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Sample records for typing rule-based transformations

  1. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan; Lau, Cheryl; Mü ller, Pascal; Wonka, Peter; Pauly, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  2. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan

    2017-05-24

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  3. Evaluation of Rule-based Modularization in Model Transformation Languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the base of the relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  4. Rule-based modularization in model transformation languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the basis of relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  5. A new type of simplified fuzzy rule-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Plamen; Yager, Ronald

    2012-02-01

    Over the last quarter of a century, two types of fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems dominated, namely Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno type. They use the same type of scalar fuzzy sets defined per input variable in their antecedent part which are aggregated at the inference stage by t-norms or co-norms representing logical AND/OR operations. In this paper, we propose a significantly simplified alternative to define the antecedent part of FRB systems by data Clouds and density distribution. This new type of FRB systems goes further in the conceptual and computational simplification while preserving the best features (flexibility, modularity, and human intelligibility) of its predecessors. The proposed concept offers alternative non-parametric form of the rules antecedents, which fully reflects the real data distribution and does not require any explicit aggregation operations and scalar membership functions to be imposed. Instead, it derives the fuzzy membership of a particular data sample to a Cloud by the data density distribution of the data associated with that Cloud. Contrast this to the clustering which is parametric data space decomposition/partitioning where the fuzzy membership to a cluster is measured by the distance to the cluster centre/prototype ignoring all the data that form that cluster or approximating their distribution. The proposed new approach takes into account fully and exactly the spatial distribution and similarity of all the real data by proposing an innovative and much simplified form of the antecedent part. In this paper, we provide several numerical examples aiming to illustrate the concept.

  6. Typelets - a rule-based evaluation model for dynamic, statically typed user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsman, Martin; Schack-Nielsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present the concept of typelets, a specification technique for dynamic graphical user interfaces (GUIs) based on types. The technique is implemented in a dialect of ML, called MLFi (MLFi is a derivative of OCaml, extended by LexiFi with extensions targeted at the financial industry), which...... specification language allows layout programmers (e.g., end-users) to reorganize layouts in a type-safe way without being allowed to alter the rule machinery. The resulting framework is highly flexible and allows for creating highly maintainable modules. It is used with success in the context of SimCorp's high...

  7. Rule-based Mamdani-type fuzzy modelling of thermal performance of fintube evaporator under frost conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozen Dilek Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost formation brings about insulating effects over the surface of a heat exchanger and thereby deteriorating total heat transfer of the heat exchanger. In this study, a fin-tube evaporator is modeled by making use of Rule-based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF logic where total heat transfer, air inlet temperature of 2 °C to 7 °C and four different fluid speed groups (ua1=1; 1.44; 1.88 m s-1, ua2=2.32; 2.76 m s-1, ua3=3.2; 3.64 m s-1, ua4=4.08; 4.52; 4.96 m s-1 for the evaporator were taken into consideration. In the developed RBMTF system, outlet parameter UA was determined using inlet parameters Ta and ua. The RBMTF was trained and tested by using MATLAB® fuzzy logic toolbox. R2 (% for the training data and test data were found to be 99.91%. With this study, it has been shown that RBMTF model can be reliably used in determination of a total heat transfer of a fin-tube evaporator.

  8. A Cross-Wavelet Transform Aided Rule Based Approach for Early Prediction of Lean Blow-out in Swirl-Stabilized Dump Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debangshu Dey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean or ultralean combustion is one of the popular strategies to achieve very low emission levels. However, it is extremely susceptible to lean blow-out (LBO. The present work explores a Cross-wavelet transform (XWT aided rule based scheme for early prediction of lean blowout. XWT can be considered as an advancement of wavelet analysis which gives correlation between two waveforms in time-frequency space. In the present scheme a swirl-stabilized dump combustor is used as a laboratory-scale model of a generic gas turbine combustor with LPG as fuel. Various time series data of CH chemiluminescence signal are recorded for different flame conditions by varying equivalence ratio, flow rate and level of air-fuel premixing. Some features are extracted from the cross-wavelet spectrum of the recorded waveforms and a reference wave. The extracted features are observed to classify the flame condition into three major classes: near LBO, moderate and healthy. Moreover, a Rough Set based technique is also applied on the extracted features to generate a rule base so that it can be fed to a real time controller or expert system to take necessary control action to prevent LBO. Results show that the proposed methodology performs with an acceptable degree of accuracy.

  9. Transforming Adverse Cognition on the Path of Bhakti: Rule-Based Devotion, “My-Ness,” and the Existential Condition of Bondage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Chilcott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava theologians developed a unique path of Hindu devotion during the 16th century through which an aspirant cultivates a rapturous form of selfless love (premā for Kṛṣṇa, who is recognized as the supreme and personal deity. In the course and consequence of cultivating this selfless love, the recommended practices of devotion are claimed to free one from the basic existential condition of bondage that is of concern for a wide range of South Asian religious and philosophical traditions. One of the principle cognitive tendencies characterizing this condition is to have thoughts and feelings of possessiveness over objects of the world, or what is referred to as the state of “my-ness” (mamatā, e.g., my home, my children, or my wealth. Using the therapeutic model of schema therapy as a heuristic analogue, this article explores the relationship between recommended practices of rule-based devotion (vaidhi-bhakti and the modulation of thoughts and feelings of possessiveness towards mundane objects. I argue that such practices function as learning strategies that can systematically rework and modulate how one relates to and responds to these objects in theologically desirable ways. I conclude by suggesting that connectionist theories of cognition and learning may offer a promising explanatory framework for understanding the dynamics of this kind of relationship.

  10. Power transformers - Part 11: Dry-type transformers

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Applies to dry-type power transformers (including auto-transformers) having values of highest voltage for equipment up to and including 36 kV and at least one winding operating at greater than 1,1 kV. Applies to all construction technologies.

  11. A C++ Class for Rule-Base Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Grenney

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A C++ class, called Tripod, was created as a tool to assist with the development of rule-base decision support systems. The Tripod class contains data structures for the rule-base and member functions for operating on the data. The rule-base is defined by three ASCII files. These files are translated by a preprocessor into a single file that is located when a rule-base object is instantiated. The Tripod class was tested as part of a proto-type decision support system (DSS for winter highway maintenance in the Intermountain West. The DSS is composed of two principal modules: the main program, called the wrapper, and a Tripod rule-base object. The wrapper is a procedural module that interfaces with remote sensors and an external meterological database. The rule-base contains the logic for advising an inexperienced user and for assisting with the decision making process.

  12. Critical Wave Forms in Dry Type Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns critical wave forms in dry type transformers under transient voltage application. A very general approach has been applied, meaning that many of the results will be applicable to various types of power transformers. The results can be very useful if they are combined...... with knowledge of the ageing effects of the insulation. Especially fast transients are likely to become a major issue due to fast breakers and power electronics. In order to perform relevant research in transformer insulation with respect to this subject, fundamental knowledge about the transmission...... and distortion of incoming transients is required. Thus, in this paper it is illustrated how the resulting internal wave forms are affected by different transformer characteristics....

  13. Legendre transformations and Clairaut-type equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Av. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Merzlikin, Boris S., E-mail: merzlikin@tspu.edu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Av. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-10

    It is noted that the Legendre transformations in the standard formulation of quantum field theory have the form of functional Clairaut-type equations. It is shown that in presence of composite fields the Clairaut-type form holds after loop corrections are taken into account. A new solution to the functional Clairaut-type equation appearing in field theories with composite fields is found.

  14. Rule based systems for big data a machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Han; Cocea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The ideas introduced in this book explore the relationships among rule based systems, machine learning and big data. Rule based systems are seen as a special type of expert systems, which can be built by using expert knowledge or learning from real data. The book focuses on the development and evaluation of rule based systems in terms of accuracy, efficiency and interpretability. In particular, a unified framework for building rule based systems, which consists of the operations of rule generation, rule simplification and rule representation, is presented. Each of these operations is detailed using specific methods or techniques. In addition, this book also presents some ensemble learning frameworks for building ensemble rule based systems.

  15. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  16. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  17. Parseval-Type Relations for Laplace Transform and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, S.; Maceli, J.; Rogala, M.; Yurekli, O.

    2008-01-01

    In the present note, two Parseval-type relations involving the Laplace transform are given. The application of the relations is demonstrated in evaluating improper integrals and Laplace transforms of trigonometric functions.

  18. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Diagnose Influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Akter, Shamima

    2014-01-01

    , development and application of an expert system to diagnose influenza under uncertainty. The recently developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using the evidential reasoning (RIMER) approach is employed to develop this expert system, termed as Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES......). The RIMER approach can handle different types of uncertainties, both in knowledge representation, and in inference procedures. The knowledge-base of this system was constructed by using records of the real patient data along with in consultation with the Influenza specialists of Bangladesh. Practical case...

  19. Tesla-transformer-type electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinliang; Zhong Huihuang; Tan Qimei; Li Chuanlu; Zhang Jiande

    2002-01-01

    An electron-beam Tesla-transformer accelerator is described. It consists of the primary storage energy system. Tesla transformer, oil Blumlein pulse form line, and the vacuum diode. The experiments of initial stage showed that diode voltage rises up to about 500 kV with an input of 20 kV and the maximum electron-beam current is about 9 kA, the pulse width is about 50 ns. This device can operate stably and be set up easily

  20. Rule-based decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirola, Miki

    1998-01-01

    A rule-based decision making model is designed in G2 environment. A theoretical and methodological frame for the model is composed and motivated. The rule-based decision making model is based on object-oriented modelling, knowledge engineering and decision theory. The idea of safety objective tree is utilized. Advanced rule-based methodologies are applied. A general decision making model 'decision element' is constructed. The strategy planning of the decision element is based on e.g. value theory and utility theory. A hypothetical process model is built to give input data for the decision element. The basic principle of the object model in decision making is division in tasks. Probability models are used in characterizing component availabilities. Bayes' theorem is used to recalculate the probability figures when new information is got. The model includes simple learning features to save the solution path. A decision analytic interpretation is given to the decision making process. (author)

  1. Transformational Leadership Type in Public and Private Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue concerning leadership is a very complex one, that is why taking into the account theplurity of styles already existent many times it was asked the questions: „What type of leadership isnecessary?”. By asking this question, we are thinking of a person responsible with organizing or coordinatingwork or the ones hired to do this, to think of what people want, to solve the management problems in group.This study is intended as a comparison of the two types of leadership (transformational vs. transactional interms of employee performance in public and private organizations. To measure performance and chose twoindicators: satisfaction and productivity. This study falls into the category of research studies the type ofdriving through subordinates with both theoretical and practical implications. The efficiency of this type ofleadership has been demonstrated by studies especially in the political and military and very few studies havebeen made in industrial .Type of transformational leadership is better than transactional perceived astransformational leaders are closer to the needs of employees and continuously investigate these necessities.This paper presents a practical validity as advising managers to develop a transformational type of leadership,both public and private organizations, leads to better performance. Also open new avenues of research,among which we can mention: study the impact of organizational culture on the adoption of transformationaltype vs transactional type; decision-making mechanisms in the type of transformational leadership; initiatetraining programs to develop a transformational type of leadership.

  2. Personalization of Rule-based Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Han, Sang Yong

    2008-04-04

    Nowadays Web users have clearly expressed their wishes to receive personalized services directly. Personalization is the way to tailor services directly to the immediate requirements of the user. However, the current Web Services System does not provide any features supporting this such as consideration of personalization of services and intelligent matchmaking. In this research a flexible, personalized Rule-based Web Services System to address these problems and to enable efficient search, discovery and construction across general Web documents and Semantic Web documents in a Web Services System is proposed. This system utilizes matchmaking among service requesters', service providers' and users' preferences using a Rule-based Search Method, and subsequently ranks search results. A prototype of efficient Web Services search and construction for the suggested system is developed based on the current work.

  3. Uncertain rule-based fuzzy systems introduction and new directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry M

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook provides a fully updated approach to fuzzy sets and systems that can model uncertainty — i.e., “type-2” fuzzy sets and systems. The author demonstrates how to overcome the limitations of classical fuzzy sets and systems, enabling a wide range of applications from time-series forecasting to knowledge mining to control. In this new edition, a bottom-up approach is presented that begins by introducing classical (type-1) fuzzy sets and systems, and then explains how they can be modified to handle uncertainty. The author covers fuzzy rule-based systems – from type-1 to interval type-2 to general type-2 – in one volume. For hands-on experience, the book provides information on accessing MatLab and Java software to complement the content. The book features a full suite of classroom material. Presents fully updated material on new breakthroughs in human-inspired rule-based techniques for handling real-world uncertainties; Allows those already familiar with type-1 fuzzy se...

  4. The Design Space of Type Checkers for XML Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    We survey work on statically type checking XML transformations, covering a wide range of notations and ambitions. The concept of type may vary from idealizations of DTD to full-blown XML Schema or even more expressive formalisms. The notion of transformation may vary from clean and simple...... transductions to domain-specific languages or integration of XML in general-purpose programming languages. Type annotations can be either explicit or implicit, and type checking ranges from exact decidability to pragmatic approximations. We characterize and evaluate existing tools in this design space......, including a recent result of the authors providing practical type checking of full unannotated XSLT 1.0 stylesheets given general DTDs that describe the input and output languages....

  5. The Complementary Hankel Type Transformations Of Arbitrary Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Waphare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper four self-reciprocal integral transformations of Hankel type are defined. The simultaneous use of trans-formations H1,α,β and H2,α,β (which are denoted by Hα,β allows us to solve many problems of Mathematical Physics involving the differential operator ∆α,β= D2+4αx−1D, whereas the pair of transformations H3,α,β and H4,α,β (which we express by Hα,β permits us to tackle those problems containing its adjoint operator, no matter what the real value of α − β be. These transformations are also investigated in a space of generalized functions according to the mixed Parseval equation.

  6. The mirror transform of type I vacua in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.; Sethi, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study certain compactifications of the type I string on K3. The three topologically distinct choices of gauge bundles for the type I theory are shown to be equivalent to type IIB orientifolds with different choices of background anti-symmetric tensor field flux. Using a mirror transformation we relate these models to orientifolds with fixed seven planes, and without any anti-symmetric tensor field flux. This map allows us to relate these type I vacua to particular six-dimensional F-theory and heterotic string compactifications. (orig.)

  7. Exhaustive Weakly Wandering Sequences and Alpha-type Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Eigen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing sequence of integers, $\\mathbb{B}$, is given for which there exists a family of ergodic, infinite measure preserving transformations $T_\\alpha$, $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ so that (1 $T_\\alpha$ is of $\\alpha$-type and (2 $\\mathbb{B}$ is an exhaustive weakly wandering sequence for each $T_\\alpha$.

  8. On the Laplace transform of the Weinberg type sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1981-09-01

    We consider the Laplace transform of various sum rules of the Weinberg type including the leading non-perturbative effects. We show from the third type Weinberg sum rules that 7.5 to 8.9 1 coupling to the W boson, while the second sum rule gives an upper bound on the A 1 mass (Msub(A 1 ) < or approx. 1.25 GeV). (author)

  9. Rule based deterioration identification and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, S.; Pavinich, W.; Lapides, M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of IHI and EPRI, a rule-based screening system has been developed that can be used by utility engineers to determine which deterioration mechanisms are acting on specific LWR components, and to evaluate the efficacy of an age-related deterioration management program. The screening system was developed using the rule-based shell, NEXPERT, which provides traceability to the data sources used in the logic development. The system addresses all the deterioration mechanisms of specific metals encountered in either BWRs or PWRs. Deterioration mechanisms are listed with reasons why they may occur during the design life of LWRs, considering the plant environment, manufacturing process, service history, material chemical composition, etc. of components in a specific location of a LWR. To eliminate the evaluation of inactive deterioration quickly, a tier structure is applied to the rules. The reasons why deterioration will occur are extracted automatically by backward chaining. To reduce the amount of user input, plant environmental data are stored in files as default environmental data. (author)

  10. An application to H2+ of Laplace type integral transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primorac, M.; Kovacevic, K.

    1985-01-01

    Laplace type integral transformation (LIT) has been applied to wavefunctions. The effect of the inverse transform is also discussed. LIT wavefunctions are tested in the calculation of the ground-state energy of H 2 + , where the untransformed functions were 1s, 12s, 123s and 1234s-STO. The results presented here show that LIT wavefunctions are applicable in molecular computations. The analytical formulae for two-centre one-electron integrals over LIT wavefunctions are derived by use of a Barnett-Coulson-like expansion of rsub(b)sup(N)(rsub(b)+p)sup(-ν). (orig.)

  11. High-pressure phase transformations of fluorite-type dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin-Gun Liu

    1980-01-01

    Phase transformations in six fluorite-type dioxides ('TbO 2 ', PbO 2 , 'PrO 2 ', CeO 2 , UO 2 and ThO 2 in the order of increasing cation size, where the quotation marks indicate non-stoichiometric materials) have been investigated in the diamond-anvil press coupled with laser heating. Together with earlier work, the results show that the post-fluorite phase transformations of these dioxides fall into two groups. The smaller cation group (HfO 2 , ZrO 2 and 'TbO 2 ') transforms to a cotunnite or a distorted cotunnite-type structure at pressures in the vicinity of 100 kbar and at about 1000 0 C. The larger cation group (from PbO 2 to ThO 2 ) is believed to transform to a different type of orthorhombic modification at high pressures. It is plausible that this high-pressure phase may possess a Ni 2 Si-related structure, as was observed in ThO 2 and 'PrO 2 ' at pressures greater than 150 and 200 kbar, respectively. (orig./ME)

  12. Rule-based conversion of closely-related languages: a Dutch-to-Afrikaans convertor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available and performance of a rule-based Dutch-to-Afrikaans converter, with the aim to transform Dutch text so that it looks more like an Afrikaans text (even though it might not even be a good Dutch translation). The rules we used is based on systematic orthographic...

  13. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  14. Genetic Programming for the Generation of Crisp and Fuzzy Rule Bases in Classification and Diagnosis of Medical Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dounias, George; Tsakonas, Athanasios; Jantzen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two methodologies for the construction of rule-based systems in medical decision making. The first approach consists of a method combining genetic programming and heuristic hierarchical rule-base construction. The second model is composed by a strongly-typed genetic...

  15. ANNSVM: A Novel Method for Graph-Type Classification by Utilization of Fourier Transformation, Wavelet Transformation, and Hough Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Kanjanawattana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Image classification plays a vital role in many areas of study, such as data mining and image processing; however, serious problems collectively referred to as the course of dimensionality have been encountered in previous studies as factors that reduce system performance. Furthermore, we also confront the problem of different graph characteristics even if graphs belong to same types. In this study, we propose a novel method of graph-type classification. Using our approach, we open up a new solution of high-dimensional images and address problems of different characteristics by converting graph images to one dimension with a discrete Fourier transformation and creating numeric datasets using wavelet and Hough transformations. Moreover, we introduce a new classifier, which is a combination between artificial neuron networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVMs, which we call ANNSVM, to enhance accuracy. The objectives of our study are to propose an effective graph-type classification method that includes finding a new data representative used for classification instead of two-dimensional images and to investigate what features make our data separable. To evaluate the method of our study, we conducted five experiments with different methods and datasets. The input dataset we focused on was a numeric dataset containing wavelet coefficients and outputs of a Hough transformation. From our experimental results, we observed that the highest accuracy was provided using our method with Coiflet 1, which achieved a 0.91 accuracy.

  16. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  17. A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid

    2007-10-01

    Aphasia diagnosis is a particularly challenging medical diagnostic task due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. To efficiently address this diagnostic process, a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based structure is proposed here that considers the effect of different features of aphasia by statistical analysis in its construction. This approach can be efficient for diagnosis of aphasia and possibly other medical diagnostic applications due to its fuzzy and hierarchical reasoning construction. Initially, the symptoms of the disease which each consists of different features are analyzed statistically. The measured statistical parameters from the training set are then used to define membership functions and the fuzzy rules. The resulting two-layered fuzzy rule-based system is then compared with a back propagating feed-forward neural network for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. In order to reduce the number of required inputs, the technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech tests. Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy.

  18. Modeling and analysis on ring-type piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shine-Tzong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an electromechanical model for a ring-type piezoelectric transformer (PT). To establish this model, vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric ring with free boundary conditions are analyzed in advance. Based on the vibration analysis of the piezoelectric ring, the operating frequency and vibration mode of the PT are chosen. Then, electromechanical equations of motion for the PT are derived based on Hamilton's principle, which can be used to simulate the coupled electromechanical system for the transformer. Such as voltage stepup ratio, input impedance, output impedance, input power, output power, and efficiency are calculated by the equations. The optimal load resistance and the maximum efficiency for the PT will be presented in this paper. Experiments also were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis, and a good agreement was obtained.

  19. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  20. A rule-based software test data generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  1. Integrated Case Based and Rule Based Reasoning for Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Azeb Bekele

    2009-01-01

    This project is a continuation of my specialization project which was focused on studying theoretical concepts related to case based reasoning method, rule based reasoning method and integration of them. The integration of rule-based and case-based reasoning methods has shown a substantial improvement with regards to performance over the individual methods. Verdande Technology As wants to try integrating the rule based reasoning method with an existing case based system. This project focu...

  2. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Aminifar, Sadegh; bin Marzuki, Arjuna

    2013-01-01

    Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal...

  3. Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), The highest control layer of a (hybrid) vehicular drive train is termed the Energy Management Strategy (EMS). In this paper an overview of different control methods is given and a new rule-based EMS is introduced based on the combination of Rule-Based

  4. Constructing rule-based models using the belief functions framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Denoeux, T.; Kaymak, U.; Greco, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Coletti, G.; Fedrizzi, M.; Matarazzo, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We study a new approach to regression analysis. We propose a new rule-based regression model using the theoretical framework of belief functions. For this purpose we use the recently proposed Evidential c-means (ECM) to derive rule-based models solely from data. ECM allocates, for each

  5. A Fuzzy Rule-based Controller For Automotive Vehicle Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hessburg, Thomas; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based controller is applied to lateral guidance of a vehicle for an automated highway system. The fuzzy rules, based on human drivers' experiences, are developed to track the center of a lane in the presence of external disturbances and over a range of vehicle operating conditions.

  6. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...

  7. A Belief Rule-Based (BRB) Decision Support System for Assessing Clinical Asthma Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Hossain, Emran; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2014-01-01

    conditions of uncertainty. The Belief Rule-Based Inference Methodology Using the Evidential Reasoning (RIMER) approach was adopted to develop this expert system; which is named the Belief Rule-Based Expert System (BRBES). The system can handle various types of uncertainty in knowledge representation...... and inference procedures. The knowledge base of this system was constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion. Practical case studies were used to validate the system. The system-generated results are more effective and reliable in terms of accuracy than the results generated by a manual system....

  8. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Mental Disorder under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Afif Monrat, Ahmed; Hasan, Mamun

    2016-01-01

    to ignorance, incompleteness, and randomness. So, a belief rule-based expert system (BRBES) has been designed and developed with the capability of handling the uncertainties mentioned. Evidential reasoning works as the inference engine and the belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema......Mental disorder is a change of mental or behavioral pattern that causes sufferings and impairs the ability to function in ordinary life. In psychopathology, the assessment methods of mental disorder contain various types of uncertainties associated with signs and symptoms. This study identifies...

  9. Using Rule-Based Computer Programming to Unify Communication Rules Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, David L.; Roach, J. W.

    This paper proposes the use of a rule-based computer programming language as a standard for the expression of rules, arguing that the adoption of a standard would enable researchers to communicate about rules in a consistent and significant way. Focusing on the formal equivalence of artificial intelligence (AI) programming to different types of…

  10. Knowledge rule base for the beam optics program TRACE 3-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Van Staagen, P.K.; Hill, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system type of knowledge rule base has been developed for the input parameters used by the particle beam transport program TRACE 3-D. The goal has been to provide the program's user with adequate on-screen information to allow him to initially set up a problem with minimal open-quotes off-lineclose quotes calculations. The focus of this work has been in developing rules for the parameters which define the beam line transport elements. Ten global parameters, the particle mass and charge, beam energy, etc., are used to provide open-quotes expertclose quotes estimates of lower and upper limits for each of the transport element parameters. For example, the limits for the field strength of the quadrupole element are based on a water-cooled, iron-core electromagnet with dimensions derived from practical engineering constraints, and the upper limit for the effective length is scaled with the particle momenta so that initially parallel trajectories do not cross the axis inside the magnet. Limits for the quadrupole doublet and triplet parameters incorporate these rules and additional rules based on stable FODO lattices and bidirectional focusing requirements. The structure of the rule base is outlined and examples for the quadrupole singlet, doublet and triplet are described. The rule base has been implemented within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) graphical user interface (GUI)

  11. Rule-based category learning in children: the role of age and executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Rabi

    Full Text Available Rule-based category learning was examined in 4-11 year-olds and adults. Participants were asked to learn a set of novel perceptual categories in a classification learning task. Categorization performance improved with age, with younger children showing the strongest rule-based deficit relative to older children and adults. Model-based analyses provided insight regarding the type of strategy being used to solve the categorization task, demonstrating that the use of the task appropriate strategy increased with age. When children and adults who identified the correct categorization rule were compared, the performance deficit was no longer evident. Executive functions were also measured. While both working memory and inhibitory control were related to rule-based categorization and improved with age, working memory specifically was found to marginally mediate the age-related improvements in categorization. When analyses focused only on the sample of children, results showed that working memory ability and inhibitory control were associated with categorization performance and strategy use. The current findings track changes in categorization performance across childhood, demonstrating at which points performance begins to mature and resemble that of adults. Additionally, findings highlight the potential role that working memory and inhibitory control may play in rule-based category learning.

  12. An optimized formulation for Deprit-type Lie transformations of Taylor maps for symplectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jicong

    1993-01-01

    An optimized iterative formulation is presented for directly transforming a Taylor map of a symplectic system into a Deprit-type Lie transformation, which is a composition of a linear transfer matrix and a single Lie transformation, to an arbitrary order

  13. Regeneration ability and genetic transformation of root type chicory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This simple, efficient and reproducible protocol could be useful for inducing somaclonal variation and genetic modification of root chicory cultivars to broaden genetic variation and transferring of important genes. Keywords: Chicory, regeneration, transformation, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ...

  14. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  15. Enhancing reliable online transaction with intelligent rule-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing reliable online transaction with intelligent rule-based fraud detection technique. ... These are with a bid to reducing amongst other things the cost of production and also dissuade the poor handling of Nigeria currency. The CBN pronouncement has necessitated the upsurge in transactions completed with credit ...

  16. Rule-based emergency action level monitor prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.; Gunter, A.D.; Cain, D.

    1985-01-01

    In late 1983, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a program to encourage and stimulate the development of artificial intelligence (AI) applications for the nuclear industry. Development of a rule-based emergency action level classification system prototype is discussed. The paper describes both the full prototype currently under development and the completed, simplified prototype

  17. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Polivaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  18. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Aminifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal and vertical rule bases method has a great roll in easing of extracting the optimum control surface by using too lesser rules than traditional fuzzy systems. This research involves with control of a system with high nonlinearity and in difficulty to model it with classical methods. As a case study for testing proposed method in real condition, the designed controller is applied to steaming room with uncertain data and variable parameters. A comparison between PID and traditional fuzzy counterpart and our proposed system shows that our proposed system outperforms PID and traditional fuzzy systems in point of view of number of valve switching and better surface following. The evaluations have done both with model simulation and DSP implementation.

  19. Design of space-type electronic power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, J. F.; Lagadinos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Both open and encapsulated varieties of high reliability, low weight, and high efficiency moderate and high voltage transformers were investigated to determine the advantages and limitations of their construction in the ranges of power and voltage required for operation in the hard vacuum environment of space. Topics covered include: (1) selection of the core material; (2) preliminary calculation of core dimensions; (3) selection of insulating materials including magnet wire insulation, coil forms, and layer and interwinding insulation; (4) coil design; (5) calculation of copper losses, core losses and efficiency; (6) calculation of temperature rise; and (7) optimization of design with changes in core selection or coil design as required to meet specifications.

  20. Effect of rare earth cations on activity of type Y zeolites in ethylene transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezhnova, G.N.; Zhavoronkov, M.N.; Dorogochinskij, A.Z.; Proskurin, A.L.; Shmailova, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The ethylene transformations on type Y rare earth zeolites with high degrees of sodium exchange are studied. It is shown that rare earth cations increase zeolites activity with growth of electronoacceptor capacity. The ethylene oligomerization occurs on polyvalent cations while subsequent oligomer transformations - on hydroxyl groups of zeolites

  1. Analysis of very fast transients in layer-type transformer windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Sluis, van der L.; Smeets, R.; Lopez Roldan, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement, modeling, and simulation of very fast transient overvoltages in layer-type distribution transformer windings. Measurements were performed by applying a step impulse with 50-ns rise time on a single-phase test transformer equipped with measuring points along the

  2. Solution of fractional kinetic equation by a class of integral transform of pathway type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2013-04-01

    Solutions of fractional kinetic equations are obtained through an integral transform named Pα-transform introduced in this paper. The Pα-transform is a binomial type transform containing many class of transforms including the well known Laplace transform. The paper is motivated by the idea of pathway model introduced by Mathai [Linear Algebra Appl. 396, 317-328 (2005), 10.1016/j.laa.2004.09.022]. The composition of the transform with differential and integral operators are proved along with convolution theorem. As an illustration of applications to the general theory of differential equations, a simple differential equation is solved by the new transform. Being a new transform, the Pα-transform of some elementary functions as well as some generalized special functions such as H-function, G-function, Wright generalized hypergeometric function, generalized hypergeometric function, and Mittag-Leffler function are also obtained. The results for the classical Laplace transform is retrieved by letting α → 1.

  3. A rule-based smart automated fertilization and irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Musab El-Rashid; Ghafar, Khairuddin; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo

    2018-04-01

    Smart automation in industries has become very important as it can improve the reliability and efficiency of the systems. The use of smart technologies in agriculture have increased over the year to ensure and control the production of crop and address food security. However, it is important to use proper irrigation systems avoid water wastage and overfeeding of the plant. In this paper, a Smart Rule-based Automated Fertilization and Irrigation System is proposed and evaluated. We propose a rule based decision making algorithm to monitor and control the food supply to the plant and the soil quality. A build-in alert system is also used to update the farmer using a text message. The system is developed and evaluated using a real hardware.

  4. GRAMMAR RULE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL MODEL FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nadana Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though Information Retrieval (IR in big data has been an active field of research for past few years; the popularity of the native languages presents a unique challenge in big data information retrieval systems. There is a need to retrieve information which is present in English and display it in the native language for users. This aim of cross language information retrieval is complicated by unique features of the native languages such as: morphology, compound word formations, word spelling variations, ambiguity, word synonym, other language influence and etc. To overcome some of these issues, the native language is modeled using a grammar rule based approach in this work. The advantage of this approach is that the native language is modeled and its unique features are encoded using a set of inference rules. This rule base coupled with the customized ontological system shows considerable potential and is found to show better precision and recall.

  5. Designing Fuzzy Rule Based Expert System for Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The state of cyber security has begun to attract more attention and interest outside the community of computer security experts. Cyber security is not a single problem, but rather a group of highly different problems involving different sets of threats. Fuzzy Rule based system for cyber security is a system consists of a rule depository and a mechanism for accessing and running the rules. The depository is usually constructed with a collection of related rule sets. The aim of this study is to...

  6. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  7. Guidelines for visualizing and annotating rule-based models†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Hu, Bin; Blinov, Michael L.; Emonet, Thierry; Faeder, James R.; Goldstein, Byron; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Haugh, Jason M.; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Posner, Richard G.; Yang, Jin; Hlavacek, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Rule-based modeling provides a means to represent cell signaling systems in a way that captures site-specific details of molecular interactions. For rule-based models to be more widely understood and (re)used, conventions for model visualization and annotation are needed. We have developed the concepts of an extended contact map and a model guide for illustrating and annotating rule-based models. An extended contact map represents the scope of a model by providing an illustration of each molecule, molecular component, direct physical interaction, post-translational modification, and enzyme-substrate relationship considered in a model. A map can also illustrate allosteric effects, structural relationships among molecular components, and compartmental locations of molecules. A model guide associates elements of a contact map with annotation and elements of an underlying model, which may be fully or partially specified. A guide can also serve to document the biological knowledge upon which a model is based. We provide examples of a map and guide for a published rule-based model that characterizes early events in IgE receptor (FcεRI) signaling. We also provide examples of how to visualize a variety of processes that are common in cell signaling systems but not considered in the example model, such as ubiquitination. An extended contact map and an associated guide can document knowledge of a cell signaling system in a form that is visual as well as executable. As a tool for model annotation, a map and guide can communicate the content of a model clearly and with precision, even for large models. PMID:21647530

  8. Guidelines for visualizing and annotating rule-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A; Hu, Bin; Blinov, Michael L; Emonet, Thierry; Faeder, James R; Goldstein, Byron; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Haugh, Jason M; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Posner, Richard G; Yang, Jin; Hlavacek, William S

    2011-10-01

    Rule-based modeling provides a means to represent cell signaling systems in a way that captures site-specific details of molecular interactions. For rule-based models to be more widely understood and (re)used, conventions for model visualization and annotation are needed. We have developed the concepts of an extended contact map and a model guide for illustrating and annotating rule-based models. An extended contact map represents the scope of a model by providing an illustration of each molecule, molecular component, direct physical interaction, post-translational modification, and enzyme-substrate relationship considered in a model. A map can also illustrate allosteric effects, structural relationships among molecular components, and compartmental locations of molecules. A model guide associates elements of a contact map with annotation and elements of an underlying model, which may be fully or partially specified. A guide can also serve to document the biological knowledge upon which a model is based. We provide examples of a map and guide for a published rule-based model that characterizes early events in IgE receptor (FcεRI) signaling. We also provide examples of how to visualize a variety of processes that are common in cell signaling systems but not considered in the example model, such as ubiquitination. An extended contact map and an associated guide can document knowledge of a cell signaling system in a form that is visual as well as executable. As a tool for model annotation, a map and guide can communicate the content of a model clearly and with precision, even for large models.

  9. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  10. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  11. Connecting clinical and actuarial prediction with rule-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Marjolein; Smits, Niels; Kelderman, Henk; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analyses comparing the accuracy of clinical versus actuarial prediction have shown actuarial methods to outperform clinical methods, on average. However, actuarial methods are still not widely used in clinical practice, and there has been a call for the development of actuarial prediction methods for clinical practice. We argue that rule-based methods may be more useful than the linear main effect models usually employed in prediction studies, from a data and decision analytic as well as a practical perspective. In addition, decision rules derived with rule-based methods can be represented as fast and frugal trees, which, unlike main effects models, can be used in a sequential fashion, reducing the number of cues that have to be evaluated before making a prediction. We illustrate the usability of rule-based methods by applying RuleFit, an algorithm for deriving decision rules for classification and regression problems, to a dataset on prediction of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders from Penninx et al. (2011). The RuleFit algorithm provided a model consisting of 2 simple decision rules, requiring evaluation of only 2 to 4 cues. Predictive accuracy of the 2-rule model was very similar to that of a logistic regression model incorporating 20 predictor variables, originally applied to the dataset. In addition, the 2-rule model required, on average, evaluation of only 3 cues. Therefore, the RuleFit algorithm appears to be a promising method for creating decision tools that are less time consuming and easier to apply in psychological practice, and with accuracy comparable to traditional actuarial methods. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  13. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  14. Two new supersymmetric equations of Harry Dym type and their supersymmetric reciprocal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Kai; Liu, Q.P.

    2012-01-01

    A new N=1 supersymmetric Harry Dym equation is constructed by applying supersymmetric reciprocal transformation to a trivial supersymmetric Harry Dym equation, and its recursion operator and Lax formulation are also obtained. Within the framework of symmetry approach, a class of 3rd order supersymmetric equations of Harry Dym type are considered. In addition to five known integrable equations, a new supersymmetric equation, admitting 5th order generalized symmetry, is shown to be linearizable through supersymmetric reciprocal transformation. Furthermore, its Lax representation and recursion operator are given so that the integrability of this new equation is confirmed. -- Highlights: ► A new supersymmetric Harry Dym equation is constructed through supersymmetric reciprocal transformations. ► The recursion operator and Lax formulation are established for the new supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. ► A supersymmetric equation of Harry Dym type is shown to be linearized through supersymmetric reciprocal transformation.

  15. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  16. Phenotypic characterization of adenovirus type 12 temperature-sensitive mutants in productive infection and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, S; Kimura, G

    1980-01-01

    Eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of adenovirus type 12, capable of forming plaques in human cells at 33 C but not at 39.5 C, were isolated from a stock of a wild-type strain after treatment with either nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. Complementation tests in doubly infected human cells permitted a tentative assignment of eight of these mutants to six complementation groups. Temperature-shift experiments revealed that one mutant is affected early and most of the other mutants are affected late. Only the early mutant, H12ts505, was temperature sensitive in viral DNA replication. Infectious virions of all the mutants except H12ts505 and two of the late mutants produced at 33 C, appeared to be more heat labile than those of the wild type. Only H12ts505 was temperature sensitive for the establishment of transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. One of the late mutants (H12ts504) had an increased transforming ability at the permissive temperature. Results of temperature-shift transformation experiments suggest that a viral function affected in H12ts505 is required for "initiation" of transformation. Some of the growth properties of H12ts505-transformed cells were also temperature dependent, suggesting that a functional expression of a gene mutation in H12ts505 is required to maintain at least some aspects of the transformed state.

  17. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  18. Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)

  19. Rule-based detection of intrathoracic airway trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonka, M.; Park, W.; Hoffman, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    New sensitive and reliable methods for assessing alterations in regional lung structure and function are critically important for the investigation and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Accurate identification of the airway tree will provide an assessment of airway structure and will provide a means by which multiple volumetric images of the lung at the same lung volume over time can be used to assess regional parenchymal changes. The authors describe a novel rule-based method for the segmentation of airway trees from three-dimensional (3-D) sets of computed tomography (CT) images, and its validation. The presented method takes advantage of a priori anatomical knowledge about pulmonary airway and vascular trees and their interrelationships. The method is based on a combination of 3-D seeded region growing that is used to identify large airways, rule-based two-dimensional (2-D) segmentation of individual CT slices to identify probable locations of smaller diameter airways, and merging of airway regions across the 3-D set of slices resulting in a tree-like airway structure. The method was validated in 40 3-mm-thick CT sections from five data sets of canine lungs scanned via electron beam CT in vivo with lung volume held at a constant pressure. The method's performance was compared with that of the conventional 3-D region growing method. The method substantially outperformed an existing conventional approach to airway tree detection

  20. Analysis on current limiting characteristics of a transformer type SFCL with two triggering current levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung-Hun; Ko, Seckcheol; Han, Tae-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We suggested the transformer type SFCL with two triggering current levels. ► The short-circuit tests for the suggested SFCL was executed. ► The fault angle as the fault conditions to verify its operation was selected. ► The usefulness of the suggested SFCL was confirmed through the short-circuit test. -- Abstract: In this paper, the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two triggering current levels was suggested and its current limiting characteristics were analyzed. The structure of the suggested transformer type SFCL with two triggering current levels largely consists of two parts. One is the transformer with two magnetically coupled coils, which correspond to the primary winding and the secondary one connected with one high-T C superconducting (HTSC) element. The other is third coil, or, another secondary winding with one HTSC element, which is wound on the same iron core together with two coils. This suggested transformer type SFCL can limit the fault current by generating its limiting impedance with two different amplitudes, which are dependent on the initial amplitude of the fault current in case of the fault occurrence. To confirm the usefulness of the proposed SFCL, the current limiting tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle, one of the effective fault conditions to affect the amplitude of the initial fault current, were carried out and its effective limiting operations were discussed

  1. Integrable relativistic Toda type lattice hierarchies, associated coupling systems and the Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxiang; Xu Xixiang; Sun Yepeng; Ding Haiyong

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a discrete isospectral problem, integrable positive and negative relativistic Toda type lattice hierarchies are derived. The two lattice hierarchies are proven to have discrete zero-curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, and the positive and negative lattice hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. The integrable positive and negative coupling systems of the resulting hierarchies are constructed through enlarging Lax pairs. In addition, with the help of gauge transformations of spectral problems, a Darboux transformation is established for the relativistic Toda type lattice. As an application, an exact solution is explicitly presented

  2. Comments on Georgeff's Transformation and Reduction Strategies for Typed Lambda Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1986-01-01

    In his recent paper, Georgeff [1] considers the evaluation of lambda expres sions (with reducing reflexive types) on a variant of Landin's SECD machine. It is observed that for so-called simple expressions the SECD machine will construct stack-like environment structures, whereas, in general......, they are tree-like. Georgeff then explores the idea of transforming any (typed) lambda expression into simple form and then using the SECD machine for these expressions. However, such transformations might be undesirable if the language is going to be interpreted directly. This leads Georgeff to modify the SECD...

  3. Analytical calculation of detailed model parameters of cast resin dry-type transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamian, M.; Vahidi, B.; Hosseinian, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this paper high frequency behavior of cast resin dry-type transformers was simulated. → Parameters of detailed model were calculated using analytical method and compared with FEM results. → A lab transformer was constructed in order to compare theoretical and experimental results. -- Abstract: Non-flammable characteristic of cast resin dry-type transformers make them suitable for different kind of usages. This paper presents an analytical method of how to obtain parameters of detailed model of these transformers. The calculated parameters are compared and verified with the corresponding FEM results and if it was necessary, correction factors are introduced for modification of the analytical solutions. Transient voltages under full and chopped test impulses are calculated using the obtained detailed model. In order to validate the model, a setup was constructed for testing on high-voltage winding of cast resin dry-type transformer. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data measured from FRA and impulse tests.

  4. Transformation of benzophenone-type UV filters by chlorine: Kinetics, products identification and toxicity assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Ma, Li-yun; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorination kinetics of three benzophenone-type UV filters (BPs) was studied. • Chlorination of BPs followed second-order reaction. • The transformation products (TPs) of six BPs were identified. • Several transformation pathways were proposed. • Mostly enhanced toxicity of TPs after chlorination was observed. - Abstract: The present study focused on the kinetics, transformation pathways and toxicity of several benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters (BPs) during the water chlorination disinfection process. The transformation kinetics of the studied three BPs was found to be second-order reaction, which was dependent on the concentration of BPs and chlorine. The second-order rate constants increased from 86.7 to 975 M"−"1 s"−"1 for oxybenzone, 49.6–261.7 M"−"1 s"−"1 for 4-hydroxybenzophenone and 51.7–540 M"−"1 s"−"1 for 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid with the increasing pH value from 6 to 8 of the chlorination disinfection condition. Then the transformation products (TPs) of these BPs were identified by HPLC-QTof analysis. Several transformation pathways, including electrophilic substitution, methoxyl substitution, ketone groups oxidation, hydrolysis, decarboxylation and ring cleavage reaction, were speculated to participate in the chlorination transformation process. Finally, according to the toxicity experiment on luminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, enhanced toxicity was observed for almost all the TPs of the studied BPs except for 2,2′-dihydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxybenzophenone; it suggested the formation of TPs with more toxic than the parent compounds during the chlorination process. The present study provided a foundation to understand the transformation of BPs during chlorination disinfection process, and was of great significance to the drinking water safety.

  5. Transformation of benzophenone-type UV filters by chlorine: Kinetics, products identification and toxicity assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Ma, Li-yun; Xu, Li, E-mail: xulpharm@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Chlorination kinetics of three benzophenone-type UV filters (BPs) was studied. • Chlorination of BPs followed second-order reaction. • The transformation products (TPs) of six BPs were identified. • Several transformation pathways were proposed. • Mostly enhanced toxicity of TPs after chlorination was observed. - Abstract: The present study focused on the kinetics, transformation pathways and toxicity of several benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters (BPs) during the water chlorination disinfection process. The transformation kinetics of the studied three BPs was found to be second-order reaction, which was dependent on the concentration of BPs and chlorine. The second-order rate constants increased from 86.7 to 975 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} for oxybenzone, 49.6–261.7 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} for 4-hydroxybenzophenone and 51.7–540 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} for 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid with the increasing pH value from 6 to 8 of the chlorination disinfection condition. Then the transformation products (TPs) of these BPs were identified by HPLC-QTof analysis. Several transformation pathways, including electrophilic substitution, methoxyl substitution, ketone groups oxidation, hydrolysis, decarboxylation and ring cleavage reaction, were speculated to participate in the chlorination transformation process. Finally, according to the toxicity experiment on luminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, enhanced toxicity was observed for almost all the TPs of the studied BPs except for 2,2′-dihydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxybenzophenone; it suggested the formation of TPs with more toxic than the parent compounds during the chlorination process. The present study provided a foundation to understand the transformation of BPs during chlorination disinfection process, and was of great significance to the drinking water safety.

  6. Rule-based land cover classification from very high-resolution satellite image with multiresolution segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Enamul; Al-Ramadan, Baqer; Johnson, Brian A.

    2016-07-01

    Multiresolution segmentation and rule-based classification techniques are used to classify objects from very high-resolution satellite images of urban areas. Custom rules are developed using different spectral, geometric, and textural features with five scale parameters, which exploit varying classification accuracy. Principal component analysis is used to select the most important features out of a total of 207 different features. In particular, seven different object types are considered for classification. The overall classification accuracy achieved for the rule-based method is 95.55% and 98.95% for seven and five classes, respectively. Other classifiers that are not using rules perform at 84.17% and 97.3% accuracy for seven and five classes, respectively. The results exploit coarse segmentation for higher scale parameter and fine segmentation for lower scale parameter. The major contribution of this research is the development of rule sets and the identification of major features for satellite image classification where the rule sets are transferable and the parameters are tunable for different types of imagery. Additionally, the individual objectwise classification and principal component analysis help to identify the required object from an arbitrary number of objects within images given ground truth data for the training.

  7. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  8. A rule-based automatic sleep staging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Kuo, Chin-En; Hu, Yu-Han; Cheng, Yu-Shian

    2012-03-30

    In this paper, a rule-based automatic sleep staging method was proposed. Twelve features including temporal and spectrum analyses of the EEG, EOG, and EMG signals were utilized. Normalization was applied to each feature to eliminating individual differences. A hierarchical decision tree with fourteen rules was constructed for sleep stage classification. Finally, a smoothing process considering the temporal contextual information was applied for the continuity. The overall agreement and kappa coefficient of the proposed method applied to the all night polysomnography (PSG) of seventeen healthy subjects compared with the manual scorings by R&K rules can reach 86.68% and 0.79, respectively. This method can integrate with portable PSG system for sleep evaluation at-home in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaacob Sazali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS, a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

  10. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Sainarayanan, G.; Yaacob, Sazali; Porle, Rosalyn R.

    2005-12-01

    We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI) system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS), a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

  11. Vibration Finite Element Analysis of SC10 Dry-type Transformer Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sheng Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the popularization and application of dry-type power transformer, its work when the vibration noise problem widely concerned, on the basis of time-varying electromagnetic field and structural mechanics equation, this paper established a finite element analysis model of dry-type transformer, through the electromagnetic field – Structural mechanics field – sound field more than physical field coupling calculation analysis, obtained in no load and the vibration modes of the core under different load and frequency. According to the transformer vibration mechanism, compared with the experimental data, verified the accuracy of the calculation results, as the core of how to provide the theory foundation and to reduce the noise of the experiment.

  12. Genetic learning in rule-based and neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The design of neural networks and fuzzy systems can involve complex, nonlinear, and ill-conditioned optimization problems. Often, traditional optimization schemes are inadequate or inapplicable for such tasks. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are a class of optimization procedures whose mechanics are based on those of natural genetics. Mathematical arguments show how GAs bring substantial computational leverage to search problems, without requiring the mathematical characteristics often necessary for traditional optimization schemes (e.g., modality, continuity, availability of derivative information, etc.). GA's have proven effective in a variety of search tasks that arise in neural networks and fuzzy systems. This presentation begins by introducing the mechanism and theoretical underpinnings of GA's. GA's are then related to a class of rule-based machine learning systems called learning classifier systems (LCS's). An LCS implements a low-level production-system that uses a GA as its primary rule discovery mechanism. This presentation illustrates how, despite its rule-based framework, an LCS can be thought of as a competitive neural network. Neural network simulator code for an LCS is presented. In this context, the GA is doing more than optimizing and objective function. It is searching for an ecology of hidden nodes with limited connectivity. The GA attempts to evolve this ecology such that effective neural network performance results. The GA is particularly well adapted to this task, given its naturally-inspired basis. The LCS/neural network analogy extends itself to other, more traditional neural networks. Conclusions to the presentation discuss the implications of using GA's in ecological search problems that arise in neural and fuzzy systems.

  13. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  14. On QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type and light quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1981-04-01

    We discuss the relation between the usual dispersion relation sum rules and the Laplace transform type sum rules in quantum chromodynamics. Two specific examples corresponding to the S-coupling constant sum rule and the light quark masses sum rules are considered. An interpretation, within QCD, of Leutwyler's formula for the current algebra quark masses is also given

  15. Using the Enneagram for Client Insight and Transformation: A Type Eight Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Karen; Engebretson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how mental health practitioners can use the Enneagram's system of human personality development as a source of insight and a tool for personality transformation. The article provides an introduction to the Enneagram and its orientation to personality types and defines a linear process of how to use the…

  16. Transformational and Transactional Leadership: An Exploration of Gender, Experience, and Institution Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the rates of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership among academic library deans, directors, and university librarians to see if any differences in leadership styles existed by gender, age and experience of the leaders, and type of institution in which they worked. The study found no…

  17. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  18. Fast Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Hartley Transform of Type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Taha Hamood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized discrete Hartley transforms (GDHTs have proved to be an efficient alternative to the generalized discrete Fourier transforms (GDFTs for real-valued data applications. In this paper, the development of direct computation of radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT algorithm for the fast calculation of the GDHT of type-II (DHT-II is presented. The mathematical analysis and the implementation of the developed algorithm are derived, showing that this algorithm possesses a regular structure and can be implemented in-place for efficient memory utilization.The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and the computational complexity is calculated for different transform lengths. A comparison between this algorithm and existing DHT-II algorithms shows that it can be considered as a good compromise between the structural and computational complexities.

  19. Martensitic transformation of type 304 stainless steel by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayahara, A.; Satou, M.; Nakashima, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Sasaki, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Kiyama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of high-energy ion implantation on the structural changes of type 304 stainless steel were investigated. Gold, copper and silicon ions with an energy of 1.5 MeV was implanted into stainless steel. The fluences were in the range from 5x10 15 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . It was found that the structure of stainless steel was transformed form the austenitic to the martensitic structure by these ion implantations. This structural change was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The depth profile of the irradiated ions was also analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS). The degree of martensitic transformation was found to be strongly dependent on the surface pretreatment, either mechanical or electrolytic polishing. When the surface damages or strains by mechanical polishing were present, the martensitic transformation was greatly accelerated presumably due to the combined action of ion irradiation and strain-enhanced transformation. Heavier ions exhibit a high efficiency for the transformation. (orig.)

  20. Design of fractional order differentiator using type-III and type-IV discrete cosine transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interpolation method based on discrete cosine transform (DCT is employed for digital finite impulse response-fractional order differentiator (FIR-FOD design. Here, a fractional order digital differentiator is modeled as finite impulse response (FIR system to get an optimized frequency response that approximates the ideal response of a fractional order differentiator. Next, DCT-III and DCT-IV are utilized to determine the filter coefficients of FIR filter that compute the Fractional derivative of a given signal. To improve the frequency response of the proposed FIR-FOD, the filter coefficients are further modified using windows. Several design examples are presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. The simulation results have also been compared with the existing FIR-FOD design methods such as DFT interpolation, radial basis function (RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods. The result reveals that the proposed FIR-FOD design technique using DCT-III and DCT-IV outperforms DFT interpolation, RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods in terms of magnitude error.

  1. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  2. Rule-Based Storytelling Text-to-Speech (TTS Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Izzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various real life applications such as talking books, gadgets and humanoid robots have drawn the attention to pursue research in the area of expressive speech synthesis. Speech synthesis is widely used in various applications. However, there is a growing need for an expressive speech synthesis especially for communication and robotic. In this paper, global and local rule are developed to convert neutral to storytelling style speech for the Malay language. In order to generate rules, modification of prosodic parameters such as pitch, intensity, duration, tempo and pauses are considered. Modification of prosodic parameters is examined by performing prosodic analysis on a story collected from an experienced female and male storyteller. The global and local rule is applied in sentence level and synthesized using HNM. Subjective tests are conducted to evaluate the synthesized storytelling speech quality of both rules based on naturalness, intelligibility, and similarity to the original storytelling speech. The results showed that global rule give a better result than local rule

  3. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Alias, Norma; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  4. A Rules-Based Simulation of Bacterial Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne

    2015-11-01

    In sufficiently dense bacterial populations (>40% bacteria by volume), unusual collective swimming behaviors have been consistently observed, resembling von Karman vortex streets. The source of these collective swimming behavior has yet to be fully determined, and as of yet, no research has been conducted that would define whether or not this behavior is derived predominantly from the properties of the surrounding media, or if it is an emergent behavior as a result of the ``rules'' governing the behavior of individual bacteria. The goal of this research is to ascertain whether or not it is possible to design a simulation that can replicate the qualitative behavior of the densely packed bacterial populations using only behavioral rules to govern the actions of each bacteria, with the physical properties of the media being neglected. The results of the simulation will address whether or not it is possible for the system's overall behavior to be driven exclusively by these rule-based dynamics. In order to examine this, the behavioral simulation was written in MATLAB on a fixed grid, and updated sequentially with the bacterial behavior, including randomized tumbling, gathering and perceptual sub-functions. If the simulation is successful, it will serve as confirmation that it is possible to generate these qualitatively vortex-like behaviors without specific physical media (that the phenomena arises in emergent fashion from behavioral rules), or as evidence that the observed behavior requires some specific set of physical parameters.

  5. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  6. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding

  7. Modeling of a ring rosen-type piezoelectric transformer by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clément; Pigache, Francois; Erhart, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of a ring Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer. The developed model is based on a Hamiltonian approach, enabling to obtain main parameters and performance evaluation for the first radial vibratory modes. Methodology is detailed, and final results, both the input admittance and the electric potential distribution on the surface of the secondary part, are compared with numerical and experimental ones for discussion and validation.

  8. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs.

  9. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...

  10. Rule-bases construction through self-learning for a table-based Sugeno-Takagi fuzzy logic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boldisor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A self-learning based methodology for building the rule-base of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC is presented and verified, aiming to engage intelligent characteristics to a fuzzy logic control systems. The methodology is a simplified version of those presented in today literature. Some aspects are intentionally ignored since it rarely appears in control system engineering and a SISO process is considered here. The fuzzy inference system obtained is a table-based Sugeno-Takagi type. System’s desired performance is defined by a reference model and rules are extracted from recorded data, after the correct control actions are learned. The presented algorithm is tested in constructing the rule-base of a fuzzy controller for a DC drive application. System’s performances and method’s viability are analyzed.

  11. Sensor-based activity recognition using extended belief rule-based inference methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, A; Liu, J; Nugent, C D; Wang, H; Martinez, L

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed extended belief rule-based inference methodology (RIMER+) recognizes the need of modeling different types of information and uncertainty that usually coexist in real environments. A home setting with sensors located in different rooms and on different appliances can be considered as a particularly relevant example of such an environment, which brings a range of challenges for sensor-based activity recognition. Although RIMER+ has been designed as a generic decision model that could be applied in a wide range of situations, this paper discusses how this methodology can be adapted to recognize human activities using binary sensors within smart environments. The evaluation of RIMER+ against other state-of-the-art classifiers in terms of accuracy, efficiency and applicability was found to be significantly relevant, specially in situations of input data incompleteness, and it demonstrates the potential of this methodology and underpins the basis to develop further research on the topic.

  12. Association Rule-based Predictive Model for Machine Failure in Industrial Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Lee, Sol-Bee; Park, Jaehoon; Kim, Eui-Jik

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes an association rule-based predictive model for machine failure in industrial Internet of things (IIoT), which can accurately predict the machine failure in real manufacturing environment by investigating the relationship between the cause and type of machine failure. To develop the predictive model, we consider three major steps: 1) binarization, 2) rule creation, 3) visualization. The binarization step translates item values in a dataset into one or zero, then the rule creation step creates association rules as IF-THEN structures using the Lattice model and Apriori algorithm. Finally, the created rules are visualized in various ways for users’ understanding. An experimental implementation was conducted using R Studio version 3.3.2. The results show that the proposed predictive model realistically predicts machine failure based on association rules.

  13. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  14. Construction of type-II Bäcklund transformation for the mKdV hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, J F; Retore, A L; Zimerman, A H

    2015-01-01

    From an algebraic construction of the mKdV hierarchy we observe that the space component of the Lax operator plays the role of a universal algebraic object. This fact induces the universality of a gauge transformation that relates two field configurations of a given member of the hierarchy. Such gauge transformation generates the Bäcklund transformation (BT). In this paper we propose a systematic construction of BT for the entire mKdV hierarchy from the known type-II BT of the sinh-Gordon theory. We explicitly construct the BT of the first few integrable models associated to positive and negative grade-time evolutions. Solutions of these transformations for several cases describing the transition from vacuum–vacuum and the vacuum to one-soliton solutions which determines the value for the auxiliary field and the Bäcklund parameter respectively, independently of the model. The same follows for the scattering of two one-soliton solutions. The resultant delay is determined by a condition independent of the model considered. (paper)

  15. A new kind of low-inductance transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-02-01

    As important devices for voltage boosting and switching, respectively, pulse transformer and magnetic switch are widely used in pulsed power technology. In this paper, a new kind of transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors is put forward to combine the functions of voltage boosting and switching in one power device. As a compact combination device of discrete pulse transformer and magnetic switch, the compact TTMS decreases the required volume of magnetic cores in a large scale. The primary windings of the TTMS have a parallel combination structure so that the TTMS which only has 3 turns of secondary windings has a step-up ratio at 1:9. Before the magnetic core saturates, the TTMS has low unsaturated inductances of windings and good pulse response characteristics, so it can be used to substitute the Marx generator to charge the pulse forming line (PFL) at the ranges of several hundred kV and several hundred ns. After the core saturates, the cylindrical conductors can decrease the saturated inductance of the secondary windings of TTMS to a level less than 400 nH. As a result, the proposed TTMS can be used as the boosting transformer and main switch of helical Blumlein PFL to form the quasi-square voltage pulse on the 160 Ω load with a short pulse rise time only at 60 ns.

  16. An expert system design to diagnose cancer by using a new method reduced rule base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başçiftçi, Fatih; Avuçlu, Emre

    2018-04-01

    A Medical Expert System (MES) was developed which uses Reduced Rule Base to diagnose cancer risk according to the symptoms in an individual. A total of 13 symptoms were used. With the new MES, the reduced rules are controlled instead of all possibilities (2 13 = 8192 different possibilities occur). By controlling reduced rules, results are found more quickly. The method of two-level simplification of Boolean functions was used to obtain Reduced Rule Base. Thanks to the developed application with the number of dynamic inputs and outputs on different platforms, anyone can easily test their own cancer easily. More accurate results were obtained considering all the possibilities related to cancer. Thirteen different risk factors were determined to determine the type of cancer. The truth table produced in our study has 13 inputs and 4 outputs. The Boolean Function Minimization method is used to obtain less situations by simplifying logical functions. Diagnosis of cancer quickly thanks to control of the simplified 4 output functions. Diagnosis made with the 4 output values obtained using Reduced Rule Base was found to be quicker than diagnosis made by screening all 2 13 = 8192 possibilities. With the improved MES, more probabilities were added to the process and more accurate diagnostic results were obtained. As a result of the simplification process in breast and renal cancer diagnosis 100% diagnosis speed gain, in cervical cancer and lung cancer diagnosis rate gain of 99% was obtained. With Boolean function minimization, less number of rules is evaluated instead of evaluating a large number of rules. Reducing the number of rules allows the designed system to work more efficiently and to save time, and facilitates to transfer the rules to the designed Expert systems. Interfaces were developed in different software platforms to enable users to test the accuracy of the application. Any one is able to diagnose the cancer itself using determinative risk factors. Thereby

  17. New type of transformation of a 1,2,4-triazine ring to pyrazine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, S.G.; Charushin, V.N.; Chupakhin, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    We have discovered a new type of transformation of a triazine ring in which the l-ethyl-1,2,4-triazine cation participates. It has been established that the cation reacts at 20 0 C with ortho-phenylenediamine (in methylene chloride) and 5,6-diaminopyrimidin-4-one (in 9:1 ethanol-DMF) with the formation of quinoxaline (yield 43%) and pteridin-4-one (yield 23%). This transformation is based on the susceptibility of the cation to bi-addition of nucleophiles and proceeds via cyclic adducts which are then aromatized on account of separation of 3-morpholinoamidrazone. The reaction products were identified by comparison of their melting points and spectroscopic characteristics (NMR, mass-spectra) with those of samples whose structure is definitely known

  18. Transformations of solutions for equations and hierarchies of pseudo-spherical type

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, E G

    2003-01-01

    It is known that if an equation describes non-trivial one-parameter families of pseudo-spherical surfaces, its conservation laws, (generalized, nonlocal) symmetries and Baecklund transformations can be studied by geometrical means [4, 10]. In this letter it is pointed out that there exist correspondences, or 'generalized Baecklund transformations', between arbitrary solutions (satisfying some genericity conditions) of any two single equations describing pseudo-spherical surfaces. Then, the notion of a hierarchy of equations of pseudo-spherical type is introduced, and a theorem stating that there also exist correspondences between arbitrary solutions of any two such hierarchies is presented. A full account of these results appears elsewhere [12, 13]. (letter to the editor)

  19. Conserved Streptococcus pneumoniae spirosomes suggest a single type of transformation pilus in competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of S. pneumoniae as a major human pathogen is largely due to its remarkable genomic plasticity, allowing efficient escape from antimicrobials action and host immune response. Natural transformation, or the active uptake and chromosomal integration of exogenous DNA during the transitory differentiated state competence, is the main mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genomic makeover in pneumococci. Although transforming DNA has been proposed to be captured by Type 4 pili (T4P in Gram-negative bacteria, and a competence-inducible comG operon encoding proteins homologous to T4P-biogenesis components is present in transformable Gram-positive bacteria, a prevailing hypothesis has been that S. pneumoniae assembles only short pseudopili to destabilize the cell wall for DNA entry. We recently identified a micrometer-sized T4P-like pilus on competent pneumococci, which likely serves as initial DNA receptor. A subsequent study, however, visualized a different structure--short, 'plaited' polymers--released in the medium of competent S. pneumoniae. Biochemical observation of concurrent pilin secretion led the authors to propose that the 'plaited' structures correspond to transformation pili acting as peptidoglycan drills that leave DNA entry pores upon secretion. Here we show that the 'plaited' filaments are not related to natural transformation as they are released by non-competent pneumococci, as well as by cells with disrupted pilus biogenesis components. Combining electron microscopy visualization with structural, biochemical and proteomic analyses, we further identify the 'plaited' polymers as spirosomes: macromolecular assemblies of the fermentative acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme AdhE that is well conserved in a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Design of a Fuzzy Rule Base Expert System to Predict and Classify ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of design of a rule base expert system using fuzzy logic approach is to predict and forecast the risk level of cardiac patients to avoid sudden death. In this proposed system, uncertainty is captured using rule base and classification using fuzzy c-means clustering is discussed to overcome the risk level, ...

  1. Functional networks inference from rule-based machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Nicola; Widera, Paweł; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Krasnogor, Natalio; Bacardit, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Functional networks play an important role in the analysis of biological processes and systems. The inference of these networks from high-throughput (-omics) data is an area of intense research. So far, the similarity-based inference paradigm (e.g. gene co-expression) has been the most popular approach. It assumes a functional relationship between genes which are expressed at similar levels across different samples. An alternative to this paradigm is the inference of relationships from the structure of machine learning models. These models are able to capture complex relationships between variables, that often are different/complementary to the similarity-based methods. We propose a protocol to infer functional networks from machine learning models, called FuNeL. It assumes, that genes used together within a rule-based machine learning model to classify the samples, might also be functionally related at a biological level. The protocol is first tested on synthetic datasets and then evaluated on a test suite of 8 real-world datasets related to human cancer. The networks inferred from the real-world data are compared against gene co-expression networks of equal size, generated with 3 different methods. The comparison is performed from two different points of view. We analyse the enriched biological terms in the set of network nodes and the relationships between known disease-associated genes in a context of the network topology. The comparison confirms both the biological relevance and the complementary character of the knowledge captured by the FuNeL networks in relation to similarity-based methods and demonstrates its potential to identify known disease associations as core elements of the network. Finally, using a prostate cancer dataset as a case study, we confirm that the biological knowledge captured by our method is relevant to the disease and consistent with the specialised literature and with an independent dataset not used in the inference process. The

  2. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  3. To the theory of the first-type phase transformations for many variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateev, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    The multidimensional theory on the first-type phase transitions near the one-dimensional saddle point is considered. The transformations of the variables, describing the new phase nucleation, making it possible to achieve their complex separation in the Fokker-Planck equation, and thus to reduce the problem to the one-dimensional one, are proposed. The distribution function and nucleation velocity are determined both for the stationary and nonstationary nucleation stages. The problem on volatile liquid boiling is considered as an example for the case when there are two parameters, characterizing the new phase nucleation [ru

  4. Efficient evaluation of the Fourier transform over products of Slater-type orbitals on different centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, T A; Lopez, R; Rico, J F

    2008-01-01

    Using the shift-operator technique, a compact formula for the Fourier transform of a product of two Slater-type orbitals located on different atomic centers is derived. The result is valid for arbitrary quantum numbers and was found to be numerically stable for a wide range of geometrical parameters and momenta. Details of the implementation are presented together with benchmark data for representative integrals. We also discuss the assets and drawbacks of alternative algorithms available and analyze the numerical efficiency of the new scheme

  5. Martensitic Transformation in a β-Type Mg-Sc Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Koike, Junichi

    2018-03-01

    Recently, we found that a Mg-Sc alloy with a bcc (β) phase exhibits superelasticity and a shape memory effect at low temperature. In this work, we examined the stress-induced and thermally induced martensitic transformation of the β-type Mg-Sc alloy and investigated the crystal structure of the thermally induced martensite phase based on in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The lattice constants of the martensite phase were calculated to be a = 0.3285 nm, b = 0.5544 nm, and c = 0.5223 nm when we assumed that the martensite phase has an orthorhombic structure (Cmcm). Based on the lattice correspondence between a bcc and an orthorhombic structures such as that in the case of β-Ti shape memory alloys, we estimated the transformation strain of the β Mg-Sc alloy. As a result, the transformation strains along the 001, 011, and 111 directions in the β phase were calculated to be + 5.7, + 8.8, and + 3.3%, respectively.

  6. In vivo transformation of human skin with human papillomavirus type 11 from condylomatot acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Lill, N.L.; Bartlett, G.L.; Zaino, R.J.; Sedlacek, T.V.; Mortel, R.

    1986-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, but direct tests of their involvement have not been possible. The authors describe a system in which human skin from various skin from various sites was infected with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) extracted from vulvar condylomata and was grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Most of the skin grafts so treated underwent morphological transformation, resulting in the development of condylomata identical to those which occur spontaneously in patients. Foreskins responded with the most vigorous proliferative response to HPV-11. The lesions produced the characteristic intranuclear group-specific antigen of papillomaviruses. Both dot blot and Southern blot analysis of DNA from the lesions revealed the presence of HPV-11 DNA in the transformed grafts. These results demonstrate the first laboratory system for the study of the interaction of human skin with an HPV. The method may be useful in understanding the mechanisms of HPV transformation and replication and is free of the ethical restraints which have impeded study. This system will allow the direct study of factors which permit neoplastic progression of HPV-induced cutaneous lesions in human tissues

  7. Martensitic Transformation in a β-Type Mg-Sc Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Koike, Junichi

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we found that a Mg-Sc alloy with a bcc (β) phase exhibits superelasticity and a shape memory effect at low temperature. In this work, we examined the stress-induced and thermally induced martensitic transformation of the β-type Mg-Sc alloy and investigated the crystal structure of the thermally induced martensite phase based on in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The lattice constants of the martensite phase were calculated to be a = 0.3285 nm, b = 0.5544 nm, and c = 0.5223 nm when we assumed that the martensite phase has an orthorhombic structure (Cmcm). Based on the lattice correspondence between a bcc and an orthorhombic structures such as that in the case of β-Ti shape memory alloys, we estimated the transformation strain of the β Mg-Sc alloy. As a result, the transformation strains along the 001, 011, and 111 directions in the β phase were calculated to be + 5.7, + 8.8, and + 3.3%, respectively.

  8. Cell-to-cell transformation in Escherichia coli: a novel type of natural transformation involving cell-derived DNA and a putative promoting pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Etchuuya

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is not assumed to be naturally transformable. However, several recent reports have shown that E. coli can express modest genetic competence in certain conditions that may arise in its environment. We have shown previously that spontaneous lateral transfer of non-conjugative plasmids occurs in a colony biofilm of mixed E. coli strains (a set of a donor strain harbouring a plasmid and a plasmid-free recipient strain. In this study, with high-frequency combinations of strains and a plasmid, we constructed the same lateral plasmid transfer system in liquid culture. Using this system, we demonstrated that this lateral plasmid transfer was DNase-sensitive, indicating that it is a kind of transformation in which DNase-accessible extracellular naked DNA is essential. However, this transformation did not occur with purified plasmid DNA and required a direct supply of plasmid from co-existing donor cells. Based on this feature, we have termed this transformation type as 'cell-to-cell transformation'. Analyses using medium conditioned with the high-frequency strain revealed that this strain released a certain factor(s that promoted cell-to-cell transformation and arrested growth of the other strains. This factor is heat-labile and protease-sensitive, and its roughly estimated molecular mass was between ∼9 kDa and ∼30 kDa, indicating that it is a polypeptide factor. Interestingly, this factor was effective even when the conditioned medium was diluted 10(-5-10(-6, suggesting that it acts like a pheromone with high bioactivity. Based on these results, we propose that cell-to-cell transformation is a novel natural transformation mechanism in E. coli that requires cell-derived DNA and is promoted by a peptide pheromone. This is the first evidence that suggests the existence of a peptide pheromone-regulated transformation mechanism in E. coli and in Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Analysis on fault current limiting and recovery characteristics of a flux-lock type SFCL with an isolated transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seckcheol; Lim, Sung-Hun; Han, Tae-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Countermeasure to reduce the power burden of HTSC element consisting of the flux-lock type SFCL was studied. ► The power burden of HTSC element could be decreased by using the isolated transformer. ► The SFCL designed with the additive polarity winding could be confirmed to cause less power burden of the HTSC element. -- Abstract: The flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) can quickly limit the fault current shortly after the short circuit occurs and recover the superconducting state after the fault removes. However, the superconducting element comprising the flux-lock type SFCL can be destructed when the high fault current passes through the SFCL. Therefore, the countermeasure to control the fault current and protect the superconducting element is required. In this paper, the flux-lock type SFCL with an isolated transformer, which consists of two parallel connected coils on an iron core and the isolated transformer connected in series with one of two coils, was proposed and the short-circuit experimental device to analyze the fault current limiting and the recovery characteristics of the flux-lock type SFCL with the isolated transformer were constructed. Through the short-circuit tests, the flux-lock type SFCL with the isolated transformer was confirmed to perform more effective fault current limiting and recovery operation compared to the flux-lock type SFCL without the isolated transformer from the viewpoint of the quench occurrence and the recovery time of the SFCL

  10. Automated identification of diabetic type 2 subjects with and without neuropathy using wavelet transform on pedobarograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rajendra; Tan, Peck Ha; Subramaniam, Tavintharan; Tamura, Toshiyo; Chua, Kuang Chua; Goh, Seach Chyr Ernest; Lim, Choo Min; Goh, Shu Yi Diana; Chung, Kang Rui Conrad; Law, Chelsea

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism-the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. The most common form of diabetes is Type 2 diabetes. Abnormal plantar pressures are considered to play a major role in the pathologies of neuropathic ulcers in the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to examine the plantar pressure distribution in normal, diabetic Type 2 with and without neuropathy subjects. Foot scans were obtained using the F-scan (Tekscan USA) pressure measurement system. Various discrete wavelet coefficients were evaluated from the foot images. These extracted parameters were extracted using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and presented to the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and a four-layer feed forward neural network for classification. We demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of more than 85% for the classifiers.

  11. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  12. Transfer of Rule-Based Expertise through a Tutorial Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    be causing the infection (.2) [RULE633]. {The student asks, "Does the patient have a fever ?") " FEBRILE MYCIN never needed to inquire about whether...remaining clauses, some we classified most as restrictions, and the one or two that remained constituted the key factor(s) of the rule. The " petechial ...Infection is bacterial, KEY-FACTORt 4) Petechial is one of the types of rash which the patient has, RESTRICTIONS 5) Purpuric is not one of the types

  13. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Kesten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Limit setting is associated with greater SV. Collaborative rule setting may be effective for managing boys' game-console use. More research is needed to understand rule-based parenting practices.

  14. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  15. Design and performance of a rule-based controller in a naturally ventilated room

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanovic-Halburd, Ljiljana; Angelov, P.; Eftekhari, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reflects the final phase of the EPSRC project, and the PhD work of Marjanovic, on rule-based control in naturally ventilated buildings. Marjanovic is the second author. Eftekhari was her PhD supervisor.

  16. Rule-Based Analytic Asset Management for Space Exploration Systems (RAMSES), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) were selected to jointly develop the Rule-based Analytic Asset Management for Space...

  17. Strategy-Driven Exploration for Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems with Porgy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei , Oana; Fernández , Maribel; Kirchner , Hélène; Pinaud , Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Porgy – an interactive visual environment for rule-based modelling of biochemical systems. We model molecules and molecule interactions as port graphs and port graph rewrite rules, respectively. We use rewriting strategies to control which rules to apply, and where and when to apply them. Our main contributions to rule-based modelling of biochemical systems lie in the strategy language and the associated visual and interactive features offered by Porgy. These features faci...

  18. A Fuzzy Rule-Based Expert System for Evaluating Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy rule-based expert system is developed for evaluating intellectual capital. A fuzzy linguistic approach assists managers to understand and evaluate the level of each intellectual capital item. The proposed fuzzy rule-based expert system applies fuzzy linguistic variables to express the level of qualitative evaluation and criteria of experts. Feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated by the result of intellectual capital performance evaluation for a sample company.

  19. Redatuming controlled-source electromagnetic data using Stratton–Chu type integral transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of analyzing controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data based on redatuming of the observed data from the actual receivers into the virtual receivers. We use the Stratton–Chu type integral transform to calculate the EM field in the virtual receivers. The virtual receivers...... can be placed at any desirable position, including close to the target, which increases the sensitivity of the EM data to the target. The developed method provides an effective model-based interpolation/extrapolation tool for electromagnetic field data. This paper demonstrates that redatuming can...... be used for designing the optimized CSEM survey configuration. The numerical examples, for the Kevin Dome Electromagnetic Project Site, illustrate the practical effectiveness of the developed method....

  20. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect

  1. Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.

  2. A comparison of rule-based and machine learning approaches for classifying patient portal messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robert M; Fabbri, Daniel; Denny, Joshua C; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2017-09-01

    Secure messaging through patient portals is an increasingly popular way that consumers interact with healthcare providers. The increasing burden of secure messaging can affect clinic staffing and workflows. Manual management of portal messages is costly and time consuming. Automated classification of portal messages could potentially expedite message triage and delivery of care. We developed automated patient portal message classifiers with rule-based and machine learning techniques using bag of words and natural language processing (NLP) approaches. To evaluate classifier performance, we used a gold standard of 3253 portal messages manually categorized using a taxonomy of communication types (i.e., main categories of informational, medical, logistical, social, and other communications, and subcategories including prescriptions, appointments, problems, tests, follow-up, contact information, and acknowledgement). We evaluated our classifiers' accuracies in identifying individual communication types within portal messages with area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Portal messages often contain more than one type of communication. To predict all communication types within single messages, we used the Jaccard Index. We extracted the variables of importance for the random forest classifiers. The best performing approaches to classification for the major communication types were: logistic regression for medical communications (AUC: 0.899); basic (rule-based) for informational communications (AUC: 0.842); and random forests for social communications and logistical communications (AUCs: 0.875 and 0.925, respectively). The best performing classification approach of classifiers for individual communication subtypes was random forests for Logistical-Contact Information (AUC: 0.963). The Jaccard Indices by approach were: basic classifier, Jaccard Index: 0.674; Naïve Bayes, Jaccard Index: 0.799; random forests, Jaccard Index: 0.859; and logistic regression, Jaccard

  3. Intelligent Recognition of Lung Nodule Combining Rule-based and C-SVM Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection(CAD system for lung nodules plays the important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper, an improved intelligent recognition method of lung nodule in HRCT combing rule-based and costsensitive support vector machine(C-SVM classifiers is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity(GGO nodules(part solid and nonsolid. This method consists of several steps. Firstly, segmentation of regions of interest(ROIs, including pulmonary parenchyma and lung nodule candidates, is a difficult task. On one side, the presence of noise lowers the visibility of low-contrast objects. On the other side, different types of nodules, including small nodules, nodules connecting to vasculature or other structures, part-solid or nonsolid nodules, are complex, noisy, weak edge or difficult to define the boundary. In order to overcome the difficulties of obvious boundary-leak and slow evolvement speed problem in segmentatioin of weak edge, an overall segmentation method is proposed, they are: the lung parenchyma is extracted based on threshold and morphologic segmentation method; the image denoising and enhancing is realized by nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering(NADF method;candidate pulmonary nodules are segmented by the improved C-V level set method, in which the segmentation result of EM-based fuzzy threshold method is used as the initial contour of active contour model and a constrained energy term is added into the PDE of level set function. Then, lung nodules are classified by using the intelligent classifiers combining rules and C-SVM. Rule-based classification is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects, then C-SVM classification are used to further classify nodule candidates and reduce the number of false positive(FP objects. In order to increase the efficiency of SVM, an improved training method is used to train SVM, which uses the grid search method to search the optimal parameters

  4. Intelligent Recognition of Lung Nodule Combining Rule-based and C-SVM Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection(CAD system for lung nodules plays the important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper, an improved intelligent recognition method of lung nodule in HRCT combing rule-based and cost-sensitive support vector machine(C-SVM classifiers is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity(GGO nodules(part solid and nonsolid. This method consists of several steps. Firstly, segmentation of regions of interest(ROIs, including pulmonary parenchyma and lung nodule candidates, is a difficult task. On one side, the presence of noise lowers the visibility of low-contrast objects. On the other side, different types of nodules, including small nodules, nodules connecting to vasculature or other structures, part-solid or nonsolid nodules, are complex, noisy, weak edge or difficult to define the boundary. In order to overcome the difficulties of obvious boundary-leak and slow evolvement speed problem in segmentatioin of weak edge, an overall segmentation method is proposed, they are: the lung parenchyma is extracted based on threshold and morphologic segmentation method; the image denoising and enhancing is realized by nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering(NADF method; candidate pulmonary nodules are segmented by the improved C-V level set method, in which the segmentation result of EM-based fuzzy threshold method is used as the initial contour of active contour model and a constrained energy term is added into the PDE of level set function. Then, lung nodules are classified by using the intelligent classifiers combining rules and C-SVM. Rule-based classification is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects, then C-SVM classification are used to further classify nodule candidates and reduce the number of false positive(FP objects. In order to increase the efficiency of SVM, an improved training method is used to train SVM, which uses the grid search method to search the optimal

  5. Operational characteristics in the three-phase transformer-type SFCL with neutral line based on sequential reclosing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.S.; Choi, H.S.; Jung, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The three-phase transformer-type SFCL with a neutral line can control the current limiting rates according to the turn's ratio between primary and secondary windings. The transformer-type SFCL with a neutral line can reliably conduct the fault current limiting operation according to the reclosing operation duty and fault types. The superconducting elements recovered their superconducting state within the opening cycle of the circuit breaker according to the reclosing operation duty. It is expected to improve the transient stability and supply reliability of the power network. In a transformer-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with a neutral line, which is connected between the superconducting elements and secondary windings, we verified that the SFCL has excellent characteristics that induce the perfect simultaneous quench of the superconducting elements in the previous study. The application of the SFCL to the power networks requires its coordination with the reclosing operation duty, which protects a circuit. In this study, the fault current limiting and recovery characteristics of superconducting elements in the three-phase transformer-type SFCL with the neutral line were analyzed. The limiting rate of the fault current in the transformer-type SFCL could increased by an iron core, which allows quenching of the superconducting elements in a sound phase as well as in a faulted phase. In addition, the simultaneous quench led to uniform burdens on superconducting elements, all of which recovered their superconducting state within an opening cycle of a circuit breaker. Thus, the transformer-type SFCL with the neutral line could reliably conduct the fault current limiting and recovery operations of superconducting elements according to the reclosing operation duty and fault types.

  6. Evolution of Collective Behaviour in an Artificial World Using Linguistic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Demšar

    Full Text Available Collective behaviour is a fascinating and easily observable phenomenon, attractive to a wide range of researchers. In biology, computational models have been extensively used to investigate various properties of collective behaviour, such as: transfer of information across the group, benefits of grouping (defence against predation, foraging, group decision-making process, and group behaviour types. The question 'why,' however remains largely unanswered. Here the interest goes into which pressures led to the evolution of such behaviour, and evolutionary computational models have already been used to test various biological hypotheses. Most of these models use genetic algorithms to tune the parameters of previously presented non-evolutionary models, but very few attempt to evolve collective behaviour from scratch. Of these last, the successful attempts display clumping or swarming behaviour. Empirical evidence suggests that in fish schools there exist three classes of behaviour; swarming, milling and polarized. In this paper we present a novel, artificial life-like evolutionary model, where individual agents are governed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, which is capable of evolving all three classes of behaviour.

  7. A Web-Based Rice Plant Expert System Using Rule-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Setiawan Honggowibowo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants can be attacked by various kinds of diseases which are possible to be determined from their symptoms. However, it is to recognize that to find out the exact type of disease, an agricultural expert’s opinion is needed, meanwhile the numbers of agricultural experts are limited and there are too many problems to be solved at the same time. This makes a system with a capability as an expert is required. This system must contain the knowledge of the diseases and symptom of rice plants as an agricultural expert has to have. This research designs a web-based expert system using rule-based reasoning. The rule are modified from the method of forward chaining inference and backward chaining in order to to help farmers in the rice plant disease diagnosis. The web-based rice plants disease diagnosis expert system has the advantages to access and use easily. With web-based features inside, it is expected that the farmer can accesse the expert system everywhere to overcome the problem to diagnose rice diseases.

  8. The influence of the martensitic transformation on the fatigue of an AISI type 316 metastable stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, D.J; Sousa e Silva, A.S. de; Monteiro, S.N.

    The influence of the martensitic transformation on the process of pulse tension fatigue of a AISI type 316 metastable stainless steel was studied at 25 0 and 196 0 c. The fatigue tests were performed on annealed and cold worked specimens in order to separate the effects of static transformation, dynamic transformation and work hardening. The fatigue limits obtained from the corresponding Wohler curves were compared for the different test conditions. The results showed that the fatigue is not affected by the dynamically induced martensite. On the other hand the static martensite, previously induced, appears to decrease the resistance to fatigue. The reasons for these effects are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. A two-stage stochastic rule-based model to determine pre-assembly buffer content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Elif Elcin; Kula, Ufuk

    2018-01-01

    This study considers instant decision-making needs of the automobile manufactures for resequencing vehicles before final assembly (FA). We propose a rule-based two-stage stochastic model to determine the number of spare vehicles that should be kept in the pre-assembly buffer to restore the altered sequence due to paint defects and upstream department constraints. First stage of the model decides the spare vehicle quantities, where the second stage model recovers the scrambled sequence respect to pre-defined rules. The problem is solved by sample average approximation (SAA) algorithm. We conduct a numerical study to compare the solutions of heuristic model with optimal ones and provide following insights: (i) as the mismatch between paint entrance and scheduled sequence decreases, the rule-based heuristic model recovers the scrambled sequence as good as the optimal resequencing model, (ii) the rule-based model is more sensitive to the mismatch between the paint entrance and scheduled sequences for recovering the scrambled sequence, (iii) as the defect rate increases, the difference in recovery effectiveness between rule-based heuristic and optimal solutions increases, (iv) as buffer capacity increases, the recovery effectiveness of the optimization model outperforms heuristic model, (v) as expected the rule-based model holds more inventory than the optimization model.

  10. Biochemical transformation of deoxythymidine kinase-deficient mouse cells with uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.P.; McGowan, J.J.; Gentry, G.A.; Randall, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A line of 3T3 mouse cells lacking deoxythymidine kinase (dTK - ) was stably transformed to the dTK + phenotype after exposure to uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Biochemical transformants were isolated in a system selective for the dTK + phenotype (Eagle minimal essential medium containing 10 -4 M hypoxanthine, 6 x 10 -7 M aminopterin, and 2 x 10 -5 M deoxythymidine). Transformation was accompanied by the acquisition of a dTK activity with immunological, electrophoretic, and biochemical characteristics identical to those of the dTK induced by EHV-1 during productive infection. The transformed cells have been maintained in selective culture medium for more than 50 passages and have retained the capacity to express EHV-1-specific antigens. Spontaneous release of infectious virus has not been detected in the transformed lines, and the cells were not oncogenic for athymic nude mice. In contrast to normal dTK + 3T3 cells, EHV-1 transformants were unable to grow in the presence of arabinosylthymine, a drug selectively phosphorylated by herpesvirus-coded dTK's. These results indicate that a portion of the EHV-1 genome is able to persist in the transformed cells for many generations and be expressed as an enzymatically active viral gene product

  11. SGLT2 inhibitors with cardiovascular benefits: Transforming clinical care in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Emden, Michael; Amerena, John; Deed, Gary; Pollock, Carol; Cooper, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a key part of clinical management. Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemic control, reduce body weight and decrease blood pressure. In addition, the SGLT2 inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin reduced the risk of composite cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals with T2DM in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and the CANVAS Program, respectively. Empagliflozin also reduced cardiovascular deaths and improved renal outcomes. This class of agents should be considered in people with established cardiovascular disease, usually in combination with other glucose lowering medications, when satisfactory glycaemic control has not been achieved. The dose of insulin or sulfonylureas may need to be lowered when used with SGLT2 inhibitors, to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia. Genitourinary infections can occur with SGLT2 inhibitors in a small proportion of people. In people with osteoporosis or prior amputation, it may be prudent to use empagliflozin rather than canagliflozin, based on the increased risk for bone fractures and amputations observed with canagliflozin in the CANVAS Program. SGLT2 inhibitors have the potential to transform the clinical care of persons with T2DM by not only improving glycaemic control but also reducing blood pressure, body weight and diabetes-related end-organ complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloud cover typing from environmental satellite imagery. Discriminating cloud structure with Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.; Huning, J. R.; Glackin, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.

  13. Transforming growth factor beta activity in urine of patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivarola E.W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is characterized structurally by progressive mesangial deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß is considered to be one of the major cytokines involved in the regulation of ECM synthesis and degradation. Several studies suggest that an increase in urinary TGF-ß levels may reflect an enhanced production of this polypeptide by the kidney cells. We evaluated TGF-ß in occasional urine samples from 14 normal individuals and 23 patients with type 2 diabetes (13 with persistent proteinuria >500 mg/24 h, DN, 6 with microalbuminuria, DMMA, and 4 with normal urinary albumin excretion, DMN by enzyme immunoassay. An increase in the rate of urinary TGF-ß excretion (pg/mg UCreat. was observed in patients with DN (296.07 ± 330.77 (P<0.001 compared to normal individuals (17.04 ± 18.56 (Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance; however, this increase was not observed in patients with DMMA (25.13 ± 11.30 or in DMN (18.16 ± 11.82. There was a positive correlation between the rate of urinary TGF-ß excretion and proteinuria (r = 0.70, a = 0.05 (Pearson's analysis, one of the parameters of disease progression.

  14. DEVELOP-FPS: a First Person Shooter Development Tool for Rule-based Scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present DEVELOP-FPS, a software tool specially designed for the development of First Person Shooter (FPS players controlled by Rule Based Scripts. DEVELOP-FPS may be used by FPS developers to create, debug, maintain and compare rule base player behaviours, providing a set of useful functionalities: i for an easy preparation of the right scenarios for game debugging and testing; ii for controlling the game execution: users can stop and resume the game execution at any instant, monitoring and controlling every player in the game, monitoring the state of each player, their rule base activation, being able to issue commands to control their behaviour; and iii to automatically run a certain number of game executions and collect data in order to evaluate and compare the players performance along a sufficient number of similar experiments.

  15. Automatic detection of esophageal pressure events. Is there an alternative to rule-based criteria?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, S; Rütz, K; Kolberg, Jens Godsk

    1995-01-01

    of relevant pressure peaks at the various recording levels. Until now, this selection has been performed entirely by rule-based systems, requiring each pressure deflection to fit within predefined rigid numerical limits in order to be detected. However, due to great variations in the shapes of the pressure...... curves generated by muscular contractions, rule-based criteria do not always select the pressure events most relevant for further analysis. We have therefore been searching for a new concept for automatic event recognition. The present study describes a new system, based on the method of neurocomputing.......79-0.99 and accuracies of 0.89-0.98, depending on the recording level within the esophageal lumen. The neural networks often recognized peaks that clearly represented true contractions but that had been rejected by a rule-based system. We conclude that neural networks have potentials for automatic detections...

  16. Application value of different transformation zone types and its genetic relationship with high-risk HPV type in diagnosis and therapy of cervical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jia-De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the influence of different types of transformation zone (TZ) on positive surgical margin of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the significance of infection of different genetic high-risk HPV for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The clinical data of patients who had CIN2+ and received LEEP during January to December 2013 was investigated. The conditions of positive surgical margin of patients of different transformation zone (type I, II, III) were analyzed. The clinical high-risk types of HPV were divided into three groups, including A5/6, A7 and A9, compared with the pathological conditions of pre-operation and post-operation of the patients in respective group. The results indicated that type III transformation zone is more likely to cause positive cutting margin. For CIN2+ patients, sensitivity and specificity are 0.89% and 79.56% in group A5/6, and negative and positive predicted value (NPV, PPV) are 40% and 5%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A7 is 12.5%, 44.08%, 29.49% and 21.21%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A9 is 88.99%, 87.09%, 85.26%, 81.51%, respectively. Transformation zone type was correlated positively with positive cutting margin percentage (r = 0.8732, P zone is more likely to cause pathological upgrades. In conclusion, different types of transformation zone and high-risk HPV have clinical significance in causing positive cutting margin of surgery and disease extent.

  17. Genetic profile of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) with high-grade transformation versus solid type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.F.; Altemani, A.; Vékony, H.; Bloemena, E.; Fresno, F.; Suárez, C.; Llorente, J.L.; Hermsen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: ACC can occasionally undergo dedifferentiation also referred to as high-grade transformation (ACCHGT). However, ACC-HGT can also undergo transformation to adenocarcinomas which are not poorly differentiated. ACC-HGTis generally considered to be an aggressive variant of ACC, even more

  18. Genetic profile of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) with high-grade transformation versus solid type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.F.; Altemani, A.; Vékony, H.; Bloemena, E.; Fresno, F.; Suárez, C.; Llorente, J.L.; Hermsen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: ACC can occasionally undergo dedifferentiation also referred to as high-grade transformation (ACC-HGT). However, ACC-HGT can also undergo transformation to adenocarcinomas which are not poorly differentiated. ACC-HGT is generally considered to be an aggressive variant of ACC, even more

  19. Diversity of Rule-based Approaches: Classic Systems and Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz J. Nalepa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rules are a common symbolic model of knowledge. Rule-based systems share roots in cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In the former, they are mostly used in cognitive architectures; in the latter, they are developed in several domains including knowledge engineering and machine learning. This paper aims to give an overview of these issues with the focus on the current research perspective of artificial intelligence. Moreover, in this setting we discuss our results in the design of rule-based systems and their applications in context-aware and business intelligence systems.

  20. Research on Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Rule Base Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between fault phenomenon and fault cause is always nonlinear, which influences the accuracy of fault location. And neural network is effective in dealing with nonlinear problem. In order to improve the efficiency of uncertain fault diagnosis based on neural network, a neural network fault diagnosis method based on rule base is put forward. At first, the structure of BP neural network is built and the learning rule is given. Then, the rule base is built by fuzzy theory. An improved fuzzy neural construction model is designed, in which the calculated methods of node function and membership function are also given. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method.

  1. Annotation of rule-based models with formal semantics to enable creation, analysis, reuse and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misirli, Goksel; Cavaliere, Matteo; Waites, William; Pocock, Matthew; Madsen, Curtis; Gilfellon, Owen; Honorato-Zimmer, Ricardo; Zuliani, Paolo; Danos, Vincent; Wipat, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Biological systems are complex and challenging to model and therefore model reuse is highly desirable. To promote model reuse, models should include both information about the specifics of simulations and the underlying biology in the form of metadata. The availability of computationally tractable metadata is especially important for the effective automated interpretation and processing of models. Metadata are typically represented as machine-readable annotations which enhance programmatic access to information about models. Rule-based languages have emerged as a modelling framework to represent the complexity of biological systems. Annotation approaches have been widely used for reaction-based formalisms such as SBML. However, rule-based languages still lack a rich annotation framework to add semantic information, such as machine-readable descriptions, to the components of a model. Results: We present an annotation framework and guidelines for annotating rule-based models, encoded in the commonly used Kappa and BioNetGen languages. We adapt widely adopted annotation approaches to rule-based models. We initially propose a syntax to store machine-readable annotations and describe a mapping between rule-based modelling entities, such as agents and rules, and their annotations. We then describe an ontology to both annotate these models and capture the information contained therein, and demonstrate annotating these models using examples. Finally, we present a proof of concept tool for extracting annotations from a model that can be queried and analyzed in a uniform way. The uniform representation of the annotations can be used to facilitate the creation, analysis, reuse and visualization of rule-based models. Although examples are given, using specific implementations the proposed techniques can be applied to rule-based models in general. Availability and implementation: The annotation ontology for rule-based models can be found at http

  2. Construction of rat cell lines that contain potential morphologically transforming regions of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, F. M.; van Amstel, P. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hybrid recombinant plasmids were constructed; they were composed of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene and DNA sequences of HSV2 that have been reported to induce morphological and/or oncogenic transformation of rodent cells in culture. Several plasmids were made in

  3. Intelligent wear mode identification system for marine diesel engines based on multi-level belief rule base methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Xu, Xiaojian; Sheng, Chenxing; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    Wear faults are among the chief causes of main-engine damage, significantly influencing the secure and economical operation of ships. It is difficult for engineers to utilize multi-source information to identify wear modes, so an intelligent wear mode identification model needs to be developed to assist engineers in diagnosing wear faults in diesel engines. For this purpose, a multi-level belief rule base (BBRB) system is proposed in this paper. The BBRB system consists of two-level belief rule bases, and the 2D and 3D characteristics of wear particles are used as antecedent attributes on each level. Quantitative and qualitative wear information with uncertainties can be processed simultaneously by the BBRB system. In order to enhance the efficiency of the BBRB, the silhouette value is adopted to determine referential points and the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to transform input wear information into belief degrees. In addition, the initial parameters of the BBRB system are constructed on the basis of expert-domain knowledge and then optimized by the genetic algorithm to ensure the robustness of the system. To verify the validity of the BBRB system, experimental data acquired from real-world diesel engines are analyzed. Five-fold cross-validation is conducted on the experimental data and the BBRB is compared with the other four models in the cross-validation. In addition, a verification dataset containing different wear particles is used to highlight the effectiveness of the BBRB system in wear mode identification. The verification results demonstrate that the proposed BBRB is effective and efficient for wear mode identification with better performance and stability than competing systems.

  4. Design of fixed frequency controlled radial-mode stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformers for DC/DC converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage

  5. Design and performance of a Tesla transformer type relativistic electron beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; Chennareddy, D.; John, P.I.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1986-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator driven by an air core Tesla transformer is described. The Tesla transformer circuit analysis is outlined and computational results are presented for the case when the coaxial water line has finite resistance. The transformer has a coupling coefficient of 0.56 and a step-up ratio of 25. The Tesla transformer can provide 800 kV at the peak of the second half cycle of the secondary output voltage and has been tested up to 600 kV. A 100-200 keV, 15-20 kA electron beam having 150 ns pulse width has been obtained. The beam generator described is being used for the beam injection into a toroidal device BETA. (author). 20 refs. 9 figures

  6. Determining the magnetically nonlinear characteristics of a three phase core-type power transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinar, Matjaz; Stumberger, Gorazd; Polajzer, Bostjan; Dolinar, Drago

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear iron core model of a three-phase, three-limb power transformer which is given by the current-dependant characteristics of flux linkages. The magnetically nonlinear characteristics are determined by controlled magnetic excitation of all three limbs which allows to take into account the variable magnetic-cross couplings between different coils placed on limbs, caused by saturation. The corresponding partial derivatives of measured flux linkage characteristics are used in the transformer circuit model as a magnetically nonlinear iron core model in order to analyze the behaviour of a nonsymmetrically excited transformer. Numerical results using transformer model with the determined iron core model agree very well with the measured results

  7. Generation of facial expressions from emotion using a fuzzy rule based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Stumptner, Markus; Corbett, Dan; Brooks, Mike

    2001-01-01

    We propose a fuzzy rule-based system to map representations of the emotional state of an animated agent onto muscle contraction values for the appropriate facial expressions. Our implementation pays special attention to the way in which continuous changes in the intensity of emotions can be

  8. Evolving Rule-Based Systems in two Medical Domains using Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, A.; Dounias, G.; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate, compare and discuss the application of two genetic programming methodologies for the construction of rule-based systems in two medical domains: the diagnosis of Aphasia's subtypes and the classification of Pap-Smear Test examinations. The first approach consists of a scheme...

  9. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  10. Control of Angra 1' PZR by a fuzzy rule base build through genetic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Gustavo Henrique Flores; Schirru, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    There is an optimum pressure for the normal operation of nuclear power plant reactors and thresholds that must be respected during transients, what make the pressurizer an important control mechanism. Inside a pressurizer there are heaters and a shower. From their actuation levels, they control the vapor pressure inside the pressurizer and, consequently, inside the primary circuit. Therefore, the control of the pressurizer consists in controlling the actuation levels of the heaters and of the shower. In the present work this function is implemented through a fuzzy controller. Besides the efficient way of exerting control, this approach presents the possibility of extracting knowledge of how this control is been made. A fuzzy controller consists basically in an inference machine and a rule base, the later been constructed with specialized knowledge. In some circumstances, however, this knowledge is not accurate, and may lead to non-efficient results. With the development of artificial intelligence techniques, there wore found methods to substitute specialists, simulating its knowledge. Genetic programming is an evolutionary algorithm particularly efficient in manipulating rule base structures. In this work genetic programming was used as a substitute for the specialist. The goal is to test if an irrational object, a computer, is capable, by it self, to find out a rule base reproducing a pre-established actuation levels profile. The result is positive, with the discovery of a fuzzy rule base presenting an insignificant error. A remarkable result that proves the efficiency of the approach. (author)

  11. Rule-based emotion detection on social media : putting tweets on Plutchik's wheel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study sentiment analysis beyond the typical granularity of polarity and instead use Plutchik's wheel of emotions model. We introduce RBEM-Emo as an extension to the Rule-Based Emission Model algorithm to deduce such emotions from human-written messages. We evaluate our approach on two different

  12. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  13. Rule-based versus probabilistic selection for active surveillance using three definitions of insignificant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); C.H. Bangma (Chris); R.C.N. van den Bergh (Roderick); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); D. Nieboer (Daan); Godtman, R; J. Hugosson (Jonas); van der Kwast, T; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether probabilistic selection by the use of a nomogram could improve patient selection for active surveillance (AS) compared to the various sets of rule-based AS inclusion criteria currently used. We studied Dutch and Swedish patients participating in the European Randomized

  14. Evolving rule-based systems in two medical domains using genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan; Axer, Hubertus; Bjerregaard, Beth; von Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf

    2004-11-01

    To demonstrate and compare the application of different genetic programming (GP) based intelligent methodologies for the construction of rule-based systems in two medical domains: the diagnosis of aphasia's subtypes and the classification of pap-smear examinations. Past data representing (a) successful diagnosis of aphasia's subtypes from collaborating medical experts through a free interview per patient, and (b) correctly classified smears (images of cells) by cyto-technologists, previously stained using the Papanicolaou method. Initially a hybrid approach is proposed, which combines standard genetic programming and heuristic hierarchical crisp rule-base construction. Then, genetic programming for the production of crisp rule based systems is attempted. Finally, another hybrid intelligent model is composed by a grammar driven genetic programming system for the generation of fuzzy rule-based systems. Results denote the effectiveness of the proposed systems, while they are also compared for their efficiency, accuracy and comprehensibility, to those of an inductive machine learning approach as well as to those of a standard genetic programming symbolic expression approach. The proposed GP-based intelligent methodologies are able to produce accurate and comprehensible results for medical experts performing competitive to other intelligent approaches. The aim of the authors was the production of accurate but also sensible decision rules that could potentially help medical doctors to extract conclusions, even at the expense of a higher classification score achievement.

  15. Belief-rule-based expert systems for evaluation of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Kamal, Md Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    , known as the Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES) and implemented in the local e-government of Bangladesh. The results have been compared with a recently developed method of evaluating e-government, and it is demonstrated that the results of the BRBES are more accurate and reliable. The BRBES can...

  16. Flavours of XChange, a Rule-Based Reactive Language for the (Semantic) Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces XChange, a rule-based reactive language for the Web. Stressing application scenarios, it first argues that high-level reactive languages are needed for bothWeb and SemanticWeb applications. Then, it discusses technologies and paradigms relevant to high-level reactive languages for the (Semantic) Web. Finally, it presents the Event-Condition-Action rules of XChange.

  17. Capacities and overlap indexes with an application in fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paternain, D.; Bustince, H.; Pagola, M.; Sussner, P.; Kolesárová, A.; Mesiar, Radko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 305, č. 1 (2016), s. 70-94 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capacity * Overlap index * Overlap function * Choquet integral * Fuzzy rule-based classification systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0465739.pdf

  18. Extremely compact formulas for the Fourier transform of a product of two-centre Slater-type orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, T; Dmitrovic, S

    2010-01-01

    A compact formula for the Fourier transform of a product of Slater-type orbitals on different centres is derived. The integral is reduced to a finite one-dimensional integration over non-oscillatory hypergeometric functions of type 1 F 2 (x;y;z). The formula is valid for all quantum numbers and does not involve the reduced Bessel functions that are usually used to evaluate these integrals. Reduced formulas are calculated for some special directions in the reciprocal space. Also, some useful identities for the Fourier transforms of a product of Slater-type orbitals with correlated sets of parameters are obtained. In order to illustrate simple and efficient use of the presented results, we have applied them to graphene.

  19. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  20. Analysis of the non-isothermal austenite-martensite transformation in 13% Cr-type martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-De-Andris, C.; Alvarez, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    In martensitic stainless steels, as in other alloyed containing carbide-forming elements, the carbide dissolution and precipitation processes that take place during heat treatment can cause modifications to the chemical composition of the austenite phase of these steels. The chemical composition of this phase is a fundamental factor for the evolution of the martensitic transformation. As a result of their influence on the dissolution and precipitation processes, the parameters of the quenching heat treatment exert a strong influence on the behavior of the martensitic transformation in these steels. In the present study, the effect of the heating temperature and the cooling rate on the martensitic transformation in two 13% Cr-type martensitic stainless steels with different carbon contents were properly evaluated. (author)

  1. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedletskii, A M

    2003-01-01

    We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L q (R + ), 1 p spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system exp(-λ n t) in these spaces

  2. Effect of Pre-culture Irradiation and Explant Types on Efficiency of Brassica napus Genetic Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.; Azzam, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The irradiated seeds of canola cv. Drakkar ( Brassica napus l. ) were germinated under aspect conditions, cotyledonary petioles and hypocotyl of 6 days old seedlings were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has construct with the selectable marker gene (NPT II) and the desirable gene (HPPD). Direct and indirect shoot organogenesis were obtained from the both explants. Cotyledonary petioles was higher responded than hypocotyl with respective 26% and 14% of the explants producing NPT II-positive shoots after the selection on 50mg/l kanamycin. Calli might develop on and not in the agar medium were un transformation. This explains the higher number of escapes detected in hypocotyl explants than in experiments with cotyledons. The frequency of transformation plants as a function of indirect organogenesis was more than direct shoot regeneration from explants. The pre- irradiation with 75 Gy of gamma rays enhanced the genetic transformation frequencies by about 10 % as compared to that of the un-irradiated material. The obtained shoots were rooted and regenerated mature plants

  3. Proving termination of graph transformation systems using weighted type graphs over semirings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, H.J.S.; König, B.; Nolte, D.; Zantema, H.; Parisi-Presicce, F.; Westfechtel, B.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce techniques for proving uniform termination of graph transformation systems, based on matrix interpretations for string rewriting. We generalize this technique by adapting it to graph rewriting instead of string rewriting and by generalizing to ordered semirings. In this way we obtain a

  4. Design of interleaved multilayer rosen type piezoelectric transformer for high voltage dc/dc applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Thomas; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2012-01-01

    Research and development within piezoelectric transformer (PT) based converters are rapidly increasing as the technology is maturing and starts to prove its capabilities. Especially for high voltage and high step-up applications, PT based converters have demonstrated good performance and DC...

  5. Rotation-type input-output relationships for Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. This general input-output relationship is then broken down into a

  6. RetroTransformDB: A Dataset of Generic Transforms for Retrosynthetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Avramova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, software tools for retrosynthetic analysis are widely used by organic, medicinal, and computational chemists. Rule-based systems extensively use collections of retro-reactions (transforms. While there are many public datasets with reactions in synthetic direction (usually non-generic reactions, there are no publicly-available databases with generic reactions in computer-readable format which can be used for the purposes of retrosynthetic analysis. Here we present RetroTransformDB—a dataset of transforms, compiled and coded in SMIRKS line notation by us. The collection is comprised of more than 100 records, with each one including the reaction name, SMIRKS linear notation, the functional group to be obtained, and the transform type classification. All SMIRKS transforms were tested syntactically, semantically, and from a chemical point of view in different software platforms. The overall dataset design and the retrosynthetic fitness were analyzed and curated by organic chemistry experts. The RetroTransformDB dataset may be used by open-source and commercial software packages, as well as chemoinformatics tools.

  7. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Assess Bronchiolitis Suspicion from Signs and Symptoms Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karim, Rezuan; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using evidential reasoning (RIMER) acts as the inference engine of this BRBES while belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema. The knowledge base of the system is constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion from...

  8. A rule-based computer control system for PBX-M neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.T.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) neutral beams have been routinely operated under automatic computer control. A major upgrade of the computer configuration was undertaken to coincide with the PBX machine modification. The primary tasks included in the computer control system are data acquisition, waveform reduction, automatic control and data storage. The portion of the system which will remain intact is the rule-based approach to automatic control. Increased computational and storage capability will allow the expansion of the knowledge base previously used. The hardware configuration supported by the PBX Neutral Beam (XNB) software includes a dedicated Microvax with five CAMAC crates and four process controllers. The control algorithms are rule-based and goal-driven. The automatic control system raises ion source electrical parameters to selected energy goals and maintains these levels until new goals are requested or faults are detected

  9. A self-learning rule base for command following in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei K.; Lee, Hon-Mun; Parlos, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a self-learning Rule Base for command following in dynamical systems is presented. The learning is accomplished though reinforcement learning using an associative memory called SAM. The main advantage of SAM is that it is a function approximator with explicit storage of training samples. A learning algorithm patterned after the dynamic programming is proposed. Two artificially created, unstable dynamical systems are used for testing, and the Rule Base was used to generate a feedback control to improve the command following ability of the otherwise uncontrolled systems. The numerical results are very encouraging. The controlled systems exhibit a more stable behavior and a better capability to follow reference commands. The rules resulting from the reinforcement learning are explicitly stored and they can be modified or augmented by human experts. Due to overlapping storage scheme of SAM, the stored rules are similar to fuzzy rules.

  10. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  11. Rule Based System for Medicine Inventory Control Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardhyanti Mita Nugraha Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rule based system is very efficient to ensure stock of drug to remain available by utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID as input means automatically. This method can ensure the stock of drugs to remain available by analyzing the needs of drug users. The research data was the amount of drug usage in hospital for 1 year. The data was processed by using ABC classification to determine the drug with fast, medium and slow movement. In each classification result, rule based algorithm was given for determination of safety stock and Reorder Point (ROP. This research yielded safety stock and ROP values that vary depending on the class of each drug. Validation is done by comparing the calculation of safety stock and reorder point both manually and by system, then, it was found that the mean deviation value at safety stock was 0,03 and and ROP was 0,08.

  12. Towards a framework for threaded inference in rule-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Casillas Santillan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available nformation and communication technologies have shown a significant advance and fast pace in their performance and pervasiveness. Knowledge has become a significant asset for organizations, which need to deal with large amounts of data and information to produce valuable knowledge. Dealing with knowledge is turning the axis for organizations in the new economy. One of the choices to gather the goal of knowledge managing is the use of rule-based systems. This kind of approach is the new chance for expert-systems’ technology. Modern languages and cheap computing allow the implementation of concurrent systems for dealing huge volumes of information in organizations. The present work is aimed at proposing the use of contemporary programming elements, as easy to exploit threading, when implementing rule-based treatment over huge data volumes.

  13. Rule Based System for Medicine Inventory Control Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Joanna Ardhyanti Mita; Suryono; Suseno, dan Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    Rule based system is very efficient to ensure stock of drug to remain available by utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) as input means automatically. This method can ensure the stock of drugs to remain available by analyzing the needs of drug users. The research data was the amount of drug usage in hospital for 1 year. The data was processed by using ABC classification to determine the drug with fast, medium and slow movement. In each classification result, rule based algorithm was given for determination of safety stock and Reorder Point (ROP). This research yielded safety stock and ROP values that vary depending on the class of each drug. Validation is done by comparing the calculation of safety stock and reorder point both manually and by system, then, it was found that the mean deviation value at safety stock was 0,03 and and ROP was 0,08.

  14. Changing from a Rules-based to a Principles-based Accounting Logic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Silva Guerreiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore influences on unlisted companies when Portugal moved from a code law, rules-based accounting system, to a principles-based accounting system of adapted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Institutionalisation of the new principles-based system was generally facilitated by a socio-economic and political context that increasingly supported IFRS logic. This helped central actors gain political opportunity, mobilise important allies, and accommodate major protagonists. The preparedness of unlisted companies to adopt the new IFRS-based accounting system voluntarily was explained by their desire to maintain social legitimacy. However, it was affected negatively by the embeddedness of rule-based practices in the ‘old’ prevailing institutional logic.

  15. RULE-BASE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF QUALITY E-LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    darsih darsih darsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assessing the quality of e-learning courses to measure the success of e-learning systems in online learning is essential. The system can be used to improve education. The study analyzes the quality of e-learning course on the web site www.kulon.undip.ac.id used a questionnaire with questions based on the variables of ISO 9126. Penilaiann Likert scale was used with a web app. Rule-base reasoning method is used to subject the quality of e-learningyang assessed. A case study conducted in four e-learning courses with 133 sample / respondents as users of the e-learning course. From the obtained results of research conducted both for the value of e-learning from each subject tested. In addition, each e-learning courses have different advantages depending on certain variables. Keywords : E-Learning, Rule-Base, Questionnaire, Likert, Measuring.

  16. Fuzzy Rule-based Analysis of Promotional Efficiency in Vietnam’s Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quang VINH; Dam Van KHANH; Nguyen Viet ANH

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine an effective method of measuring the efficiency of promotional strategies for tourist destinations. Complicating factors that influence promotional efficiency (PE), such as promotional activities (PA), destination attribute (DA), and destination image (DI), make it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of PE. This study develops a rule-based decision support mechanism using fuzzy set theory and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the effectiveness o...

  17. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  18. Moving from Rule-based to Principle-based in Public Sector: Preparers' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Roshayani Arshad; Normah Omar; Siti Fatimah Awang

    2013-01-01

    The move from cash accounting to accrual accounting, or rule-based to principle-based accounting, by many governments is part of an ongoing efforts in promoting a more business-like and performance-focused public sector. Using questionnaire responses from preparers of financial statements of public universities in Malaysia, this study examines the implementation challenges and benefits of principle-based accounting. Results from these responses suggest that most respondents perceived signific...

  19. LPS: a rule-based, schema-oriented knowledge representation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Y; Mitsuya, Y; Nakajima, S; Ura, S

    1981-01-01

    A new knowledge representation system called LPS is presented. The global control structure of LPS is rule-based, but the local representational structure is schema-oriented. The present version of LPS was designed to increase the understandability of representation while keeping time efficiency reasonable. Pattern matching through slot-networks and meta-actions from among the implemented facilities of LPS, are especially described in detail. 7 references.

  20. Transfer between local and global processing levels by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens) in exemplar- and rule-based categorization tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Multi-time Lagrangian 1-forms for families of Bäcklund transformations. Relativistic Toda-type systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Raphael; Petrera, Matteo; Suris, Yuri B

    2015-01-01

    We establish the pluri-Lagrangian structure for families of Bäcklund transformations of relativistic Toda-type systems. The key idea is a novel embedding of these discrete-time (one-dimensional) systems into certain two-dimensional (2D) pluri-Lagrangian lattice systems. This embedding allows us to identify the corner equations (which are the main building blocks of the multi-time Euler–Lagrange equations) with local superposition formulae for Bäcklund transformations. These superposition formulae, in turn, are key ingredients necessary to understand and to prove commutativity of the multi-valued Bäcklund transformations. Furthermore, we discover a 2D generalization of the spectrality property known for families of Bäcklund transformations. This result produces a family of local conservations laws for 2D pluri-Lagrangian lattice systems, with densities being derivatives of the discrete 2-form with respect to the Bäcklund (spectral) parameter. Thus, a relation of the pluri-Lagrangian structure with more traditional integrability notions is established. (paper)

  3. Detailed High Frequency Models of Various Winding Types in Power Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Abstract--In this paper, techniques are described which demonstrate how a highly detailed internal transformer model can be obtained systematically with Matlab and how it can be prepared for subsequent transient analysis. The input of such a model will mainly be the description of the cross secti...... equivalent circuit. Finally a new circuit extraction technique is proposed for vector fitted impedance matrices for more efficient computation....

  4. Metastatic MHC class I-negative mouse cells derived by transformation with human papillomavirus type 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmahel, M.; Sobotková, E.; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Žák, R.; Ludvíková, V.; Mikyšková, Romana; Kovařík, J.; Jelínek, F.; Povýšil, C.; Marinov, J.; Vonka, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2001), s. 374-380 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5900; GA MZd NC5526; GA ČR GA312/99/0542; GA ČR GA312/98/0826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : human papillomavirus * E6/E7 oncogenes * cell transformation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2001

  5. Development of a rule-based diagnostic platform on an object-oriented expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel Flow Model represents system knowledge as a domain map in expert system. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can identify root cause via a causal chain. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can be used for fault simulation training. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and implementation of a real-time rule-based diagnostic platform. The knowledge is acquired from domain experts and textbooks and the design of the fault diagnosis expert system was performed in the following ways: (i) establishing of corresponding classes and instances to build the domain map, (ii) creating of generic fault models based on events, and (iii) building of diagnostic reasoning based on rules. Knowledge representation is a complicated issue of expert systems. One highlight of this paper is that the Multilevel Flow Model has been used to represent the knowledge, which composes the domain map within the expert system as well as providing a concise description of the system. The developed platform is illustrated using the pressure safety system of a pressurized water reactor as an example of the simulation test bed; the platform is developed using the commercial and industrially validated software G2. The emulation test was conducted and it has been proven that the fault diagnosis expert system can identify the faults correctly and in a timely way; this system can be used as a simulation-based training tool to assist operators to make better decisions.

  6. Sistem Evaluasi Jamunan Mutu Menggunakan Rule Based System Untuk Monitoring Mutu Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The needs for continuous quality improvement resulting in the more complex. The research aims to develop system of quality assurance evaluation using rule based system to monitor the quality of higher education. This process of the research begins by documenting the daily activity of study program which consists of lecturer data, research data, service data, staff data, student data, and infrastructure data into a database. The data were evaluated by using rule based system  by adopting rules on quality standards of study program of National Accreditation Board for Higher Education as the knowledge base. Evaluation process was carried out by using the forward chaining methods by matching the existing data to the knowledge base to determine the quality status of each quality standard. While the reccomendation process was carried out by using the backward chaining methods by matching the results of quality status to the desired projection of quality status to determine the nearest target which can be achieved. The result of the research is system of quality assurance evaluation with rule based system that is capable of producing an output system in the form of internal evaluation report and recommendation system that can be used to monitor the quality of higher education.

  7. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  8. An evaluation and implementation of rule-based Home Energy Management System using the Rete algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoya; Fujita, Naotaka; Yoshihisa, Tomoki; Tsukamoto, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensors become popular and Home Energy Management System (HEMS) takes an important role in saving energy without decrease in QoL (Quality of Life). Currently, many rule-based HEMSs have been proposed and almost all of them assume "IF-THEN" rules. The Rete algorithm is a typical pattern matching algorithm for IF-THEN rules. Currently, we have proposed a rule-based Home Energy Management System (HEMS) using the Rete algorithm. In the proposed system, rules for managing energy are processed by smart taps in network, and the loads for processing rules and collecting data are distributed to smart taps. In addition, the number of processes and collecting data are reduced by processing rules based on the Rete algorithm. In this paper, we evaluated the proposed system by simulation. In the simulation environment, rules are processed by a smart tap that relates to the action part of each rule. In addition, we implemented the proposed system as HEMS using smart taps.

  9. Spatial Rule-Based Modeling: A Method and Its Application to the Human Mitotic Kinetochore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Huwald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the analysis of biological systems is the combinatorial explosion that emerges from the complexity of multi-protein assemblies. Conventional formalisms, like differential equations, Boolean networks and Bayesian networks, are unsuitable for dealing with the combinatorial explosion, because they are designed for a restricted state space with fixed dimensionality. To overcome this problem, the rule-based modeling language, BioNetGen, and the spatial extension, SRSim, have been developed. Here, we describe how to apply rule-based modeling to integrate experimental data from different sources into a single spatial simulation model and how to analyze the output of that model. The starting point for this approach can be a combination of molecular interaction data, reaction network data, proximities, binding and diffusion kinetics and molecular geometries at different levels of detail. We describe the technique and then use it to construct a model of the human mitotic inner and outer kinetochore, including the spindle assembly checkpoint signaling pathway. This allows us to demonstrate the utility of the procedure, show how a novel perspective for understanding such complex systems becomes accessible and elaborate on challenges that arise in the formulation, simulation and analysis of spatial rule-based models.

  10. Inflation of type I error rates by unequal variances associated with parametric, nonparametric, and Rank-Transformation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Zimmerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the two-sample Student t test fails to maintain its significance level when the variances of treatment groups are unequal, and, at the same time, sample sizes are unequal. However, introductory textbooks in psychology and education often maintain that the test is robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal. The present study discloses that, for a wide variety of non-normal distributions, especially skewed distributions, the Type I error probabilities of both the t test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test are substantially inflated by heterogeneous variances, even when sample sizes are equal. The Type I error rate of the t test performed on ranks replacing the scores (rank-transformed data is inflated in the same way and always corresponds closely to that of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. For many probability densities, the distortion of the significance level is far greater after transformation to ranks and, contrary to known asymptotic properties, the magnitude of the inflation is an increasing function of sample size. Although nonparametric tests of location also can be sensitive to differences in the shape of distributions apart from location, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and rank-transformation tests apparently are influenced mainly by skewness that is accompanied by specious differences in the means of ranks.

  11. Identification of syrup type using fourier transform-near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravipat Lapcharoensuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish near infrared (NIR spectroscopy models for identification of syrup types in which the maple syrup was discriminated from other syrup types. Thirty syrup types were used in this research; the NIR spectra of each type were recorded with 10 replicates. The repeatability and reproducibility of NIR scanning were performed, and the absorbance at 6940cm−1 was used for calculation. Principal component analysis was used to group the syrup type. Identification models were developed by soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. The SIMCA models of all syrup types exhibited accuracy percentage of 93.3–100% for identifying syrup types, whereas maple syrup discrimination models showed percentage of accuracy between 83.2% and 100%. The PLS-DA technique gave the accuracy of syrup types classification between 96.6% and 100% and presented ability on discrimination of maple syrup form other types of syrup with accuracy of 100%. The finding presented the potential of NIR spectroscopy for the syrup type identification.

  12. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedletskii, A. M.

    2003-02-01

    We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L^q(\\mathbb R_+), 1, with a slowly varying weight. We prove that if the weight satisfies certain conditions, then each LT of this class has tangential boundary values almost everywhere on the imaginary axis, and the structure of the corresponding neighbourhoods depends on the weight only. This result is applied to distinguish a wide class of weighted L^p spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system \\exp(-\\lambda_n t) in these spaces.

  13. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedletskii, A M [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-28

    We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L{sup q}(R{sub +}), 1

  14. Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, C E; Drigo, S A; Rosa, F E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signalling pathway in breast carcinomas (BCs) remained elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TGF-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) expression levels in t...

  15. Rule-based modeling: a computational approach for studying biomolecular site dynamics in cell signaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Faeder, James R.; Lopez, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Rule-based modeling was developed to address the limitations of traditional approaches for modeling chemical kinetics in cell signaling systems. These systems consist of multiple interacting biomolecules (e.g., proteins), which themselves consist of multiple parts (e.g., domains, linear motifs, and sites of phosphorylation). Consequently, biomolecules that mediate information processing generally have the potential to interact in multiple ways, with the number of possible complexes and post-translational modification states tending to grow exponentially with the number of binary interactions considered. As a result, only large reaction networks capture all possible consequences of the molecular interactions that occur in a cell signaling system, which is problematic because traditional modeling approaches for chemical kinetics (e.g., ordinary differential equations) require explicit network specification. This problem is circumvented through representation of interactions in terms of local rules. With this approach, network specification is implicit and model specification is concise. Concise representation results in a coarse graining of chemical kinetics, which is introduced because all reactions implied by a rule inherit the rate law associated with that rule. Coarse graining can be appropriate if interactions are modular, and the coarseness of a model can be adjusted as needed. Rules can be specified using specialized model-specification languages, and recently developed tools designed for specification of rule-based models allow one to leverage powerful software engineering capabilities. A rule-based model comprises a set of rules, which can be processed by general-purpose simulation and analysis tools to achieve different objectives (e.g., to perform either a deterministic or stochastic simulation). PMID:24123887

  16. Rule-based modeling: a computational approach for studying biomolecular site dynamics in cell signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Tung, Chang-Shung; Faeder, James R; Lopez, Carlos F; Hlavacek, William S

    2014-01-01

    Rule-based modeling was developed to address the limitations of traditional approaches for modeling chemical kinetics in cell signaling systems. These systems consist of multiple interacting biomolecules (e.g., proteins), which themselves consist of multiple parts (e.g., domains, linear motifs, and sites of phosphorylation). Consequently, biomolecules that mediate information processing generally have the potential to interact in multiple ways, with the number of possible complexes and posttranslational modification states tending to grow exponentially with the number of binary interactions considered. As a result, only large reaction networks capture all possible consequences of the molecular interactions that occur in a cell signaling system, which is problematic because traditional modeling approaches for chemical kinetics (e.g., ordinary differential equations) require explicit network specification. This problem is circumvented through representation of interactions in terms of local rules. With this approach, network specification is implicit and model specification is concise. Concise representation results in a coarse graining of chemical kinetics, which is introduced because all reactions implied by a rule inherit the rate law associated with that rule. Coarse graining can be appropriate if interactions are modular, and the coarseness of a model can be adjusted as needed. Rules can be specified using specialized model-specification languages, and recently developed tools designed for specification of rule-based models allow one to leverage powerful software engineering capabilities. A rule-based model comprises a set of rules, which can be processed by general-purpose simulation and analysis tools to achieve different objectives (e.g., to perform either a deterministic or stochastic simulation). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Compensatory Processing During Rule-Based Category Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Krishna L.; Paller, Ken A.; Reber, Paul J.; Weintraub, Sandra; Yanar, Jorge; Morrison, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy older adults typically perform worse than younger adults at rule-based category learning, but better than patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. To further investigate aging's effect on rule-based category learning, we monitored event-related potentials (ERPs) while younger and neuropsychologically typical older adults performed a visual category-learning task with a rule-based category structure and trial-by-trial feedback. Using these procedures, we previously identified ERPs sensitive to categorization strategy and accuracy in young participants. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated the importance of neural processing in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe for this task. In this study, older adults showed lower accuracy and longer response times than younger adults, but there were two distinct subgroups of older adults. One subgroup showed near-chance performance throughout the procedure, never categorizing accurately. The other subgroup reached asymptotic accuracy that was equivalent to that in younger adults, although they categorized more slowly. These two subgroups were further distinguished via ERPs. Consistent with the compensation theory of cognitive aging, older adults who successfully learned showed larger frontal ERPs when compared with younger adults. Recruitment of prefrontal resources may have improved performance while slowing response times. Additionally, correlations of feedback-locked P300 amplitudes with category-learning accuracy differentiated successful younger and older adults. Overall, the results suggest that the ability to adapt one's behavior in response to feedback during learning varies across older individuals, and that the failure of some to adapt their behavior may reflect inadequate engagement of prefrontal cortex. PMID:26422522

  18. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  19. Paper Improving Rule Based Stemmers to Solve Some Special Cases of Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufiane Farrah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Arabic language has become a necessity because of its big evolution; we propose in this paper a rule based extraction method of Arabic text to solve some weaknesses founded on previous research works. Our approach is divided on preprocessing phase, on which we proceed to the tokenization of the text, and formatting it by removing any punctuation, diacritics and non-letter characters. Treatment phase based on the elimination of several sets of affixes (diacritics, prefixes, and suffixes, and on the application of several patterns. A check phase that verifies if the root extracted is correct, by searching the result in root dictionaries.

  20. Weighted Evidence Combination Rule Based on Evidence Distance and Uncertainty Measure: An Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict management in Dempster-Shafer theory (D-S theory is a hot topic in information fusion. In this paper, a novel weighted evidence combination rule based on evidence distance and uncertainty measure is proposed. The proposed approach consists of two steps. First, the weight is determined based on the evidence distance. Then, the weight value obtained in first step is modified by taking advantage of uncertainty. Our proposed method can efficiently handle high conflicting evidences with better performance of convergence. A numerical example and an application based on sensor fusion in fault diagnosis are given to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method.

  1. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  2. Rule-Based and Case-Based Reasoning in Housing Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Gayer; Itzhak Gilboa; Offer Lieberman

    2004-01-01

    People reason about real-estate prices both in terms of general rules and in terms of analogies to similar cases. We propose to empirically test which mode of reasoning fits the data better. To this end, we develop the statistical techniques required for the estimation of the case-based model. It is hypothesized that case-based reasoning will have relatively more explanatory power in databases of rental apartments, whereas rule-based reasoning will have a relative advantage in sales data. We ...

  3. The development of cause analysis system for CPCS trip using the rule-base deduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seok; Kim, Dong Hoon; Seo, Ho Joon; Koo, In Soo; Park, Suk Joon

    1992-01-01

    The Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) was developed to initiate a Reactor Trip under the circumstance of certain transients by Combustion Engineering Company. The major function of the CPCS is to generate contact outputs for the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio(DNBR) Trip and Local Power Density(LPD) Trip. But in CPCS the trip causes can not be identified, only trip status is displayed. It may take much time and efforts for plant operator to analyse the trip causes of CPCS. So, the Cause Analysis System for CPCS(CASCPCS) has been developed using the rule-base deduction method to aid the operators in Nuclear Power Plant

  4. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN HAZARDOUS WORK SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercüment N. DİZDAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in work life. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. Here we face this problem: Can we make it possible to forecast the possible accidents that workers can face, and prevent these accidents by taking necessary precautions? In this study made, we aimed at developing an rule-based system to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the developed system was proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in manufacturing industry.

  5. Relativistic effect of pseudospin symmetry and tensor coupling on the Mie-type potential via Laplace transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M.; Ikhdair, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    A relativistic Mie-type potential for spin-1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonian contains a scalar S(r) and a vector V(r) Mie-type potential in the radial coordinates, as well as a tensor potential U(r) in the form of Coulomb potential. In the pseudospin (p-spin) symmetry setting Σ = C ps and Δ = V(r), an analytical solution for exact bound states of the corresponding Dirac equation is found. The eigenenergies and normalized wave functions are presented and particular cases are discussed with any arbitrary spin—orbit coupling number κ. Special attention is devoted to the case Σ = 0 for which p-spin symmetry is exact. The Laplace transform approach (LTA) is used in our calculations. Some numerical results are obtained and compared with those of other methods. (general)

  6. Processing of radioactive waste solution with zeolites. I. Thermal transformation of Na, Cs and Sr type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, T; Mimura, H; Kitamura, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy

    1976-08-01

    Thermal transformation of Na, Cs and Sr type zeolites were studied by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction. Synthetic zeolites A, X and Y, synthetic mordenite (Zeolon) and natural mordenite were used in this study. Na type zeolites of A and X recrystallized to Nepheline (NaAlSiO/sub 4/) above 1,000/sup 0/C, but the structures of zeolite Y and mordenite collapsed above about 900/sup 0/C and did not recrystallize until 1,200/sup 0/C. Cs type zeolites of A and X recrystallized to pollucite (CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) above 1,000/sup 0/C and Cs type of zeolite Y recrystallized to it above 1,100/sup 0/C, but the structure of mordenite collapsed above 1,000/sup 0/C and did not recrystallize until 1,200/sup 0/C. On Sr type zeolites, zeolite A and X recrystallized to strontium aluminosilicate (SrAl/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 8/) above 1,100/sup 0/C and zeolite Y recrystallized to it above 1,200/sup 0/C, but the structure of mordenite collapsed above 1,000/sup 0/C. The results described above were supported by microscopic observation and the measurement of density. If this solidifications by calcination of zeolites are further studied, new informations concerning the fixation of Cs and Sr will be obtained.

  7. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply of encapsulated-winding dry-type power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for the supply of encapsulated-winding dry-type power transformers. Following a market survey carried out among 75 firms in seventeen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2745/ST) was sent on 5 May 2000 to eight firms in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from six firms in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with TESAR (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply of encapsulated-winding dry-type power transformers for a total amount of 6 150 000 000 Italian lira, not subject to revision until 31 December 2002. At the exchange rate stipulated in the tender, this amount is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 78%, NO - 17% and DE - 5%.

  8. Current limiting behavior in three-phase transformer-type SFCLs using an iron core according to variety of fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sun; Jung, Byung-Ik; Ha, Kyoung-Hun; Choi, Soo-Geun; Park, Hyoung-Min; Choi, Hyo-Sang

    To apply the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to the power system, the reliability of the fault-current-limiting operation must be ensured in diverse fault conditions. The SFCL must also be linked to the operation of the high-speed recloser in the power system. In this study, a three-phase transformer-type SFCL, which has a neutral line to improve the simultaneous quench characteristics of superconducting elements, was manufactured to analyze the fault-current-limiting characteristic according to the single, double, and triple line-to-ground faults. The transformer-type SFCL, wherein three-phase windings are connected to one iron core, reduced the burden on the superconducting element as the superconducting element on the sound phase was also quenched in the case of the single line-to-ground fault. In the case of double or triple line-to-ground faults, the flux from the faulted phase winding was interlinked with other faulted or sound phase windings, and the fault-current-limiting rate decreased because the windings of three phases were inductively connected by one iron core.

  9. Martensitic transformation in 304L and 316L types stainless steels cathodically hydrogen charged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkovitz, E.; Eliezer, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports a TEM study on the role of phase transitions at the crack tip in 304L and 316L types stainless steels cathodically hydrogen charged in the absence of any eternally applied forces. The possible role of α prime and epsilon martensite phases in the fracture mechanism is discussed

  10. Biochar type and factors affecting N transformation, ammonia volatilization, and nitrous oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendment with biochar has shown the potential to improve nitrogen (N) availability for plant uptake and reduce environmental losses via ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. There are still many unknowns on how biochar type and soil conditions affect N dynamics and processes associa...

  11. BAG3 protects bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Roberta; Gallotta, Dario; d'Avenia, Morena; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival.

  12. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis of the effects of cereal type and variety within a type of grain on structural makeup in relation to rumen degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amanda M; Yu, Peiqiang; Christensen, Colleen R; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to use Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to determine structural makeup (features) of cereal grain endosperm tissue and to reveal and identify differences in protein and carbohydrate structural makeup between different cereal types (corn vs barley) and between different varieties within a grain (barley CDC Bold, CDC Dolly, Harrington, and Valier). Another objective was to investigate how these structural features relate to rumen degradation kinetics. The items assessed included (1) structural differences in protein amide I to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC, starch) intensity and ratio within cellular dimensions; (2) molecular structural differences in the secondary structure profile of protein, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and their ratio; (3) structural differences in NSC to amide I ratio profile. From the results, it was observed that (1) comparison between grain types [corn (cv. Pioneer 39P78) vs barley (cv. Harrington)] showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, and rumen degradation kinetics (degradation ratio, effective degradability of dry matter, protein and NSC) (P makeup in terms of amide I, NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, alpha-helix and beta-sheet protein structures, and rumen degradation kinetics (effective degradability of dry matter, protein, and NSC) (P makeup differences between cereal types and between different varieties within a type of grain could be revealed. These structural makeup differences were related to the rate and extent of rumen degradation.

  13. An investigation of care-based vs. rule-based morality in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Andrew R; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Daianu, Madelaine; Fong, Sylvia S; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira E; Thompson, Paul; Mendez, Mario F

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A Rule Based Approach to ISS Interior Volume Control and Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, Jim; Fitts, David; Dory, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Traditional human factors design involves the development of human factors requirements based on a desire to accommodate a certain percentage of the intended user population. As the product is developed human factors evaluation involves comparison between the resulting design and the specifications. Sometimes performance metrics are involved that allow leniency in the design requirements given that the human performance result is satisfactory. Clearly such approaches may work but they give rise to uncertainty and negotiation. An alternative approach is to adopt human factors design rules that articulate a range of each design continuum over which there are varying outcome expectations and interactions with other variables, including time. These rules are based on a consensus of human factors specialists, designers, managers and customers. The International Space Station faces exactly this challenge in interior volume control, which is based on anthropometric, performance and subjective preference criteria. This paper describes the traditional approach and then proposes a rule-based alternative. The proposed rules involve spatial, temporal and importance dimensions. If successful this rule-based concept could be applied to many traditional human factors design variables and could lead to a more effective and efficient contribution of human factors input to the design process.

  15. Rule-based topology system for spatial databases to validate complex geographic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Llario, J.; Coll, E.; Núñez-Andrés, M.; Femenia-Ribera, C.

    2017-06-01

    A rule-based topology software system providing a highly flexible and fast procedure to enforce integrity in spatial relationships among datasets is presented. This improved topology rule system is built over the spatial extension Jaspa. Both projects are open source, freely available software developed by the corresponding author of this paper. Currently, there is no spatial DBMS that implements a rule-based topology engine (considering that the topology rules are designed and performed in the spatial backend). If the topology rules are applied in the frontend (as in many GIS desktop programs), ArcGIS is the most advanced solution. The system presented in this paper has several major advantages over the ArcGIS approach: it can be extended with new topology rules, it has a much wider set of rules, and it can mix feature attributes with topology rules as filters. In addition, the topology rule system can work with various DBMSs, including PostgreSQL, H2 or Oracle, and the logic is performed in the spatial backend. The proposed topology system allows users to check the complex spatial relationships among features (from one or several spatial layers) that require some complex cartographic datasets, such as the data specifications proposed by INSPIRE in Europe and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for Cadastral data.

  16. A Rule-Based Data Transfer Protocol for On-Demand Data Exchange in Vehicular Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsien-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Intelligent Transport System (ITS is mainly to increase the driving safety and efficiency. Data exchange is an important way to achieve the purpose. An on-demand data exchange is especially useful to assist a driver avoiding some emergent events. In order to handle the data exchange under dynamic situations, a rule-based data transfer protocol is proposed in this paper. A set of rules is designed according to the principle of request-forward-reply (RFR. That is, they are used to determine the timing of data broadcasting, forwarding, and replying automatically. Two typical situations are used to demonstrate the operation of rules. One is the front view of a driver occluded by other vehicles. The other is the traffic jam. The proposed protocol is flexible and extensible for unforeseen situations. Three simulation tools were also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol and measure the network transmission under high density of vehicles. The simulation results show that the rule-based protocol is efficient on data exchange to increase the driving safety.

  17. Organizational Knowledge Transfer Using Ontologies and a Rule-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Masao; Yoshioka, Akiko; Kobayashi, Keido; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In recent automated and integrated manufacturing, so-called intelligence skill is becoming more and more important and its efficient transfer to next-generation engineers is one of the urgent issues. In this paper, we propose a new approach without costly OJT (on-the-job training), that is, combinational usage of a domain ontology, a rule ontology and a rule-based system. Intelligence skill can be decomposed into pieces of simple engineering rules. A rule ontology consists of these engineering rules as primitives and the semantic relations among them. A domain ontology consists of technical terms in the engineering rules and the semantic relations among them. A rule ontology helps novices get the total picture of the intelligence skill and a domain ontology helps them understand the exact meanings of the engineering rules. A rule-based system helps domain experts externalize their tacit intelligence skill to ontologies and also helps novices internalize them. As a case study, we applied our proposal to some actual job at a remote control and maintenance office of hydroelectric power stations in Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. We also did an evaluation experiment for this case study and the result supports our proposal.

  18. Integration of object-oriented knowledge representation with the CLIPS rule based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, David S.; Kamil, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a portion of the work aimed at developing an integrated, knowledge based environment for the development of engineering-oriented applications. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented in C++ which is used to build and modify an object-oriented knowledge base. The ORL was designed in such a way so as to be easily integrated with other representation schemes that could effectively reason with the object base. Specifically, the integration of the ORL with the rule based system C Language Production Systems (CLIPS), developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will be discussed. The object-oriented knowledge representation provides a natural means of representing problem data as a collection of related objects. Objects are comprised of descriptive properties and interrelationships. The object-oriented model promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects. Data is inherited through an object network via the relationship links. Together, the two schemes complement each other in that the object-oriented approach efficiently handles problem data while the rule based knowledge is used to simulate the reasoning process. Alone, the object based knowledge is little more than an object-oriented data storage scheme; however, the CLIPS inference engine adds the mechanism to directly and automatically reason with that knowledge. In this hybrid scheme, the expert system dynamically queries for data and can modify the object base with complete access to all the functionality of the ORL from rules.

  19. Implementasi Rule Based Expert Systems untuk Realtime Monitoring Penyelesaian Perkara Pidana Menggunakan Teknologi Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fuah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in the criminal case completions is that the difficulty of making decision to estimate when the settlement of the case file will be fulfilled. It is caused by the number of case files handled and detention time changing. Therefore, the fast and accurate information is needed. The research aims to develop a monitoring system tracking and tracking of scheduling rules using Rule Based Expert Systems method with 17 rules, and supported by Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID in the form of computer applications. Based on the output of the system, an analysis is performed in the criminal case settlement process with a set of IF-THEN rules. The RFID reader read the data of case files through radio wave signals emitted by the antenna toward active-Tag attached in the criminal case file. The system is designed to monitor the tracking and tracing of RFID-based scheduling rules in realtime way that was built in the form of computer application in accordance with the system design. This study results in no failure in reading active tags by the RFID reader to detect criminal case files that had been examined. There were many case files handled in three different location, they were the constabulary, prosecutor, and judges of district court and RFID was able to identify them simultaneously. So, RFID supports the implementation of Rule Based Expert Systems very much for realtime monitoring in criminal case accomplishment.

  20. A Rule-Based Model for Bankruptcy Prediction Based on an Improved Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a hybrid system to predict corporate bankruptcy. The whole procedure consists of the following four stages: first, sequential forward selection was used to extract the most important features; second, a rule-based model was chosen to fit the given dataset since it can present physical meaning; third, a genetic ant colony algorithm (GACA was introduced; the fitness scaling strategy and the chaotic operator were incorporated with GACA, forming a new algorithm—fitness-scaling chaotic GACA (FSCGACA, which was used to seek the optimal parameters of the rule-based model; and finally, the stratified K-fold cross-validation technique was used to enhance the generalization of the model. Simulation experiments of 1000 corporations’ data collected from 2006 to 2009 demonstrated that the proposed model was effective. It selected the 5 most important factors as “net income to stock broker’s equality,” “quick ratio,” “retained earnings to total assets,” “stockholders’ equity to total assets,” and “financial expenses to sales.” The total misclassification error of the proposed FSCGACA was only 7.9%, exceeding the results of genetic algorithm (GA, ant colony algorithm (ACA, and GACA. The average computation time of the model is 2.02 s.

  1. Criterial noise effects on rule-based category learning: the impact of delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Ing, A David; Maddox, W Todd

    2009-08-01

    Variability in the representation of the decision criterion is assumed in many category-learning models, yet few studies have directly examined its impact. On each trial, criterial noise should result in drift in the criterion and will negatively impact categorization accuracy, particularly in rule-based categorization tasks, where learning depends on the maintenance and manipulation of decision criteria. In three experiments, we tested this hypothesis and examined the impact of working memory on slowing the drift rate. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of drift by inserting a 5-sec delay between the categorization response and the delivery of corrective feedback, and working memory demand was manipulated by varying the number of decision criteria to be learned. Delayed feedback adversely affected performance, but only when working memory demand was high. In Experiment 2, we built on a classic finding in the absolute identification literature and demonstrated that distributing the criteria across multiple dimensions decreases the impact of drift during the delay. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the effect of drift during the delay is moderated by working memory. These results provide important insights into the interplay between criterial noise and working memory, as well as providing important constraints for models of rule-based category learning.

  2. Automated detection of pain from facial expressions: a rule-based approach using AAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanli; Ansari, Rashid; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the problem of using video analysis to assess pain, an important problem especially for critically ill, non-communicative patients, and people with dementia. We propose and evaluate an automated method to detect the presence of pain manifested in patient videos using a unique and large collection of cancer patient videos captured in patient homes. The method is based on detecting pain-related facial action units defined in the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that is widely used for objective assessment in pain analysis. In our research, a person-specific Active Appearance Model (AAM) based on Project-Out Inverse Compositional Method is trained for each patient individually for the modeling purpose. A flexible representation of the shape model is used in a rule-based method that is better suited than the more commonly used classifier-based methods for application to the cancer patient videos in which pain-related facial actions occur infrequently and more subtly. The rule-based method relies on the feature points that provide facial action cues and is extracted from the shape vertices of AAM, which have a natural correspondence to face muscular movement. In this paper, we investigate the detection of a commonly used set of pain-related action units in both the upper and lower face. Our detection results show good agreement with the results obtained by three trained FACS coders who independently reviewed and scored the action units in the cancer patient videos.

  3. AN QUALITY BASED ENHANCEMENT OF USER DATA PROTECTION VIA FUZZY RULE BASED SYSTEMS IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Poorva Devi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available So far, in cloud computing distinct customer is accessed and consumed enormous amount of services through web, offered by cloud service provider (CSP. However cloud is providing one of the services is, security-as-a-service to its clients, still people are terrified to use the service from cloud vendor. Number of solutions, security components and measurements are coming with the new scope for the cloud security issue, but 79.2% security outcome only obtained from the different scientists, researchers and other cloud based academy community. To overcome the problem of cloud security the proposed model that is, “Quality based Enhancing the user data protection via fuzzy rule based systems in cloud environment”, will helps to the cloud clients by the way of accessing the cloud resources through remote monitoring management (RMMM and what are all the services are currently requesting and consuming by the cloud users that can be well analyzed with Managed service provider (MSP rather than a traditional CSP. Normally, people are trying to secure their own private data by applying some key management and cryptographic based computations again it will direct to the security problem. In order to provide good quality of security target result by making use of fuzzy rule based systems (Constraint & Conclusion segments in cloud environment. By using this technique, users may obtain an efficient security outcome through the cloud simulation tool of Apache cloud stack simulator.

  4. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  5. Adsorption and transformation of PAHs from water by a laccase-loading spider-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Junfeng, E-mail: junfengn@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Dai, Yunrong, E-mail: daiyunrong@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Guo, Huiyuan, E-mail: hyguo0216@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xu, Jiangjie, E-mail: 1993120hb@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Zhenyao, E-mail: zyshen@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Laccase-loading spider-type reactor (LSTR) is got by emulsion electrospinning. ► LSTR consists of beads-in-string fibers with more laccase and higher activity. ► LSTR can achieve the rapid and efficient removal of PAHs from water. ► Aquatic environmental factors have little influence on the PAH removal by LSTR. ► A synergetic mechanism includes adsorption, directional migration and degradation. -- Abstract: The remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) polluted waters has become a concern as a result of the widespread use of PAHs and their adverse impacts on water ecosystems and human health. To remove PAHs rapidly and efficiently in situ, an active fibrous membrane, laccase-loading spider-type reactor (LSTR) was fabricated by electrospinning a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA)/laccase emulsion. The LSTR is composed of beads-in-string structural core–shell fibers, with active laccase encapsulated inside the beads and nanoscale pores on the surface of the beads. This structure can load more laccase and retains higher activity than do linear structural core–shell fibers. The LSTR achieves the efficient removal/degradation of PAHs in water, which is attributed to not only the protection of the laccase activity by the core–shell structure but also the pre-concentration (adsorption) of PAHs on the surface of the LSTR and the concentration of laccase in the beads. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration on the removal of PAHs by the LSTR, in comparison with that by free laccase, have been taken into account. A synergetic mechanism including adsorption, directional migration and degradation for PAH removal is proposed.

  6. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  7. A rule-based phase control methodology for a slider-crank wave energy converter power take-off system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Bogucki, Darek; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-09-01

    The slider crank is a proven mechanical linkage system with a long history of successful applications, and the slider-crank ocean wave energy converter (WEC) is a type of WEC that converts linear motion into rotation. This paper presents a control algorithm for a slider-crank WEC. In this study, a time-domain hydrodynamic analysis is adopted, and an AC synchronous machine is used in the power take-off system to achieve relatively high system performance. Also, a rule-based phase control strategy is applied to maximize energy extraction, making the system suitable for not only regular sinusoidal waves but also irregular waves. Simulations are carried out under regular sinusoidal wave and synthetically produced irregular wave conditions; performance validations are also presented with high-precision, real ocean wave surface elevation data. The influences of significant wave height, and peak period upon energy extraction of the system are studied. Energy extraction results using the proposed method are compared to those of the passive loading and complex conjugate control strategies; results show that the level of energy extraction is between those of the passive loading and complex conjugate control strategies, and the suboptimal nature of this control strategy is verified.

  8. Stable operation of a high-power piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers and a stepped horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kohei; Shibamata, Yuki

    2018-06-01

    We previously developed a 100 W piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers (BLTs) and a stepped horn whose cross-sectional area ratio determines the specified step-up voltage transformation ratio. Unlike conventional piezoelectric transformers, this transformer is driven at a frequency quite near its mechanical resonance, and thus can be mechanically held firmly at its clearly identified vibratory node without mechanical energy loss. However, it has been revealed that the high-power operation of the transformer often becomes very unstable owing to the “jumping and dropping” phenomena first found by Takahashi and Hirose [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3055 (1992)]. To avoid this instability, we have investigated the peculiar phenomena, and found that they can be attributed to a heavily distorted electric field inside the piezoelectric ceramic disks of the BLT on the primary side of the transformer being driven by a low-impedance voltage source near the mechanical resonance. The resultant concentration of the electric field leads to the local reversal of piezoelectric polarization in every half period of the vibration, viz., the instability. Consequently, we have developed a scheme for the steady high-power operation of this type of piezoelectric transformer and examined its validity experimentally. The method has eventually improved the linearity and power transfer efficiency of the transformer significantly.

  9. Impact of interplay between magnetic field, transformation strain, and coarsening on variant selection in L10-type FePd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, N.; Yasuda, H.; Yoshiya, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kakeshita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Variant selection of L1 0 -type ferromagnetic alloys has been numerically investigated using the phase-field modeling, to clarify the phenomena at greater temporal and spatial resolution and to reveal the underlying mechanism. The duration for which the external magnetic field is effective is found to be very short, and variant selection is significantly affected by not only direct response to the external magnetic field but also their interplay between the field, intrinsic transformation strain, and various thermodynamic energy components involved in the course of microstructure evolution. The detailed mechanism of the interplay was quantitatively analyzed in terms of the driving force for the variant selection, by partitioning it into the various energy components. Careful examination of the variant selection at the very early stage revealed that the slight difference in size and configuration of variants during disorder-to-order transition realized by the interplay between transformation strain and external field is essentially needed before proceeding to the latter stage of the variant selection driven by interface energy

  10. Residents' surgical performance during the laboratory years: an analysis of rule-based errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Jay N; Wise, Brett J; Garren, Margaret E; Mohamadipanah, Hossein; Van Beek, Nicole; DiMarco, Shannon M; Pugh, Carla M

    2017-11-01

    Nearly one-third of surgical residents will enter into academic development during their surgical residency by dedicating time to a research fellowship for 1-3 y. Major interest lies in understanding how laboratory residents' surgical skills are affected by minimal clinical exposure during academic development. A widely held concern is that the time away from clinical exposure results in surgical skills decay. This study examines the impact of the academic development years on residents' operative performance. We hypothesize that the use of repeated, annual assessments may result in learning even without individual feedback on participants simulated performance. Surgical performance data were collected from laboratory residents (postgraduate years 2-5) during the summers of 2014, 2015, and 2016. Residents had 15 min to complete a shortened, simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair procedure. Final hernia repair skins from all participants were scored using a previously validated checklist. An analysis of variance test compared the mean performance scores of repeat participants to those of first time participants. Twenty-seven (37% female) laboratory residents provided 2-year assessment data over the 3-year span of the study. Second time performance revealed improvement from a mean score of 14 (standard error = 1.0) in the first year to 17.2 (SD = 0.9) in the second year, (F[1, 52] = 5.6, P = 0.022). Detailed analysis demonstrated improvement in performance for 3 grading criteria that were considered to be rule-based errors. There was no improvement in operative strategy errors. Analysis of longitudinal performance of laboratory residents shows higher scores for repeat participants in the category of rule-based errors. These findings suggest that laboratory residents can learn from rule-based mistakes when provided with annual performance-based assessments. This benefit was not seen with operative strategy errors and has important implications for

  11. Prediction of δ-ferrite distribution in continuously cast type 304 stainless steel slabs by diffusion transformation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Joon; Kim, Sun K.; Kim, Jong W.

    1998-01-01

    Retained δ-ferrite in 304 stainless steel is known to prevent hot cracking during continuous casting. Excess content of retained δ-ferrite lowers the hot workability. So it is necessary to control the amount of retained δ-ferrite in stainless steel. A numerical model based on coupled analysis of macro heat transfer and micro diffusion transformation has been developed in order to predict retained δ-ferrite in continuously cast 304 stainless steel slab. The finite difference technique for moving boundary problem has been formulated utilizing 'murray-landis variable-grid method'. The reliability of numerical model is compared with the other results. The prediction of δ-ferrite content in CC type 304 stainless steel slabs shows good agreement between measured and predicted results. Effect of secondary cooling condition on the δ-ferrite has been also investigated

  12. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V., E-mail: vvch08@yandex.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Aleev, A.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Medvedeva, E.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Korchuganova, O.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Zhukova, V. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukov, A.P. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon.

  13. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Aleev, A.A.; Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Korchuganova, O.A.; Zhukova, V.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon

  14. Pressure-induced phase transformation in zircon-type orthovanadate SmVO4 from experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, C; Garg, Alka B; Errandonea, D; Sans, J A; Rodriguez-Hernández, P; Radescu, S; Muñoz, A; Achary, S N; Tyagi, A K

    2016-01-01

    The compression behavior of zircon-type samarium orthovanadate, SmVO 4 , has been investigated using synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations of up to 21 GPa. The results indicate the instability of ambient zircon phase at around 6 GPa, which transforms to a high-density scheelite-type phase. The high-pressure phase remains stable up to 21 GPa, the highest pressure reached in the present investigations. On pressure release, the scheelite phase is recovered. The crystal structure of the high-pressure phase and the equations of state for the zircon- and scheelite-type phases have been determined. Various compressibilities, such as the bulk, axial and bond compressibilities, estimated from the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained from theoretical calculations. The calculated elastic constants show that the zircon structure becomes mechanically unstable beyond the transition pressure. Overall there is good agreement between the experimental and theoretical findings. (paper)

  15. Effect of preparation conditions on fractal structure and phase transformations in the synthesis of nanoscale M-type barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkova, E.V. [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Solovyova, E.D., E-mail: solovyovak@mail.ru [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Kotenko, I.E., E-mail: Hab2420@yahoo.com [National Technical University of Ukraine ' KPI' , Pr. Pobedy, 37, Kyiv-57 (Ukraine); Kolodiazhnyi, T.V., E-mail: kolodiazhnyi.taras@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Belous, A.G., E-mail: belous@ionc.kar.net [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    The conditions of the synthesis of carbonate-hydroxide precursors (pH of FeOOH precipitation and heat treatment regimes) were studied in terms of their effect on the fractal structure and physical-chemical properties of precursors. Phase transformations which occur during the synthesis of nanosize M-type barium hexaferrite (BHF) were studied as well. The first structural level of precursors' aggregation for mass fractals, the correlation between fractal dimension and precursors' activity during the synthesis of BHF were determined. Synthesis parameters for the precursors with the optimal fractal structure were determined. These data permit an enhancement of the filtration coefficient of the precipitates by a factor of 4-5, obtaining substantial decrease in the temperature required for synthesis of a single-phase BHF, and monodispersed plate-like nanoparticles (60 nm diameter) with the shape anisotropy and good magnetic characteristics (saturation magnetization (M{sub s})=68,7 emu/g and coercitivity (H{sub c})=5440 Oe). - Highlights: > The nanosize M-type BHF obtained by precipitation of hydroxicarbonates technique. > Optimal fractal structure of a precursor for nanosize M-type BHF has been determined. > The precursor precipitated at pH 4.3 allows getting monodisperse particles of BHF.

  16. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Ornella; Guiomar, Raquel; Machado, Jorge; Menezes, José Cardoso; Lopes, João Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques were used to discriminate five closely related Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types, phage type 1 (PT1), PT1b, PT4b, PT6, and PT6a. Intact cells and outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts from bacterial cell membranes were subjected to FT-IR analysis in transmittance mode. Spectra were collected over a wavenumber range from 4,000 to 600 cm(-1). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop calibration models based on preprocessed FT-IR spectra. The analysis based on OMP extracts provided greater separation between the Salmonella Enteritidis PT1-PT1b, PT4b, and PT6-PT6a groups than the intact cell analysis. When these three phage type groups were considered, the method based on OMP extract FT-IR spectra was 100% accurate. Moreover, complementary local models that considered only the PT1-PT1b and PT6-PT6a groups were developed, and the level of discrimination increased. PT1 and PT1b isolates were differentiated successfully with the local model using the entire OMP extract spectrum (98.3% correct predictions), whereas the accuracy of discrimination between PT6 and PT6a isolates was 86.0%. Isolates belonging to different phage types (PT19, PT20, and PT21) were used with the model to test its robustness. For the first time it was demonstrated that FT-IR analysis of OMP extracts can be used for construction of robust models that allow fast and accurate discrimination of different Salmonella Enteritidis phage types.

  17. Transforming growth factor β1 induces the expression of collagen type I by DNA methylation in cardiac fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Pan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, a key mediator of cardiac fibroblast activation, has a major influence on collagen type I production. However, the epigenetic mechanisms by which TGF-β induces collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1 expression are not fully understood. This study was designed to examine whether or not DNA methylation is involved in TGF-β-induced COL1A1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Cells isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and stimulated with TGF-β1. The mRNA levels of COL1A1 and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs were determined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of collagen type I were determined via Western blot as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantitative methylation of the COL1A1 promoter region was analyzed using the MassARRAY platform of Sequenom. Results showed that TGF-β1 upregulated the mRNA expression of COL1A1 and induced the synthesis of cell-associated and secreted collagen type I in cardiac fibroblasts. DNMT1 and DNMT3a expressions were significantly downregulated and the global DNMT activity was inhibited when treated with 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 for 48 h. TGF-β1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction of the DNA methylation percentage across multiple CpG sites in the rat COL1A1 promoter. Thus, TGF-β1 can induce collagen type I expression through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3a expressions as well as global DNMT activity, thereby resulting in DNA demethylation of the COL1A1 promoter. These findings suggested that the DNMT-mediated DNA methylation is an important mechanism in regulating the TGF-β1-induced COL1A1 gene expression.

  18. Life-threatening false alarm rejection in ICU: using the rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Zhao, Lina; Tang, Hong; Li, Qiao; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Jianqing

    2016-08-01

    False alarm (FA) rates as high as 86% have been reported in intensive care unit monitors. High FA rates decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient burdens and stresses. In this study, we proposed a rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method for accurately classifying the true or false alarms for five life-threatening arrhythmias: asystole (ASY), extreme bradycardia (EBR), extreme tachycardia (ETC), ventricular tachycardia (VTA) and ventricular flutter/fibrillation (VFB). The proposed method consisted of five steps: (1) signal pre-processing, (2) feature detection and validation, (3) true/false alarm determination for each channel, (4) 'real-time' true/false alarm determination and (5) 'retrospective' true/false alarm determination (if needed). Up to four signal channels, that is, two electrocardiogram signals, one arterial blood pressure and/or one photoplethysmogram signal were included in the analysis. Two events were set for the method validation: event 1 for 'real-time' and event 2 for 'retrospective' alarm classification. The results showed that 100% true positive ratio (i.e. sensitivity) on the training set were obtained for ASY, EBR, ETC and VFB types, and 94% for VTA type, accompanied by the corresponding true negative ratio (i.e. specificity) results of 93%, 81%, 78%, 85% and 50% respectively, resulting in the score values of 96.50, 90.70, 88.89, 92.31 and 64.90, as well as with a final score of 80.57 for event 1 and 79.12 for event 2. For the test set, the proposed method obtained the score of 88.73 for ASY, 77.78 for EBR, 89.92 for ETC, 67.74 for VFB and 61.04 for VTA types, with the final score of 71.68 for event 1 and 75.91 for event 2.

  19. A General Attribute and Rule Based Role-Based Access Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Growing numbers of users and many access control policies which involve many different resource attributes in service-oriented environments bring various problems in protecting resource. This paper analyzes the relationships of resource attributes to user attributes in all policies, and propose a general attribute and rule based role-based access control(GAR-RBAC) model to meet the security needs. The model can dynamically assign users to roles via rules to meet the need of growing numbers of users. These rules use different attribute expression and permission as a part of authorization constraints, and are defined by analyzing relations of resource attributes to user attributes in many access policies that are defined by the enterprise. The model is a general access control model, and can support many access control policies, and also can be used to wider application for service. The paper also describes how to use the GAR-RBAC model in Web service environments.

  20. Increasing Supply-Chain Visibility with Rule-Based RFID Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, A.; Andersen, Thomas; Michahelles, F.

    2009-01-01

    RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data, the Sup......RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data......, the Supply Chain Visualizer increases supply-chain visibility by analyzing RFID data, using a mix of automated analysis techniques and human effort. The tool's core concepts include rule-based analysis techniques and a map-based representation interface. With these features, it lets users visualize...

  1. An Enhanced Rule-Based Web Scanner Based on Similarity Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an enhanced rule-based web scanner in order to get better accuracy in detecting web vulnerabilities than the existing tools, which have relatively high false alarm rate when the web pages are installed in unconventional directory paths. Using the proposed matching method based on similarity score, the proposed scheme can determine whether two pages have the same vulnerabilities or not. With this method, the proposed scheme is able to figure out the target web pages are vulnerable by comparing them to the web pages that are known to have vulnerabilities. We show the proposed scanner reduces 12% false alarm rate compared to the existing well-known scanner through the performance evaluation via various experiments. The proposed scheme is especially helpful in detecting vulnerabilities of the web applications which come from well-known open-source web applications after small customization, which happens frequently in many small-sized companies.

  2. Using fuzzy rule-based knowledge model for optimum plating conditions search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovjev, D. S.; Solovjeva, I. A.; Litovka, Yu V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.; Glazkov, V. P.; L’vov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses existing approaches to plating process modeling in order to decrease the distribution thickness of plating surface cover. However, these approaches do not take into account the experience, knowledge, and intuition of the decision-makers when searching the optimal conditions of electroplating technological process. The original approach to optimal conditions search for applying the electroplating coatings, which uses the rule-based model of knowledge and allows one to reduce the uneven product thickness distribution, is proposed. The block diagrams of a conventional control system of a galvanic process as well as the system based on the production model of knowledge are considered. It is shown that the fuzzy production model of knowledge in the control system makes it possible to obtain galvanic coatings of a given thickness unevenness with a high degree of adequacy to the experimental data. The described experimental results confirm the theoretical conclusions.

  3. Fuzzy Rule-based Analysis of Promotional Efficiency in Vietnam’s Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine an effective method of measuring the efficiency of promotional strategies for tourist destinations. Complicating factors that influence promotional efficiency (PE, such as promotional activities (PA, destination attribute (DA, and destination image (DI, make it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of PE. This study develops a rule-based decision support mechanism using fuzzy set theory and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to evaluate the effectiveness of promotional strategies. Additionally, a statistical analysis is conducted using SPSS (Statistics Package for Social Science to confirm the results of the fuzzy AHP analysis. This study finds that government policy is the most important factor for PE and that service staff (internal beauty is more important than tourism infrastructure (external beauty in terms of customer satisfaction and long-term strategy in PE. With respect to DI, experts are concerned first with tourist perceived value, second with tourist satisfaction and finally with tourist loyalty.

  4. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool

  5. Analysis of Rules for Islamic Inheritance Law in Indonesia Using Hybrid Rule Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosyi'ah, S.; Irfan, M.; Maylawati, D. S.; Mukhlas, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of human civilization in Indonesia, the changes and reform of Islamic inheritance law so as to conform to the conditions and culture cannot be denied. The distribution of inheritance in Indonesia can be done automatically by storing the rule of Islamic inheritance law in the expert system. In this study, we analyze the knowledge of experts in Islamic inheritance in Indonesia and represent it in the form of rules using rule-based Forward Chaining (FC) and Davis-Putman-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithms. By hybridizing FC and DPLL algorithms, the rules of Islamic inheritance law in Indonesia are clearly defined and measured. The rules were conceptually validated by some experts in Islamic laws and informatics. The results revealed that generally all rules were ready for use in an expert system.

  6. Method for automatic control rod operation using rule-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kiguchi, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    An automatic control rod operation method using rule-based control is proposed. Its features are as follows: (1) a production system to recognize plant events, determine control actions and realize fast inference (fast selection of a suitable production rule), (2) use of the fuzzy control technique to determine quantitative control variables. The method's performance was evaluated by simulation tests on automatic control rod operation at a BWR plant start-up. The results were as follows; (1) The performance which is related to stabilization of controlled variables and time required for reactor start-up, was superior to that of other methods such as PID control and program control methods, (2) the process time to select and interpret the suitable production rule, which was the same as required for event recognition or determination of control action, was short (below 1 s) enough for real time control. The results showed that the method is effective for automatic control rod operation. (author)

  7. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool. ((orig.))

  8. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-07-07

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles.

  9. Research on key technology of the verification system of steel rule based on vision measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siyuan; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua; Li, Yiming; Lu, Ruijun

    2018-01-01

    The steel rule plays an important role in quantity transmission. However, the traditional verification method of steel rule based on manual operation and reading brings about low precision and low efficiency. A machine vison based verification system of steel rule is designed referring to JJG1-1999-Verificaiton Regulation of Steel Rule [1]. What differentiates this system is that it uses a new calibration method of pixel equivalent and decontaminates the surface of steel rule. Experiments show that these two methods fully meet the requirements of the verification system. Measuring results strongly prove that these methods not only meet the precision of verification regulation, but also improve the reliability and efficiency of the verification system.

  10. Neural Substrates of Similarity and Rule-based Strategies in Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eVon Helversen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Making accurate judgments is a core human competence and a prerequisite for success in many areas of life. Plenty of evidence exists that people can employ different judgment strategies to solve identical judgment problems. In categorization, it has been demonstrated that similarity-based and rule-based strategies are associated with activity in different brain regions. Building on this research, the present work tests whether solving two identical judgment problems recruits different neural substrates depending on people's judgment strategies. Combining cognitive modeling of judgment strategies at the behavioral level with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we compare brain activity when using two archetypal judgment strategies: a similarity-based exemplar strategy and a rule-based heuristic strategy. Using an exemplar-based strategy should recruit areas involved in long-term memory processes to a larger extent than a heuristic strategy. In contrast, using a heuristic strategy should recruit areas involved in the application of rules to a larger extent than an exemplar-based strategy. Largely consistent with our hypotheses, we found that using an exemplar-based strategy led to relatively higher BOLD activity in the anterior prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, presumably related to retrieval and selective attention processes. In contrast, using a heuristic strategy led to relatively higher activity in areas in the dorsolateral prefrontal and the temporal-parietal cortex associated with cognitive control and information integration. Thus, even when people solve identical judgment problems, different neural substrates can be recruited depending on the judgment strategy involved.

  11. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  12. Collaborative Working e-Learning Environments Supported by Rule-Based e-Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Odeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative working environments for distance education sets a goal of convenience and an adaptation into our technologically advanced societies. To achieve this revolutionary new way of learning, environments must allow the different participants to communicate and coordinate with each other in a productive manner. Productivity and efficiency is obtained through synchronized communication between the different coordinating partners, which means that multiple users can execute an experiment simultaneously. Within this process, coordination can be accomplished by voice communication and chat tools. In recent times, multi-user environments have been successfully applied in many applications such as air traffic control systems, team-oriented military systems, chat text tools, and multi-player games. Thus, understanding the ideas and the techniques behind these systems can be of great significance regarding the contribution of newer ideas to collaborative working e-learning environments. However, many problems still exist in distance learning and tele-education, such as not finding the proper assistance while performing the remote experiment. Therefore, the students become overwhelmed and the experiment will fail. In this paper, we are going to discuss a solution that enables students to obtain an automated help by either a human tutor or a rule-based e-tutor (embedded rule-based system for the purpose of student support in complex remote experimentative environments. The technical implementation of the system can be realized by using the powerful Microsoft .NET, which offers a complete integrated developmental environment (IDE with a wide collection of products and technologies. Once the system is developed, groups of students are independently able to coordinate and to execute the experiment at any time and from any place, organizing the work between them positively.

  13. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  14. Improving the anesthetic process by a fuzzy rule based medical decision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Juan Albino; Leon, Ana; Marrero, Ayoze; Gonzalez-Cava, Jose M; Reboso, Jose Antonio; Estevez, Jose Ignacio; Gomez-Gonzalez, José F

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this research is the design and implementation of a new fuzzy logic tool for automatic drug delivery in patients undergoing general anesthesia. The aim is to adjust the drug dose to the real patient needs using heuristic knowledge provided by clinicians. A two-level computer decision system is proposed. The idea is to release the clinician from routine tasks so that he can focus on other variables of the patient. The controller uses the Bispectral Index (BIS) to assess the hypnotic state of the patient. Fuzzy controller was included in a closed-loop system to reach the BIS target and reject disturbances. BIS was measured using a BIS VISTA monitor, a device capable of calculating the hypnosis level of the patient through EEG information. An infusion pump with propofol 1% is used to supply the drug to the patient. The inputs to the fuzzy inference system are BIS error and BIS rate. The output is infusion rate increment. The mapping of the input information and the appropriate output is given by a rule-base based on knowledge of clinicians. To evaluate the performance of the fuzzy closed-loop system proposed, an observational study was carried out. Eighty one patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery were randomly distributed in 2 groups: one group using a fuzzy logic based closed-loop system (FCL) to automate the administration of propofol (42 cases); the second group using manual delivering of the drug (39 cases). In both groups, the BIS target was 50. The FCL, designed with intuitive logic rules based on the clinician experience, performed satisfactorily and outperformed the manual administration in patients in terms of accuracy through the maintenance stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SPATKIN: a simulator for rule-based modeling of biomolecular site dynamics on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanczyk, Marek; Hlavacek, William S; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2017-11-15

    Rule-based modeling is a powerful approach for studying biomolecular site dynamics. Here, we present SPATKIN, a general-purpose simulator for rule-based modeling in two spatial dimensions. The simulation algorithm is a lattice-based method that tracks Brownian motion of individual molecules and the stochastic firing of rule-defined reaction events. Because rules are used as event generators, the algorithm is network-free, meaning that it does not require to generate the complete reaction network implied by rules prior to simulation. In a simulation, each molecule (or complex of molecules) is taken to occupy a single lattice site that cannot be shared with another molecule (or complex). SPATKIN is capable of simulating a wide array of membrane-associated processes, including adsorption, desorption and crowding. Models are specified using an extension of the BioNetGen language, which allows to account for spatial features of the simulated process. The C ++ source code for SPATKIN is distributed freely under the terms of the GNU GPLv3 license. The source code can be compiled for execution on popular platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). An installer for 64-bit Windows and a macOS app are available. The source code and precompiled binaries are available at the SPATKIN Web site (http://pmbm.ippt.pan.pl/software/spatkin). spatkin.simulator@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. PRINCIPLES- AND RULES-BASED ACCOUNTING DEBATE. IMPLICATIONS FOR AN EMERGENT COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Adela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By a qualitative analysis, this research observes whether a principles-based system or a mixed version of it with the rules-based system, applied in Romania - an emergent country - is appropriate taking into account the mentalities, the traditions, and other cultural elements that were typical of a rules-based system. We support the statement that, even if certain contextual variables are common to other developed countries, their environments significantly differ. To be effective, financial reporting must reflect the firm's context in which it is functioning. The research has a deductive approach based on the analysis of the cultural factors and their influence in the last years. For Romania it is argue a lower accounting professionalism associated with a low level of ambiguity tolerance. For the stage analysed in this study (after the year 2005 the professional reasoning - a proxy for the accounting professional behaviour - took into consideration the fiscal and legal requirements rather than the accounting principles and judgments. The research suggest that the Romanian accounting practice and the professionals are not fully prepared for a principles-based system environment, associated with the ability to find undisclosed events, facing ambiguity, identifying inferred relationships and using intuition, respectively working with uncertainty. We therefore reach the conclusion that in Romania institutional amendments affecting the professional expertise would be needed. The accounting regulations must be chosen with great caution and they must answer and/ or be adjusted, even if the process would be delayed, to national values, behaviour of companies and individual expertise and beliefs. Secondly, the benefits of applying accounting reasoning in this country may be enhanced through a better understanding of their content and through practical exercise. Here regulatory bodies may intervene for organizing professional training programs and acting

  17. Comparison of the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL with single and three-phase transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Sun; Park, Hyoung Min; Chung, Dong Chul; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2013-01-01

    The South Korean power grid has a network structure for the flexible operation of the system. The continuously increasing power demand necessitated the increase of power facilities, which decreased the impedance in the power system. As a result, the size of the fault current in the event of a system fault increased. As this increased fault current size is threatening the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker, the main protective device, a solution to this problem is needed. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been designed to address this problem. SFCL supports the stable operation of the circuit breaker through its excellent fault-current-limiting operation [1-5]. In this paper, the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling-type SFCL with one three-phase transformer were compared with those of the same SFCL type but with three single-phase transformers. In the case of the three-phase transformers, both the superconducting elements of the fault and sound phases were quenched, whereas in the case of the single-phase transformer, only that of the fault phase was quenched. For the fault current limiting rate, both cases showed similar rates for the single line-to-ground fault, but for the three-wire earth fault, the fault current limiting rate of the single-phase transformer was over 90% whereas that of the three-phase transformer was about 60%. It appears that when the three-phase transformer was used, the limiting rate decreased because the fluxes by the fault current of each phase were linked in one core. When the power loads of the superconducting elements were compared by fault type, the initial (half-cycle) load was great when the single-phase transformer was applied, whereas for the three-phase transformer, its power load was slightly lower at the initial stage but became greater after the half fault cycle.

  18. Stability of monomeric Cro variants: Isoenergetic transformation of a type I' to a type II' beta-hairpin by single amino acid replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, A K M M; Stennis, Rhonda L; Mossing, Michael C

    2003-05-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of three monomeric variants of the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor that differ only in the sequence of two amino acids at the apex of an engineered beta-hairpin have been determined. The sequences of the turns are EVK-XX-EVK, where the two central residues are DG, GG, and GT, respectively. Standard-state unfolding free energies, determined from circular dichroism measurements as a function of urea concentration, range from 2.4 to 2.7 kcal/mole, while those determined from guanidine hydrochloride range from 2.8 to 3.3 kcal/mole for the three proteins. Thermal denaturation yields van't Hoff unfolding enthalpies of 36 to 40 kcal /mole at midpoint temperatures in the range of 53 to 58 degrees C. Extrapolation of the thermal denaturation free energies with heat capacities of 400 to 600 cal/mole deg gives good agreement with the parameters determined in denaturant titrations. As predicted from statistical surveys of amino acid replacements in beta-hairpins, energetic barriers to transformation from a type I' turn (DG) to a type II' turn (GT) can be quite small.

  19. Rat primary embryo fibroblast cells suppress transformation by the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in somatic hybrid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaka, M; Takami, Y; Inoue, H; Hakura, A

    1991-01-01

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) transform established lines of rat cells but not rat cells in primary culture irrespective of the expression of the two genes. The reason for this difference between the susceptibilities of cell lines and primary cells was examined by using hybrid cells obtained by somatic cell fusion of rat cell lines transformed by the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-16 and freshly isolated rat embryo fibroblast cells. In these hybrid cells, transformed ph...

  20. Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier, R T

    1994-01-01

    The E4 region of human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9) transforms established rat embryo fibroblasts and encodes an essential determinant for the production of estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in rats. Testing of the seven Ad9 E4 open reading frames (ORFs) individually for transformation of the established rat embryo fibroblast cell line CREF indicated that only Ad9 E4 ORF1 possessed a significant ability to generate transformed foci on these cells. In contrast, the E4 ORF1 sequences from human Ad5 ...

  1. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene regulation mediating fiber-type transformation in skeletal muscle cells is partly glucose- and ChREBP-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Nina; Scheibe, Renate J; Manukjan, Georgi; Ewers, David; Umeda, Patrick K; Chang, Kin-Chow; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2011-03-01

    Adaptations in the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle cells can occur under several physiological or pathological conditions. We investigated the effect of increasing extracellular glucose concentration on the expression of markers of energy metabolism in primary skeletal muscle cells and the C2C12 muscle cell line. Growth of myotubes in 25mM glucose (high glucose, HG) compared with 5.55mM led to increases in the expression and activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a marker of glycolytic energy metabolism, while oxidative markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and citrate synthase decreased. HG induced metabolic adaptations as are seen during a slow-to-fast fiber transformation. Furthermore, HG increased fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) IId/x but did not change slow MHCI/β expression. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to mediate the effects of HG on GAPDH and MHCIId/x. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), a glucose-dependent transcription factor downstream of PP2A, partially mediated the effects of glucose on metabolic markers. The glucose-induced increase in PP2A activity was associated with an increase in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, which presumably mediates the increase in MHCIId/x promoter activity. Liver X receptor, another possible mediator of glucose effects, induced only an incomplete metabolic shift, mainly increasing the expression of the glycolytic marker. Taken together, HG induces a partial slow-to-fast transformation comprising metabolic enzymes together with an increased expression of MHCIId/x. This work demonstrates a functional role for ChREBP in determining the metabolic type of muscle fibers and highlights the importance of glucose as a signaling molecule in muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuzzylot: a novel self-organising fuzzy-neural rule-based pilot system for automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, M; Quek, C; Toh, M

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents part of our research work concerned with the realisation of an Intelligent Vehicle and the technologies required for its routing, navigation, and control. An automated driver prototype has been developed using a self-organising fuzzy rule-based system (POPFNN-CRI(S)) to model and subsequently emulate human driving expertise. The ability of fuzzy logic to represent vague information using linguistic variables makes it a powerful tool to develop rule-based control systems when an exact working model is not available, as is the case of any vehicle-driving task. Designing a fuzzy system, however, is a complex endeavour, due to the need to define the variables and their associated fuzzy sets, and determine a suitable rule base. Many efforts have thus been devoted to automating this process, yielding the development of learning and optimisation techniques. One of them is the family of POP-FNNs, or Pseudo-Outer Product Fuzzy Neural Networks (TVR, AARS(S), AARS(NS), CRI, Yager). These generic self-organising neural networks developed at the Intelligent Systems Laboratory (ISL/NTU) are based on formal fuzzy mathematical theory and are able to objectively extract a fuzzy rule base from training data. In this application, a driving simulator has been developed, that integrates a detailed model of the car dynamics, complete with engine characteristics and environmental parameters, and an OpenGL-based 3D-simulation interface coupled with driving wheel and accelerator/ brake pedals. The simulator has been used on various road scenarios to record from a human pilot driving data consisting of steering and speed control actions associated to road features. Specifically, the POPFNN-CRI(S) system is used to cluster the data and extract a fuzzy rule base modelling the human driving behaviour. Finally, the effectiveness of the generated rule base has been validated using the simulator in autopilot mode.

  4. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-Level Rule-Based Models in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittig, Arne T; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  5. Rule Based Expert System for Monitoring Real Time Drug Supply in Hospital Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driandanu, Galih; Surarso, Bayu; Suryono

    2018-02-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) has obtained increasing attention with the emergence of various applications. This study aims to examine the implementation of rule based expert system supported by RFID technology into a monitoring information system of drug supply in a hospital. This research facilitates in monitoring the real time drug supply by using data sample from the hospital pharmacy. This system able to identify and count the number of drug and provide warning and report in real time. the conclusion is the rule based expert system and RFID technology can facilitate the performance in monitoring the drug supply quickly and precisely.

  6. Multi-type Tectonic Responses to Plate Motion Changes of Mega-Offset Transform Faults at the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Yang, H.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic and tectonic responses of a mid-ocean ridge system to plate motion changes can provide important constraints on the mechanisms of ridge-transform interaction and lithospheric properties. Here we present new analysis of multi-type responses of the mega-offset transform faults at the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) system to plate motion changes in the last 12 Ma. Detailed analysis of the Heezen, Tharp, and Udintsev transform faults showed that the extensional stresses induced by plate motion changes could have been released through a combination of magmatic and tectonic processes: (1) For a number of ridge segments with abundant magma supply, plate motion changes might have caused the lateral transport of magma along the ridge axis and into the abutting transform valley, forming curved "hook" ridges at the ridge-transform intersection. (2) Plate motion changes might also have caused vertical deformation on steeply-dipping transtensional faults that were developed along the Heezen, Tharp, and Udintsev transform faults. (3) Distinct zones of intensive tectonic deformation, resembling belts of "rift zones", were found to be sub-parallel to the investigated transform faults. These rift-like deformation zones were hypothesized to have developed when the stresses required to drive the vertical deformation on the steeply-dipping transtensional faults along the transform faults becomes excessive, and thus deformation on off-transform "rift zones" became favored. (4) However, to explain the observed large offsets on the steeply-dipping transtensional faults, the transform faults must be relatively weak with low apparent friction coefficient comparing to the adjacent lithospheric plates.

  7. A noninvasive method for coronary artery diseases diagnosis using a clinically-interpretable fuzzy rule-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Marateb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart diseases/coronary artery diseases (CHDs/CAD, the most common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD, are a major cause for death and disability in developing/developed countries. CAD risk factors could be detected by physicians to prevent the CAD occurrence in the near future. Invasive coronary angiography, a current diagnosis method, is costly and associated with morbidity and mortality in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to design a computer-based noninvasive CAD diagnosis system with clinically interpretable rules. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Cleveland CAD dataset from the University of California UCI (Irvine was used. The interval-scale variables were discretized, with cut points taken from the literature. A fuzzy rule-based system was then formulated based on a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC whose learning procedure was speeded up by the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm. Two feature selection (FS methods, multiple logistic regression (MLR and sequential FS, were used to reduce the required attributes. The performance of the NFC (without/with FS was then assessed in a hold-out validation framework. Further cross-validation was performed on the best classifier. Results: In this dataset, 16 complete attributes along with the binary CHD diagnosis (gold standard for 272 subjects (68% male were analyzed. MLR + NFC showed the best performance. Its overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, type I error (α and statistical power were 79%, 89%, 84%, 0.1 and 79%, respectively. The selected features were "age and ST/heart rate slope categories," "exercise-induced angina status," fluoroscopy, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy results. Conclusion: The proposed method showed "substantial agreement" with the gold standard. This algorithm is thus, a promising tool for screening CAD patients.

  8. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  9. Transforming growth factor type β can act as a potent competence factor for AKR-2B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goustin, A.S.; Nuttall, G.A.; Leof, E.B.; Ranganathan, G.; Moses, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic regulator of cell growth with specific high-affinity cell-surface receptors on a large number of cells; its mechanism of action, however, is poorly defined. In this report, the authors utilized the mouse fibroblast line AKR-2B to explore the question of the temporal requirements during the cell cycle in regard to both the growth inhibitory and the growth stimulatory action of TGFβ. The results indicate that AKR-2B cells are most sensitive to the inhibitory action of TGFβ during early to mid-G 1 . In addition, TGFβ need be present only briefly in order to exert its inhibitory effect on EGF-induced DNA synthesis. Likewise, the stimulatory effect of TGFβ in the absence of EGF requires only an equally brief exposure to TGFβ. Use of homogeneous 125 I-labeled TGFβ in a cell-binding assay demonstrates that TGFβ bound to cell-surface receptors can readily exchange into the culture medium, helping to rule out the possibility that persistent receptor-bound TGFβ is the source of a continuous stimulus. The data indicate that TGFβ exposure induces a stable state in the cell similar to but distinct from the state of competence induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

  10. Ensemble Classifiers for Predicting HIV-1 Resistance from Three Rule-Based Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Letícia M; Nobre, Flavio F

    2017-08-30

    Resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a major problem faced by HIV-infected individuals. Different rule-based algorithms were developed to infer HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretrovirals from genotypic data. However, there is discordance between them, resulting in difficulties for clinical decisions about which treatment to use. Here, we developed ensemble classifiers integrating three interpretation algorithms: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS), Rega, and the genotypic resistance interpretation system from Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVdb). Three approaches were applied to develop a classifier with a single resistance profile: stacked generalization, a simple plurality vote scheme and the selection of the interpretation system with the best performance. The strategies were compared with the Friedman's test and the performance of the classifiers was evaluated using the F-measure, sensitivity and specificity values. We found that the three strategies had similar performances for the selected antiretrovirals. For some cases, the stacking technique with naïve Bayes as the learning algorithm showed a statistically superior F-measure. This study demonstrates that ensemble classifiers can be an alternative tool for clinical decision-making since they provide a single resistance profile from the most commonly used resistance interpretation systems.

  11. RFID sensor-tags feeding a context-aware rule-based healthcare monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; Esposito, Alessandra; Tarricone, Luciano; Zappatore, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Along with the growing of the aging population and the necessity of efficient wellness systems, there is a mounting demand for new technological solutions able to support remote and proactive healthcare. An answer to this need could be provided by the joint use of the emerging Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies and advanced software choices. This paper presents a proposal for a context-aware infrastructure for ubiquitous and pervasive monitoring of heterogeneous healthcare-related scenarios, fed by RFID-based wireless sensors nodes. The software framework is based on a general purpose architecture exploiting three key implementation choices: ontology representation, multi-agent paradigm and rule-based logic. From the hardware point of view, the sensing and gathering of context-data is demanded to a new Enhanced RFID Sensor-Tag. This new device, de facto, makes possible the easy integration between RFID and generic sensors, guaranteeing flexibility and preserving the benefits in terms of simplicity of use and low cost of UHF RFID technology. The system is very efficient and versatile and its customization to new scenarios requires a very reduced effort, substantially limited to the update/extension of the ontology codification. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by reporting both customization effort and performance results obtained from validation in two different healthcare monitoring contexts.

  12. Fuzzy rule-based forecast of meteorological drought in western Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdourahamane, Zakari Seybou; Acar, Reşat

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the causes of rainfall anomalies in the West African Sahel to effectively predict drought events remains a challenge. The physical mechanisms that influence precipitation in this region are complex, uncertain, and imprecise in nature. Fuzzy logic techniques are renowned to be highly efficient in modeling such dynamics. This paper attempts to forecast meteorological drought in Western Niger using fuzzy rule-based modeling techniques. The 3-month scale standardized precipitation index (SPI-3) of four rainfall stations was used as predictand. Monthly data of southern oscillation index (SOI), South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), relative humidity (RH), and Atlantic sea level pressure (SLP), sourced from the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA), were used as predictors. Fuzzy rules and membership functions were generated using fuzzy c-means clustering approach, expert decision, and literature review. For a minimum lead time of 1 month, the model has a coefficient of determination R 2 between 0.80 and 0.88, mean square error (MSE) below 0.17, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ranging between 0.79 and 0.87. The empirical frequency distributions of the predicted and the observed drought classes are equal at the 99% of confidence level based on two-sample t test. Results also revealed the discrepancy in the influence of SOI and SLP on drought occurrence at the four stations while the effect of SST and RH are space independent, being both significantly correlated (at α based forecast model shows better forecast skills.

  13. Knowledge Representation and Inference for Analysis and Design of Database and Tabular Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ligeza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rulebased systems constitute a powerful tool for specification of knowledge in design and implementation of knowledge based systems. They provide also a universal programming paradigm for domains such as intelligent control, decision support, situation classification and operational knowledge encoding. In order to assure safe and reliable performance, such system should satisfy certain formal requirements, including completeness and consistency. This paper addresses the issue of analysis and verification of selected properties of a class of such system in a systematic way. A uniform, tabular scheme of single-level rule-based systems is considered. Such systems can be applied as a generalized form of databases for specification of data pattern (unconditional knowledge, or can be used for defining attributive decision tables (conditional knowledge in form of rules. They can also serve as lower-level components of a hierarchical multi-level control and decision support knowledge-based systems. An algebraic knowledge representation paradigm using extended tabular representation, similar to relational database tables is presented and algebraic bases for system analysis, verification and design support are outlined.

  14. Selecting Tanker Steaming Speeds under Uncertainty: A Rule-Based Bayesian Reasoning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tanker industry, there are a lot of uncertain conditions that tanker companies have to deal with. For example, the global financial crisis and economic recession, the increase of bunker fuel prices and global climate change. Such conditions have forced tanker companies to change tankers speed from full speed to slow speed, extra slow speed and super slow speed. Due to such conditions, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology for determining vessel speeds of tankers that minimize the cost of the vessels under such conditions. The four levels of vessel speed in the tanker industry will be investigated and will incorporate a number of uncertain conditions. This will be done by developing a scientific model using a rule-based Bayesian reasoning method. The proposed model has produced 96 rules that can be used as guidance in the decision making process. Such results help tanker companies to determine the appropriate vessel speed to be used in a dynamic operational environmental.

  15. Model Servqual Rule Base Asean University Network untuk Penilaian Kualitas Program Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Wijayanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known that AUN (Asean University Network.AUN and ABET (Accreditation Boardb for Enginnering and Technology are non-profit organitatinon which have. AUN (Asean University Network were using variable with refer to AUN’s criteria’s there consist of fifteen which are: Expected Learning Outcomes, Programme Specification, Programme Structure and Content, Teaching and Learning Strategy, Student Assessment, Academic Staff Quality, Support Staff Quality, Student Quality, Student Advice and Support, Facilities and Infrastructure, Quality Assurance of Teaching/Learning Process, Staff Development Activities, Stakeholders Feedback, Output, Stakeholders Satisfaction,and adopted score's scale 7. In there here, we discuss the fifteen AUN’s of AUN in the criterias. There servqual of as can be into five dimensions, assurance, empathy, responsive, reliability and facilty in order to make the assessment's process easier. This research outcome indicated that this proposed method can be used to evaluate an education program. The validation result by using AUN's data and the analysis of servqual rule base Asean University Network almost have the same pattern with correlation value is 0,985 and this is can be accepted because its validity have reach 97%.

  16. Application of rule-based data mining techniques to real time ATLAS Grid job monitoring data

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Kalinin, S; Maettig, P; Sandhoff, M; dos Santos, T; Volkmer, F

    2012-01-01

    The Job Execution Monitor (JEM) is a job-centric grid job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the pilot-based “PanDA” job brokerage system leveraging physics analysis and Monte Carlo event production for the ATLAS experiment on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). With JEM, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time by users, site admins and shift personnel. Imminent error conditions can be detected early and countermeasures can be initiated by the Job’s owner immideatly. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job and Grid worker node misbehaviour. Shifters can use the same aggregated data to quickly react to site error conditions and broken production tasks. In this work, the application of novel data-centric rule based methods and data-mining techniques to the real time monitoring data is discussed. The usage of such automatic inference techniques on monitorin...

  17. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  18. Rule-based learning of regular past tense in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of children with specific language impairment was used as a means to investigate whether a single- or dual-mechanism theory best conceptualizes the acquisition of English past tense. The dual-mechanism theory proposes that regular English past-tense forms are produced via a rule-based process whereas past-tense forms of irregular verbs are stored in the lexicon. Single-mechanism theories propose that both regular and irregular past-tense verbs are stored in the lexicon. Five 5-year-olds with specific language impairment received treatment for regular past tense. The children were tested on regular past-tense production and third-person singular "s" twice before treatment and once after treatment, at eight-week intervals. Treatment consisted of one-hour play-based sessions, once weekly, for eight weeks. Crucially, treatment focused on different lexical items from those in the test. Each child demonstrated significant improvement on the untreated past-tense test items after treatment, but no improvement on the untreated third-person singular "s". Generalization to untreated past-tense verbs could not be attributed to a frequency effect or to phonological similarity of trained and tested items. It is argued that the results are consistent with a dual-mechanism theory of past-tense inflection.

  19. A rule-based verification and control framework in ATLAS Trigger-DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Sloper, J E; Ryabov, Yu; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ATLAS data taking, the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system is composed of O(1000) of applications running on more than 2600 computers in a network. With such system size, s/w and h/w failures are quite often. To minimize system downtime, the Trigger-DAQ control system shall include advanced verification and diagnostics facilities. The operator should use tests and expertise of the TDAQ and detectors developers in order to diagnose and recover from errors, if possible automatically. The TDAQ control system is built as a distributed tree of controllers, where behavior of each controller is defined in a rule-based language allowing easy customization. The control system also includes verification framework which allow users to develop and configure tests for any component in the system with different levels of complexity. It can be used as a stand-alone test facility for a small detector installation, as part of the general TDAQ initialization procedure, and for diagnosing the problems ...

  20. Mining association rule based on the diseases population for recommendation of medicine need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, M.; Husein, A. M.; Aisyah, S.; Lubis, F. R.; Wijaya, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Selection of medicines that is inappropriate will lead to an empty result at medicines, this has an impact on medical services and economic value in hospital. The importance of an appropriate medicine selection process requires an automated way to select need based on the development of the patient's illness. In this study, we analyzed patient prescriptions to identify the relationship between the disease and the medicine used by the physician in treating the patient's illness. The analytical framework includes: (1) patient prescription data collection, (2) applying k-means clustering to classify the top 10 diseases, (3) applying Apriori algorithm to find association rules based on support, confidence and lift value. The results of the tests of patient prescription datasets in 2015-2016, the application of the k-means algorithm for the clustering of 10 dominant diseases significantly affects the value of trust and support of all association rules on the Apriori algorithm making it more consistent with finding association rules of disease and related medicine. The value of support, confidence and the lift value of disease and related medicine can be used as recommendations for appropriate medicine selection. Based on the conditions of disease progressions of the hospital, there is so more optimal medicine procurement.

  1. Analysis of QCD sum rule based on the maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    QCD sum rule was developed about thirty years ago and has been used up to the present to calculate various physical quantities like hadrons. It has been, however, needed to assume 'pole + continuum' for the spectral function in the conventional analyses. Application of this method therefore came across with difficulties when the above assumption is not satisfied. In order to avoid this difficulty, analysis to make use of the maximum entropy method (MEM) has been developed by the present author. It is reported here how far this new method can be successfully applied. In the first section, the general feature of the QCD sum rule is introduced. In section 2, it is discussed why the analysis by the QCD sum rule based on the MEM is so effective. In section 3, the MEM analysis process is described, and in the subsection 3.1 likelihood function and prior probability are considered then in subsection 3.2 numerical analyses are picked up. In section 4, some cases of applications are described starting with ρ mesons, then charmoniums in the finite temperature and finally recent developments. Some figures of the spectral functions are shown. In section 5, summing up of the present analysis method and future view are given. (S. Funahashi)

  2. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  3. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  4. A study on development of a rule based expert system for steam generator life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun

    1994-02-01

    The need of predicting the integrity of the steam generator(SG) tubes and environmental conditions that affect their integrity is growing to secure nuclear power plant(NPP) safety and enhance plant availability. To achieve their objectives it is important to diagnose the integrity of the SG tubes. An expert system called FEMODES(failure mode diagnosis expert system) has been developed for diagnosis of such tube degradation phenomena as denting, intergranular attack(IGA) and stress corrosion cracking(SCC) in the secondary side of the SG. It is possible with use of FEMODES to estimate possibilities of SG tube degradation and diagnosis environmental conditions that influence such tube degradation. The method of certainty factor theory(CFT) and the rule based backward reasoning inference strategy are used to develop FEMODES. The information required for diagnosis is acquired from SG tube degradation experiences of two local reference plants, some limited oversea plants and technical reports/research papers about such tube degradation. Overall results estimated with use of FEMODES are in reasonable agreement with actual SG tube degradation. Some discrepancy observed in several estimated values of SG tube degradation appears to be due to insufficient heuristic knowledge for knowledge data base of FEMODES

  5. Under What Conditions Do Rules-Based and Capability-Based Management Modes Dominate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Michel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite real changes in the work place and the negative consequences of prevailing hierarchical structures with rigid management systems, little attention has yet been paid to shifting management modes to accommodate the dynamics of the external environment, particularly when a firm’s operating environment demands a high degree of flexibility. Building on the resource-based view as a basis for competitive advantage, we posit that differences in the stability of an organization’s environment and the degree of managerial control explain variations in the management mode used in firms. Unlike other studies which mainly focus on either the dynamics of the external environment or management control, we have developed a theoretical model combining both streams of research, in a context frame to describe under what conditions firms engage in rules-based, change-based, engagement-based and capability-based management modes. To test our theoretical framework, we conducted a survey with 54 firms in various industries and nations on how their organizations cope with a dynamic environment and what management style they used in response. Our study reveals that the appropriate mode can be determined by analyzing purpose, motivation, knowledge and information, as well as the degree of complexity, volatility and uncertainty the firm is exposed to. With our framework, we attempt to advance the understanding of when organizations should adapt their management style to the changing business environment.

  6. Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Lundblad, Anders; Campana, Pietro Elia; Benavente, F.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery sizing and rule-based operation are achieved concurrently. • Hybrid operation strategy that combines different strategies is proposed. • Three operation strategies are compared through multi-objective optimization. • High Net Present Value and Self Sufficiency Ratio are achieved at the same time. - Abstract: The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system’s Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  7. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  8. Pyrite formation and mineral transformation pathways upon sulfidation of ferric hydroxides depend on mineral type and sulfide concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Behrends, Thilo; Hellige, Katrin; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Wan, Moli; Pollok, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of ferric (hydr)oxides with dissolved sulfide does not lead to the instantaneous production of thermodynamically stable products but can induce a variety of mineral transformations including the formation of metastable intermediates. The importance of the various transformation pathways

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  10. On the Evaluation Overlap Integrals with the Same and Different Screening Parameters Over Slater Type Orbitals via the Fourier-Transform Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Yuekcue, N.; Oeztekin, E.; Yilmaz, H.; Doenduer, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, derivation of analytical expressions for overlap integrals with the same and different screening parameters of Slater type orbitals (STOs) via the Fourier-transform method is presented. Consequently, it is relatively easy to express the Fourier integral representations of the overlap integrals with same and different screening parameters mentioned as finite sums of Gegenbauer, Gaunt, binomial coefficients, and STOs.

  11. Comparison of the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL with single and three-phase transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Sun; Park, Hyoung Min; Chung, Dong Chul; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: ► Comparison of quench and fault-current-limiting behavior of SFCLs by Tr type. -- Abstract: The South Korean power grid has a network structure for the flexible operation of the system. The continuously increasing power demand necessitated the increase of power facilities, which decreased the impedance in the power system. As a result, the size of the fault current in the event of a system fault increased. As this increased fault current size is threatening the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker, the main protective device, a solution to this problem is needed. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been designed to address this problem. SFCL supports the stable operation of the circuit breaker through its excellent fault-current-limiting operation [1–5]. In this paper, the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling-type SFCL with one three-phase transformer were compared with those of the same SFCL type but with three single-phase transformers. In the case of the three-phase transformers, both the superconducting elements of the fault and sound phases were quenched, whereas in the case of the single-phase transformer, only that of the fault phase was quenched. For the fault current limiting rate, both cases showed similar rates for the single line-to-ground fault, but for the three-wire earth fault, the fault current limiting rate of the single-phase transformer was over 90% whereas that of the three-phase transformer was about 60%. It appears that when the three-phase transformer was used, the limiting rate decreased because the fluxes by the fault current of each phase were linked in one core. When the power loads of the superconducting elements were compared by fault type, the initial (half-cycle) load was great when the single-phase transformer was applied, whereas for the three-phase transformer, its power load was slightly lower at the initial stage but became greater after the half fault cycle

  12. ConGEMs: Condensed Gene Co-Expression Module Discovery Through Rule-Based Clustering and Its Application to Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Mallik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For transcriptomic analysis, there are numerous microarray-based genomic data, especially those generated for cancer research. The typical analysis measures the difference between a cancer sample-group and a matched control group for each transcript or gene. Association rule mining is used to discover interesting item sets through rule-based methodology. Thus, it has advantages to find causal effect relationships between the transcripts. In this work, we introduce two new rule-based similarity measures—weighted rank-based Jaccard and Cosine measures—and then propose a novel computational framework to detect condensed gene co-expression modules ( C o n G E M s through the association rule-based learning system and the weighted similarity scores. In practice, the list of evolved condensed markers that consists of both singular and complex markers in nature depends on the corresponding condensed gene sets in either antecedent or consequent of the rules of the resultant modules. In our evaluation, these markers could be supported by literature evidence, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and Gene Ontology annotations. Specifically, we preliminarily identified differentially expressed genes using an empirical Bayes test. A recently developed algorithm—RANWAR—was then utilized to determine the association rules from these genes. Based on that, we computed the integrated similarity scores of these rule-based similarity measures between each rule-pair, and the resultant scores were used for clustering to identify the co-expressed rule-modules. We applied our method to a gene expression dataset for lung squamous cell carcinoma and a genome methylation dataset for uterine cervical carcinogenesis. Our proposed module discovery method produced better results than the traditional gene-module discovery measures. In summary, our proposed rule-based method is useful for exploring biomarker modules from transcriptomic data.

  13. ConGEMs: Condensed Gene Co-Expression Module Discovery Through Rule-Based Clustering and Its Application to Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-12-28

    For transcriptomic analysis, there are numerous microarray-based genomic data, especially those generated for cancer research. The typical analysis measures the difference between a cancer sample-group and a matched control group for each transcript or gene. Association rule mining is used to discover interesting item sets through rule-based methodology. Thus, it has advantages to find causal effect relationships between the transcripts. In this work, we introduce two new rule-based similarity measures-weighted rank-based Jaccard and Cosine measures-and then propose a novel computational framework to detect condensed gene co-expression modules ( C o n G E M s) through the association rule-based learning system and the weighted similarity scores. In practice, the list of evolved condensed markers that consists of both singular and complex markers in nature depends on the corresponding condensed gene sets in either antecedent or consequent of the rules of the resultant modules. In our evaluation, these markers could be supported by literature evidence, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway and Gene Ontology annotations. Specifically, we preliminarily identified differentially expressed genes using an empirical Bayes test. A recently developed algorithm-RANWAR-was then utilized to determine the association rules from these genes. Based on that, we computed the integrated similarity scores of these rule-based similarity measures between each rule-pair, and the resultant scores were used for clustering to identify the co-expressed rule-modules. We applied our method to a gene expression dataset for lung squamous cell carcinoma and a genome methylation dataset for uterine cervical carcinogenesis. Our proposed module discovery method produced better results than the traditional gene-module discovery measures. In summary, our proposed rule-based method is useful for exploring biomarker modules from transcriptomic data.

  14. Rule Based Reasoning Untuk Monitoring Distribusi Bahan Bakar Minyak Secara Online dan Realtime menggunakan Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Iklil Mustofa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of fuel oil in Indonesia often occurs due to delays in delivery caused by natural factors or transportation constraints. Theaim of this  research is to develop systems of fuel distribution monitoring online and realtime using rule base reasoning method and radio frequency identification technology. The rule-based reasoning method is used as a rule-based reasoning model used for monitoring distribution and determine rule-based safety stock. The monitoring system program is run with a web-based computer application. Radio frequency identification technology is used by utilizing radio waves as an media identification. This technology is used as a system of tracking and gathering information from objects automatically. The research data uses data of delayed distribution of fuel from fuel terminal to consumer. The monitoring technique uses the time of departure, the estimated time to arrive, the route / route passed by a fuel tanker attached to the radio frequency Identification tag. This monitoring system is carried out by the radio frequency identification reader connected online at any gas station or specified position that has been designed with study case in Semarang. The results of the research covering  the status of rule based reasoning that sends status, that is timely and appropriate paths, timely and truncated pathways, late and on track, late and cut off, and tank lost. The monitoring system is also used in determining the safety stock warehouse, with the safety stock value determined based on the condition of the stock warehouse rules.

  15. Ultra-wideband pose detection system for boom-type roadheader based on Caffery transform and Taylor series expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shichen; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Minjun; Zong, Kai; Cheng, Long; Wu, Miao

    2018-01-01

    To realize unmanned pose detection of a coalmine boom-type roadheader, an ultra-wideband (UWB) pose detection system (UPDS) for a roadheader is designed, which consists of four UWB positioning base stations and three roadheader positioning nodes. The positioning base stations are used in turn to locate the positioning nodes of the roadheader fuselage. Using 12 sets of distance measurement information, a time-of-arrival (TOA) positioning model is established to calculate the 3D coordinates of three positioning nodes of the roadheader fuselage, and the three attitude angles (heading, pitch, and roll angles) of the roadheader fuselage are solved. A range accuracy experiment of a UWB P440 module was carried out in a narrow and closed tunnel, and the experiment data show that the mean error and standard deviation of the module can reach below 2 cm. Based on the TOA positioning model of the UPDS, we propose a fusion-positioning algorithm based on a Caffery transform and Taylor series expansion (CTFPA). We derived the complete calculation process, designed a flowchart, and carried out a simulation of CTFPA in MATLAB, comparing 1000 simulated positioning nodes of CTFPA and the Caffery positioning algorithm (CPA) for a 95 m long tunnel. The positioning error field of the tunnel was established, and the influence of the spatial variation on the positioning accuracy of CPA and CTFPA was analysed. The simulation results show that, compared with CPA, the positioning accuracy of CTFPA is clearly improved, and the accuracy of each axis can reach more than 5 mm. The accuracy of the X-axis is higher than that of the Y- and Z-axes. In section X-Y of the tunnel, the root mean square error (RMSE) contours of CTFPA are clear and orderly, and with an increase in the measuring distance, RMSE increases linearly. In section X-Z, the RMSE contours are concentric circles, and the variation ratio is nonlinear.

  16. Omega version 2.2: Rule-based deterioration identification and management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, S.; Kojima, T.; Pavinich, W.A.; Andrews, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the Omega Version 2.2 (Ωs) rule-based computer program for identifying material deteriorations in the metallic structures, systems and components of LWR nuclear power units. The basis of Us is that understanding what material deteriorations might occur as a function of service life is fundamental to: (1) the development and optimization of preventive maintenance programs, (2) ensuring that current maintenance programs recognize applicable degradations, and (3) demonstrating the adequacy of deterioration management to safety regulatory authorities. The system was developed to assist utility engineers in determining which aging degradation mechanisms are acting on specific components. Direction is also provided to extend this system to manage deterioration and evaluate the efficacy of existing age-related degradation mitigation programs. This system can provide support for justification for continued operation and license renewal. It provides traceability to the data sources used in the logic development. A tiered approach is used to quickly isolate potential age-related degradation for components in a particular location. A potential degradation mechanism is then screened by additional rules to establish its plausibility. Ωs includes a user-friendly system interface and provides default environmental data and materials in the event they are unknown to the user. Ωs produces a report, with references, that validates the elimination of a degradation mechanism from further consideration or the determination that a specific degradation mechanism is acting on a specific material. This report also describes logic for identifying deterioration caused by intrusions and inspection-based deteriorations, along with future plans to program and integrate these features with Ωs

  17. Ketamine alters lateral prefrontal oscillations in a rule-based working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liya; Skoblenick, Kevin; Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2018-02-02

    Acute administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists in healthy humans and animals produces working memory deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether they also lead to altered low-frequency (rule-based prosaccade and antisaccade working memory task, both before and after systemic injections of a subanesthetic dose (delay periods and inter-trial intervals. It also increased task-related alpha-band activities, likely reflecting compromised attention. Beta-band oscillations may be especially relevant to working memory processes, as stronger beta power weakly but significantly predicted shorter saccadic reaction time. Also in beta band, ketamine reduced the performance-related oscillation as well as the rule information encoded in the spectral power. Ketamine also reduced rule information in the spike-field phase consistency in almost all frequencies up to 60Hz. Our findings support NMDAR antagonists in non-human primates as a meaningful model for altered neural oscillations and synchrony, which reflect a disorganized network underlying the working memory deficits in schizophrenia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Low doses of ketamine-an NMDA receptor blocker-produce working memory deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. In the LPFC, a key brain region for working memory, we found that ketamine altered neural oscillatory activities in similar ways that differentiate schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects, during both task and non-task periods. Ketamine induced stronger gamma (30-60Hz) and weaker beta (13-30Hz) oscillations, reflecting local hyperactivity and reduced long-range communications. Furthermore, ketamine reduced performance-related oscillatory activities, as well as the rule information encoded in the oscillations and in the synchrony between single cell activities and oscillations. The ketamine model helps link the molecular and cellular basis of neural oscillatory changes to the working

  18. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  19. Scalable rule-based modelling of allosteric proteins and biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien F Ollivier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the complexity of biochemical networks comes from the information-processing abilities of allosteric proteins, be they receptors, ion-channels, signalling molecules or transcription factors. An allosteric protein can be uniquely regulated by each combination of input molecules that it binds. This "regulatory complexity" causes a combinatorial increase in the number of parameters required to fit experimental data as the number of protein interactions increases. It therefore challenges the creation, updating, and re-use of biochemical models. Here, we propose a rule-based modelling framework that exploits the intrinsic modularity of protein structure to address regulatory complexity. Rather than treating proteins as "black boxes", we model their hierarchical structure and, as conformational changes, internal dynamics. By modelling the regulation of allosteric proteins through these conformational changes, we often decrease the number of parameters required to fit data, and so reduce over-fitting and improve the predictive power of a model. Our method is thermodynamically grounded, imposes detailed balance, and also includes molecular cross-talk and the background activity of enzymes. We use our Allosteric Network Compiler to examine how allostery can facilitate macromolecular assembly and how competitive ligands can change the observed cooperativity of an allosteric protein. We also develop a parsimonious model of G protein-coupled receptors that explains functional selectivity and can predict the rank order of potency of agonists acting through a receptor. Our methodology should provide a basis for scalable, modular and executable modelling of biochemical networks in systems and synthetic biology.

  20. Multi-arrhythmias detection with an XML rule-based system from 12-Lead Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelassi, Abdeldjalil; Yelles-Chaouche, Sarra-Nassira; Benais, Faiza

    2017-05-01

    The computer-aided detection of cardiac arrhythmias stills a crucial application in medical technologies. The rule based systems RBS ensure a high level of transparency and interpretability of the obtained results. To facilitate the diagnosis of the cardiologists and to reduce the uncertainty made in this diagnosis. In this research article, we have realized a classification and automatic recognition of cardiac arrhythmias, by using XML rules that represent the cardiologist knowledge. Thirteen experiments with different knowledge bases were realized for improving the performance of the used method in the detection of 13 cardiac arrhythmias. In the first 12 experiments, we have designed a specialized knowledge base for each cardiac arrhythmia, which contains just one arrhythmia detection rule. In the last experiment, we applied the knowledge base which contains rules of 12 arrhythmias. We used, for the experiments, an international data set with 279 features and 452 records characterizing 12 leads of ECG signal and social information of patients. The data sets were constructed and published at Bilkent University of Ankara, Turkey. In addition, the second version of the self-developed software "XMLRULE" was used; the software can infer more than one class and facilitate the interpretability of the obtained results. The 12 first experiments give 82.80% of correct detection as the mean of all experiments, the results were between 19% and 100% with a low rate in just one experiment. The last experiment in which all arrhythmias are considered, the results of correct detection was 38.33% with 90.55% of sensibility and 46.24% of specificity. It was clearly show that in these results the good choice of the classification model is very beneficial in terms of performance. The obtained results were better than the published results with other computational methods for the mono class detection, but it was less in multi-class detection. The RBS is the most transparent method for

  1. Alteration of the bone tissue material properties in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Mansur, Sity Aishah; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150 mg/kg body weight, injected at 8 weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or diabetic (n = 10) groups and were sacrificed 4 weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690 cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032 cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338 cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with

  2. PDZ domain-binding motif of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein augments the transforming activity in a rat fibroblast cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akira; Higuchi, Masaya; Niinuma, Akiko; Ohashi, Minako; Fukushi, Masaya; Oie, Masayasu; Akiyama, Tetsu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Gejyo, Fumitake; Fujii, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of HTLV-2 Tax2. We have demonstrated here that the increased number of transformed colonies induced by Tax1 relative to Tax2 was mediated by a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, which is absent in Tax2. Tax1 PBM mediated the interaction of Tax1 with the discs large (Dlg) tumor suppressor containing PDZ domains, and the interaction correlated well with the transforming activities of Tax1 and the mutants. Through this interaction, Tax1 altered the subcellular localization of Dlg from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction in a fibroblast cell line as well as in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. These results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 with PDZ domain protein(s) is critically involved in the transforming activity of Tax1, the activity of which may be a crucial factor in malignant transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells in vivo

  3. Post-decomposition optimizations using pattern matching and rule-based clustering for multi-patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lynn T.-N.; Madhavan, Sriram

    2018-03-01

    A pattern matching and rule-based polygon clustering methodology with DFM scoring is proposed to detect decomposition-induced manufacturability detractors and fix the layout designs prior to manufacturing. A pattern matcher scans the layout for pre-characterized patterns from a library. If a pattern were detected, rule-based clustering identifies the neighboring polygons that interact with those captured by the pattern. Then, DFM scores are computed for the possible layout fixes: the fix with the best score is applied. The proposed methodology was applied to two 20nm products with a chip area of 11 mm2 on the metal 2 layer. All the hotspots were resolved. The number of DFM spacing violations decreased by 7-15%.

  4. p53 functional impairment and high p21waf1/cip1 expression in human T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereseto, A; Diella, F; Mulloy, J C; Cara, A; Michieli, P; Grassmann, R; Franchini, G; Klotman, M E

    1996-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with T-cell transformation both in vivo and in vitro. Although some of the mechanisms responsible for transformation remain unknown, increasing evidence supports a direct role of viral as well as dysregulated cellular proteins in transformation. We investigated the potential role of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and of the p53-regulated gene, p21waf1/cip1 (wild-type p53 activated fragment 1/cycling dependent kinases [cdks] interacting protein 1), in HTLV-I-infected T cells. We have found that the majority of HTLV-I-infected T cells have the wild-type p53 gene. However, its function in HTLV-I-transformed cells appears to be impaired, as shown by the lack of appropriate p53-mediated responses to ionizing radiation (IR). Interestingly, the expression of the p53 inducible gene, p21waf1/cip1, is elevated at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels in all HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines examined as well as in Taxl-1, a human T-cell line stably expressing Tax. Additionally, Tax induces upregulation of a p21waf1/cip1 promoter-driven luciferase gene in p53 null cells, and increases p21waf1/cip1 expression in Jurkat T cells. These findings suggest that the Tax protein is at least partially responsible for the p53-independent expression of p21waf1/cip1 in HTLV-I-infected cells. Dysregulation of p53 and p21waf1/cip1 proteins regulating cell-cycle progression, may represent an important step in HTLV-I-induced T-cell transformation.

  5. Comparing a rule based vs. statistical system for automatic categorization of MEDLINE documents according to biomedical specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Susanne M.; Névéol, Aurélie; Browne, Allen; Gobeill, Julien; Ruch, Patrick; Darmoni, Stéfan J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic document categorization is an important research problem in Information Science and Natural Language Processing. Many applications, including Word Sense Disambiguation and Information Retrieval in large collections, can benefit from such categorization. This paper focuses on automatic categorization of documents from the biomedical literature into broad discipline-based categories. Two different systems are described and contrasted: CISMeF, which uses rules based on human indexing o...

  6. Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfatni, M S M; Shariff, A R M; Marhaban, M H; Shafie, S B; Saaed, O M B; Abdullah, M Z; BAmiruddin, M D

    2014-01-01

    There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system

  7. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  8. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling

  9. Downregulation of proapoptotic Bim augments IL-2-independent T-cell transformation by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Masaya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, immortalizes and transforms primary human T cells in vitro in both an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent and IL-2-independent manner. Expression of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax transforms the growth of the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 from being IL-2-dependent to IL-2-independent. Withdrawal of IL-2 from normal activated T cells induces apoptosis, which is mediated through the inducible expression of several proapoptotic proteins, including Bim. In this study, we found that Tax protects IL-2-depleted T cells against Bim-induced apoptosis. Withdrawal of IL-2 from CTLL-2 cells induced a prominent increase in the level of Bim protein in CTLL-2 cells, but not in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells. This inhibition of Bim in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells was mediated by two mechanisms: downregulation of Bim mRNA and posttranscriptional reduction of Bim protein. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also inhibited IL-2 depletion–induced expression of Bim, however, this decrease in Bim protein expression was not due to downregulation of Bim mRNA, thus indicating that Bim mRNA downregulation in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 occurs only after long-term expression of Tax. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also induced Erk activation, however, this was not involved in the reduction of Bim protein. Knockdown of Bim expression in CTLL-2 cells augmented Tax-induced IL-2-independent transformation. HTLV-1 infection of human T cells also reduced their levels of Bim protein, and restoring Bim expression in HTLV-1-infected cells reduced their proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that Tax-induced downregulation of Bim in HTLV-1-infected T cells promotes their IL-2-independent growth, thereby supporting the persistence of HTLV-1 infection in vivo

  10. A simple rule based model for scheduling farm management operations in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürz, Christoph; Mehdi, Bano; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    For many interdisciplinary questions at the watershed scale, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Arnold et al., 1998) has become an accepted and widely used tool. Despite its flexibility, the model is highly demanding when it comes to input data. At SWAT's core the water balance and the modeled nutrient cycles are plant growth driven (implemented with the EPIC crop growth model). Therefore, land use and crop data with high spatial and thematic resolution, as well as detailed information on cultivation and farm management practices are required. For many applications of the model however, these data are unavailable. In order to meet these requirements, SWAT offers the option to trigger scheduled farm management operations by applying the Potential Heat Unit (PHU) concept. The PHU concept solely takes into account the accumulation of daily mean temperature for management scheduling. Hence, it contradicts several farming strategies that take place in reality; such as: i) Planting and harvesting dates are set much too early or too late, as the PHU concept is strongly sensitivity to inter-annual temperature fluctuations; ii) The timing of fertilizer application, in SWAT this often occurs simultaneously on the same date in in each field; iii) and can also coincide with precipitation events. Particularly, the latter two can lead to strong peaks in modeled nutrient loads. To cope with these shortcomings we propose a simple rule based model (RBM) to schedule management operations according to realistic farmer management practices in SWAT. The RBM involves simple strategies requiring only data that are input into the SWAT model initially, such as temperature and precipitation data. The user provides boundaries of time periods for operation schedules to take place for all crops in the model. These data are readily available from the literature or from crop variety trials. The RBM applies the dates by complying with the following rules: i) Operations scheduled in the

  11. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  12. The human T-lymphotropic virus type I tax gene can cooperate with the ras oncogene to induce neoplastic transformation of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, R; Vogel, J; Jay, G

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked infection by the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) with the development of adult T-cell leukemia. The low penetrance of the virus and the long latency for disease manifestation are factors that obscure the role of HTLV-I infection in oncogenesis. We have used an in vitro transformation assay system to determine directly whether the HTLV-I tax gene has transformation potential. Transfection of the tax gene alone into early-passage rat embryo fibroblasts did not induce morphological alterations. However, cotransfection of tax with the selectable marker plasmid pRSVneo gave rise to G418-resistant colonies that could be established as immortalized cell lines. Cotransfection of tax with the ras oncogene into rat embryo fibroblasts gave rise to foci of transformed cells that were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. These data represent a direct demonstration of the oncogenic potential of the tax gene in nonlymphoid cells and establish HTLV-I as a transforming virus.

  13. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  14. Transformation of technogenic compounds of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in different soil types in model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, D.V.; Smirnova, M.S.; Karpukhin, M.M.; Plyaskina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    In model experiment fractional distribution of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in soils artificially polluted with readily and sparingly soluble compounds (nitrates and oxides respectively) of these heavy metals was investigated. It is shown that heavy metals fractional distribution may strongly vary depending on the form in which the metal deposits in the soil. Transformation of heavy metals oxides is controlled by two main factors: solubility of an oxide and characteristics of reactions between dissolution products and the soil components

  15. Inherited textures in the bcc phase furnish information about the type of transformation from the fcc phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, V.

    1982-07-01

    Drawing annealed cylindric 18/8 Cr Ni steels, which are originally free of textures, produces the transformed phases - hcp and bcc - both showing major texture contributions with increasing stretching of the cylindric specimens. After stretching the original fcc-phase shows two orientations: [100]fcc vertical stroke vertical stroke cylinder axis and [111]fcc vertical stroke vertical stroke cylinder axis, i.e. direction of stress. In both cases the martensitic phase is produced by gliding and shear in the sequence fcc → hcp → bcc by Nishiyama-Wasserman (N-W) or Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) transformation in the (111)fcc planes, which enclose a small angle with direction of stress, i.e. cylinder axis. The calculated orientation distributions of the (110)bcc reflex are compared with the distribution measured by neutron diffraction to get information on the bulk material. The special K-S transformation with only 6 (110)bcc orientations shows relatively good agreement with the measured distribution, except at small angles ω between the cylinder axis and the scattering vector. This might be caused by the isotropic fraction of the fcc phase producing an anisotropic (110)bcc orientation distribution. (orig.) [de

  16. Focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manak, M.M.; Aurelian, L.; Ts'o, P.O.

    1981-01-01

    The induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. Syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 PFU/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near UV light irradiation at various times postinfection. This procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, while having little, if any, effect on the unlabeled cellular DNA. Focus formation in 1% serum and neoplastic transformation were observed in cells exposed to virus inactivated before infection, but the frequency was enhanced (15- to 27-fold) in cells in which the virus was inactivated at 4 to 8 h postinfection. Only 2 to 45 independently isolated foci were capable of establishing tumorigenic lines. The established lines exhibited phenotypic alterations characteristic of a transformed state, including reduced serum requirement, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity. They retained viral DNA sequences and, even at relatively late passage, expressed viral antigens, including ICP 10

  17. Decision support system for triage management: A hybrid approach using rule-based reasoning and fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani Soufi, Mahsa; Samad-Soltani, Taha; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman

    2018-06-01

    Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines. RBR was applied for modeling the first to fourth decision points of the ESI algorithm. The data relating to vital signs were used as input variables and modeled using fuzzy logic. Narrative knowledge was converted to If-Then rules using XML. The extracted rules were then used to create the rule-based engine and predict the triage levels. Fourteen RBR and 27 fuzzy rules were extracted and used in the rule-based engine. The performance of the system was evaluated using three methods with real triage data. The accuracy of the clinical decision support systems (CDSSs; in the test data) was 99.44%. The evaluation of the error rate revealed that, when using the traditional method, 13.4% of the patients were miss-triaged, which is statically significant. The completeness of the documentation also improved from 76.72% to 98.5%. Designed system was effective in determining the triage level of patients and it proved helpful for nurses as they made decisions, generated nursing diagnoses based on triage guidelines. The hybrid approach can reduce triage misdiagnosis in a highly accurate manner and improve the triage outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  19. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  20. Progression from productive infection to integration and oncogenic transformation in human papillomavirus type 59-immortalized foreskin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartz, Helena; Lehr, Elizabeth; Zhang, Benyue; Roman, Ann; Brown, Darron R

    2005-05-25

    Studies of changes in the virus and host cell upon progression from human papillomavirus (HPV) episomal infection to integration are critical to understanding HPV-related malignant transformation. However, there exist only a few in vitro models of both productive HPV infection and neoplastic progression on the same host background. We recently described a unique foreskin keratinocyte cell line (ERIN 59) that contains HPV 59 (a close relative of HPV 18). Early passages of ERIN 59 cells (passages 9-13) contained approximately 50 copies of episomes/cell, were feeder cell-dependent, and could be induced to differentiate and produce infectious virus in a simple culture system. We now report that late passage cells (passages greater than 50) were morphologically different from early passage cells, were feeder cell independent, and did not differentiate or produce virus. These late passage cells contained HPV in an integrated form. An integration-derived oncogene transcript was expressed in late passage cells. The E2 open reading frame was interrupted in this transcript at nucleotide 3351. Despite a lower viral genome copy number in late passage ERIN 59 cells, expression of E6/E7 oncogene transcripts was similar to early passage cells. We conclude that ERIN 59 cells are a valuable cell line representing a model of progression from HPV 59 episomal infection and virus production to HPV 59 integration and associated oncogenic transformation on the same host background.

  1. LipidMatch: an automated workflow for rule-based lipid identification using untargeted high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmel, Jeremy P; Kroeger, Nicholas M; Ulmer, Candice Z; Bowden, John A; Patterson, Rainey E; Cochran, Jason A; Beecher, Christopher W W; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2017-07-10

    Lipids are ubiquitous and serve numerous biological functions; thus lipids have been shown to have great potential as candidates for elucidating biomarkers and pathway perturbations associated with disease. Methods expanding coverage of the lipidome increase the likelihood of biomarker discovery and could lead to more comprehensive understanding of disease etiology. We introduce LipidMatch, an R-based tool for lipid identification for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflows. LipidMatch currently has over 250,000 lipid species spanning 56 lipid types contained in in silico fragmentation libraries. Unique fragmentation libraries, compared to other open source software, include oxidized lipids, bile acids, sphingosines, and previously uncharacterized adducts, including ammoniated cardiolipins. LipidMatch uses rule-based identification. For each lipid type, the user can select which fragments must be observed for identification. Rule-based identification allows for correct annotation of lipids based on the fragments observed, unlike typical identification based solely on spectral similarity scores, where over-reporting structural details that are not conferred by fragmentation data is common. Another unique feature of LipidMatch is ranking lipid identifications for a given feature by the sum of fragment intensities. For each lipid candidate, the intensities of experimental fragments with exact mass matches to expected in silico fragments are summed. The lipid identifications with the greatest summed intensity using this ranking algorithm were comparable to other lipid identification software annotations, MS-DIAL and Greazy. For example, for features with identifications from all 3 software, 92% of LipidMatch identifications by fatty acyl constituents were corroborated by at least one other software in positive mode and 98% in negative ion mode. LipidMatch allows users to annotate lipids across a wide range of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry

  2. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  3. A comparison of 1D analytical model and 3D finite element analysis with experiments for a rosen-type piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M

    2015-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of transformer-type superconducting fault current limiter depending on reclosing in changing the number of turns of secondary winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.G.; Choi, H.S.; Cho, Y.S.; Park, H.M.; Jung, B.I.; Ha, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of consumed power is increasing with industrial development and rapidly increasing population. In accidents due to increased power consumption, the fault current sharply increases. Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) are studied widely to limit such fault currents. In this study, the characteristics of a transformer-type SFCL are analyzed depending on reclosing in changing the number of secondary winding turns. For experiment conditions, the turn ratio of the primary and secondary windings of a transformer-type SFCL was set to 4:2 and 4:4. The voltage was incremented by 80 V from 120 V for the experiment. The circuit breaker was operated with two open times of CO-0.17 s -CO-0.17 s -CO seconds (C; closed, O; open), respectively. Comparing the result for the experiment conditions with the case of the turn ratios of the primary and secondary windings at 4:4 and 4:2, the fault current was limited effectively in 4:2 than in 4:4 for the fault current limit ratios. With respect to the result of recovery characteristics, it was examined that the superconducting unit recovered faster when the turn ratio of the primary and secondary windings was 4:2 than 4:4. Comparing the amount of consumed power related to the recovery characteristics of the superconducting element, it was examined that the recovery time was faster in less power consumption for the superconducting unit. As such, since a transformer-type SFCL depending on reclosing in changing the number of turns of the secondary winding controls the turn ratio of the secondary winding to control fault current limiting and recovery characteristics, it can normally operate.

  5. QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type for the gluon component of the U(1)sub(A) meson mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1981-07-01

    We get upper bound of the gluon component of the U(1)sub(A) meson mass using QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type to the two-point functions associated to the divergence of the U(1)sub(A) current in the chiral limit. For Λ is approximately equal to 70 is approximately 210 MeV and fsub(eta') is approximately equal to (0.5 is approximately 0.7) sqrt 3 fsub(π), we obtain Msub(G) is approximately smaller to (0.6 is approximately 0.85) GeV, which indicates an important gluon contribution to the eta' mass. (author)

  6. Fast Fourier transform-based solution of 2D and 3D magnetization problems in type-II superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Leonid; Sokolovsky, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We consider the fast Fourier transform (FFT) based numerical method for thin film magnetization problems (Vestgården and Johansen 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 104001), compare it with the finite element methods, and evaluate its accuracy. Proposed modifications of this method implementation ensure stable convergence of iterations and enhance its efficiency. A new method, also based on the FFT, is developed for 3D bulk magnetization problems. This method is based on a magnetic field formulation, different from the popular h-formulation of eddy current problems typically employed with the edge finite elements. The method is simple, easy to implement, and can be used with a general current–voltage relation; its efficiency is illustrated by numerical simulations.

  7. An Investigation of Care-Based vs. Rule-Based Morality in Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Andrew R.; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Daianu, Madelaine; Fong, Sylvia S.; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul; Mendez, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer’s disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules. PMID:26432341

  8. Conditioning of high voltage radio frequency cavities by using fuzzy logic in connection with rule based programming

    CERN Document Server

    Perréard, S

    1993-01-01

    Many processes are controlled by experts using some kind of mental model to decide actions and make conclusions. This model, based on heuristic knowledge, can often be conveniently represented in rules and has not to be particularly accurate. This is the case for the problem of conditioning high voltage radio-frequency cavities: the expert has to decide, by observing some criteria, if he can increase or if he has to decrease the voltage and by how much. A program has been implemented which can be applied to a class of similar problems. The kernel of the program is a small rule base, which is independent of the kind of cavity. To model a specific cavity, we use fuzzy logic which is implemented as a separate routine called by the rule base. We use fuzzy logic to translate from numeric to symbolic information. The example we chose for applying this kind of technique can be implemented by sequential programming. The two versions exist for comparison. However, we believe that this kind of programming can be powerf...

  9. Using rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Glaab

    Full Text Available Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL's classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes.

  10. Using rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Enrico; Bacardit, Jaume; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2012-01-01

    Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL's classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes.

  11. Real-time Geographic Information System (GIS) for Monitoring the Area of Potential Water Level Using Rule Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Wirdah; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    Management of water resources based on Geographic Information System can provide substantial benefits to water availability settings. Monitoring the potential water level is needed in the development sector, agriculture, energy and others. In this research is developed water resource information system using real-time Geographic Information System concept for monitoring the potential water level of web based area by applying rule based system method. GIS consists of hardware, software, and database. Based on the web-based GIS architecture, this study uses a set of computer that are connected to the network, run on the Apache web server and PHP programming language using MySQL database. The Ultrasound Wireless Sensor System is used as a water level data input. It also includes time and geographic location information. This GIS maps the five sensor locations. GIS is processed through a rule based system to determine the level of potential water level of the area. Water level monitoring information result can be displayed on thematic maps by overlaying more than one layer, and also generating information in the form of tables from the database, as well as graphs are based on the timing of events and the water level values.

  12. Downregulation of proapoptotic Bim augments IL-2-independent T-cell transformation by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masaya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, immortalizes and transforms primary human T cells in vitro in both an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent and IL-2-independent manner. Expression of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax transforms the growth of the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 from being IL-2-dependent to IL-2-independent. Withdrawal of IL-2 from normal activated T cells induces apoptosis, which is mediated through the inducible expression of several proapoptotic proteins, including Bim. In this study, we found that Tax protects IL-2-depleted T cells against Bim-induced apoptosis. Withdrawal of IL-2 from CTLL-2 cells induced a prominent increase in the level of Bim protein in CTLL-2 cells, but not in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells. This inhibition of Bim in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells was mediated by two mechanisms: downregulation of Bim mRNA and posttranscriptional reduction of Bim protein. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also inhibited IL-2 depletion-induced expression of Bim, however, this decrease in Bim protein expression was not due to downregulation of Bim mRNA, thus indicating that Bim mRNA downregulation in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 occurs only after long-term expression of Tax. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also induced Erk activation, however, this was not involved in the reduction of Bim protein. Knockdown of Bim expression in CTLL-2 cells augmented Tax-induced IL-2-independent transformation. HTLV-1 infection of human T cells also reduced their levels of Bim protein, and restoring Bim expression in HTLV-1-infected cells reduced their proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that Tax-induced downregulation of Bim in HTLV-1-infected T cells promotes their IL-2-independent growth, thereby supporting the persistence of HTLV-1 infection in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Controlled p-type to n-type conductivity transformation in NiO thin films by ultraviolet-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pranav; Dutta, Titas; Mal, Siddhartha; Narayan, Jagdish [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We report the systematic changes in structural, electrical, and optical properties of NiO thin films on c-sapphire introduced by nanosecond ultraviolet excimer laser pulses. Epitaxial nature of as deposited NiO was determined by x-ray diffraction phi scans and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was established that NiO film growth takes place with twin domains on sapphire where two types of domains have 60 deg. in-plane rotation with respect to each other about the [111] growth direction. We determined that at pulsed laser energy density of 0.275 J/cm{sup 2}, NiO films exhibited conversion from p-type semiconducting to n-type conductive behavior with three orders of magnitude decrease in resistivity, while maintaining its cubic crystal structure and good epitaxial relationship. Our TEM and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy studies conclusively ruled out the presence of any Ni clustering or precipitation due to the laser treatment. The laser-induced n-type carrier transport and conductivity enhancement were shown to be reversible through subsequent thermal annealing in oxygen. This change in conductivity behavior was correlated with the nonequilibrium concentration of laser induced Ni{sup 0}-like defect states.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  15. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  16. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  17. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  18. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers.

  19. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.-W.; Lin, L.-S.; Yang, J.-T.

    2004-01-01

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  20. Desain Sistem Semantic Data Warehouse dengan Metode Ontology dan Rule Based untuk Mengolah Data Akademik Universitas XYZ di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Pradnyana Ambara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse pada umumnya yang sering dikenal data warehouse tradisional mempunyai beberapa kelemahan yang mengakibatkan kualitas data yang dihasilkan tidak spesifik dan efektif. Sistem semantic data warehouse merupakan solusi untuk menangani permasalahan pada data warehouse tradisional dengan kelebihan antara lain: manajeman kualitas data yang spesifik dengan format data seragam untuk mendukung laporan OLAP yang baik, dan performance pencarian informasi yang lebih efektif dengan kata kunci bahasa alami. Pemodelan sistem semantic data warehouse menggunakan metode ontology menghasilkan model resource description framework schema (RDFS logic yang akan ditransformasikan menjadi snowflake schema. Laporan akademik yang dibutuhkan dihasilkan melalui metode nine step Kimball dan pencarian semantic menggunakan metode rule based. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan dua metode uji yaitu pengujian dengan black box testing dan angket kuesioner cheklist. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa sistem semantic data warehouse dapat membantu proses pengolahan data akademik yang menghasilkan laporan yang berkualitas untuk mendukung proses pengambilan keputusan.

  1. Earthquake hazard assessment in the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran using a fuzzy rule-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi Ghasre Aboonasr, Sedigheh; Zamani, Ahmad; Razavipour, Fatemeh; Boostani, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Producing accurate seismic hazard map and predicting hazardous areas is necessary for risk mitigation strategies. In this paper, a fuzzy logic inference system is utilized to estimate the earthquake potential and seismic zoning of Zagros Orogenic Belt. In addition to the interpretability, fuzzy predictors can capture both nonlinearity and chaotic behavior of data, where the number of data is limited. In this paper, earthquake pattern in the Zagros has been assessed for the intervals of 10 and 50 years using fuzzy rule-based model. The Molchan statistical procedure has been used to show that our forecasting model is reliable. The earthquake hazard maps for this area reveal some remarkable features that cannot be observed on the conventional maps. Regarding our achievements, some areas in the southern (Bandar Abbas), southwestern (Bandar Kangan) and western (Kermanshah) parts of Iran display high earthquake severity even though they are geographically far apart.

  2. Differentiation between probiotic and wild-type Bacillus cereus isolates by antibiotic susceptibility test and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietke, Henriette; Beer, W; Schleif, Julia; Schabert, G; Reissbrodt, R

    2010-05-30

    Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar. Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ss-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing. When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800 cm(-1) ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900 cm(-1) ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700 cm(-1) ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary defect transformations in high-resistivity p-type silicon irradiated with electrons at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Korshunov, F P; Murin, L I; Moll, M

    2009-01-01

    It has been revealed that self-interstitials formed under low intensity electron irradiationin high resistivity p-type silicon can be retained frozen up to room temperature. Low thermal mobility of the self-interstitials suggests that Frenkelpair sinsilicon can be stable at temperatures of about or higher than 100K. A broad DLTS peak with activation energy of 0.14–0.17eV can be identified as related to Frenkel pairs. This peak anneals out at temperatures of 120 140K. Experimental evidences are presented that be coming more mobile under forwardcurrent injection the self-interstitials change their charge state to a less positive one.

  4. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Nathaniel J; Saucedo, Celeste L; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-03-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells. Previous research found that transcranial infrared laser stimulation aimed at the prefrontal cortex can improve sustained attention, short-term memory, and executive function. In this study, we directly investigated the influence of transcranial infrared laser stimulation on two neurobiologically dissociable systems of category learning: a prefrontal cortex mediated reflective system that learns categories using explicit rules, and a striatally mediated reflexive learning system that forms gradual stimulus-response associations. Participants (n=118) received either active infrared laser to the lateral prefrontal cortex or sham (placebo) stimulation, and then learned one of two category structures-a rule-based structure optimally learned by the reflective system, or an information-integration structure optimally learned by the reflexive system. We found that prefrontal rule-based learning was substantially improved following transcranial infrared laser stimulation as compared to placebo (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 298)=5.117, p=0.024), while information-integration learning did not show significant group differences (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 288)=1.633, p=0.202). These results highlight the exciting potential of transcranial infrared laser stimulation for cognitive enhancement and provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of category learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rules-Based Algorithm to Prioritize Poor Prognosis Cancer Patients in Need of Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvina, Christine M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Daly, Bobby; Beach, Brittany; Chow, Selina; Hantel, Andrew; Malec, Monica; Huber, Michael T; Polite, Blase N

    2018-03-13

    Accurate understanding of the prognosis of an advanced cancer patient can lead to decreased aggressive care at the end of life and earlier hospice enrollment. Our goal was to determine the association between high-risk clinical events identified by a simple, rules-based algorithm and decreased overall survival, to target poor prognosis cancer patients who would urgently benefit from advanced care planning. A retrospective analysis was performed on outpatient oncology patients with an index visit from April 1, 2015, through June 30, 2015. We examined a three-month window for "high-risk events," defined as (1) change in chemotherapy, (2) emergency department (ED) visit, and (3) hospitalization. Patients were followed until January 31, 2017. A total of 219 patients receiving palliative chemotherapy at the University of Chicago Medicine with a prognosis of ≤12 months were included. The main outcome was overall survival, and each "high-risk event" was treated as a time-varying covariate in a Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate a hazard ratio (HR) of death. A change in chemotherapy regimen, ED visit, hospitalization, and at least one high-risk event occurred in 54% (118/219), 10% (22/219), 26% (57/219), and 67% (146/219) of patients, respectively. The adjusted HR of death for patients with a high-risk event was 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.46, p = 0.003), with hospitalization reaching significance (HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.84-4.09, p rules-based algorithm identified those with the greatest risk of death among a poor prognosis patient group. Implementation of this algorithm in the electronic health record can identify patients with increased urgency to address goals of care.

  6. Fuzzy rule-based landslide susceptibility mapping in Yığılca Forest District (Northwest of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Aydın

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility map of Yığılca Forest District was formed based on developed fuzzy rules using GIS-based FuzzyCell software. An inventory of 315 landslides was updated through fieldworks after inventory map previously generated by the authors. Based on the landslide susceptibility mapping study previously made in the same area, for the comparison of two maps, same 8 landslide conditioning parameters were selected and then fuzzified for the landslide susceptibility mapping: land use, lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and plan curvature. Mamdani model was selected as fuzzy inference system. After fuzzy rules definition, Center of Area (COA was selected as defuzzification method in model. The output of developed model was normalized between 0 and 1, and then divided five classes such as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. According to developed model based 8 conditioning parameters, landslide susceptibility in Yığılca Forest District varies between 32 and 67 (in range of 0-100 with 0.703 Area Under the Curve (AUC value. According to classified landslide susceptibility map, in Yığılca Forest District, 32.89% of the total area has high and very high susceptibility while 29.59% of the area has low and very low susceptibility and the rest located in moderate susceptibility. The result of developed fuzzy rule based model compared with previously generated landslide map with logistic regression (LR. According to comparison of the results of two studies, higher differences exist in terms of AUC value and dispersion of susceptibility classes. This is because fuzzy rule based model completely depends on how parameters are classified and fuzzified and also depends on how truly the expert composed the rules. Even so, GIS-based fuzzy applications provide very valuable facilities for reasoning, which makes it possible to take into account inaccuracies and uncertainties.

  7. Evaluation of a rule-based method for epidemiological document classification towards the automation of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Thayer, Kristina; Wolfe, Mary; Tsafnat, Guy

    2017-06-01

    Most data extraction efforts in epidemiology are focused on obtaining targeted information from clinical trials. In contrast, limited research has been conducted on the identification of information from observational studies, a major source for human evidence in many fields, including environmental health. The recognition of key epidemiological information (e.g., exposures) through text mining techniques can assist in the automation of systematic reviews and other evidence summaries. We designed and applied a knowledge-driven, rule-based approach to identify targeted information (study design, participant population, exposure, outcome, confounding factors, and the country where the study was conducted) from abstracts of epidemiological studies included in several systematic reviews of environmental health exposures. The rules were based on common syntactical patterns observed in text and are thus not specific to any systematic review. To validate the general applicability of our approach, we compared the data extracted using our approach versus hand curation for 35 epidemiological study abstracts manually selected for inclusion in two systematic reviews. The returned F-score, precision, and recall ranged from 70% to 98%, 81% to 100%, and 54% to 97%, respectively. The highest precision was observed for exposure, outcome and population (100%) while recall was best for exposure and study design with 97% and 89%, respectively. The lowest recall was observed for the population (54%), which also had the lowest F-score (70%). The generated performance of our text-mining approach demonstrated encouraging results for the identification of targeted information from observational epidemiological study abstracts related to environmental exposures. We have demonstrated that rules based on generic syntactic patterns in one corpus can be applied to other observational study design by simple interchanging the dictionaries aiming to identify certain characteristics (i.e., outcomes

  8. Effect of strain-induced martensitic transformation on high cycle fatigue behavior in cyclically-prestrained type 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Yoshihiko; Kakiuchi, Toshifumi; Akita, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masaki; Nakamura, Yuki; Yajima, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the cyclic prestrain on the fatigue behavior in type 304 austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Rotating bending fatigue tests have been performed in laboratory air using the specimens subjected to ±5% cyclic prestrain at room temperature (R.T.) and -5°C. Martensitic phase volume fraction of the prestrained specimen at -5°C was 48% and larger than 3.8% at R.T. The prestrained specimens exhibited higher fatigue strengths than the as-received ones, and larger volume fraction of martensitic phase resulted in the higher fatigue limit. EBSD analysis revealed that the martensitic phases were more uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix in the cyclically-prestrained specimens than in the monotonically-prestrained ones. Fatigue crack initiation from inclusion was observed only in the cyclically-prestrained specimens at -5°C. High volume fraction and uniform distribution of martensitic phase induced the transition of crack initiation mechanism and led to the higher fatigue limit. In type 304 stainless steel with high volume fraction of strain-induced martensitic phase, the prediction of fatigue limit based on Vickers hardness could give unconservative results. (author)

  9. Towards automated processing of clinical Finnish: sublanguage analysis and a rule-based parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laippala, Veronika; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Salakoski, Tapio

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present steps taken towards more efficient automated processing of clinical Finnish, focusing on daily nursing notes in a Finnish Intensive Care Unit (ICU). First, we analyze ICU Finnish as a sublanguage, identifying its specific features facilitating, for example, the development of a specialized syntactic analyser. The identified features include frequent omission of finite verbs, limitations in allowed syntactic structures, and domain-specific vocabulary. Second, we develop a formal grammar and a parser for ICU Finnish, thus providing better tools for the development of further applications in the clinical domain. The grammar is implemented in the LKB system in a typed feature structure formalism. The lexicon is automatically generated based on the output of the FinTWOL morphological analyzer adapted to the clinical domain. As an additional experiment, we study the effect of using Finnish constraint grammar to reduce the size of the lexicon. The parser construction thus makes efficient use of existing resources for Finnish. The grammar currently covers 76.6% of ICU Finnish sentences, producing highly accurate best-parse analyzes with F-score of 91.1%. We find that building a parser for the highly specialized domain sublanguage is not only feasible, but also surprisingly efficient, given an existing morphological analyzer with broad vocabulary coverage. The resulting parser enables a deeper analysis of the text than was previously possible.

  10. Criterion learning in rule-based categorization: simulation of neural mechanism and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helie, Sebastien; Ell, Shawn W; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-04-01

    In perceptual categorization, rule selection consists of selecting one or several stimulus-dimensions to be used to categorize the stimuli (e.g., categorize lines according to their length). Once a rule has been selected, criterion learning consists of defining how stimuli will be grouped using the selected dimension(s) (e.g., if the selected rule is line length, define 'long' and 'short'). Very little is known about the neuroscience of criterion learning, and most existing computational models do not provide a biological mechanism for this process. In this article, we introduce a new model of rule learning called Heterosynaptic Inhibitory Criterion Learning (HICL). HICL includes a biologically-based explanation of criterion learning, and we use new category-learning data to test key aspects of the model. In HICL, rule selective cells in prefrontal cortex modulate stimulus-response associations using pre-synaptic inhibition. Criterion learning is implemented by a new type of heterosynaptic error-driven Hebbian learning at inhibitory synapses that uses feedback to drive cell activation above/below thresholds representing ionic gating mechanisms. The model is used to account for new human categorization data from two experiments showing that: (1) changing rule criterion on a given dimension is easier if irrelevant dimensions are also changing (Experiment 1), and (2) showing that changing the relevant rule dimension and learning a new criterion is more difficult, but also facilitated by a change in the irrelevant dimension (Experiment 2). We conclude with a discussion of some of HICL's implications for future research on rule learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal Rule-Based Power Management for Online, Real-Time Applications in HEVs with Multiple Sources and Objectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedatri Moulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of hybrid vehicles has undergone intensive research and development, primarily due to the increasing concern of depleting resources and increasing pollution. In order to investigate further options to optimize the performance of hybrid vehicles with regards to different criteria, such as fuel economy, battery aging, etc., a detailed state-of-the-art review is presented in this contribution. Different power management and optimization techniques are discussed focusing on rule-based power management and multi-objective optimization techniques. The extent of rule-based power management and optimization in solving battery aging issues is investigated along with an implementation in real-time driving scenarios where no pre-defined drive cycle is followed. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the significance and applications of rule-based power management optimization based on previous contributions.

  12. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...... matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer....

  13. Changes of regulatory T cells, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Shen, Jian; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Liang, Ling; Bo, Chao-Sheng; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T lymphocyte cells (Treg) associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet the existing evidence remains unclear. Hereby we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the changes in T1DM patients. A total of 1407 T1DM patients and 1373 healthy controls from 40 case-control studies were eventually included in the pooling analysis. Compared with the controls, T1DM patients had decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg (p=0.0003), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg (p=0.020), and the level of TGF-β (p=0.030). Decrease in IL-10 (p=0.14) was not significant. All the changes remained significant when the studies with low NOS scores and publication bias were excluded. In conclusion, peripheral Treg and serum TGF-β are reduced in type 1 diabetes mellitus whereas changes in serum IL-10 are not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a cause analysis system for a CPCS trip by using the rule-base deduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Je-Yun; Koo, In-Soo; Sohn, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jung-Seon; Cho, Gi-Ho; Park, Hee-Seok

    2009-07-01

    A Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) was developed to initiate a Reactor Trip under the circumstance of certain transients by a Combustion Engineering Company. The major function of the Core Protection Calculator System is to generate contact outputs for the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) Trip and a Local Power Density (LPD) Trip. But in a Core Protection Calculator System, a trip cause cannot be identified, thus only trip signals are transferred to the Plant Protection System (PPS) and only the trip status is displayed. It could take a considerable amount of time and effort for a plant operator to analyze the trip causes of a Core Protection Calculator System. So, a Cause Analysis System for a Core Protection Calculator System (CASCPCS) has been developed by using the rule-base deduction method to assist operators in a Nuclear Power Plant. CASCPCS consists of three major parts. Inference engine has a role of controlling the searching knowledge base, executing the rules and tracking the inference process by using the depth-first searching method. Knowledge base consists of four major parts: rules, data base constants, trip buffer variables and causes. And a user interface is implemented by using menu-driven and window display techniques. The advantage of CASCPCS is that it saves time and effort to diagnose the trip causes of a Core Protection Calculator System, it increases a plant's availability and reliability, and it makes it easy to manage CASCPCS because of using only a cursor control.

  15. Fuzzy rule-based modelling for human health risk from naturally occurring radioactive materials in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhawat, Chowdhury; Tahir, Husain; Neil, Bose

    2006-01-01

    Produced water, discharged from offshore oil and gas operations, contains chemicals from formation water, condensed water, and any chemical added down hole or during the oil/water separation process. Although, most of the contaminants fall below the detection limits within a short distance from the discharge port, a few of the remaining contaminants including naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are of concern due to their bioavailability in the media and bioaccumulation characteristics in finfish and shellfish species used for human consumption. In the past, several initiatives have been taken to model human health risk from NORM in produced water. The parameters of the available risk assessment models are imprecise and sparse in nature. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic evaluation using fuzzy rule based modeling has been presented. Being conservative in nature, the possibilistic approach considers possible input parameter values; thus provides better environmental prediction than the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The uncertainties of the input parameters were captured with fuzzy triangular membership functions (TFNs). Fuzzy if-then rules were applied for input concentrations of two isotopes of radium, namely 226 Ra, and 228 Ra, available in produced water and bulk dilution to evaluate the radium concentration in fish tissue used for human consumption. The bulk dilution was predicted using four input parameters: produced water discharge rate, ambient seawater velocity, depth of discharge port and density gradient. The evaluated cancer risk shows compliance with the regulatory guidelines; thus minimum risk to human health is expected from NORM components in produced water

  16. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J.S.; Weisberg, P.J.; Pillai, R.; Ericksen, J.A.; Kuiken, T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Zhang, H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impactedbygeologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  18. MODEL OF MOBILE TRANSLATOR APPLICATION OF ENGLISH TO BAHASA INDONESIA WITH RULE-BASED AND J2ME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puspita Tedjosurya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of information technology in recent era, a number of new applications emerge, especially on mobile phones. The use of mobile phones, besides as communication media, is also as media of learning, such as translator application. Translator application can be a tool to learn a language, such as English to Bahasa Indonesia translator application. The purpose of this research is to allow user to be able to translate English to Bahasa Indonesia on mobile phone easily. Translator application on this research was developed using Java programming language (especially J2ME because of its advantage that can run on various operating systems and its open source that can be easily developed and distributed. In this research, data collection was done through literature study, observation, and browsing similar application. Development of the system used object-oriented analysis and design that can be described by using case diagrams, class diagrams, sequence diagrams, and activity diagrams. The translation process used rule-based method. Result of this research is the application of Java-based translator which can translate English sentence into Indonesian sentence. The application can be accessed using a mobile phone with Internet connection. The application has spelling check feature that is able to check the wrong word and provide alternative word that approaches the word input. Conclusion of this research is the application can translate sentence in daily conversation quite well with the sentence structure corresponds and is close to its original meaning.

  19. Resequencing of genes for transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1 type 1 and 2 receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and association analysis of variants with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Chris C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal failure in the western world. There is substantial epidemiological evidence supporting a genetic predisposition to diabetic nephropathy, however the exact molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGFβ1 is a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We investigated the role of five known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TGFB1 gene for their association with diabetic nephropathy in an Irish, type 1 diabetic case (n = 272 control (n = 367 collection. The activity of TGFβ1 is facilitated by the action of type 1 and type 2 receptors, with both receptor genes (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 shown to be upregulated in diabetic kidney disease. We therefore screened TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes for genomic variants using WAVE™ (dHPLC technology and confirmed variants by direct capillary sequencing. Allele frequencies were determined in forty-eight healthy individuals. Data for all SNPs was assessed for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, with genotypes and allele frequencies compared using the χ2 test for contingency tables. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were established and common haplotypes estimated. Results Fifteen variants were identified in these genes, seven of which are novel, and putatively functional SNPs were subsequently genotyped using TaqMan™, Invader™ or Pyrosequencing® technology. No significant differences (p > 0.1 were found in genotype or allele distributions between cases and controls for any of the SNPs assessed. Conclusion Our results suggest common variants in TGFB1, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes do not strongly influence genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in an Irish Caucasian population.

  20. Rule-Based Reasoning Is Fast and Belief-Based Reasoning Can Be Slow: Challenging Current Explanations of Belief-Bias and Base-Rate Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian R.; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this…

  1. Accounting standards and earnings management : The role of rules-based and principles-based accounting standards and incentives on accounting and transaction decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, van F.

    2012-01-01

    This book examines the effect that rules-based and principles-based accounting standards have on the level and nature of earnings management decisions. A cherry picking experiment is conducted to test the hypothesis that a substitution effect is expected from accounting decisions to transaction

  2. The Balance-Scale Task Revisited: A Comparison of Statistical Models for Rule-Based and Information-Integration Theories of Proportional Reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe D Hofman

    Full Text Available We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children's responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779, and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808. For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development.

  3. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  4. Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Natalie T; Wright, Margie J; Henders, Anjali K; Eyles, Darryl W; Baune, Bernhard T; McGrath, John J; Byrne, Enda M; Hansell, Narelle K; Birosova, Eva; Scott, James G; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E

    2015-02-01

    Cytokines and vitamin D both have a role in modulating the immune system, and are also potentially useful biomarkers in mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Studying the variability of cytokines and vitamin D in a healthy population sample may add to understanding the association between these biomarkers and mental illness. To assess genetic and environmental contributions to variation in circulating levels of cytokines and vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25(OH)D3), we analyzed data from a healthy adolescent twin cohort (mean age 16.2 years; standard deviation 0.25). Plasma cytokine measures were available for 400 individuals (85 MZ, 115 DZ pairs), dried blood spot sample vitamin D measures were available for 378 individuals (70 MZ, 118 DZ pairs). Heritability estimates were moderate but significant for the cytokines transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), 0.57 (95% CI 0.26-0.80) and tumor necrosis factor-receptor type 1 (TNFR1), 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-0.63) respectively. Measures of 25(OH)D3 were within normal range and heritability was estimated to be high (0.86, 95% CI 0.61-0.94). Assays of other cytokines did not generate meaningful results. These potential biomarkers may be useful in mental illness, with further research warranted in larger sample sizes. They may be particularly important in adolescents with mental illness where diagnostic uncertainty poses a significant clinical challenge.

  5. R-268712, an orally active transforming growth factor-β type I receptor inhibitor, prevents glomerular sclerosis in a Thy1 nephritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hideki; Kato, Mikio; Ebisawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Kanae; Nezu, Yoshikazu; Sada, Toshio

    2014-07-05

    R-268712 is a novel and specific inhibitor of activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type I receptor. Evaluation of in vitro inhibition indicated that R-268712 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with an IC50 of 2.5nM, an approximately 5000-fold more selectivity for ALK5 than p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Oral administration of R-268712 at doses of 1, 3 and 10mg/kg also inhibited the development of renal fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Additionally, we evaluated the efficacy of R-268712 in a heminephrectomized anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis model at doses of 0.3 and 1mg/kg. R-268712 reduced proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis significantly with improvement of renal function. Collectively, these results suggested that R-268712 and other ALK5 inhibitors could suppress glomerulonephritis as well as glomerulosclerosis by an inhibitory mechanism that involves suppression of TGF-β signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  7. Effect of botulinum toxin type A on transforming growth factor beta1 in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhibo; Zhang, Fengmin; Lin, Weibin; Zhang, Miaobo; Liu, Ying

    2010-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a common dermal disease. Numerous treatments are currently available but they do not always yield excellent therapeutic results. Hence, alternatives are needed. Recent basic and clinical research has shown that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has antihypertrophic scar properties but the molecular mechanism for this action is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of BTXA on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and further elucidate its actual mechanism. Fibroblasts were isolated from tissue specimens of hypertrophic scar. Fibroblasts were treated with BTXA and the difference in proliferation between treated and nontreated cells was analyzed through the MTT method from the first to the fifth day after treatment. Proteins of TGF-beta1 were checked using ELISA in fibroblasts with BTXA and without BTXA from the first to the fifth day. The growth of the fibroblast treated with BTXA was obviously slower than that of the fibroblast without BTXA treatment (p < 0.01), which showed that BTXA effectively inhibited the growth of fibroblasts. Proteins of TGF-beta1 between fibroblasts with BTXA and fibroblasts without BTXA are statistically significant (p < 0.01). These results suggest that BTXA effectively inhibited the growth of fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and in turn caused a decrease in TGF-beta1 protein, indicating that BTXA-based therapies for hypertrophic scar are promising and worth investigating further.

  8. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  9. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  10. Negation handling in sentiment classification using rule-based adapted from Indonesian language syntactic for Indonesian text in Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Rizkiana; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Darmantoro, Dhinta

    2018-03-01

    The presence of the word negation is able to change the polarity of the text if it is not handled properly it will affect the performance of the sentiment classification. Negation words in Indonesian are ‘tidak’, ‘bukan’, ‘belum’ and ‘jangan’. Also, there is a conjunction word that able to reverse the actual values, as the word ‘tetapi’, or ‘tapi’. Unigram has shortcomings in dealing with the existence of negation because it treats negation word and the negated words as separate words. A general approach for negation handling in English text gives the tag ‘NEG_’ for following words after negation until the first punctuation. But this may gives the tag to un-negated, and this approach does not handle negation and conjunction in one sentences. The rule-based method to determine what words negated by adapting the rules of Indonesian language syntactic of negation to determine the scope of negation was proposed in this study. With adapting syntactic rules and tagging “NEG_” using SVM classifier with RBF kernel has better performance results than the other experiments. Considering the average F1-score value, the performance of this proposed method can be improved against baseline equal to 1.79% (baseline without negation handling) and 5% (baseline with existing negation handling) for a dataset that all tweets contain negation words. And also for the second dataset that has the various number of negation words in document tweet. It can be improved against baseline at 2.69% (without negation handling) and 3.17% (with existing negation handling).

  11. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  12. A decision support system and rule-based algorithm to augment the human interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Andrew W; Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Badilini, Fabio; Libretti, Guido; Peace, Aaron J; Leslie, Stephen J

    The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to detect cardiac abnormalities in the same format for more than 70years. However, due to the complex nature of 12-lead ECG interpretation, there is a significant cognitive workload required from the interpreter. This complexity in ECG interpretation often leads to errors in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We have previously reported on the development of an ECG interpretation support system designed to augment the human interpretation process. This computerised decision support system has been named 'Interactive Progressive based Interpretation' (IPI). In this study, a decision support algorithm was built into the IPI system to suggest potential diagnoses based on the interpreter's annotations of the 12-lead ECG. We hypothesise semi-automatic interpretation using a digital assistant can be an optimal man-machine model for ECG interpretation. To improve interpretation accuracy and reduce missed co-abnormalities. The Differential Diagnoses Algorithm (DDA) was developed using web technologies where diagnostic ECG criteria are defined in an open storage format, Javascript Object Notation (JSON), which is queried using a rule-based reasoning algorithm to suggest diagnoses. To test our hypothesis, a counterbalanced trial was designed where subjects interpreted ECGs using the conventional approach and using the IPI+DDA approach. A total of 375 interpretations were collected. The IPI+DDA approach was shown to improve diagnostic accuracy by 8.7% (although not statistically significant, p-value=0.1852), the IPI+DDA suggested the correct interpretation more often than the human interpreter in 7/10 cases (varying statistical significance). Human interpretation accuracy increased to 70% when seven suggestions were generated. Although results were not found to be statistically significant, we found; 1) our decision support tool increased the number of correct interpretations, 2) the DDA algorithm suggested the correct

  13. Functional transforming growth factor-β receptor type II expression by CD4+ T cells in Peyer's patches is essential for oral tolerance induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah S Gilbert

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that Peyer's patches (PPs play a key role in the induction of oral tolerance. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPs are an important site for Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β signaling and sought to prove that this tissue is of importance in oral tolerance induction. We found that expression of TGF-β type II receptor (TGFβRII by CD4(+ T cells increases and persists in the PPs of normal C57BL/6 mice after either high- or low-dose feeding of OVA when compared to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs and spleen. Approximately one-third of these TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells express the transcription factor Foxp3. Interestingly, the number of TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells in PPs decreased when OVA-fed mice were orally challenged with OVA plus native cholera toxin (CT. In contrast, numbers of TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells were increased in the intestinal lamina propria (iLP of these challenged mice. Further, these PP CD4(+ TGFβRII(+ T cells upregulated Foxp3 within 2 hours after OVA plus CT challenge. Mice fed PBS and challenged with OVA plus CT did not reveal any changes in TGFβRII expression by CD4(+ T cells. In order to test the functional property of TGFβRII in the induction of oral tolerance, CD4dnTGFβRII transgenic mice, in which TGFβRII signaling is abrogated from all CD4(+ T cells, were employed. Importantly, these mice could not develop oral tolerance to OVA. Our studies show a critical, dose-independent, role for TGFβRII expression and function by CD4(+ T cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, further underlining the vital role of PPs in oral tolerance.

  14. Proteoform analysis of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase from human cerebrospinal fluid by isoelectric focusing and superficially porous liquid chromatography with Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Corbett, John R; Plymire, Daniel A; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Patrie, Steven M

    2014-05-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase (L-PGDS) in cerebrospinal fluid contributes to the maturation and maintenance of the CNS. L-PGDS PTMs may contribute to pathobiology of different CNS diseases, but methods to monitor its proteoforms are limited. Herein, we combined off-gel IEF and superficially porous LC (SPLC) with Fourier transform MS to characterize common cerebrospinal fluid L-PGDS proteoforms. Across 3D physiochemical space (pI, hydrophobicity, and mass), 217 putative proteoforms were observed from 21 to 24 kDa and pI 5-10. Glycoprotein accurate mass information, combined with MS/MS analysis of peptides generated from 2D-fractionated proteoforms, enabled the putative assignment of 208 proteoforms with varied PTM positional occupants. Fifteen structurally related N-glycans at N29 and N56 were observed, with different N-glycan compositional variants being preferred on each amino acid. We also observed that sialic acid content was a major factor for pI shifts between L-PGDS proteoforms. Other putative PTMs characterized include a core-1 HexHexNAc-O-glycan at S7, acetylation at K16 and K138, sulfonation at S41 and T142, and dioxidation at C43 and C145. The IEF-SPLC-MS platform presented provides 30-40× improved peak capacity versus conventional 2DE and shows potential for repeatable proteoform analysis of surrogate PTM-based biomarkers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  16. Progressive loss of sensitivity to growth control by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta at late stages of human papillomavirus type 16-initiated transformation of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, K E; Geslani, G; Batova, A; Pirisi, L

    1995-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic derivatives) have shown potential as chemopreventive agents, and diets poor in vitamin A and/or its precursor beta-carotene have been linked to an increased risk of cancer at several sites including the cervix. Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays an important role in the etiology of cervical cancer. We have developed an in vitro model of cancer progression using human keratinocytes (HKc) immortalized by HPV16 DNA (HKc/HPV16). Although immortal, early passage HKc/HPV16, like normal HKc, require epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE) for proliferation and undergo terminal differentiation in response to serum and calcium. However, following prolonged culture, growth factor independent HKc/HPV16 lines that no longer require EGF and BPE can be selected (HKc/GFI). Further selection of HKc/GFI produces lines that are resistant to serum- and calcium- induced terminal differentiation (HKc/DR). HKc/DR, but not early passage HKc/HPV16, are susceptible to malignant conversion following transfection with viral Harvey ras or Herpes simplex virus type II DNA. We have investigated the sensitivity of low to high passage HKc/HPV16 and HKc/GFI to growth control by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA, an active metabolite of vitamin A). Early passage HKc/HPV16 are very sensitive to growth inhibition by RA, and in these cells RA decreases the expression of the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7. However, as the cells progress in culture they lose their sensitivity to RA. Growth inhibition by RA may be mediated through the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation. RA treatment of HKc/HPV16 and HKc/GFI results in a dose-and time-dependent induction (maximal of 3-fold) in secreted levels of TGF-beta. Also, Northern blot analysis of mRNA isolated from HKc/HPV16 demonstrated that RA treatment induced TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 expression about 3- and 50-fold, respectively

  17. Nonlinear behavior analysis of split-winding dry-type transformer using a new star model and a coupled field-circuit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizian Davood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of short circuit and inrush current simulations in the split-winding transformer, a novel nonlinear equivalent circuit is introduced in this paper for nonlinear simulation of this transformer. The equivalent circuit is extended using the nonlinear inductances. Employing a numerical method, leakage and magnetizing inductances in the split-winding transformer are extracted and the nonlinear model inductances are estimated using these inductances. The introduced model is validated and using this nonlinear model, inrush and short-circuit currents are calculated. It has been seen that the introduced model is valid and suitable for simulations of the split-winding transformer due to various loading conditions. Finally, the effects of nonlinearity of the model inductances are discussed in the following.

  18. A study on the optimal fuel loading pattern design in pressurized water reactor using the artificial neural network and the fuzzy rule based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byung

    2004-01-01

    The Optimal Fuel Shuffling System (OFSS) is developed for optimal design of PWR fuel loading pattern. In this paper, an optimal loading pattern is defined that the local power peaking factor is lower than predetermined value during one cycle and the effective multiplication factor is maximized in order to extract maximum energy. OFSS is a hybrid system that a rule based system, a fuzzy logic, and an artificial neural network are connected each other. The rule based system classifies loading patterns into two classes using several heuristic rules and a fuzzy rule. A fuzzy rule is introduced to achieve more effective and fast searching. Its membership function is automatically updated in accordance with the prediction results. The artificial neural network predicts core parameters for the patterns generated from the rule based system. The back-propagation network is used for fast prediction of core parameters. The artificial neural network and the fuzzy logic can be used as the tool for improvement of existing algorithm's capabilities. OFSS was demonstrated and validated for cycle 1 of Kori unit 1 PWR. (author)

  19. A study on the optimal fuel loading pattern design in pressurized water reactor using the artificial neural network and the fuzzy rule based system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yusong-gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The Optimal Fuel Shuffling System (OFSS) is developed for optimal design of PWR fuel loading pattern. In this paper, an optimal loading pattern is defined that the local power peaking factor is lower than predetermined value during one cycle and the effective multiplication factor is maximized in order to extract maximum energy. OFSS is a hybrid system that a rule based system, a fuzzy logic, and an artificial neural network are connected each other. The rule based system classifies loading patterns into two classes using several heuristic rules and a fuzzy rule. A fuzzy rule is introduced to achieve more effective and fast searching. Its membership function is automatically updated in accordance with the prediction results. The artificial neural network predicts core parameters for the patterns generated from the rule based system. The back-propagation network is used for fast prediction of core parameters. The artificial neural network and the fuzzy logic can be used as the tool for improvement of existing algorithm's capabilities. OFSS was demonstrated and validated for cycle 1 of Kori unit 1 PWR. (author)

  20. Effects of Stoichiometry on Transformation Temperatures and Actuator-Type Performance of NiTiPd and NiTiPdX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature shape memory NiTiPd and NiTiPdX (X=Au, Pt, Hf) alloys were produced with titanium equivalent (Ti+Hf) compositions of 50.5, 50.0, 49.5, and 49.0 at.%. Thermo-mechanical testing in compression was used to evaluate the transformation temperatures, transformation strain, work output, and permanent deformation behavior of each alloy to study the effects of quaternary alloying and stoichiometry on high-temperature shape memory alloy behavior. Microstructural evaluation showed the presence of second phases for all alloy compositions. No load transformation temperatures in the stoichiometric alloys were relatively unchanged by Au and Pt substitutions, while the substitution of Hf for Ti causes a drop in transformation temperatures. The NiTiPd, NiTiPdAu and NiTiPdHf alloys exhibited transformation temperatures that were highest in the Ti-rich compositions, slightly lower at stoichiometry, and significantly reduced when the Ti equivalent composition was less than 50 at.%. For the NiTiPdPt alloy, transformation temperatures were highest for the Ti-rich compositions, lowest at stoichiometry, and slightly higher in the Ni-rich composition. When thermally cycled under constant stresses of up to 300 MPa, all of the alloys had transformation strains, and therefore work outputs, which increased with increasing stress. In each series of alloys, the transformation strain and thus work output was highest for stoichiometric or Ti-rich compositions while permanent strain associated with the constant-load thermal cycling was lowest for alloys with Ni-equivalent-rich compositions. Based on these results, basic rules for optimizing the composition of NiTiPd alloys for actuator performance will be discussed.

  1. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  2. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesesky, Mitchell W; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Patel, Sanket; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitates initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum) antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0 and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance factors and

  3. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Pesesky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitate initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0% and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance

  4. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  5. Role of Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog in the transcription activation of type I collagen gene mediated by transforming growth factor beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi-Sun; Jeong, Kwang Won, E-mail: kwjeong@gachon.ac.kr

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • FLII activates TGFβ-mediated expression of COL1A2 gene. • TGFβ induces the association of FLII with SMAD3 and BRG1 in A549 cells. • FLII is required for the recruitment of SWI/SNF complex and chromatin accessibility to COL1A2 promoter. - Abstract: Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that is known to interact with other transcriptional regulators such as the SWI/SNF complex, an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, at the promoter or enhancer region of estrogen receptor (ER)-α target genes. However, little is known about the role of FLII during transcription initiation in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/SMAD-dependent signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that FLII functions as a coactivator in the expression of type I collagen gene induced by TGFβ in A549 cells. FLII activates the reporter gene driven by COL1A2 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Co-expression of GRIP1, CARM1, or p300 did not show any synergistic activation of transcription. Furthermore, the level of COL1A2 expression correlated with the endogenous level of FLII mRNA level. Depletion of FLII resulted in a reduction of TGFβ-induced expression of COL1A2 gene. In contrast, over-expression of FLII caused an increase in the endogenous expression of COL1A2. We also showed that FLII is associated with Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) as well as SMAD in A549 cells. Notably, the recruitment of BRG1 to the COL1A2 promoter region was decreased in FLII-depleted A549 cells, suggesting that FLII is required for TGFβ-induced chromatin remodeling, which is carried out by the SWI/SNF complex. Furthermore, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments revealed that depletion of FLII caused a reduction in chromatin accessibility at the COL1A2 promoter. These results suggest that FLII plays a critical role in TGFβ/SMAD-mediated transcription of the COL1A2 gene

  6. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  7. Differential Regulation of Smad3 and of the Type II Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor in Mitosis: Implications for Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF

  8. A novel image fusion algorithm based on 2D scale-mixing complex wavelet transform and Bayesian MAP estimation for multimodal medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Bengueddoudj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new image fusion algorithm based on two-dimensional Scale-Mixing Complex Wavelet Transform (2D-SMCWT. The fusion of the detail 2D-SMCWT coefficients is performed via a Bayesian Maximum a Posteriori (MAP approach by considering a trivariate statistical model for the local neighboring of 2D-SMCWT coefficients. For the approximation coefficients, a new fusion rule based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA is applied. We conduct several experiments using three different groups of multimodal medical images to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The obtained results prove the superiority of the proposed method over the state of the art fusion methods in terms of visual quality and several commonly used metrics. Robustness of the proposed method is further tested against different types of noise. The plots of fusion metrics establish the accuracy of the proposed fusion method.

  9. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  10. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  11. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  12. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  13. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  14. Evaluation of flaA short variable region sequencing, multilocus sequence typing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for discrimination between Campylobacter jejuni strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2012-01-01

    and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied on a collection of 102 epidemiologically related and unrelated Campylobacter jejuni strains. Previous application of FTIR spectroscopy for subtyping of Campylobacter has been limited. A subset of isolates, initially discriminated by flaA SVR...

  15. A study on the optimal fuel loading pattern design in pressurized water reactors using the artificial neural network and the fuzzy rule based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon

    1993-02-01

    In pressurized water reactors, the fuel reloading problem has significant meaning in terms of both safety and economic aspects. Therefore the general problem of incore fuel management for a PWR consists of determining the fuel reloading policy for each cycle that minimize unit energy cost under the constraints imposed on various core parameters, e.g., a local power peaking factor and an assembly burnup. This is equivalent that a cycle length is maximized for a given energy cost under the various constraints. Existing optimization methods do not ensure the global optimum solution because of the essential limitation of their searching algorithms. They only find near optimal solutions. To solve this limitation, a hybrid artificial neural network system is developed for the optimal fuel loading pattern design using a fuzzy rule based system and an artificial neural networks. This system finds the patterns that P max is lower than the predetermined value and K eff is larger than the reference value. The back-propagation networks are developed to predict PWR core parameters. Reference PWR is an 121-assembly typical PWR. The local power peaking factor and the effective multiplication factor at BOC condition are predicted. To obtain target values of these two parameters, the QCC code are used. Using this code, 1000 training patterns are obtained, randomly. Two networks are constructed, one for P max and another for K eff Both of two networks have 21 input layer neurons, 18 output layer neurons, and 120 and 393 hidden layer neurons, respectively. A new learning algorithm is proposed. This is called the advanced adaptive learning algorithm. The weight change step size of this algorithm is optimally varied inversely proportional to the average difference between an actual output value and an ideal target value. This algorithm greatly enhances the convergence speed of a BPN. In case of P max prediction, 98% of the untrained patterns are predicted within 6% error, and in case

  16. Bioclim deliverable D8a: development of the rule-based down-scaling methodology for BIOCLIM Work-package 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. Five work packages (WP) have been identified to fulfill the project objectives. One of the tasks of BIOCLIM WP3 was to develop a rule-based approach for down-scaling from the MoBidiC model of intermediate complexity in order to provide consistent estimates of monthly temperature and precipitation for the specific regions of interest to BIOCLIM (Central Spain, Central England and Northeast France, together with Germany and the Czech Republic). A statistical down-scaling methodology has been developed by Philippe Marbaix of CEA/LSCE for use with the second climate model of intermediate complexity used in BIOCLIM - CLIMBER-GREMLINS. The rule-based methodology assigns climate states or classes to a point on the time continuum of a region according to a combination of simple threshold values which can be determined from the coarse scale climate model. Once climate states or classes have been defined, monthly temperature and precipitation climatologies are constructed using analogue stations identified from a data base of present-day climate observations. The most appropriate climate classification for BIOCLIM purposes is the Koeppen/Trewartha scheme. This scheme has the advantage of being empirical, but only requires monthly averages of temperature and precipitation as input variables. Section 2 of this deliverable (D8a) outline how each of the eight methodological steps have been undertaken for each of the three main BIOCLIM study regions (Central England, Northeast France and Central Spain) using Mo

  17. The PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax can be substituted by heterologous PBMs from viral oncoproteins during T-cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tomoya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Oie, Masayasu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Kiyono, Tohru; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Fujii, Masahiro

    2010-04-01

    Several tumor viruses, such as human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human adenovirus, have high-oncogenic and low-oncogenic subtypes, and such subtype-specific oncogenesis is associated with the PDZ-domain binding motif (PBM) in their transforming proteins. HTLV-1, the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia, encodes Tax1 with PBM as a transforming protein. The Tax1 PBM was substituted with those from other oncoviruses, and the transforming activity was examined. Tax1 mutants with PBM from either HPV-16 E6 or adenovirus type 9 E4ORF1 are fully active in the transformation of a mouse T-cell line from interleukin-2-dependent growth into independent growth. Interestingly, one such Tax1 PBM mutant had an extra amino acid insertion derived from E6 between PBM and the rest of Tax1, thus suggesting that the amino acid sequences of the peptides between PBM and the rest of Tax1 and the numbers only slightly affect the function of PBM in the transformation. Tax1 and Tax1 PBM mutants interacted with tumor suppressors Dlg1 and Scribble with PDZ-domains. Unlike E6, Tax1 PBM mutants as well as Tax1 did not or minimally induced the degradations of Dlg1 and Scribble, but instead induced their subcellular translocation from the detergent-soluble fraction into the insoluble fraction, thus suggesting that the inactivation mechanism of these tumor suppressor proteins is distinct. The present results suggest that PBMs of high-risk oncoviruses have a common function(s) required for these three tumor viruses to transform cells, which is likely associated with the subtype-specific oncogenesis of these tumor viruses.

  18. C-terminal region of EBNA-2 determines the superior transforming ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus by enhanced gene regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Cancian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7 required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

  19. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  20. Comparison of Natural Language Processing Rules-based and Machine-learning Systems to Identify Lumbar Spine Imaging Findings Related to Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W Katherine; Hassanpour, Saeed; Heagerty, Patrick J; Rundell, Sean D; Suri, Pradeep; Huhdanpaa, Hannu T; James, Kathryn; Carrell, David S; Langlotz, Curtis P; Organ, Nancy L; Meier, Eric N; Sherman, Karen J; Kallmes, David F; Luetmer, Patrick H; Griffith, Brent; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) system built with open-source tools for identification of lumbar spine imaging findings related to low back pain on magnetic resonance and x-ray radiology reports from four health systems. We used a limited data set (de-identified except for dates) sampled from lumbar spine imaging reports of a prospectively assembled cohort of adults. From N = 178,333 reports, we randomly selected N = 871 to form a reference-standard dataset, consisting of N = 413 x-ray reports and N = 458 MR reports. Using standardized criteria, four spine experts annotated the presence of 26 findings, where 71 reports were annotated by all four experts and 800 were each annotated by two experts. We calculated inter-rater agreement and finding prevalence from annotated data. We randomly split the annotated data into development (80%) and testing (20%) sets. We developed an NLP system from both rule-based and machine-learned models. We validated the system using accuracy metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The multirater annotated dataset achieved inter-rater agreement of Cohen's kappa > 0.60 (substantial agreement) for 25 of 26 findings, with finding prevalence ranging from 3% to 89%. In the testing sample, rule-based and machine-learned predictions both had comparable average specificity (0.97 and 0.95, respectively). The machine-learned approach had a higher average sensitivity (0.94, compared to 0.83 for rules-based), and a higher overall AUC (0.98, compared to 0.90 for rules-based). Our NLP system performed well in identifying the 26 lumbar spine findings, as benchmarked by reference-standard annotation by medical experts. Machine-learned models provided substantial gains in model sensitivity with slight loss of specificity, and overall higher AUC. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of principles-based versus rules-based accounting standards on auditors' motivations and evidence demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peytcheva, M.; Majoor, G.C.M. (Barbara); Wright, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Auditing research has investigated the effects of different accounting standards on auditors' decisions to constrain aggressive reporting by clients. Missing from this literature is evidence on how the type of accounting standard influences auditors' cognitive motivations and demand for audit

  2. Effects of type I/type II interferons and transforming growth factor-beta on B-cell differentiation and proliferation. Definition of costimulation and cytokine requirements for immunoglobulin synthesis and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, D M; Tuo, W; Brown, W C; Goin, J

    1998-12-01

    In this report, we sought to determine the role of selected type I interferons [interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-tau (IFN-tau)], IFN-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the regulation of bovine antibody responses. B cells were stimulated via CD40 in the presence or absence of B-cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. IFN-alpha enhanced IgM, IgG2 and IgA responses but did not enhance IgG1 responses. BCR signalling alone was more effective at inducing IgG2 responses with IFN-alpha than dual cross-linking with CD40. Recombinant ovine IFN-tau was less effective at inducing IgG2 responses when compared with IFN-alpha, though IgA responses were similar in magnitude following BCR cross-linking. At higher concentrations, IFN-tau enhanced IgA responses greater than twofold over the levels observed with IFN-alpha. Previous studies have shown that addition of IFN-gamma to BCR or pokeweed mitogen-activated bovine B cells stimulates IgG2 production. However, following CD40 stimulation alone, IFN-gamma was relatively ineffective at stimulating high-rate synthesis of any non-IgM isotype. Dual cross-linking via CD40 and the BCR resulted in decreased synthesis of IgM with a concomitant increase in IgA and similar levels of IgG2 production to those obtained via the BCR alone. We also assessed the effects of endogenous and exogenous TGF-beta on immunoglobulin synthesis by bovine B cells. Exogenous TGF-beta stimulates both IgG2 and IgA production following CD40 and BCR cross-linking in the presence of IL-2. Blocking endogenous TGF-beta did not inhibit the up-regulation of IgG2 or IgA by interferons.

  3. Large bandgap narrowing in rutile TiO2 aimed towards visible light applications and its correlation with vacancy-type defects history and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Radhika V.; Gayathri, P. K.; Siva Gummaluri, Venkata; Nambissan, P. M. G.; Vijayan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Extension of photoactivity of TiO2 to the visible region is achievable via effective control over the intrinsic defects such as oxygen and Ti vacancies, which has several applications in visible photocatalysis and sensing. We present here the first observation of an apparent bandgap narrowing and bandgap tuning effect due to vacancy cluster transformation in rutile TiO2 structures to 1.84 eV from the bulk bandgap of 3 eV. A gradual transformation of divacancies (V Ti-O) to tri vacancies ({{V}Ti-O-T{{i-}}} ) achieved through a controlled solvothermal scheme appears to result in an apparent narrowing bandgap and tunability, as supported by positron annihilation lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Visible photocatalytic activity of the samples is demonstrated in terms of photodegradation of rhodamine B dye molecules.

  4. Phase transition type change in order-order and order-disorder transformations of LaH2+c-like superstoichiometric dihydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratishvili, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transformations in metal-hydrogen systems associated with the ordering processes in the subsystem of interstitial hydrogen atoms are considered. It is shown that in a particular class of superstoichiometric rare-earth dihydrides, where the ordering subsystem is characterized by two long-range-order parameters η 1 , η 2 and the energy parameter p 0 (1) (p) ≤ c ≤ c 0 (2) (p), it becomes discontinuous outside of this region. Dependence of critical concentrations c 0 (1) and c 0 (2) upon the energy parameter p is deduced. It is shown, as well, that there exists a second sequence of critical concentrations, c 1 (1) (p) and c 1 (2) (p), denoting the boundaries between the regions of continuous and discontinuous order-disorder transformations. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of the behavior of orthogonal-core-type push-pull parametric transformer with iron and copper losses. Tetsuson oyobi doson wo koryoshita chokko jishinkei push pull parametric hen prime atsuki no dosa kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, K; Anazawa, Y; Kaga, A [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Ichinokura, O [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-04-30

    This paper reports on a precise numerical analysis of operating characteristics of the push-pull parametric transformer of orthogonal-core type (proposed by the authors in the preceding papers) made in consideration of both the iron loss of its magnetic core and the copper loss of its windings. A model of magnetic circuit in the core is presented, which involves magnetic reluctances representing saturation characteristics of the core and magnetic inductances representing effects produced by hysteresis. Use is made of the function that expresses the saturation characteristics by a twenty-first power series of magnetic flux, the coefficient of each term being determined by use of experimental data on a specified sample of the magnetic core. Furthermore, recourse is had to the circuit simulator SPICE in order to analyze the operating characteristics of the transformer. Comparing results of the present analysis with experimental results, the following are noted: first, both output voltages and currents of windings of the transformer under the condition of parametric oscillation are calculated with sufficient accuracy; second, the present analysis is capable of evaluating the conversion efficiency of electric power and input power factor of the transformer, and of providing more accurate values of both voltage and current in the case of the maximum output under loading conditions as compared with the analyses so far presented. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Transforming growth factor (type beta) promotes the addition of chondroitin sulfate chains to the cell surface proteoglycan (syndecan) of mouse mammary epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Cultured monolayers of NMuMG mouse mammary epithelial cells have augmented amounts of cell surface chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) when cultured in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), presumably because of increased synthesis on their cell surface proteoglycan (named syndecan), previously shown to contain chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate GAG. This increase occurs throughout the monolayer as shown using soluble thrombospondin as a binding probe. However, comparison o...

  7. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  8. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  9. Automatic Laser Pointer Detection Algorithm for Environment Control Device Systems Based on Template Matching and Genetic Tuning of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for laser-based environment device control systems based on the automatic design of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System for laser pointer detection. The idea is to improve the success rate of the previous approaches decreasing as much as possible the false offs and increasing the success rate in images with laser spot, i.e., the detection of a false laser spot (since this could lead to dangerous situations. To this end, we propose to analyze both, the morphology and color of a laser spot image together, thus developing a new robust algorithm. Genetic Fuzzy Systems have also been employed to improve the laser spot system detection by means of a fine tuning of the involved membership functions thus reducing the system false offs, which is the main objective in this problem. The system presented in this paper, makes use of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System adjusted by a Genetic Algorithm, which, based on laser morphology and color analysis, shows a better success rate than previous approaches.

  10. Does GEM-Encoding Clinical Practice Guidelines Improve the Quality of Knowledge Bases? A Study with the Rule-Based Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the GEM-encoding step could improve the representation of clinical practice guidelines as formalized knowledge bases. We used the 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension, chosen as the knowledge source in the ASTI project. We first clarified semantic ambiguities of therapeutic sequences recommended in the guideline by proposing an interpretative framework of therapeutic strategies. Then, after a formalization step to standardize the terms used to characterize clinical situations, we created the GEM-encoded instance of the guideline. We developed a module for the automatic derivation of a rule base, BR-GEM, from the instance. BR-GEM was then compared to the rule base, BR-ASTI, embedded within the critic mode of ASTI, and manually built by two physicians from the same Canadian guideline. As compared to BR-ASTI, BR-GEM is more specific and covers more clinical situations. When evaluated on 10 patient cases, the GEM-based approach led to promising results. PMID:14728173

  11. Does GEM-encoding clinical practice guidelines improve the quality of knowledge bases? A study with the rule-based formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Georg; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the GEM-encoding step could improve the representation of clinical practice guidelines as formalized knowledge bases. We used the 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension, chosen as the knowledge source in the ASTI project. We first clarified semantic ambiguities of therapeutic sequences recommended in the guideline by proposing an interpretative framework of therapeutic strategies. Then, after a formalization step to standardize the terms used to characterize clinical situations, we created the GEM-encoded instance of the guideline. We developed a module for the automatic derivation of a rule base, BR-GEM, from the instance. BR-GEM was then compared to the rule base, BR-ASTI, embedded within the critic mode of ASTI, and manually built by two physicians from the same Canadian guideline. As compared to BR-ASTI, BR-GEM is more specific and covers more clinical situations. When evaluated on 10 patient cases, the GEM-based approach led to promising results.

  12. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  13. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  14. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  15. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  16. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  17. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  18. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  19. Towards Transformative Leadership in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that an educational organization's type of leadership will to a very large extent determine the quality of personal transformation it instigates among its stakeholders. Focusing on the importance of transformative leadership, such leadership will be viewed as a critical and collaborative process in which school-based…

  20. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  1. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  2. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    was observed in two cell lines expressing only type III receptor and in TGF-beta-r negative cell lines. In two cell lines expressing all three receptor types, growth suppression was accompanied by morphological changes. To evaluate the possible involvement of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in mediating...

  3. Experimental investigation of cooling oil flow in disk-type transformer windings with zigzag flow passages. Paper no. IGEC-1-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to investigate cooling dielectric oil flow in oil naturally cooled (ON) transformer windings. Static pressure in winding ducts has been measured at various strategic locations. Experimental results have been used for the validation of an existing hydraulic network simulation model developed earlier by the authors. It is found that minor losses in ON transformer windings are on the same order of magnitude as frictional loss. Since empirical correlations in literature overestimate the minor losses in low Reynolds number laminar flow regime, an implicit nonlinear optimization approach has been used to calibrate the existing hydraulic model. Consequently, an accurate correlation for minor loss coefficients has been developed, and is valid for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.1 to 20.9 in horizontal cooling ducts and up to 102.0 in vertical ducts. It is shown that the improved hydraulic network model is in good agreement with the present experimental results and previous results in the literature. (author)

  4. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  5. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  6. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  7. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  8. Detection of a nuclear, EBNA-type antigen in apparently EBNA-negative Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed lymphoid lines by the acid-fixed nuclear binding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S; Luka, J; Falk, L; Klein, G

    1977-12-15

    In agreement with the findings of previous authors, we could not detect a virally determined nuclear antigen in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed baboon lymphoid lines by anticomplementary staining in situ, as for EBNA. However, by means of our recently developed acid-fixed nuclear binding technique an EBNA-like antigen could be readily demonstrated, after extraction from both producer and non-producer lines. We propose to designate the antigen as HUPNA. It can be detected by a human anti-EBNA antibody, suggesting cross-reactivity, if not identity, between EBNA and HUPNA. HVP-DNA carrying non-producer lines, negative for in situ ACIF stainability but capable of yielding HUPNA by the nuclear binding technique, can be superinfected with EBV, with brilliant EBNA expression as the result, suggesting that the defective in situ staining is a property associated with the baboon HVP, rather than the baboon lymphoid cell per se.

  9. Elevated expression of type VII collagen in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudnicka, L; Varga, J; Christiano, A M; Iozzo, R V; Jimenez, S A; Uitto, J

    1994-01-01

    A hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the development of tissue fibrosis. Excessive production of several connective tissue components normally present in the dermis, including type I, III, V, and VI collagens as well as fibronectin and proteoglycans, is a consistent finding in the skin of SSc patients. Type VII collagen is a major constituent of anchoring fibrils, present in the skin at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. TGF-beta has been shown to upregulate the expression of t...

  10. Simulation of operating rules and discretional decisions using a fuzzy rule-based system integrated into a water resources management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Water resources systems are operated, mostly, using a set of pre-defined rules not regarding, usually, to an optimal allocation in terms of water use or economic benefits, but to historical and institutional reasons. These operating policies are reproduced, commonly, as hedging rules, pack rules or zone-based operations, and simulation models can be used to test their performance under a wide range of hydrological and/or socio-economic hypothesis. Despite the high degree of acceptation and testing that these models have achieved, the actual operation of water resources systems hardly follows all the time the pre-defined rules with the consequent uncertainty on the system performance. Real-world reservoir operation is very complex, affected by input uncertainty (imprecision in forecast inflow, seepage and evaporation losses, etc.), filtered by the reservoir operator's experience and natural risk-aversion, while considering the different physical and legal/institutional constraints in order to meet the different demands and system requirements. The aim of this work is to expose a fuzzy logic approach to derive and assess the historical operation of a system. This framework uses a fuzzy rule-based system to reproduce pre-defined rules and also to match as close as possible the actual decisions made by managers. After built up, the fuzzy rule-based system can be integrated in a water resources management model, making possible to assess the system performance at the basin scale. The case study of the Mijares basin (eastern Spain) is used to illustrate the method. A reservoir operating curve regulates the two main reservoir releases (operated in a conjunctive way) with the purpose of guaranteeing a high realiability of supply to the traditional irrigation districts with higher priority (more senior demands that funded the reservoir construction). A fuzzy rule-based system has been created to reproduce the operating curve's performance, defining the system state (total

  11. Quantitative evaluation of variations in rule-based classifications of land cover in urban neighbourhoods using WorldView-2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiu, Mariana; ǎguţ, Lucian, , Dr; Strobl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of high resolution imagery has triggered the need for automated image analysis techniques, with reduced human intervention and reproducible analysis procedures. The knowledge gained in the past might be of use to achieving this goal, if systematically organized into libraries which would guide the image analysis procedure. In this study we aimed at evaluating the variability of digital classifications carried out by three experts who were all assigned the same interpretation task. Besides the three classifications performed by independent operators, we developed an additional rule-based classification that relied on the image classifications best practices found in the literature, and used it as a surrogate for libraries of object characteristics. The results showed statistically significant differences among all operators who classified the same reference imagery. The classifications carried out by the experts achieved satisfactory results when transferred to another area for extracting the same classes of interest, without modification of the developed rules.

  12. Accounting of the knowledge-based actions and the rules-based actions in frames of accident management guidelines development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankin, M.Yu.; Bukrinskij, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The main approaches used in the development of the Safety Guide (SG) “Recommendations to the structure and content of the manual for the management of beyond-design-basis accidents, including severe accidents” (BDBA MG) are described. The manual was developed taking into account the provisions of the current IAEA standards relevant to the affected area, taking into account the specifics of the Russian nuclear power industry. In the draft SG, three types of behavior of personnel are considered - based on skills, rules and knowledge. When developing BDBA MG, it is recommended to give priority to a knowledge-based approach. At the same time, when performing well-designed and worked-out activities, work is possible based on rules and skills (for example, using step-by-step procedures). The SG project provides for a unified organizational structure for managing beyond-design-basis accidents, both at the stage of preventing severe damage to the core, and at the stage of managing a heavy accident. In SG the order of management of beyond-design-basis accidents for both of the indicated stages examined in detail [ru

  13. B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia transformation in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, type 1 neurofibromatosis and monosomy of chromosome 7. Possible implications in the leukemogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Baruffi, Marcelo Razera; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the case of an 8-month-old infant with a diagnosis of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and type 1 neurofibromatosis that presented progression to B lineage acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The same rearrangement of gene T-cell receptor gamma (TCR gamma) was detected upon...... diagnosis of JMML and ALL, suggesting that both neoplasias may have evolved from the same clone. Our results support the theory that JMML may derive from pluripotential cells and that the occurrence of monosomy of chromosome 7 within a clone of cells having an aberrant neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene...... may be the cause of JMML and acute leukemia....

  14. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  15. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  16. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  17. INFORMATION MODEL OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Васильевна Комова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The social transformation is considered as a process of qualitative changes of the society, creating a new level of organization in all areas of life, in different social formations, societies of different types of development. The purpose of the study is to create a universal model for studying social transformations based on their understanding as the consequence of the information exchange processes in the society. After defining the conceptual model of the study, the author uses the following methods: the descriptive method, analysis, synthesis, comparison.Information, objectively existing in all elements and systems of the material world, is an integral attribute of the society transformation as well. The information model of social transformations is based on the definition of the society transformation as the change in the information that functions in the society’s information space. The study of social transformations is the study of information flows circulating in the society and being characterized by different spatial, temporal, and structural states. Social transformations are a highly integrated system of social processes and phenomena, the nature, course and consequences of which are affected by the factors representing the whole complex of material objects. The integrated information model of social transformations foresees the interaction of the following components: social memory, information space, and the social ideal. To determine the dynamics and intensity of social transformations the author uses the notions of "information threshold of social transformations" and "information pressure".Thus, the universal nature of information leads to considering social transformations as a system of information exchange processes. Social transformations can be extended to any episteme actualized by social needs. The establishment of an information threshold allows to simulate the course of social development, to predict the

  18. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  19. Fractionalization of cyclic transformations in optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Calvo, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper starts with some preparatory work on three types of transformations often used in information processing: a convolution, a matrix-vector multiplication, and a general linear integral transformation. In particular we represent these transformations in a diagonalized form. We then focus on

  20. Study on lattice relaxation type transformation of (CuNi)sub(3-x) Alsub(1+x) alloy by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Ken-ichi

    1975-01-01

    Inelastic scattering experiment was carried out on (Cu Ni)sub(3-x)Alsub(1+x) alloy at room temperature. The sample was annealed in vacuum for two hours at 950 0 C, quenched in water at 0 0 C, and aged for about one year. The energy spectrum of scattered neutrons was measured by T-O-F method. The measurement was performed for phonons at reciprocal lattice point (2/3--3/4, 2/3--3/4, 0) corresponding to the period of static shearing deformation. The up-scattering peak (Pq 1) observed at 2 theta = 38 0 in case of -14.5 0 of incident beam direction has width of 14.8 MeV, and is not considered to be a coherent inelastic scattering peak. The up-scattering peak (Pq 2) of 9 0 of incident beam direction has width of 17.3 MeV. The peak Pq 1 is considered as quasi-elastic scattering. The reflection point in the reciprocal lattice space of elastic scattering waves at 2 theta = 38 0 in case of -14.5 0 incident angle is near the [1 1 1] reciprocal lattice point of DO 3 structure. In case of 9 0 incident angle, it is near the [1 0 0] point. As conclusions, (1) it is not said that only the shear waves on the axis are freezed in the martensite transformation of (CuNi)sub(3-x)Alsub(1+x) alloy, (2) an L mode quasi-elastic peak is seen near the [1 1 1] reciprocal lattice point, (3) a T mode phonon peak is observed near the [1 1 0] reciprocal lattice point, and (4) T mode phonons are seen near [1/2, 1/2, 1/2]. (Kato, T.)

  1. Multi-dimensional Laplace transforms and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this dissertation we establish new theorems for computing certain types of multidimensional Laplace transform pairs from known one-dimensional Laplace transforms. The theorems are applied to the most commonly used special functions and so we obtain many two and three dimensional Laplace transform pairs. As applications, some boundary value problems involving linear partial differential equations are solved by the use of multi-dimensional Laplace transformation. Also we establish some relations between the Laplace transformation and other integral transformation in two variables

  2. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  3. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  4. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  5. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  6. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  7. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  8. Hydrosilylation induced by N→Si intramolecular coordination: spontaneous transformation of organosilanes into 1-aza-silole-type molecules in the absence of a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Miroslav; Dostál, Libor; Alonso, Mercedes; De Proft, Frank; Růžička, Aleš; Lyčka, Antonín; Jambor, Roman

    2014-02-24

    Our attempts to synthesize the N→Si intramolecularly coordinated organosilanes Ph2 L(1) SiH (1 a), PhL(1) SiH2 (2 a), Ph2 L(2) SiH (3 a), and PhL(2) SiH2 (4 a) containing a CH=N imine group (in which L(1) is the C,N-chelating ligand {2-[CH=N(C6 H3 -2,6-iPr2)]C6 H4}(-) and L(2) is {2-[CH=N(tBu)]C6 H4}(-)) yielded 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (1), 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (2), 1-tert-butyl-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (3), and 1-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (4), respectively. Isolated organosilicon amides 1-4 are an outcome of the spontaneous hydrosilylation of the CH=N imine moiety induced by N→Si intramolecular coordination. Compounds 1-4 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The geometries of organosilanes 1 a-4 a and their corresponding hydrosilylated products 1-4 were optimized and fully characterized at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. The molecular structure determination of 1-3 suggested the presence of a Si-N double bond. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, however, shows a very strong donor-acceptor interaction between the lone pair of the nitrogen atom and the formal empty p orbital on the silicon and therefore, the calculations show that the Si-N bond is highly polarized pointing to a predominantly zwitterionic Si(+) N(-) bond in 1-4. Since compounds 1-4 are hydrosilylated products of 1 a-4 a, the free energies (ΔG298), enthalpies (ΔH298), and entropies (ΔH298) were computed for the hydrosilylation reaction of 1 a-4 a with both B3LYP and B3LYP-D methods. On the basis of the very negative ΔG298 values, the hydrosilylation reaction is highly exergonic and compounds 1 a-4 a are spontaneously transformed into 1-4 in the absence of a catalyst. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A study on the development of the on-line operator aid system using rule based expert system and fuzzy logic for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig

    1995-02-01

    The on - line Operator Aid SYStem (OASYS) has been developed to support operator's decision making process and to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) by timely providing operators with proper guidelines according to the plant operation mode. The OASYS consists of four systems such as the signal validation and management system (SVMS), the plant monitoring system (PMS), the alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), and the dynamic emergency procedure tracking system (DEPTS). The SVMS and the PMS help operators to maintain a plant as a normal operation condition. The AFDS covers the abnormal events until they result in exceeding the limit range of reactor trip signals, while after a reactor trip, the DEPTS aids operators with proper guidelines so as to shutdown safely. The OASYS uses a rule based expert system and a fuzzy logic. The rule based expert system is used to classify the pre-defined events and track the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) through data processing. The fuzzy logic is used to generate the conceptual high level alarms for the prognostic diagnosis and to evaluate the qualitative fuzzy criteria used in EOPs. Performance assessment of the OASYS demonstrates that it is capable of diagnosing plant abnormal conditions and providing operators appropriate guidelines with fast response time and consistency. The developed technology for OASYS will be used to design the Integrated Advanced Control Room in which a plant can be operated by one operator during normal operation. The advanced EOP for emergency operation has been developed by focusing attention on the importance of the operators' role in emergency conditions. To overcome the complexity of current EOPs and maintain the consistency of operators' action according to plant emergency conditions, operator's tasks were allocated according to their duties in the advanced EOP and the computerized operator aid system (COAS) has been developed as an alternative to reduce operator

  10. Metallurgical transformations of high strength low alloys steels 450 EMZ type II in the heat affected zone during multipass submerged arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Palma, R.; Suarez-Bermejo, J. C.; Vicario, F. J.; Munoz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A considerable number of crack tip opening displacement tests in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of multipass welds. performed in accordance with standards BS 5762 and EEMUA, are rejected since the crack is not inside the coarse grain region at 0.5 mm from the fusion border, as well as the quantity of the crack length in percentage, that the crack goes through the inter critical region instead of in the grain coarse region as it would correspond. This circumstance make advisable to carry out a metallographic study of he inter critical zone in the HAZ as well as the corresponding tests, in order analyze the inter critical region brittleness reasons. The study is performed on a HSLA 75 mm thick panel 450 EMZ type II, welded under a SAW process with heat input and welded parameters controlled, without any post weld heat treatment. (Author)

  11. Transformational leadership in nursing practice

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M.

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Traditionally, nurses have been over-managed and led inadequately, yet today they face unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Organisations constantly face changes that require an increasingly adaptive and flexible leadership. This type of adaptive leadership is referred to as ???transformational???; under it, environments of shared responsibilities that influence new ways of knowing are created. Transformational leadership motivates followers by appealing to higher i...

  12. Effect of the smoking process and firewood type in the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper during its transformation to chipotle pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    Chipotle pepper is a dry smoked red Jalapeño pepper well appreciated in the Mexican and American cuisines. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of red Jalapeño pepper has been previously reported, however, the effect of the smoking process in the content of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoids has not been previously reported. In the present study we found that the smoking process had a significant effect on the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper. It induced a nearly 50% increase in total phenols and 15% increase in antioxidant capacity in chipotle pepper compared to fresh samples (in dry weight basis). Capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid content decreased in smoked samples, while carotenoids remained practically unchanged. The strongest effect of smoking was observed in the content of total flavonoids and catechin determined by HPLC. Therefore we can conclude that smoking process has a positive effect in the fruit because it raises its phytochemical properties. The type of wood used in the smoking process also had an effect on the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity with traditional pecan wood being the best. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying influenza-like illness presentation from unstructured general practice clinical narrative using a text classifier rule-based expert system versus a clinical expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Love, Tom; Baker, Michael G; Dowell, Anthony; Carnachan, Matthew; Stubbe, Maria; McBain, Lynn

    2015-10-06

    We designed and validated a rule-based expert system to identify influenza like illness (ILI) from routinely recorded general practice clinical narrative to aid a larger retrospective research study into the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Rules were assessed using pattern matching heuristics on routine clinical narrative. The system was trained using data from 623 clinical encounters and validated using a clinical expert as a gold standard against a mutually exclusive set of 901 records. We calculated a 98.2 % specificity and 90.2 % sensitivity across an ILI incidence of 12.4 % measured against clinical expert classification. Peak problem list identification of ILI by clinical coding in any month was 9.2 % of all detected ILI presentations. Our system addressed an unusual problem domain for clinical narrative classification; using notational, unstructured, clinician entered information in a community care setting. It performed well compared with other approaches and domains. It has potential applications in real-time surveillance of disease, and in assisted problem list coding for clinicians. Our system identified ILI presentation with sufficient accuracy for use at a population level in the wider research study. The peak coding of 9.2 % illustrated the need for automated coding of unstructured narrative in our study.

  14. Development of Near Optimal Rule-Based Control for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Taking into Account Drivetrain Component Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanho Son

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG, bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded state. To evaluate the effect of the drivetrain losses on the operating mode control strategy, backward simulations were performed using dynamic programming (DP. DP selects the operating mode, which provides the highest efficiency for given driving conditions. It was found that the operating mode selection changes when drivetrain losses are included, depending on driving conditions. An operating mode schedule was developed with respect to the wheel power and vehicle speed, and based on the operating mode schedule, a RBC was obtained, which can be implemented in an on-line application. To evaluate the performance of the RBC, a forward simulator was constructed for the target PHEV. The simulation results show near-optimal performance of the RBC compared with dynamic-programming-based mode control in terms of the mode operation time and fuel economy. The RBC developed with drivetrain losses taken into account showed a 4%–5% improvement of the fuel economy over a similar RBC, which neglected the drivetrain losses.

  15. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  16. A Rule-Based Spatial Reasoning Approach for OpenStreetMap Data Quality Enrichment; Case Study of Routing and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Finding relevant geospatial information is increasingly critical because of the growing volume of geospatial data available within the emerging “Big Data” era. Users are expecting that the availability of massive datasets will create more opportunities to uncover hidden information and answer more complex queries. This is especially the case with routing and navigation services where the ability to retrieve points of interest and landmarks make the routing service personalized, precise, and relevant. In this paper, we propose a new geospatial information approach that enables the retrieval of implicit information, i.e., geospatial entities that do not exist explicitly in the available source. We present an information broker that uses a rule-based spatial reasoning algorithm to detect topological relations. The information broker is embedded into a framework where annotations and mappings between OpenStreetMap data attributes and external resources, such as taxonomies, support the enrichment of queries to improve the ability of the system to retrieve information. Our method is tested with two case studies that leads to enriching the completeness of OpenStreetMap data with footway crossing points-of-interests as well as building entrances for routing and navigation purposes. It is concluded that the proposed approach can uncover implicit entities and contribute to extract required information from the existing datasets. PMID:29088125

  17. Usage-based vs. rule-based learning: the acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some constructivist work argues that English-speaking children are simply reproducing frequent wh-word+auxiliary combinations in the input. The paper questions both approaches, re-evaluates some previous work, and provides some further data, concluding that the acquisition of wh-questions must be the result of a rule-based process. Based on variation in adult grammars, a cue-based model to language acquisition is presented, according to which children are sensitive to minor cues in the input, called micro-cues. V2 is not considered to be one major parameter, but several smaller-scale cues, which are responsible for children's lack of syntactic (over-)generalization in the acquisition process.

  18. On-line detection of apnea/hypopnea events using SpO2 signal: a rule-based approach employing binary classifier models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Bijoy Laxmi; Dey, Debangshu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an online method for automatic detection of apnea/hypopnea events, with the help of oxygen saturation (SpO2) signal, measured at fingertip by Bluetooth nocturnal pulse oximeter. Event detection is performed by identifying abnormal data segments from the recorded SpO2 signal, employing a binary classifier model based on a support vector machine (SVM). Thereafter the abnormal segment is further analyzed to detect different states within the segment, i.e., steady, desaturation, and resaturation, with the help of another SVM-based binary ensemble classifier model. Finally, a heuristically obtained rule-based system is used to identify the apnea/hypopnea events from the time-sequenced decisions of these classifier models. In the developmental phase, a set of 34 time domain-based features was extracted from the segmented SpO2 signal using an overlapped windowing technique. Later, an optimal set of features was selected on the basis of recursive feature elimination technique. A total of 34 subjects were included in the study. The results show average event detection accuracies of 96.7% and 93.8% for the offline and the online tests, respectively. The proposed system provides direct estimation of the apnea/hypopnea index with the help of a relatively inexpensive and widely available pulse oximeter. Moreover, the system can be monitored and accessed by physicians through LAN/WAN/Internet and can be extended to deploy in Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones.

  19. A Rule-Based Spatial Reasoning Approach for OpenStreetMap Data Quality Enrichment; Case Study of Routing and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mobasheri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Finding relevant geospatial information is increasingly critical because of the growing volume of geospatial data available within the emerging “Big Data” era. Users are expecting that the availability of massive datasets will create more opportunities to uncover hidden information and answer more complex queries. This is especially the case with routing and navigation services where the ability to retrieve points of interest and landmarks make the routing service personalized, precise, and relevant. In this paper, we propose a new geospatial information approach that enables the retrieval of implicit information, i.e., geospatial entities that do not exist explicitly in the available source. We present an information broker that uses a rule-based spatial reasoning algorithm to detect topological relations. The information broker is embedded into a framework where annotations and mappings between OpenStreetMap data attributes and external resources, such as taxonomies, support the enrichment of queries to improve the ability of the system to retrieve information. Our method is tested with two case studies that leads to enriching the completeness of OpenStreetMap data with footway crossing points-of-interests as well as building entrances for routing and navigation purposes. It is concluded that the proposed approach can uncover implicit entities and contribute to extract required information from the existing datasets.

  20. Transformation in pretreatment manifestations of Gaucher disease type 1 during two decades of alglucerase/imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K; Batista, Julie L; Andersson, Hans C; Balwani, Manisha; Burrow, Thomas Andrew; Charrow, Joel; Kaplan, Paige; Khan, Aneal; Kishnani, Priya S; Kolodny, Edwin H; Rosenbloom, Barry; Scott, C Ronald; Weinreb, Neal

    2017-09-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the prevalence of severe clinical manifestations in Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) patients at the time of treatment initiation has changed since alglucerase/imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was approved in the United States (US) in 1991. US alglucerase/imiglucerase-treated GD1 patients from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry clinicaltrials.gov NCT00358943 were stratified by age at ERT initiation (<18, 18 to <50, ≥50 years), era of ERT initiation (1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2009), and splenectomy status pre-ERT. Prevalence of splenectomy decreased dramatically across the eras among all age groups. Bone manifestations were more prevalent in splenectomized patients than non-splenectomized patients in all age groups. Prevalence of bone manifestations differed across eras in certain age groups: non-splenectomized patients had a lower prevalence of ischemic bone events (pediatric patients) and bone crisis (pediatric patients and adults 18 to <50 years) in later eras; splenectomized adult (18 to <50 years) patients had a lower prevalence of ischemic bone events and bone crisis in later eras. Over two decades after the introduction of ERT, the prevalence of splenectomy and associated skeletal complications has declined dramatically. Concomitantly, the interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT has decreased, most strikingly in pediatric patients who have the most severe disease. Together, these findings suggest that since the introduction of alglucerase/imiglucerase ERT, optimal standard of care has become established in the US to prevent destructive complications of GD1. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for the characterization and discrimination of writing/photocopier paper types: Application in forensic document examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-01-05

    The aim of the present work is to explore the non-destructive application of ATR-FTIR technique for characterization and discrimination of paper samples which could be helpful to give forensic aid in resolving legal cases. Twenty-four types of paper brands were purchased from local market in and around Chandigarh, India. All the paper samples were subjected to ATR-FTIR analysis from 400 to 4000cm(-1) wavenumber range. The qualitative feature and Chemometrics of the obtained spectral data are used for characterization and discrimination. Characterization is achieved by matching the peaks with standards of cellulose and inorganic fillers, a usual constituents of paper. Three different regions of IR, i.e. 400-2000cm(-1), 2000-4000cm(-1) and 400-4000cm(-1) were selected for differentiation by Chemometrics analysis. The discrimination is achieved on the basis of three principal components, i.e. PC 1, PC 2 and PC 3. It is observed that maximum discrimination was procured in the wave number range of i.e. 2000-4000cm(-1). Discriminating power was calculated on the basis of qualitative features as well, and it is found that the discrimination of paper samples was better achieved by Chemometrics analysis rather than qualitative features. The discriminating power by Chemometrics is 99.64% and which is larger as ever achieved by any group for present number of samples. The present result confirms that this study will be highly useful in forensic document examination work in the legal cases, where the authenticity of the document is challenged. The results are completely analytical and, therefore, overcome the problem encounter in traditional routine light/radiation scanning methods which are still in practice by various questioned document laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Conte, Andrea, E-mail: andreaconte88@hotmail.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria, E-mail: gmpieran@unina.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tommasino, Massimo, E-mail: tommasinom@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Accardi, Rosita, E-mail: accardir@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Borzacchiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: borzacch@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for the characterization and discrimination of writing/photocopier paper types: Application in forensic document examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to explore the non-destructive application of ATR-FTIR technique for characterization and discrimination of paper samples which could be helpful to give forensic aid in resolving legal cases. Twenty-four types of paper brands were purchased from local market in and around Chandigarh, India. All the paper samples were subjected to ATR-FTIR analysis from 400 to 4000 cm- 1 wavenumber range. The qualitative feature and Chemometrics of the obtained spectral data are used for characterization and discrimination. Characterization is achieved by matching the peaks with standards of cellulose and inorganic fillers, a usual constituents of paper. Three different regions of IR, i.e. 400-2000 cm- 1, 2000-4000 cm- 1 and 400-4000 cm- 1 were selected for differentiation by Chemometrics analysis. The discrimination is achieved on the basis of three principal components, i.e. PC 1, PC 2 and PC 3. It is observed that maximum discrimination was procured in the wave number range of i.e. 2000-4000 cm- 1. Discriminating power was calculated on the basis of qualitative features as well, and it is found that the discrimination of paper samples was better achieved by Chemometrics analysis rather than qualitative features. The discriminating power by Chemometrics is 99.64% and which is larger as ever achieved by any group for present number of samples. The present result confirms that this study will be highly useful in forensic document examination work in the legal cases, where the authenticity of the document is challenged. The results are completely analytical and, therefore, overcome the problem encounter in traditional routine light/radiation scanning methods which are still in practice by various questioned document laboratories.

  4. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  5. Oral supplementation of turmeric attenuates proteinuria, transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-8 levels in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehdehi, Parviz; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Javidnia, Katayoun; Azad, Fariborz; Malekmakan, Leila; Nasab, Mahshid Hashemi; Dehghanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to type 2 diabetic nephropathy is a very common condition which is increasing in prevalence, and is associated with high global levels of mortality and morbidity. Both proteinuria and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may contribute to the development of ESRD in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Experimental studies indicate that turmeric improves diabetic nephropathy by suppressing TGF-β. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of turmeric on serum and urinary TGF-β, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as proteinuria, in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was carried out in the Diabetes Clinic of the Outpatient Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on 40 patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy, randomized into a trial group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). Each patient in the trial group received one capsule with each meal containing 500 mg turmeric, of which 22.1 mg was the active ingredient curcumin (three capsules daily) for 2 months. The control group received three capsules identical in colour and size containing starch for the same 2 months. Serum levels of TGF-β and IL-8 and urinary protein excretion and IL-8 decreased significantly comparing the pre- and post-turmeric supplementation values. No adverse effects related to turmeric supplementation were observed during the trial. Short-term turmeric supplementation can attenuate proteinuria, TGF-β and IL-8 in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy and can be administered as a safe adjuvant therapy for these patients.

  6. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  7. The continous Legendre transform, its inverse transform, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Butzer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the continuous Legendre transform, derived from the classical discrete Legendre transform by replacing the Legendre polynomial Pk(x by the function Pλ(x with λ real. Another approach to T.M. MacRobert's inversion formula is found; for this purpose an inverse Legendre transform, mapping L1(ℝ+ into L2(−1,1, is defined. Its inversion in turn is naturally achieved by the continuous Legendre transform. One application is devoted to the Shannon sampling theorem in the Legendre frame together with a new type of error estimate. The other deals with a new representation of Legendre functions giving information about their behaviour near the point x=−1.

  8. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  9. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  10. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  11. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Sun

    Full Text Available RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI. To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75 but similar specificity (0.5. RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.

  12. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector) - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.

  13. Nodule Detection in a Lung Region that's Segmented with Using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks and 3D Template Matching with Fuzzy Rule Based Thresholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozekes, Serhat; Osman, Onur; Ucan, N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated lung nodule detection in serial section CT images with using the characteristics of the 3D appearance of the nodules that distinguish themselves from the vessels. Lung nodules were detected in four steps. First, to reduce the number of region of interests (ROIs) and the computation time, the lung regions of the CTs were segmented using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks (G-CNN). Then, for each lung region, ROIs were specified with using the 8 directional search; +1 or -1 values were assigned to each voxel. The 3D ROI image was obtained by combining all the 2-Dimensional (2D) ROI images. A 3D template was created to find the nodule-like structures on the 3D ROI image. Convolution of the 3D ROI image with the proposed template strengthens the shapes that are similar to those of the template and it weakens the other ones. Finally, fuzzy rule based thresholding was applied and the ROI's were found. To test the system's efficiency, we used 16 cases with a total of 425 slices, which were taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system achieved 100% sensitivity with 13.375 FPs per case when the nodule thickness was greater than or equal to 5.625 mm. Our results indicate that the detection performance of our algorithm is satisfactory, and this may well improve the performance of computer aided detection of lung nodules

  14. Validity of the accuracy of right ventricular volume measurement with single plane Simpson's rule based on a new half-circle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Right ventricular volume calculation is the basis of right ventricular function evaluation. The complexity of right ventricular shape makes it more difficult for measuring right ventricular volume, and therefore limits the widespread use of right ventricular function assessment. However, the short-axis view of the right ventricle is usually crescent, and might be assumed as half of a circle. This hypothesis can be applied to calculate right ventricular volume by using the plane Simpson's rule, but the final right ventricular volume should be about half of the original calculated value. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of right ventricular volume measurement based on this new assumption in human right ventricular casts. Methods: Fifteen human right ventricular casts were obtained within 24 hours after death from 15 subjects who did not have overt cardiac disease. These casts were scanned with Toshiba multislice helical CT (Aquilion) using a scanning protocol similar to clinical practice. Right ventricular sagittal MPR images that correspond to right anterior oblique view were reconstructed later and single-plane Simpson's method was used to calculate right ventricular volumes. The calculated right ventricular volume was defined as the original calculated value divided by 2. The actual right ventricular casts volumes were determined by water displacement method. Results: The actual right ventricular volume was (64.23±24.51) ml, while the calculated volume was (53.18±26.22) ml. The calculated right ventricular volume significantly underestimated the actual volume by (11.05±13.09) ml (t=3.27, P=0.006). However, there was a close correlation between the actual cast volume and the calculated volume (r=0.869, P<0.001), with a regression equation of RV actual volume=21.04+0.812 x RV calculated volume. Conclusion: Right ventricular volume could be calculated accurately with single-plane Simpson's rule based on our new proposed half

  15. Transformational leadership in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Traditionally, nurses have been over-managed and led inadequately, yet today they face unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Organisations constantly face changes that require an increasingly adaptive and flexible leadership. This type of adaptive leadership is referred to as 'transformational'; under it, environments of shared responsibilities that influence new ways of knowing are created. Transformational leadership motivates followers by appealing to higher ideas and moral values, where the leader has a deep set of internal values and ideas. This leads to followers acting to sustain the greater good, rather than their own interests, and supportive environments where responsibility is shared. This article focuses on transformational leadership and its application to nursing through the four components of transformational leadership. These are: idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; and individual consideration.

  16. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  17. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  18. A new type of magnetohydrodynamic transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    Both through theory and experimentation, cross fields MHD accelerators and generators have been extensively studied for many years. Yet, it seems that some quite interesting configurations have been neglected, requiring high values of the Hall parameter. For this reason new elliptic and hyperbolic MHD geometries are introduced. Possible applications of such devices are given [fr

  19. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  20. Regulation of the O-glycan-type Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) Bio-synthesis Pathway during Cell Transformation Programs: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Molecular Subtypes in Breast Carcinoma and Human T Cell Activation

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman

    2017-12-01

    During tumor progression and development of distant metastases, a subset of cancer cells undergoes transformation programs, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to acquire enhanced migratory attributes to commence the metastatic cascade with the intension of achieving an active cell adhesion molecule-mediated organ-specific homing. Similarly, naive T cells reform the assemblage of their surface adhesion molecules during differentiation to activated T cells in order to successfully home to sites of inflammation and other extra-lymphoid organs for surveillance purposes. Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) is well-known for mediating the homing of epithelial circulating tumor cellss (CTCs) and activated T cells to target sites through the interaction with endothelial selectins. Since glycan structures are not directly encoded by the genome, their expression is dependent on the glycosyltransferase (GT) expression and activity. Yet, the modulation of GTs during breast cancer transformation and in different molecular subtypes is still unknown. In addition, although the regulation of GTs during T cell activation is well-understood, the regulation at the epigenetic level is lacking. O-glycan-type sLex expression and E-selectin binding under static and flow conditions varies among molecular subtypes of breast cancer and upon the induction of EMT which is linked to the expression patterns of GTs. GTs displayed a significant prognostic value of in the association with the patients\\' survival profiles and in the ability to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes from the expression data of a random patient sample. Also, GTs were able to differentiate between tumor and their normal counterparts as well as cancer types and glioblastoma subtypes. On the other hand, we studied the regulation of GTs in human CD4+ memory T cells compared to the naive cells at the epigenetic level. Memory T cell subsets demonstrated differential chromatin accessibility and histone marks within