between his life and his art. Indeed, he went on to play the game of narrating his own biography throughout his memoir, Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited , and in his fiction. Fifty years after Nabokov invented this game, he met his first real-life biographer, Andrew Field, who resisted playing it by Nabokov's rules. The ensuing quarrel between subject and biographer eventually inspired three other parodic texts: Nabokov's novel, Look at the Harlequins! ; Field's biography, Nabokov: His Life in Part , and Roberta Smoodin's novel, Inventing Ivanov . Inevitably, each of these books became, like Speak, Memory before it, another performance of Nabokov's self-reflexive game. Indeed, Nabokov's critics, biographers, and disciples may find it almost impossible to represent his life and art without merely repeating his own representations of himself.

  1. Playing life away: Videogames and personality structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leones do Couto G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to fill a gap in the current research on the personality organization of frequent videogame users. The scientific literature in this area refers only to the existence of risk factors that increase the likelihood of abusing videogames and their negative consequences on the mental health of users (Gentile et al., 2011; Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2011; Rehbein & Baier, 2013. In this study, a sample of patients who reported spending an excessive amount of their time playing videogames were recruited from Instituto Quintino Aires–Lisbon/Oporto and took the Rorschach Personality Test (Exner, 1993, 1995. Two other samples—one consisting of patients who reported not playing videogames, and the other of patients who were discharged from the institution after psychotherapy—also took part in the study. The patients in the first sample revealed less exposure to the relational sources of stress that are necessary for socioemotional development and less interest in others than did patients in the other samples. Other results regarding the personality structure of the subjects in the three samples are compared and discussed in light of cultural-historical psychology.

  2. Comparative Study Of Consumer Buying Behavior At Music Playing And Non Music Playing Shoe Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Menajang, Irene Ladies

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are not only shopping to meet their needs, but they also are going to look for stores that provide a pleasant experience. Music can be an important compnent of store atmosphere and plays a role in purchase decision meaking process. Background music can be heard in almost all fashion stores including shoe stores in Manado. But, there are still shoe stores that are not playing background music. The objective of this research is to analyze the significant difference of consumer buying ...

  3. Role of the Wnt signaling molecules in the tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tamura, PhD, DDS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling plays a central role in many processes during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. At least 19 types of Wnt ligands, receptors, transducers, transcription factors, and antagonists have been identified in mammals. Two distinct Wnt signaling pathways, the canonical signaling pathway and the noncanonical signaling pathway, have been described. Some Wnt signaling pathway components are expressed in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth development in humans and mice. Functional studies and experimental analysis of relevant animal models confirm the effects of Wnt signaling pathway on the regulation of developing tooth formation and adult tooth homeostasis. Mutations in some Wnt signaling pathway components have been identified in syndromic and non-syndromic tooth agenesis. This review provides an overview of progress in elucidating the role of Wnt signaling pathway components in the tooth and the resulting possibilities for therapeutic development.

  4. The Signal Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of LHC signal observation and high frequency signal distribution, the Signal Distribution System (SDS) was built. The SDS can contain up to 5 switching elements, where each element allows the user to switch between one of the maximum 8 bi-directional signals. The coaxial relays are used to switch the signals. Depending of the coaxial relay type used, the transfer bandwidth can go up to 18GHz. The SDS is controllable via TCP/IP, parallel port, or locally by rotary switch.

  5. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  6. Does playing pay? The fitness-effect of free play during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Werner; Thomsen, Tamara; Dehio, Cornelia

    2014-04-29

    Evolutionary developmental psychology claims that the sequences and processes of human development, in fact the mere fact of ontogeny itself, have to be viewed as evolutionary products. However, although the functional benefits of childish behavior (child playing) for cognitive and emotional development have been shown repeatedly, claiming evolutionary adaptiveness of playing in childhood suggests that childish play supports evolutionary success in mature stages of development. This hypothesis is tested in a study with N=134 adults (93 females; age range 20-66 years). Participants were asked to recollect their play experiences during childhood in detail, and to report their current developmental status with respect to several aspects of social success. Results show that the opportunity for and the promotion of free play in childhood significantly predict some indicators of social success. Additional analyses strive to explore mediating processes for this relationship. In particular, the mediating role of individual adaptivity (flexibility of goal adjustment) is investigated. Results suggest that freely playing in childhood promotes developmental resources, in particular individual adaptivity in adulthood, which, in turn, promote developmental success.

  7. Mitochondrial Signaling: Forwards, Backwards, and In Between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Whelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles that are a defining characteristic of almost all eukaryotic cells. They are vital for energy production, but increasing evidence shows that they play important roles in a wide range of cellular signaling and homeostasis. Our understanding of nuclear control of mitochondrial function has expanded over the past half century with the discovery of multiple transcription factors and cofactors governing mitochondrial biogenesis. More recently, nuclear changes in response to mitochondrial messaging have led to characterization of retrograde mitochondrial signaling, in which mitochondria have the ability to alter nuclear gene expression. Mitochondria are also integral to other components of stress response or quality control including ROS signaling, unfolded protein response, mitochondrial autophagy, and biogenesis. These avenues of mitochondrial signaling are discussed in this review.

  8. Ral signaling pathway in health and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Patrad, Elham; Tafsiri, Elham; Peng, Warner; Fangman, Benjamin; Pluard, Timothy J; Accurso, Anthony; Salacz, Michael; Shah, Kushal; Ricke, Brandon; Bi, Danse; Kimura, Kyle; Graves, Leland; Najad, Marzieh Khajoie; Dolatkhah, Roya; Sanaat, Zohreh; Yazdi, Mina; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Mazani, Mohammad; Amani, Mojtaba; Ghavami, Saeid; Gartell, Robyn; Reilly, Colleen; Naima, Zaid; Esfandyari, Tuba; Farassati, Faris

    2017-12-01

    The Ral (Ras-Like) signaling pathway plays an important role in the biology of cells. A plethora of effects is regulated by this signaling pathway and its prooncogenic effectors. Our team has demonstrated the overactivation of the RalA signaling pathway in a number of human malignancies including cancers of the liver, ovary, lung, brain, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Additionally, we have shown that the activation of RalA in cancer stem cells is higher in comparison with differentiated cancer cells. In this article, we review the role of Ral signaling in health and disease with a focus on the role of this multifunctional protein in the generation of therapies for cancer. An improved understanding of this pathway can lead to development of a novel class of anticancer therapies that functions on the basis of intervention with RalA or its downstream effectors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  10. Teaching about the French Revolution--A Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)

  11. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  12. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  13. The use of the bared-teeth display during play fighting in Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana): sometimes it is all about oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Sergio M; Pellis, Vivien C; Reinhart, Christine J; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Play signals are viewed as important means by which animals inform each other that bites, strikes, and throws that occur during play fighting are indeed playful rather than serious. One such signal is the open mouth play face that is common in primates and many other mammals. Unfortunately, as most play fighting involves biting, it can be ambiguous as to whether any instance of opening the mouth is performed to communicate playful intent or is simply a preparation for biting. In this study, open mouths co-occurring with the bared-teeth display (teeth-baring) in Tonkean macaques were used to assess the context in which facial gestures only relevant for signaling (i.e., teeth-baring is not necessary for biting) are used during play. Two predictions arising from the hypothesis that play signals are used to facilitate playful contact were tested: that the open mouth with teeth-baring should (1) be most frequent preceding contact, and (2) that it should be performed most often when bites are directed at orientations that is visible to the recipient. The data only partially support these predictions. The open mouth with teeth-baring is also frequently used when a monkey withdraws from playful contact. Moreover, it is associated with bites to body targets, such as the rump, that offer little prospect for detection by the recipient; this supports the possibility that play signals may sometimes be emitted not to communicate with the partner but with the performer itself. Thus, play signals serve multiple functions during play fighting.

  14. Pasolini's Edipo Re: myth, play, and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The pervasive influence of the Oedipus complex on world culture is a given, yet throughout the long history of motion pictures only one major filmmaker has tackled the literary source that inspired Freud. The film, Edipo Re, directed by Italian poet, novelist, and social and political activist Pier Paolo Pasolini, not only reconstructs the myth and adapts Sophocles' tragedy, but uses both as a basis of cinematic autobiography. This paper is a detailed analysis of the formal, stylistic, and thematic dimensions of this film, illustrating the complex manner in which Pasolini interweaves myth, play, and autobiography into a unique cinematic achievement. This analysis is followed by speculations on the implications of the film's structure and techniques and on what they reveal about Pasolini's character, his sexual profile, and the ignominious murder that ended his life.

  15. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  16. "Bam! We Just Started to Play!"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    their homework. However, in music, the learning outcome in ensemble lessons depends very much on the music skills of all the pupils, and the pupils learn more if everybody has done their homework and is ready to play together. This paper uses empirical data created as a part of a bigger project funded......Pupils in primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark are often encouraged to do their homework in subjects like math and foreign languages. Although some pupils do not always do as they are told, the learning outcome for the 'homeworkers' is not affected by the fact that some do not complete....... The findings from this small part of the project show that the learning platform was used as a framework for linking homework recourses and lessons: teachers uploaded video introductions to a specific rhythm and showed the pupils how to rehearse at home. In the beginning of the lesson, the same videos were...

  17. Synthetic biology - the state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitney, Richard; Freemont, Paul

    2012-07-16

    Just over two years ago there was an article in Nature entitled "Five Hard Truths for Synthetic Biology". Since then, the field has moved on considerably. A number of economic commentators have shown that synthetic biology very significant industrial potential. This paper addresses key issues in relation to the state of play regarding synthetic biology. It first considers the current background to synthetic biology, whether it is a legitimate field and how it relates to foundational biological sciences. The fact that synthetic biology is a translational field is discussed and placed in the context of the industrial translation process. An important aspect of synthetic biology is platform technology, this topic is also discussed in some detail. Finally, examples of application areas are described. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-24

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  19. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.

    2010-01-01

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [de

  20. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.