WorldWideScience

Sample records for typical single-engine general

  1. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine low-wing general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 30 deg to 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Hultberg, R. S.; Mulcay, W.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a spinning flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale single-engine low-wing general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested include the basic airplane, various airfoil shapes, tail designs, fuselage strakes and modifications as well as airplane components. Data are presented for pitch and roll angle ranges of 30 to 90 degrees and 10 to -10 degrees, respectively, and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2V range from 0 to .9. The data are presented without analysis.

  2. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Low wing model C. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Rose, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6 scale, single engine, low wing, general aviation model (model C). The configurations tested included the basic airplane and control deflections, wing leading edge and fuselage modification devices, tail designs and airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2v range from 0 to .9.

  3. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: High-wing model C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, R. S.; Chu, J.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin g tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6 scale, single engine, high wing, general aviation model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane and control deflections, wing leading edge devices, tail designs, and airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter clockwise rotations covering a spin coefficient range from 0 to 0.9.

  4. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: High-wing model A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W.; Rose, R.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/5-scale, single-engine, high-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included various tail designs and fuselage shapes. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 degrees and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2 v range from 0 to 0.85.

  5. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: Low-wing model B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Hultberg, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6.5 scale, single engine, low wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading-edge devices, tail designs, and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an (omega)(b)/2V range from 0 to 0.85.

  6. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: High-wing model B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Hultberg, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in a spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6.5 scale, single engine, high wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading-edge devices, tail designs, and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range from 0 to 0.85.

  7. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 degrees to 35 degrees, 3. Effect of wing leading-edge modifications, model A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Mulcay, W.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale, single-engine, low-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, sixteen wing leading-edge modifications and lateral-directional control settings. Data are presented for all configurations without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 35 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2v range from 0 to 0.85. Also, data are presented above 35 deg of attack for some configurations.

  8. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 20 to 90 deg. 3: Influence of control deflection on predicted model D spin modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, J. N.; Barnhart, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of control deflections on the rotational flow aerodynamics and on predicted spin modes is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested for various control settings at both zero and ten degree sideslip angles. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 30 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omegab/2V range of 0 to 0.5.

  9. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Influence of airplane components for model D. [Langley spin tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of airplane components, as well as wing location and tail length, on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6 scale general aviation airplane model. The airplane was tested in a built-up fashion (i.e., body, body-wing, body-wing-vertical, etc.) in the presence of two wing locations and two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  10. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: Influence of horizontal tail location for Model D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, B.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of horizontal tail location on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested using various horizontal tail positions, with both a high and a low-wing location and for each of two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  11. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Low-wing model A. [fluid flow and vortices data for general aviation aircraft to determine aerodynamic characteristics for various designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, R. S.; Mulcay, W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale, single engine, low-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configuration tested included the basic airplane, various control deflections, tail designs, fuselage shapes, and wing leading edges. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 deg and clockwise and counterclockwise rotations covering a range from 0 to 0.85.

  12. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  13. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David

    2003-01-01

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models

  14. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  15. Effects of Biofeedback on Control and Generalization of Nasalization in Typical Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth S. Heller; Mendoza, Joseph O.; Gill, Simone V.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of biofeedback on control of nasalization in individuals with typical speech. Method: Forty-eight individuals with typical speech attempted to increase and decrease vowel nasalization. During training, stimuli consisted of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) tokens with the center vowels…

  16. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F B Murphy

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up" and cognitive ("top-down" processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG, memory group (MG, auditory sensory group (SG, placebo group (PG; drawing, painting, and a control, untrained group (CG. Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest, most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness, as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further

  17. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Moore, David R; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up") and cognitive ("top-down") processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention) learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG), memory group (MG), auditory sensory group (SG), placebo group (PG; drawing, painting), and a control, untrained group (CG). Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest), most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention) training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span) within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness), as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further research

  18. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  19. Generalized indices of a typical individual water-heating solar plant in the climatic conditions of Russia different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2003-01-01

    By the example of the typical solar water-heating plant (SWP), designed for daily consumption of 100 l of heated water the calculation of the number of days in the year is accomplished, during which such a plant could provide for heating the water not below the assigned control level of 37, 45 and 55 deg C for various ratios between the solar collector square and tank-accumulator volume. The generalized dependences are obtained on the basis of processing the results of the SWP dynamic modeling with application of the typical meteoyears, generated for the climatic conditions of more than 40 populated localities in Russia both in its European and Asian part. The efficiency of the SWP operation in different regions of the country may be determined through their application [ru

  20. View of the firing of a single engine OMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    View of a single engine orbital maneuvering system (OMS) firing on the Discovery. The payload bay is open and the protective canisters for the AUSSAT communications satellite (open) and the ASC-1 are visible. A cloudy Earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  1. The Optimal Price Ratio of Typical Energy Sources in Beijing Based on the Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.

  2. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  3. General rule antielisive chartered the National Tax Code confrontation between the principle of ability to pay and the rule of closed typicality and the alleged tax by analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Robert Nahra Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Check the possibility of the general standard employment antielisiva the parental right, ouseja, taxation by analogy legal fact extratípico effects econômicosequivalentes the typical legal fact, based on the abuse of rights doctrine and noprincípio of ability. Analysis in the face of the principles of legalidadeestrita and closed typicality, the principle of security developments jurídica.Conclui the impossibility of taxation by analogy for the offense to dasegurança legal principle that stands for certainty and predictability in entreEstado relations and taxpayers. The breach of the principle of strict legality because deexigência specific and qualified law to detributos institution. The offense aoprincípio closed typicality that prevents the tax nãodescrito legal fact with all its details by law. These principles not passíveissequer limitation, since they are immutable clauses. Inability to restriçãoda full effectiveness of the rule of the principle of typicality contributiva.Impossibilidade ability to taxation by the integrative method of analogy, therefore existecerta charge, even if relative, creativity inherent in the method and dependent inexistirlacunas fill in relevant matters to detributos institution , existing in reality free of the right spaces.

  4. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  5. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  6. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  7. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  8. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  9. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  10. Concept definition and aerodynamic technology studies for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained in the early stages of a research program to develop aerodynamic technology for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft projected for the post-1990 period are summarized. This program includes industry studies jointly sponsored by NASA and the Navy. Four contractors have identified promising concepts featuring a variety of approaches for providing propulsive lift. Vertical takeoff gross weights range from about 10,000 to 13,600 kg (22,000 to 30,000 lb). The aircraft have supersonic capability, are highly maneuverable, and have significant short takeoff overload capability. The contractors have estimated the aerodynamics and identified aerodynamic uncertainties associated with their concepts. Wind-tunnel research programs will be formulated to investigate these uncertainties. A description of the concepts is emphasized.

  11. NASA Lewis Helps Company With New Single-Engine Business Turbojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Century Aerospace Corporation, a small company in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is developing a six-seat aircraft powered by a single turbofan engine for general aviation. The company had completed a preliminary design of the jet but needed analyses and testing to proceed with detailed design and subsequent fabrication of a prototype aircraft. NASA Lewis Research Center used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses to ferret out areas of excessive curvature in the inlet where separation might occur. A preliminary look at the results indicated very good inlet performance; and additional calculations, performed with vortex generators installed in the inlet, led to even better results. When it was initially determined that the airflow distortion pattern at the compressor face fell outside of the limits set by the engine manufacturer, the Lewis team studied possible solutions, selected the best, and provided recommendations. CFD results for the inlet system were so good that wind tunnel tests were unnecessary.

  12. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  13. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Selvan, Esai; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  14. Typicality Effects in Contingency-Shaped Generalized Equivalence Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L.; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract…

  15. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  16. Rotary balance data for a single-engine trainer design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. [conducted in langely spin tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantason, P.; Dickens, W.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6 scale, single engine trainer airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading edge devices, elevator, aileron and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 degrees and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations.

  17. Rotary balance data for a single-engine agricultural airplane configuration for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Chu, J.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/10 scale single engine agricultural airplane model. The configurations tested include the basic airplane, various wing leading edge and wing tip devices, elevator, aileron, and rudder control settings, and other modifications. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering a spin coefficient range from 0 to .9.

  18. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  19. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  20. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  1. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  2. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  3. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  4. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  5. Flight Measurements of the Effect of a Controllable Thrust Reverser on the Flight Characteristics of a Single-Engine Jet Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Seth B.; Cooper, George E.; Faye, Alan E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A flight investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of a fully controllable thrust reverser on the flight characteristics of a single-engine jet airplane. Tests were made using a cylindrical target-type reverser actuated by a hydraulic cylinder through a "beep-type" cockpit control mounted at the base of the throttle. The thrust reverser was evaluated as an in-flight decelerating device, as a flight path control and airspeed control in landing approach, and as a braking device during the ground roll. Full deflection of the reverser for one reverser configuration resulted in a reverse thrust ratio of as much as 85 percent, which at maximum engine power corresponded to a reversed thrust of 5100 pounds. Use of the reverser in landing approach made possible a wide selection of approach angles, a large reduction in approach speed at steep approach angles, improved control of flight path angle, and more accuracy in hitting a given touchdown point. The use of the reverser as a speed brake at lower airspeeds was compromised by a longitudinal trim change. At the lower airspeeds and higher engine powers there was insufficient elevator power to overcome the nose-down trim change at full reverser deflection.

  6. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  7. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  8. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  9. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  10. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  11. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  13. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  15. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  16. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  17. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  19. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  20. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  1. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  2. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  3. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  4. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  5. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  7. Typical effects of laser dazzling CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianmin; Shao, Bibo; Cheng, Deyan; Ye, Xisheng; Feng, Guobin

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an overview of laser dazzling effect to buried channel CCD camera is given. The CCDs are sorted into staring and scanning types. The former includes the frame transfer and interline transfer types. The latter includes linear and time delay integration types. All CCDs must perform four primary tasks in generating an image, which are called charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge measurement. In camera, the lenses are needed to input the optical signal to the CCD sensors, in which the techniques for erasing stray light are used. And the electron circuits are needed to process the output signal of CCD, in which many electronic techniques are used. The dazzling effects are the conjunct result of light distribution distortion and charge distribution distortion, which respectively derive from the lens and the sensor. Strictly speaking, in lens, the light distribution is not distorted. In general, the lens are so well designed and fabricated that its stray light can be neglected. But the laser is of much enough intensity to make its stray light obvious. In CCD image sensors, laser can induce a so large electrons generation. Charges transfer inefficiency and charges blooming will cause the distortion of the charge distribution. Commonly, the largest signal outputted from CCD sensor is restricted by capability of the collection well of CCD, and can't go beyond the dynamic range for the subsequent electron circuits maintaining normal work. So the signal is not distorted in the post-processing circuits. But some techniques in the circuit can make some dazzling effects present different phenomenon in final image.

  8. Predictors and consequences of gender typicality: the mediating role of communality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2013-04-01

    Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.

  9. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  10. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  11. DISRUPTION OF CONDITIONED REWARD ASSOCIATION BY TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C.L.; Elmer, G.I.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100 μg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3–30 μg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  12. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotary balance data for a single engine general aviation design having a high aspect-ratio canard for an angle-of-attack range of 30 deg to 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Rose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various control deflections, two canard locations, and wing leading edge modifications, as well as airplane components.

  14. One for all: The effect of extinction stimulus typicality on return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheveneels, Sara; Boddez, Yannick; Bennett, Marc Patrick; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, an animal-like figure was paired with a brief electric shock to the wrist. In a subsequent extinction phase, a different but perceptually similar animal-like figure was presented without the shock. Before testing the generalization of extinction with a third animal-like figure, participants were either instructed that the extinction stimulus was a typical or an atypical member of the animal family. The typicality instruction effectively impacted the generalization of extinction; the third animal-like figure elicited lower shock expectancies in the typical relative to the atypical group. Skin conductance data mirrored these results, but did not reach significance. These findings suggest that verbal information about stimulus typicality can be a promising adjunctive to standard exposure treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Generalized Simulation Model for a Typical Medical Treatment Facility Obstetrical Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    not surprising. The medical center has a variety of specialized departments and clinics, each with unique characteristics . Studies performed for these...DRG relates a set of patient’s demographic, dia nostic, and therapeutic characteristics to the hospital’s resources they consume so!that each DRG is... epatient waiting dumanoa tbent wait Patient entle L&D Wxdl wait U (rood 0 . (Dewviy) v ’ Figure 3.5. Inpatient Testing Flowchart 3-9 4- 2 Outpatient testing

  16. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  17. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  18. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Thalamus in Patients with Typical Absence Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, D.; Brázdil, M.; Horký, Jaroslav; Mikl, M.; Kuba, R.; Krupa, P.; Rektor, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2/Suppl. B (2006), B30 ISSN 1335-9592. [International Danube Symposium for Neurological Sciences and Continuing Education /38./. 06.04.2006-08.04.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : typical absence epilepsy * idiopathic generalized epilepsy * proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy * thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  20. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  1. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  2. Locus of Control, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Some Deaf and Typical Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola

    2010-01-01

    This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…

  3. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  5. Callous-unemotional traits and brain structure: Sex-specific effects in anterior insula of typically-developing youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    2018-01-01

    General scientific summary: This study suggests that callous-unemotional traits have a neuroanatomical correlate within typically developing boys, but not girls. Bilateral anterior insula volume explains up to 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits in boys.

  6. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  7. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  8. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  9. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  10. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  11. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  12. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  13. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  14. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  15. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  16. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  17. Stored object knowledge and the production of referring expressions: The case of color typicality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eWesterbeek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When speakers describe objects with atypical properties, do they include these properties in their referring expressions, even when that is not strictly required for unique referent identification? Based on previous work, we predict that speakers mention the color of a target object more often when the object is atypically colored, compared to when it is typical. Taking literature from object recognition and visual attention into account, we further hypothesize that this behavior is proportional to the degree to which a color is atypical, and whether color is a highly diagnostic feature in the referred-to object's identity. We investigate these expectations in two language production experiments, in which participants referred to target objects in visual contexts. In Experiment 1, we find a strong effect of color typicality: less typical colors for target objects predict higher proportions of referring expressions that include color. In Experiment 2 we manipulated objects with more complex shapes, for which color is less diagnostic, and we find that the color typicality effect is moderated by color diagnosticity: it is strongest for high-color-diagnostic objects (i.e., objects with a simple shape. These results suggest that the production of atypical color attributes results from a contrast with stored knowledge, an effect which is stronger when color is more central to object identification. Our findings offer evidence for models of reference production that incorporate general object knowledge, in order to be able to capture these effects of typicality on determining the content of referring expressions.

  18. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  19. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  20. Value of noninvasive diagnostic procedures in cardiology: typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebeling, V.; Bubenheimer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Routine chest X-ray often yields poor information for diagnosis of heart disease. The diagnostic value of invasive procedures in cardiology is generally accepted. The patient's as well as the physician's risk of the examination, however, has to be considered. A high number of heart diseases, e.g. hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is mainly detected by noninvasive procedures such as auscultation, electrocardiography, phonomechanocardiography, echocardiography, physical manoeuvres, and pharmacological provocation tests. Typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  1. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  2. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  3. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  4. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  5. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  8. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  9. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  10. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  11. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  12. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  13. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  14. A case of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor treated with bronchoscopic therapy followed by lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porpodis K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos Porpodis1, Michael Karanikas2, Paul Zarogoulidis1, Theodoros Kontakiotis1, Alexandros Mitrakas2, Agisilaos Esebidis2, Maria Konoglou3, Kalliopi Domvri1, Alkis Iordanidis4, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis5, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis4, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis11Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 21st University Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 31st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 5Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Carcinoid bronchopulmonary tumors represent approximately 25% of all carcinoid tumors and 1%–2% of all lung neoplasms. The most common symptoms are: persistent cough, asthma-like wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonitis. We present a case of a young adult diagnosed with a typical carcinoid tumor. The diagnosis was established on the basis of imaging examination and bronchoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with bronchoscopic electrocautery therapy to relieve the obstructed airway, followed by surgical lobectomy in order to entirely remove the exophytic damage. This approach was not only a palliative management to bronchial obstruction but also avoided pneumonectomy. Recent studies support the use of such interventional resection methods, as they may result in a more conservative surgical resection.Keywords: carcinoid tumor, typical lung carcinoid, therapeutic bronchoscopy, surgical resection

  15. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  16. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  17. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  18. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  19. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  20. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  1. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  2. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  3. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  4. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  5. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  7. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  8. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  9. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  10. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  11. Typical Werner states satisfying all linear Bell inequalities with dichotomic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement as a special resource inspires various distinct applications in quantum information processing. Unfortunately, it is NP-hard to detect general quantum entanglement using Bell testing. Our goal is to investigate quantum entanglement with white noises that appear frequently in experiment and quantum simulations. Surprisingly, for almost all multipartite generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states there are entangled noisy states that satisfy all linear Bell inequalities consisting of full correlations with dichotomic inputs and outputs of each local observer. This result shows generic undetectability of mixed entangled states in contrast to Gisin's theorem of pure bipartite entangled states in terms of Bell nonlocality. We further provide an accessible method to show a nontrivial set of noisy entanglement with small number of parties satisfying all general linear Bell inequalities. These results imply typical incompleteness of special Bell theory in explaining entanglement.

  12. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  13. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  15. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  16. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  17. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  18. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  19. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  20. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  1. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  2. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  3. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Seawater intrusion; coastal aquifers; density-dependent flow and ... The seawater intrusion mechanism in coastal aquifers generally causes the occurrence of ... (4) The dynamic viscosity of the fluid does not change with respect to salinity and.

  4. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  5. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  6. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  7. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  8. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  9. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  10. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  11. Typical Relaxation of Isolated Many-Body Systems Which Do Not Thermalize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2017-05-01

    We consider isolated many-body quantum systems which do not thermalize; i.e., expectation values approach an (approximately) steady longtime limit which disagrees with the microcanonical prediction of equilibrium statistical mechanics. A general analytical theory is worked out for the typical temporal relaxation behavior in such cases. The main prerequisites are initial conditions which appreciably populate many energy levels and do not give rise to significant spatial inhomogeneities on macroscopic scales. The theory explains very well the experimental and numerical findings in a trapped-ion quantum simulator exhibiting many-body localization, in ultracold atomic gases, and in integrable hard-core boson and X X Z models.

  12. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  13. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  14. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  15. Failure mode and effects analysis on typical reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    An updated failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA , has been performed on a typical reactor trip system. This upgrade helps to avoid system damage and ,as a result, extends the system service life. It also provides for simplified maintenance and surveillance testing. The operating conditions under which the system is to carry out its function and the operational profile expected for the system have been determined. The results of the FMEA have been given in terms of operating states of the subsystem.The results are given in form of table which is set up such that for a given failure one can read across it and determine which items remain operating in the system. From this data one can identify the number of components operating in the system for monitors pressure exceeds the setpoint pressure.

  16. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  18. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  19. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  20. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP 1 and WAP 2 . We show that WAP 2 , the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP 1 , however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP 1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning

  1. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  2. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  3. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  4. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  5. Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed

  6. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  7. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg"−"1. The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol"−"1, while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol"−"1. The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  8. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  9. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  10. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  11. Cultural differences in rated typicality and perceived causes of memory changes in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cultural differences in stereotypes and attributions regarding aging and memory. Two subcultures belonging to the same country, Italy, were compared on general beliefs about memory. Sardinians live longer than other areas of Italy, which is a publically shared fact that informs stereotypes about that subculture. An innovative instrument evaluating simultaneously aging stereotypes and attributions about memory and memory change in adulthood was administered to 52 Sardinian participants and 52 Milanese individuals divided into three age groups: young (20-30), young-old (60-70), and old-old (71-85) adults. Both Milanese and Sardinians reported that memory decline across the life span is more typical than a pattern of stability or improvement. However, Sardinians viewed stability and improvement in memory as more typical than did the Milanese. Interestingly, cultural differences emerged in attributions about memory improvement. Although all Sardinian age groups rated nutrition and heredity as relevant causes in determining the memory decline, Sardinians' rated typicality of life-span memory improvement correlated strongly with causal attributions to a wide number of factors, including nutrition and heredity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential Constraints on the Working Memory and Reading Abilities of Individuals with Learning Difficulties and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…

  13. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  14. Inverse operator method for solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations and some typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1993-01-01

    The inverse operator method (IOM) is described briefly. We have realized the IOM for the solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations by the mathematics-mechanization (MM) with computers. They can then offer a new and powerful method applicable to many areas of physics. We have applied them successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of some nonlinear dynamical equations. As typical examples, the well-known Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation and two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by using the IOM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with those given by Runge-Kutta method. So the IOM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear physics and many other fields

  15. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  16. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  17. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  18. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  19. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  20. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  1. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general the...... available on the internet: http://www.rwsc.dk/EP_Villa_Projektrapport_RW_DK/main_report_villa.pdf....

  2. Subcritical contact processes seen from a typical infected site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2014), 53-1-53-46 ISSN 1083-6489 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931; GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : contact process * exponential growth rate * eigenmeasure * Campbell law * Palm law * quasi-invariant law Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.765, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/swart-0429073.pdf

  3. Musical Mnemonics Enhance Verbal Memory in Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Knott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17% when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9–11 year olds.

  4. Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengattini, Simone; Bigazzi, Alexander York

    2018-03-30

    This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada. Masses were also measured, along with other bicycle attributes such as tire pressure and size. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance, effective frontal area, bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m 2 , 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in existing literature, which focusses on sport cyclists. Significant correlations are identified between resistance parameters and rider and bicycle attributes, indicating higher resistance parameters for less sport-oriented cyclists. The findings of this study are important for appropriately characterising the full range of urban cyclists, including commuters and casual riders.

  5. Typical and atypical clinical presentation of uterine myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoma is the most common benign neoplasm that can occur in the female reproductive system, most frequently seen in women in their 50s. Although the majority of myomas are asymptomatic, some patients have symptoms and/or signs of varying degrees. Typical myoma-related symptoms or signs include: (1 menstrual disturbances like menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding, (2 pelvic pain unrelated to menstruation, (3 compression symptoms, similar to a sensation of bloatedness, urinary frequency and constipation, (4 subfertility status such as recurrent abortion, preterm labor, dystocia with an increased incidence of Cesarean section, and postpartum hemorrhage, and (5 cosmetic problems due to increased abdominal girth However, there are undoubtedly some clinical presentations secondary to uterine myomas are not so specific, such as: (1 uncommon compression-related symptoms, (2 cardiac symptom and atypical symptoms secondary to vascular involvement or dissemination, (3 abdominal symptoms mimicking pelvic carcinomatosis, (4 dyspnea, (5 pruritus, (6 hiccup or internal bleeding, and (7 vaginal protruding mass or uterine inversion. Familiarization with these symptoms and awareness of other unusual or atypical presentations of uterine myomas will remind clinical practitioners of their significance, and of the necessity of follow-up examinations and individualized management to fit the needs and childbirth desires of the patients.

  6. Typical balance exercises or exergames for balance improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Malliou, Paraskevi; Batzios, Stavros; Sofokleous, Polina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kouli, Olga; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Godolias, George

    2013-01-01

    Balance training is an effective intervention to improve static postural sway and balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus exercises for improving balance ability in healthy collegiate students in comparison with a typical balance training program. Forty students were randomly divided into two groups, a traditional (T group) and a Nintendo Wii group (W group) performed an 8 week balance program. The "W group" used the interactive games as a training method, while the "T group" used an exercise program with mini trampoline and inflatable discs (BOSU). Pre and Post-training participants completed balance assessments. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to determine the effect of training program. Analysis of the data illustrated that both training program groups demonstrated an improvement in Total, Anterior-posterior and Medial Lateral Stability Index scores for both limbs. Only at the test performed in the balance board with anterior-posterior motion, the improvement in balance ability was greater in the "T group" than the "W group", when the assessment was performed post-training (p=0.023). Findings support the effectiveness of using the Nintendo Wii gaming console as a balance training intervention tool.

  7. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  9. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  10. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  11. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  12. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  13. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  14. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  15. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  16. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  17. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  18. A comparison of two typical multicyclic models used to forecast the world's conventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianliang; Feng Lianyong; Zhao Lin; Snowden, Simon; Wang Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces two typical multicyclic models: the Hubbert model and the Generalized Weng model. The model-solving process of the two is expounded, and it provides the basis for an empirical analysis of the world's conventional oil production. The results for both show that the world's conventional oil (crude+NGLs) production will reach its peak in 2011 with a production of 30 billion barrels (Gb). In addition, the forecasting effects of these two models, given the same URR are compared, and the intrinsic characteristics of these two models are analyzed. This demonstrates that for specific criteria the multicyclic Generalized Weng model is an improvement on the multicyclic Hubbert model. Finally, based upon the resultant forecast for the world's conventional oil, some suggestions are proposed for China's policy makers. - Highlights: ► Hubbert model and Generalized Weng model are introduced and compared in this article. ► We conclude each model's characteristic and scopes and conditions of applicable. ► We get the same peak production and time of world's oil by applying two models. ► Multicyclic Generalized Weng model is proven slightly better than Hubbert model.

  19. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  20. Aging Management Plan for a Typical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahsa; Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Development of an aging management plan (AMP) is a crucial contributor to maintaining the reactor safety and controlling the risk of degradation of the concrete reactor building of a nuclear power plant. The design, operation and utilization of a research reactor (RR) fundamentally differ from those of power reactors. The AMP should nonetheless be present on account of radioactive materials and radiation risks involved. This is mainly because the RR is deemed to be used as an experiment itself or to conduct separate experiments during its operation. The AMP aims to determine the requisites for specific structural concrete components of the reactor building that entail regular inspections and maintenance to ensure safe and reliable operation of the plant. The safety of a RR necessitates the provision which is made in its design to facilitate aging management. Aging management of RR's structures is one of the vital factors to safety, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions.Moreover, engineering systems should be qualified to meet the functional requirements for which they were designed with aging and environmental conditions for all situations and at all times taken into account. This study aims to present an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building of a typical RR. For the purpose of safety analysis, geometry and ambient conditions were taken from a 5 MW pool-type, light-water moderated, heterogeneous, solid fuel RR in which the water is also used for cooling and shielding (Fig. 1). The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section concrete pool filled with water. This paper makes available background information regarding the document and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the reactor building concrete as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective

  1. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  2. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  3. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  4. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  5. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  7. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  8. Magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements: occurrence and typical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Archer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The first comprehensive statistical study of large-amplitude (> 100% transient enhancements of the magnetosheath dynamic pressure reveals events of up to ~ 15 times the ambient dynamic pressure with durations up to 3 min and an average duration of around 30 s, predominantly downstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The dynamic pressure transients are most often dominated by velocity increases along with a small fractional increase in the density, though the velocity is generally only deflected by a few degrees. Superposed wavelet transforms of the magnetic field show that, whilst most enhancements exhibit changes in the magnetosheath magnetic field, the majority are not associated with changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF. However, there is a minority of enhancements that do appear to be associated with solar wind discontinuities which cannot be explained simply by random events. In general, it is found that during periods of magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements the IMF is steadier than usual. This suggests that a stable foreshock and hence foreshock structures or processes may be important in the generation of the majority of magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements.

  9. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  10. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  11. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  12. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  13. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  14. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  15. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  16. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  17. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  18. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  19. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  20. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  1. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  2. Parameter space of general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri; Smidt, Joseph; Yu, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We study a subspace of General Gauge Mediation (GGM) models which generalize models of gauge mediation. We find superpartner spectra that are markedly different from those of typical gauge and gaugino mediation scenarios. While typical gauge mediation predictions of either a neutralino or stau next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) are easily reproducible with the GGM parameters, chargino and sneutrino NLSPs are generic for many reasonable choices of GGM parameters.

  3. Avian adaptations to the Kalahari environment: A typical continental semidesert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L Maclean

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird species adapted to the Kalahari are generally either (a sedentary, insectivorous (or carnivorous and non-gregarious, or (b nomadic, granivorous and gregarious even when breeding. Ground-dwelling birds predominate numerically and are cryptically coloured to avoid predation. Many species have nasal glands which secrete hypertonic solutions in response to the intake of fluids with high solute concentrations, as an adaptation to water conservation. Thermoregulation is discussed especially in relation to high ambient temperatures. Breeding is initiated in most species by rainfall or associated ecological effects, correlated with improved body condition of the females; lag periods between rain and egglaying are related to diet and time of year. Nest orientation is also related to season and capitalizes on maximal shade in summer. Parental care in sandgrouse is discussed.

  4. Informing General CSCW Product Development through Cooperative Design in Specific Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    sharing of materials in the engineering domain. In our project, a single engineering company (Great Belt Link Ltd.) was chosen as the user organization. The paper summarizes the process from observational studies, over a future workshop and cooperative prototyping activities, to a pilot installation. We...... describe how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users‘ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Common participants in specific activities...... and general development activities supported transfer of work domain knowledge into general features of the product being developed. Mutual challenging characterized the interaction between specific cooperative analysis and design activities and general development activities. Prototypes, scenarios, materials...

  5. Autistic traits and brain activation during face-to-face conversations in typically developed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Masashi; Takei, Yuichi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Sakurai, Noriko; Fukuda, Masato; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics is posited to lie on a continuum that extends into the general population. Brain substrates underlying ASD have been investigated through functional neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has methodological constraints for studying brain mechanisms during social interactions (for example, noise, lying on a gantry during the procedure, etc.). In this study, we investigated whether variations in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in patterns of brain activation in typically developed adults. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light, to monitor brain activation in a natural setting that is suitable for studying brain functions during social interactions. We monitored regional cerebral blood volume changes using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior temporal sulcus (STS), 2 areas implicated in social cognition and the pathology of ASD, in 28 typically developed participants (14 male and 14 female) during face-to-face conversations. This task was designed to resemble a realistic social situation. We examined the correlations of these changes with autistic traits assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Both the PFC and STS were significantly activated during face-to-face conversations. AQ scores were negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood volume increases in the left STS during face-to-face conversations, especially in males. Our results demonstrate successful monitoring of brain function during realistic social interactions by NIRS as well as lesser brain activation in the left STS during face-to-face conversations in typically developed participants with higher levels of autistic

  6. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  7. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  8. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  9. Pattern of facial palsy in a typical Nigerian specialist hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, S; Hanif, S

    2012-12-01

    Data on incidence of facial palsy is generally lacking in Nigeria. To assess six years' incidence of facial palsy in Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria. The records of patients diagnosed as facial problems between January 2000 and December 2005 were scrutinized. Data on diagnosis, age, sex, side affected, occupation and causes were obtained. A total number of 698 patients with facial problems were recorded. Five hundred and ninety four (85%) were diagnosed as facial palsy. Out of the diagnosed facial palsy, males (56.2%) had a higher incidence than females; 20-34 years age group (40.3%) had a greater prevalence; the commonest cause of facial palsy was found out to be Idiopathic (39.1%) and was most common among business men (31.6%). Right sided facial palsy (52.2%) was predominant. Incidence of facial palsy was highest in 2003 (25.3%) and decreased from 2004. It was concluded that the incidence of facial palsy was high and Bell's palsy remains the most common causes of facial (nerve) paralysis.

  10. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  11. Maternal Perceptions of Mealtimes: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry K. Crowe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined mealtime techniques reported by mothers of preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and mothers of children with typical development (TD. The mothers’ perceived levels of success and sources of information for mealtime techniques were also reported. Method: The participants were 24 mothers of children with ASD (ASD group and 24 mothers of children with typical development (TD group between 3 and 6 years of age. The Background Information Survey and the Mealtime Techniques Interview were administered. Results: The ASD group used significantly more techniques in categories of food appearances, restrictive diets, and vitamin/supplement therapy. The TD group used significantly more techniques in the categories of etiquette and negative consequences. Both groups rated techniques similarly with no significant difference between the perceived rate of success for each category. Finally, 91% of mealtime techniques for both groups were parent generated with few from professionals. Conclusion: The results showed that many of the mothers in both groups used similar mealtime techniques and most implemented techniques that were self-generated with generally moderate perception of success. Occupational therapists should collaboratively work with families to increase mealtime success by recommending interventions that are individualized and family centered.

  12. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  13. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y.; Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek

    2012-01-01

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran

  14. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  15. Three Dimensional Characterization of Typical Urban and Desert Particles: Implications to Particle Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V.; Mishra, S.; Ahlawat, A. S.; Sharma, C.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol particles are generally considered as chemically homogeneous spheres in the retrieval techniques of ground and space borne observations which is not accurate approach and can lead to erroneous observations. For better simulation of optical and radiative properties of aerosols, a good knowledge of aerosol's morphology, chemical composition and internal structure is essential. Till date, many studies have reported the morphology and chemical composition of particles but very few of them provide internal structure and spatial distribution of different chemical species within the particle. The research on the effect of particle internal structure and its contribution to particle optics is extremely limited. In present work, we characterize the PM10 particles collected form typical arid (the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India) and typical urban (New Delhi, India) environment using microscopic techniques. The particles were milled several times to investigate their internal structure. The EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) spectra were recorded after each milling to check the variation in the chemical composition. In arid environment, Fe, Ca, C, Al, and Mg rich shell was observed over a Si rich particle whereas in urban environment, shell of Hg, Ag, C and N was observed over a Cu rich particle. Based on the observations, different model shapes [homogenous sphere and spheroid; heterogeneous sphere and spheroid; core shell] have been considered for assessing the associated uncertainties with the routine modeling of optical properties where volume equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation is considered. The details will be discussed during presentation.

  16. The typical seismic behavior in the vicinity of a large earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, M. V.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2016-10-01

    The Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (GCMT) was used to construct the spatio-temporal generalized vicinity of a large earthquake (GVLE) and to investigate the behavior of seismicity in GVLE. The vicinity is made of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of a large number (100, 300, or 1000) of largest earthquakes. The GVLE construction aims at enlarging the available statistics, diminishing a strong random component, and revealing typical features of pre- and post-shock seismic activity in more detail. As a result of the GVLE construction, the character of fore- and aftershock cascades was examined in more detail than was possible without of the use of the GVLE approach. As well, several anomalies in the behavior exhibited by a variety of earthquake parameters were identified. The amplitudes of all these anomalies increase with the approaching time of the generalized large earthquake (GLE) as the logarithm of the time interval from the GLE occurrence. Most of the discussed anomalies agree with common features well expected in the evolution of instability. In addition to these common type precursors, one earthquake-specific precursor was found. The decrease in mean earthquake depth presumably occurring in a smaller GVLE probably provides evidence of a deep fluid being involved in the process. The typical features in the evolution of shear instability as revealed in GVLE agree with results obtained in laboratory studies of acoustic emission (AE). The majority of the anomalies in earthquake parameters appear to have a secondary character, largely connected with an increase in mean magnitude and decreasing fraction of moderate size events (mw5.0-6.0) in the immediate GLE vicinity. This deficit of moderate size events could hardly be caused entirely by their incomplete reporting and can presumably reflect some features in the evolution of seismic instability.

  17. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  18. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  19. Differential constraints on the working memory and reading abilities of individuals with learning difficulties and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also completed independent measures of the processing and storage operations involved in each working memory span task and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The results showed that despite an equivalent level of working memory span, the relative importance of the constraints on working memory differed between the groups. In addition, working memory span was not closely related to word recognition or sentence comprehension performance in the LD group. These results suggest that the working memory span performance of LD and TD individuals may reflect different working memory limitations and that individuals with generalized learning difficulties may approach cognitive tasks in a qualitatively different way from that of typically developing individuals.

  20. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  1. Typical design/qualification acceptance criteria for newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes in general the typical design/qualification acceptance criteria and seismic acceptance criteria in particular that are applicable for important to safety newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type already existing NPPs, specifically during the design verification phase of this newly installed equipment. These criteria are currently used for VVER 440-213 and VVER 1000 NPPs in Czech Republic and in Slovakia. The similar criteria are also used in Hungary. (author)

  2. Emotional preferences and goals and emotion dysregulation in children with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gummerum, Michaela

    2018-02-05

    Emotion goals lie at the heart of emotion regulation, as people have to first decide what emotions they want to feel before engaging in emotion regulation. Given that children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are characterized by exhibiting difficulties in emotion regulation, studying whether they display similar or different emotion goals compared to typically developing (TD) children may provide insightful information. Thirty AS and 30 TD children (10-12 years) reported about their general (i.e., how they want to feel in general) and contextualized (i.e., how they want to feel when confronting vs. collaborating with someone) emotion goals, and about their difficulties in emotion regulation through questionnaires. Results showed that both groups did not differ in their general emotional goals and in their contextualized emotion goals for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed from TD children in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. These emotion goals predicted their difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour. The obtained results support the need to further study emotion goals as an aspect of emotion dysregulation, namely the difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour when experiencing different emotions. AS and TD children did not differ in their general emotion goals. AS and TD children did not vary in their preferences for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. Understanding emotion goals might help practitioners to develop better interventions. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. General and special education teachers' relations within teamwork ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and instruction, assessment and evaluation, and classroom management and behavior. Typically, the ... teaching techniques and learning processes. ... general objective of this research is to establish the relations of general and special.

  4. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  5. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. 23 CFR 710.301 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 710.301 Section 710.301 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.301 General. The project development process typically follows a...

  7. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  8. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968–1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981–2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007–2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981–2007 as the reference period were −81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968–1980, and −117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007–2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought

  9. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (Pscale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (Pnegative symptoms and the application of MRI DTI-FT can improve diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  12. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  13. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including “north-low”, “southwest-trough”, “southeast-high”, “transition”, “southeast-trough”, and “inland-high”. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for “southwest-trough” and “southeast-high” (defined as favorable synoptic situations, the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008–2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution

  14. Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanium Thiyageshwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH. Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF in black soil (typic Haplustalf and red soil (typic Rhodustalf soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  16. Development of a georeferenced data bank of radionuclides in typical food of Latin America - SIGLARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Lucia Maria Evangelista do

    2014-01-01

    The related management information related to the environmental assessment activity aims to provide the world community with better access to meaningful environmental information and help use this information in making decisions in case of contamination due to accident or deliberate actions. In recent years, the geotechnologies acquired are fundamental to research and environmental monitoring, once it possible, efficiently obtaining large amount of data natural resources. The result of this work was the development of a database system to store georeferenced data values of radionuclides in typical foods in Latin America (SIGLARA), defined in three languages (Spanish, Portuguese and English), using free software. The developed system meets the primary need of the RLA 09/72 ARCAL Project, funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as having eleven participants countries in Latin America. The database of georeferenced created for SIGLARA system was tested in its applicability through the entry and manipulation of real data analyzed, which showed that the system is able to store, retrieve, view reports and maps of the samples of registered food. Interfaces that connect the user with the database show up efficient, making the system easy operability. Their application to environmental management is already showing results, it is hoped that these results will encourage its widespread adoption by other countries, institutions, the scientific community and the general public. (author)

  17. The Neurocognitive Architecture of Individual Differences in Math Anxiety in Typical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwright, Charlotte E; Looi, Chung Yen; Sella, Francesco; Inuggi, Alberto; Santos, Flávia Heloísa; González-Salinas, Carmen; Santos, Jose M García; Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2018-05-31

    Math Anxiety (MA) is characterized by a negative emotional response when facing math-related situations. MA is distinct from general anxiety and can emerge during primary education. Prior studies typically comprise adults and comparisons between high- versus low-MA, where neuroimaging work has focused on differences in network activation between groups when completing numerical tasks. The present study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the structural brain correlates of MA in a sample of 79 healthy children aged 7-12 years. Given that MA is thought to develop in later primary education, the study focused on the level of MA, rather than categorically defining its presence. Using a battery of cognitive- and numerical-function tasks, we identified that increased MA was associated with reduced attention, working memory and math achievement. VBM highlighted that increased MA was associated with reduced grey matter in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus. This region was also associated with attention, suggesting that baseline differences in morphology may underpin attentional differences. Future studies should clarify whether poorer attentional capacity due to reduced grey matter density results in the later emergence of MA. Further, our data highlight the role of working memory in propagating reduced math achievement in children with higher MA.

  18. Towards the accurate electronic structure descriptions of typical high-constant dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Qing-Qing; Li, Ye; Guo, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2011-05-01

    High-constant dielectrics have gained considerable attention due to their wide applications in advanced devices, such as gate oxides in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices and insulators in high-density metal-insulator-metal capacitors. However, the theoretical investigations of these materials cannot fulfil the requirement of experimental development, especially the requirement for the accurate description of band structures. We performed first-principles calculations based on the hybrid density functionals theory to investigate several typical high-k dielectrics such as Al2O3, HfO2, ZrSiO4, HfSiO4, La2O3 and ZrO2. The band structures of these materials are well described within the framework of hybrid density functionals theory. The band gaps of Al2O3, HfO2, ZrSiO4, HfSiO4, La2O3 and ZrO2are calculated to be 8.0 eV, 5.6 eV, 6.2 eV, 7.1 eV, 5.3 eV and 5.0 eV, respectively, which are very close to the experimental values and far more accurate than those obtained by the traditional generalized gradient approximation method.

  19. Olanzapine versus typical neuroleptics for schizophrenia: evaluation of social and economic costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mariani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An important number of publications is reporting results from health outcomes studies comparing atypical antipsychotics (AA with typical neuroleptics (TN over 1 year of observation. Our study has prolonged the period observation of the economical and social outcomes to 4 years: 31 patients with schizophrenia were observed retrospectively during two years of TN treatment and then followed during 2 more years of olanzapine treatment after naturalistic switch. The results show a general reduction of health care interventions (territory and hospital during the olanzapine treatment period. Global costs during olanzapine treatment were lower than during TN treatment (10506 euros with TN vs 6193 euros with olanzapine over 2 years. The social outcome, measured through the registration of the number of working days in the two periods of the study (retrospective with TN and prospective with olanzapine, was better during olanzapine treatment, probably due to increased patient compliance to the rehabilitative activities offered by the Department of Mental Health. In our experience, olanzapine appeared to dominate TN treatment, as its higher acquisition costs were offset by the reduction of territorial and nosocomial health care interventions over two years of observation, and associated with higher involvement in rehabilitative and social activities.

  20. Impacts of Soil Moisture on Typical Frontal Rainstorm in Yangtze River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By using a coupled land surface-atmosphere model with initial conditions of varying resolution and ensembles of systematically changed soil moisture, convective-scale simulations of a typical frontal rainstorm in the Yangtze River Basin are collected to investigate: (1 effects of different datasets on the simulated frontal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs; (2 possible linkages between soil moisture, planetary boundary layer (PBL, MCSs and precipitation in this modeled rainstorm. Firstly, initial soil moisture differences can affect the PBL, MCSs and precipitation of this frontal rainstorm. Specially, for a 90 mm precipitation forecast, the Threat score (TS can increase 6.61% by using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS soil moisture. Secondly, sensitivity experiment results show that the near-surface thermodynamic conditions are more sensitive to dry soil than wet due to the initial moist surface; atmosphere conditions have suppressed the relations between soil and atmosphere; and decreased precipitation can be found over both wet and dry surfaces. Generally, a positive feedback between soil moisture and the near-surface thermodynamic conditions is identified, while the relations between soil moisture and precipitation are quite complicated. This relationship shows a daytime mixing of warm surface soil over dry surfaces and a daytime evaporation of adequate moisture over wet surfaces. The large-scale forcing can affect these relations and finally cause decreased precipitation over both wet and dry surfaces.

  1. Unified Description of the Mechanical Properties of Typical Marine Soil and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed a modified elastoplastic constitutive model that can systematically describe the monotonic and cyclic mechanical behaviors of typical marine soils combining the subloading, normal, and superloading yield surfaces, in the seismic response analysis of three-dimensional (3D marine site. New evolution equations for stress-induced anisotropy development and the change in the overconsolidation of soils were proposed. This model can describe the unified behaviour of unsaturated soil and saturated soil using independent state variables and can uniquely describe the multiple mechanical properties of soils under general stress states, without changing the parameter values using the transform stress method. An effective stress-based, fully coupled, explicit finite element–finite difference method was established based on this model and three-phase field theory. A finite deformation analysis was presented by introducing the Green-Naghdi rate tensor. The simulation and analysis indicated that the proposed method was sufficient for simulating the seismic disaster process of 3D marine sites. The results suggested that the ground motion intensity would increase due to the local uneven complex topography and site effect and also provided the temporal and spatial distribution of landslide and collapse at the specific location of the marine site.

  2. Portable Weather Applications for General Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Ulf; Ohneiser, Oliver; Caddigan, Eamon

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits and impact on pilot behavior from the use of portable weather applications. Seventy general aviation (GA) pilots participated in the study. Each pilot was randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group and flew a simulated single-engine GA aircraft, initially under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The experimental group was equipped with a portable weather application during flight. We recorded measures for weather situation awareness (WSA), decision making, cognitive engagement, and distance from the aircraft to hazardous weather. We found positive effects from the use of the portable weather application, with an increased WSA for the experimental group, which resulted in credibly larger route deviations and credibly greater distances to hazardous weather (≥30 dBZ cells) compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both groups flew less than 20 statute miles from hazardous weather cells, thus failing to follow current weather-avoidance guidelines. We also found a credibly higher cognitive engagement (prefrontal oxygenation levels) for the experimental group, possibly reflecting increased flight planning and decision making on the part of the pilots. Overall, the study outcome supports our hypothesis that portable weather displays can be used without degrading pilot performance on safety-related flight tasks, actions, and decisions as measured within the constraints of the present study. However, it also shows that an increased WSA does not automatically translate to enhanced flight behavior. The study outcome contributes to our knowledge of the effect of portable weather applications on pilot behavior and decision making. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  4. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  5. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C.

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  6. Difficulties in making career decisions in students with mild intellectual disability and their typically developing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Šestić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Making career decisions is an important task for young people, which intensifies at the end of primary school when they assess their working abilities with regard to the requirements of their future vocation. The general aim of this research is to determine whether there is a difference between students with mild intellectual disability (MID and typically developing (TD students in making career decisions, and if there is, what the nature of that difference is. The influence of age, gender, family environment and general school success on making career decisions is separately assessed. The sample consists of 71 examinees (31 or 43.7% students with MID and 40 or 56.3% TD students, of both genders, attending the seventh and eighth grade at three Belgrade primary schools. Career Decision Scale - CDS was used to assess the ability to make career decisions. The research results indicate that students with MID are inconsistent in choosing careers when compared to TD students, since they have more difficulty in understanding the congruence between personal characteristics, abilities and skills, and the selected career (p=0.023, they are less informed on the careers (p=0.014, they make decisions less frequently (p=0.043, they do not have enough information on the vocational training in which they are interested (p=0.001, and they are more in need of organized support in choosing careers (p=0.012. Some TD students do not agree with their parents in making their career choice (p=0.000, they are not equally informed on what career leads to the fastest employment (p=0.032, uncertain TD student would like to do a test which would help them decide on the career which is best for them (p=0.000, and a number of TD students do not know whether they can relate what they like doing at present to their future career (p=0.032. Girls showed greater maturity in choosing careers than boys, as well as eighth grade students when compared to seventh-graders (p=0.000. The

  7. Visual/Verbal-Analytic Reasoning Bias as a Function of Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits: A Study of Typically Developing Individuals Solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stewart, Mary E.; Stenning, Keith

    2011-01-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals,…

  8. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  9. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Gas Shield ER25MR08.004 ...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Indicator Finger ER25MR08.003 ...

  11. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical hatchery...

  12. Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

  13. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  14. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  15. For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Oikawa, M.; Oikawa, H.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel,

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  17. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  18. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  19. Development of Gender Discrimination: Effect of Sex-Typical and Sex-Atypical Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.

    Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…

  20. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  1. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  2. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  3. Typical and Atypical Development of Basic Numerical Skills in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Kolle, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical processing have been identified as a central and potentially causal problem in developmental dyscalculia; however, so far not much is known about the typical and atypical development of such skills. This study assessed basic number skills cross-sectionally in 262 typically developing and 51 dyscalculic children in…

  4. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  5. Typicality aids search for an unspecified target, but only in identification and not in attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander; Cave, Kyle R

    2008-08-01

    Participants searched for a picture of an object, and the object was either a typical or an atypical category member. The object was cued by either the picture or its basic-level category name. Of greatest interest was whether it would be easier to search for typical objects than to search for atypical objects. The answer was"yes," but only in a qualified sense: There was a large typicality effect on response time only for name cues, and almost none of the effect was found in the time to locate (i.e., first fixate) the target. Instead, typicality influenced verification time-the time to respond to the target once it was fixated. Typicality is thus apparently irrelevant when the target is well specified by a picture cue; even when the target is underspecified (as with a name cue), it does not aid attentional guidance, but only facilitates categorization.

  6. The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to distinguishing typical from atypical meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Atypical/malignant meningiomas recur more frequently then typical meningiomas. In this study, the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to the differentiation of atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas and to the determination of histological subtypes of typical meningiomas was investigated. The study was performed prospectively on 39 patients. The signal intensity of the lesions was evaluated on trace and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean ADC values in atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas were 0.75{+-}0.21 and 1.17{+-}0.21, respectively. Mean ADC values for subtypes of typical meningiomas were as follows: meningothelial, 1.09{+-}0.20; transitional, 1.19{+-}0.07; fibroblastic, 1.29{+-}0.28; and angiomatous, 1.48{+-}0.10. Normal white matter was 0.91{+-}0.10. ADC values of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas significantly differed (P<0.001). However, the difference between peritumoral edema ADC values was not significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, the difference between the subtypes of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas was significant (P<0.001). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of atypical/malignant meningiomas and typical meningiomas differ. Atypical/malignant meningiomas have lower intratumoral ADC values than typical meningiomas. Mean ADC values for peritumoral edema do not differ between typical and atypical meningiomas. (orig.)

  7. [Nitrogen and phosphate pollution characteristics and eutrophication evaluation for typical urban landscape waters in Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Liu, Ke-Feng; Qian, Jing; Yang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Pian-Pian

    2014-05-01

    To understand the water environment regimes of the city-circling water system in Hefei City, six typical landscape waters were chosen to investigate pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphate and evaluate water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from September 2012 to July 2013. Study results showed that (1) the six waters mentioned above have been seriously polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, with the monthly mean values of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication; (2) the nitrogen contents in the waters of Nanfeihe River, Heichiba and Yuhuatang scenic spots exhibited a markedly monthly variation, and both TP and PO(3-)(4)-P in Nanfeihe River showed a fluctuated characteristic with high concentrations while presenting a significant upward trend in Yuhuatang scenic spot; (3) the average values of TN/TP ratios for Yuhuatang and Heichiba scenic spots were 104.7 and 158.3, respectively, and the ratios for Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xiaoyaojin Park, and city segment of Nanfeihe River were 16.8, 18.7, 6.4 and 16.8, respectively, indicating that the scenic waters of Yuhuatang and Heichiba were phosphate-limited whereas Xiaoyaojin Park was nitrogen-limited; (4) all the six scenic waters were, in general, subsumed under just two broad categories, namely Hechiba scenic spot and Nanfeihe River, which were seriously polluted, and clustered together, and the others fall into the second class; and (5) water eutrophication appraisal result indicated that the six waters were all in the state of eutrophication, and could be arranged in the order of eutrophication level, Yinhe Park > Heichiba scenic spot > city segment of Nanfeihe River > Xiaoyaojin Park > Yuhuatang scenic spot > Baohe Park.

  8. [Soil Phosphorus Forms and Leaching Risk in a Typically Agricultural Catchment of Hefei Suburban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui-hui; Li, Ru-zhong; Pei, Ting-ting; Zhang, Rui-gang

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the soil phosphorus forms and leaching risk in a typically agricultural catchment of Ershibu River in Hefei Suburban, Chaohu Lake basin, 132 surface soil samples were collected from the catchment area. The spatial distribution of total phosphorus (TP) and bio-available phosphorus (Bio-P), and the spatial variability of soil available phosphorus (Olsen-P) and easy desorption phosphorus (CaCl2-P) were analyzed using the Kriging technology of AreGIS after speciation analysis of soil phosphorus. Moreover, the enrichment level of soil phosphorus was studied, and the phosphorus leaching risk was evaluated through determining the leaching threshold value of soil phosphorus. The results showed that the samples with high contents of TP and Bio-P mainly located in the upstream of the left tributary and on the right side of local area where two tributaries converged. The enrichment rates of soil phosphorus forms were arranged as follows: Ca-P (15.01) > OP (4.16) > TP (3. 42) > IP (2.94) > Ex-P (2.76) > Fe/Al-P (2.43) > Olsen-P (2.34). The critical value of Olsen-P leaching was 18.388 mg x kg(-1), and the leaching samples with values higher than the threshold value accounted for 16.6% of total samples. Generally, the high-risk areas mainly occurred in the upstream of the left tributary, the middle of the right tributary and the local area of the downstream of the area where two tributaries converged.

  9. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  10. Prognostic factors for neckpain in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Twisk, J.W.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Windt, D. van der; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Prognostic studies on neck pain are scarce and are typically restricted to short-term follow-up only. In this prospective cohort study, indicators of short- and long-term outcomes of neck pain were identified that can easily be measured in general practice. Patients between 18 and 70 years of age,

  11. Cinema, Fermi Problems and General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, C. J.; Llewellyn, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    During the past few years the authors have developed a new approach to the teaching of physical science, a general education course typically found in the curricula of nearly every college and university. This approach, called "Physics in Films" (Efthimiou and Llewellyn 2006 Phys. Teach. 44 28-33), uses scenes from popular films to illustrate…

  12. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  13. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themelis Karaminis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b a baseline (single-face emotion discrimination task; and c a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

  14. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants ( N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant 'target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)' interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general.

  15. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant ‘target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)’ interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general. PMID:28203216

  16. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  17. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the leak current using a twin platinum electrode set-up. Localized extraction of residue was carried...

  18. Prospective memory deficits in illicit polydrug users are associated with the average long-term typical dose of ecstasy typically consumed in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denis T; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Robinson, Sarita J; Judge, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that ecstasy-related reductions in SERT densities relate more closely to the number of tablets typically consumed per session rather than estimated total lifetime use. To better understand the basis of drug related deficits in prospective memory (p.m.) we explored the association between p.m. and average long-term typical dose and long-term frequency of use. Study 1: Sixty-five ecstasy/polydrug users and 85 nonecstasy users completed an event-based, a short-term and a long-term time-based p.m. task. Study 2: Study 1 data were merged with outcomes on the same p.m. measures from a previous study creating a combined sample of 103 ecstasy/polydrug users, 38 cannabis-only users, and 65 nonusers of illicit drugs. Study 1: Ecstasy/polydrug users had significant impairments on all p.m. outcomes compared with nonecstasy users. Study 2: Ecstasy/polydrug users were impaired in event-based p.m. compared with both other groups and in long-term time-based p.m. compared with nonillicit drug users. Both drug using groups did worse on the short-term time-based p.m. task compared with nonusers. Higher long-term average typical dose of ecstasy was associated with poorer performance on the event and short-term time-based p.m. tasks and accounted for unique variance in the two p.m. measures over and above the variance associated with cannabis and cocaine use. The typical ecstasy dose consumed in a single session is an important predictor of p.m. impairments with higher doses reflecting increasing tolerance giving rise to greater p.m. impairment.

  19. Land Cover Change Monitoring of Typical Functional Communities of Sichuan Province Based on ZY-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. M.; Li, S.; Ying, G. W.; Wu, X. P.

    2018-04-01

    According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  1. Gender Norm Salience Across Middle Schools: Contextual Variations in Associations Between Gender Typicality and Socioemotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle Sayre; Schacter, Hannah L; Enders, Craig; Juvonen, Jaana

    2018-05-01

    Youth who feel they do not fit with gender norms frequently experience peer victimization and socioemotional distress. To gauge differences between schools, the current study examined the longitudinal effects of school-level gender norm salience-a within-school association between gender typicality and peer victimization-on socioemotional distress across 26 ethnically diverse middle schools (n boys  = 2607; n girls  = 2805). Boys (but not girls) reporting lower gender typicality experienced more loneliness and social anxiety in schools with more salient gender norms, even when accounting for both individual and school level victimization. Greater gender norm salience also predicted increased depressed mood among boys regardless of gender typicality. These findings suggest particular sensitivity among boys to environments in which low gender typicality is sanctioned.

  2. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  3. Determinants of Occupational Gender Segregation : Work Values and Gender (A)Typical Occupational Preferences of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The study examines micro-level determinants of the occupational gender segregation, analyzing work values and their effects on gender (a)typical occupational preferences of adolescents. Human capital theory assumes that women develop higher preferences for a good work/life balance in youth, whereas men develop higher extrinsic work values. Socialization theory predicts that female adolescents form higher preferences for social work content. This gender typicality in work values is expected to...

  4. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhu Xu; Yanhui Hou; Lihua Zhang; Tao Liu; Guangsheng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two ...

  5. A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS AND TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Fatih Emrah; Ozdemir, Selda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of students with visual impairments with social skills of typically developing students. The study groups consisted of 64 students with visual impairments and 68 typically developing students from the first to fourth grade. The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) Teacher Form was used to evaluate the social skills of both groups. The results of the study indicated that cooperation, assertiveness, and self-control sub-scale scores and o...

  6. Study on the knowledge base system for the identification of typical target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the research on target knowledge base, target database, texture analysis, shape analysis, this paper proposed a new knowledge based method for typical target identification from remote sensing image. By extracting the texture characters and shape characters, joining with spatial analysis in GIS, reasoning according to the prior knowledge in the knowledge base, this method can identify and ex- tract typical target from remote sensing images. (authors)

  7. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents’ speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent–child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of m...

  8. A Fast Implementation for the Typical Testor Property Identification Based on an Accumulative Binary Tuple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez-Diaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a fast implementation of the CT EXT algorithm for testor property identification, that is based on an accumulative binary tuple. The fast implementation of the CT EXT algorithm (one of the fastest algorithms reported, is designed to generate all the typical testors from a training matrix, requiring a reduced number of operations. Experimental results using this fast implementation and the comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms that generate typical testors are presented.

  9. Frequency of celiac disease in adult patients with typical or atypical malabsorption symptoms in isfahan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Kouhestani, Soheila; Karimi, Somayeh; Baghaei, Abdolmahdi; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Jamali, Nahid; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD) have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical) form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN) were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology), duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8 ± 12.6 and 35.8 ± 14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.). Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151) and 1.25% (3/173) based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151) and 4.0% (7/173) when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  10. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  11. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  12. Advanced software tool for the creation of a typical meteorological year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal; Ghani, Bashar Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The generation of a typical meteorological year is of great importance for calculations concerning many applications in the field of thermal engineering. In this context, method that has been proposed by Hall et al. is selected for generating typical data, and an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month (TMM) was demonstrated. The final selection of the most representative year was done by examining a composite score S. The composite score was calculated as the weighed sum of the scores of the four meteorological parameters used. These parameters are air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and global solar radiation intensity. Moreover, a new modern software tool using Delphi 6.0 has been developed, utilizing the Filkenstein-Schafer statistical method for the creation of a typical meteorological year for any site of concern. Whereas, an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month was employed. Such tool allows the user to perform this task without an intimate knowledge of all of the computational details. The final alphanumerical and graphical results are presented on screen, and can be saved to a file or printed as a hard copy. Using this software tool, a typical meteorological year was generated for Damascus, capital of Syria, as a test run example. The data processed used were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and cover a period of 10 years (1991-2000)

  13. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Adult Patients with Typical or Atypical Malabsorption Symptoms in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology, duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8±12.6 and 35.8±14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.. Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151 and 1.25% (3/173 based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151 and 4.0% (7/173 when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  14. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  15. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, Melanie, E-mail: lemire.melanie@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Fillion, Myriam [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando [Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee [Instituto de Biofisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 {mu}g/g; range: 0.4-158.4 {mu}g/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 {mu}g/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 {mu}g/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 {mu}g/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 {mu}g/g, 1.9-1437 {mu}g/g) and Sr (38.7 {mu}g/g, 3.3-173 {mu}g/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  16. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, Melanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 μg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 μg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 μg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 μg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 μg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 μg/g, 1.9-1437 μg/g) and Sr (38.7 μg/g, 3.3-173 μg/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  17. Preliminary assessment of a combined passive safety system for typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang, E-mail: jqshan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Gou, Junli

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A combined passive safety system was placed on a typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000. • Three accident analyses show the three different accident mitigation methods of the passive safety system. • The three mitigation methods were proved to be useful. - Abstract: As the development of the nuclear industry, passive technology turns out to be a remarkable characteristic of advanced nuclear power plants. Since the 20th century, much effort has been given to the passive technology, and a number of evolutionary passive systems have developed. Thoughts have been given to upgrade the existing reactors with passive systems to meet stricter safety demands. In this paper, the CPR1000 plant, which is one kind of mature pressurized water reactor plants in China, is improved with some passive systems to enhance safety. The passive systems selected are as follows: (1) the reactor makeup tank (RMT); (2) the advanced accumulator (A-ACC); (3) the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST); (4) the passive emergency feed water system (PEFS), which is installed on the secondary side of SGs; (5) the passive depressurization system (PDS). Although these passive components is based on the passive technology of some advanced reactors, their structural and trip designs are adjusted specifically so that it could be able to mitigate accidents of the CPR1000. Utilizing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code, accident analyses (small break loss of coolant accident, large break loss of coolant accident, main feed water line break accident) of this improved CPR1000 plant were presented to demonstrate three different accident mitigation methods of the safety system and to test whether the passive safety system preformed its function well. In the SBLOCA, all components of the passive safety system were put into work sequentially, which prevented the core uncover. The LBLOCA analysis illustrates the contribution of the A-ACCs whose small-flow-rate injection can control the maximum cladding

  18. Lead distribution and possible sources along vertical zone spectrum of typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; Sun, Shouqin; Yang, Dandan; She, Jia; Yang, Peijun

    2015-08-01

    A total of 383 samples from soil, plant, litterfall and precipitation in four typical ecosystems of Gongga Mountain were collected. Pb concentrations of samples were measured and analyzed. The results showed mean Pb concentrations in different soil layers were in the order of O > A > C, and mean Pb concentrations of the aboveground parts of plant was 3.60 ± 2.54 mg kg-1, with the minimum value of 0.77 mg kg-1 and the maximum value of 10.90 mg kg-1. Pb concentrations in soil's O-horizon and A-horizon showed a downward trend with increasing elevation (the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9478, 0.7918 and 0.9759 respectively). In contrast to other soil layers, the level of Pb concentrations in O-horizon (incomplete decomposition) was significantly high. Litterfall decomposition, atmospheric deposition and the unique climate could be main factors leading high Pb accumulation in soil's O-horizon. What's more, significant correlation (R2 = 0.8126, P soil's A-horizon confirms that fine roots could adsorb and accumulate Pb materials in soil. In general, the fact that Pb inputted into the typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain via long-range transportation and deposition of the atmosphere from external Pb sources could be confirmed by the HYSPLIT model and the ratio of CPb/CAl in plants (leaves) and CPb/CAl in litterfall. The mining activities and increasing anthropogenic activities (tourism development) could be main sources of Pb in this area. In order to better understand Pb sources and eco-risks of these typical ecosystems, litterfall decomposition characteristics, biomass of productivity of forest ecosystem, Pb isotopic tracing among air mass, twigs, leaves, litterfall and O-horizon soil in this vertical belt should also be taken into consideration.

  19. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  20. Inhibition of misleading heuristics as a core mechanism for typical cognitive development: evidence from behavioural and brain-imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Aïte, Ania; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive development is generally conceived as incremental with knowledge of increasing complexity acquired throughout childhood and adolescence. However, several studies have now demonstrated not only that infants possess complex cognitive abilities but also that older children, adolescents, and adults tend to make systematic errors even in simple logical reasoning tasks. Therefore, one of the main issues for any theory of typical cognitive development is to provide an explanation of why at some age and in some contexts children, adolescents, and adults do not express a knowledge or cognitive principle that they already acquired when they were younger. In this review, we present convergent behavioural and neurocognitive evidence that cognitive development is more similar to a non-linear dynamic system than to a linear, stage-like system. In this theoretical framework, errors can emerge in problems similar to the ones infants or young children were succeeding when older children, adolescents, and adults rely on a misleading heuristic rather than on the correct logical algorithm to solve such problems. And the core mechanism for overcoming these errors is inhibitory control (i.e. the ability to inhibit the misleading heuristics). Therefore, typical cognitive development relies not only on the ability to acquire knowledge of incremental complexity but also to inhibit previously acquired knowledge. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Alessandro; Pesarin, Anna; Murino, Vittorio; Cristani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs). SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech), it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  2. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tavano

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs. SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech, it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  3. Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: Evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; Yaptangco, Mona; Bride, Daniel; Hsiao, Ray; McCauley, Elizabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2014-01-01

    Many depressed adolescents experience difficulty regulating their emotions. These emotion regulation difficulties appear to emerge in part from socialization processes within families and then generalize to other contexts. However, emotion dysregulation is typically assessed within the individual, rather than in the social relationships that shape and maintain dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated concordance of physiological and observational measures of emotion dysregulation during interpersonal conflict, using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 75 mother-daughter dyads, including 50 depressed adolescents with or without a history of self-injury, and 25 typically developing controls. Behavior dysregulation was operationalized as observed aversiveness during a conflict discussion, and physiological dysregulation was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results revealed different patterns of concordance for control versus depressed participants. Controls evidenced a concordant partner (between-person) effect, and showed increased physiological regulation during minutes when their partner was more aversive. In contrast, clinical dyad members displayed a concordant actor (within-person) effect, becoming simultaneously physiologically and behaviorally dysregulated. Results inform current understanding of emotion dysregulation across multiple levels of analysis. PMID:24607894

  4. Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Yaptangco, Mona; Bride, Daniel; Hsiao, Ray; McCauley, Elizabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2014-04-01

    Many depressed adolescents experience difficulty in regulating their emotions. These emotion regulation difficulties appear to emerge in part from socialization processes within families and then generalize to other contexts. However, emotion dysregulation is typically assessed within the individual, rather than in the social relationships that shape and maintain dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated concordance of physiological and observational measures of emotion dysregulation during interpersonal conflict, using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 75 mother-daughter dyads, including 50 depressed adolescents with or without a history of self-injury, and 25 typically developing controls. Behavior dysregulation was operationalized as observed aversiveness during a conflict discussion, and physiological dysregulation was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results revealed different patterns of concordance for control versus depressed participants. Controls evidenced a concordant partner (between-person) effect, and showed increased physiological regulation during minutes when their partner was more aversive. In contrast, clinical dyad members displayed a concordant actor (within-person) effect, becoming simultaneously physiologically and behaviorally dysregulated. Results inform current understanding of emotion dysregulation across multiple levels of analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  6. Celiac disease in 87 children with typical and atypical symptoms in Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Gönül; Atalay, Erdal; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease presents with a spectrum of clinical disorders. The variety of clinical presentations largely depends on age and extraintestinal findings. This study aimed to determine typical and atypical cases according to presenting symptoms and to evaluate their biochemical and pathological parameters. Eighty-seven patients with celiac disease in our unit between 2000 and 2007 were reviewed. Their diagnosis was made by serological and histological examination. The patients were divided into two groups according to their typical or atypical symptoms. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 8.2 years (range, 1-18 years), but patients presenting with typical symptoms were younger than those presenting with atypical symptoms. The patients in the two groups did not differ significantly in sex, weight and height Z scores except age. Diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal distention (65.4%) and failure to thrive (60%) were the most common clinical presentations in the typical group, and short stature (62.5%) and anemia (31.2%) were the most common in the atypical group. Total/subtotal villous atrophy was significantly higher in the typical group than in the atypical group. Many children with celiac disease show an atypical form. The understanding of presentations of celiac disease may prevent delayed diagnosis. Celiac disease should be specially investigated in patients with recurrent iron deficiency anemia, short stature and autoimmune disorders.

  7. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Clinical correlates of parenting stress in children with Tourette syndrome and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stephanie B; Greene, Deanna J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Church, Jessica A; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2015-05-01

    To determine the impact of tic severity in children with Tourette syndrome on parenting stress and the impact of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology on parenting stress in both children with Tourette syndrome and typically developing children. Children with diagnosed Tourette syndrome (n=74) and tic-free typically developing control subjects (n=48) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Parenting stress was greater in the group with Tourette syndrome than the typically developing group. Increased levels of parenting stress were related to increased ADHD symptomatology in both children with Tourette syndrome and typically developing children. Symptomatology of OCD was correlated with parenting stress in Tourette syndrome. Parenting stress was independent of tic severity in patients with Tourette syndrome. For parents of children with Tourette syndrome, parenting stress appears to be related to the child's ADHD and OCD comorbidity and not to the severity of the child's tic. Subthreshold ADHD symptomatology also appears to be related to parenting stress in parents of typically developing children. These findings demonstrate that ADHD symptomatology impacts parental stress both in children with and without a chronic tic disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  10. Comparing Levels of Mastery Motivation in Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Mahyar; Vameghi, Roshanak; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Saeedi, Ahmad; Gharib, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare motivation in school-age children with CP and typically developing children. 229 parents of children with cerebral palsy and 212 parents of typically developing children participated in the present cross sectional study and completed demographic and DMQ18 forms. The rest of information was measured by an occupational therapist. Average age was equal to 127.12±24.56 months for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 128.08±15.90 for typically developing children. Independent t-test used to compare two groups; and Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS software applied to study correlation with other factors. There were differences between DMQ subscales of CP and typically developing groups in terms of all subscales ( P Manual ability classification system (r=-0.782, P<0.001) and cognitive impairment (r=-0.161, P<0.05). Children with CP had lower mastery motivation than typically developing children. Rehabilitation efforts should take to enhance motivation, so that children felt empowered to do tasks or practices.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  12. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  14. Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors. Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3(rd) Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted. Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness. Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness

  15. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  16. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T

    2002-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  17. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: a typical case diagnosed by CT allowing successful conservative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulier, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Segmental omental infarction (SOI) is an uncommon cause of right lower quadrant pain in children that is often misdiagnosed as appendicitis. During the last decade, imaging findings of SOI have proved to be sufficiently typical to avoid unnecessary surgery in the majority of reported adult patients. The condition has a spontaneous favourable evolution under medical treatment. In children the surgical option remains controversial. We report a typical case of SOI in a 10-year-old boy. The diagnosis was suspected by sonography, unambiguously confirmed by multidetector CT and successfully treated conservatively. This report emphasizes the use of CT in selected acute abdominal situations, peculiarly in obese children, to avoid unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  18. Profitability of labour factor in the typical dairy farms in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Parzonko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article was to analyse the productivity and profitability of labour factor and to present asset endowments of the typical dairy farms distinguished within IFCN (International Farm Comparison Network. Among analysed 103 typical dairy farms from 34 countries, the highest net dairy farm profit characterised large farms from USA, Australia and New Zealand. Those farms generated also significantly higher profit per working hour then the potential wages that could be earned outside the farm. The highest assets value per 100 kg of produced milk characterised European farms (especially with low production scale.

  19. Summary of typical routine maintenance activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Supplement (March, 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Typical maintenance activities, such as replacement of worn out parts and cleaning of filter elements, routinely performed during steady operation are summarized. [The Summary of Typical Routine Maintenance Activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant] (JNC TN 8450 2001-006) was already prepared in September, 2001. The purpose of this summary is to give elementary understanding on these activities to people who are responsible for explanation them to the public. At this time, the same kind of summary is prepared as a supplement of the previous one. (author)

  20. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  1. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  2. Typical and atypical (cerebral palsy) development of unimanual and bimanual grasp planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested 13 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 24 typically developing children (7-12 years old) in a unimanual and bimanual motor planning task. We focused on two research questions: (1) How does motor planning develop in children with and without CP? and (2) Is motor

  3. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we…

  4. Bridging the Gaps in the Study of Typical and Atypical Cognitive Development: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan A.; Madigan, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development" examine the cognitive development of children who are following typical and atypical developmental pathways. The articles offer a mixture of theory-based considerations, reviews of the literature, and new empirical data addressing fundamental aspects of…

  5. Parenting a Child with ASD: Comparison of Parenting Style between ASD, Anxiety, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Lei, Jiedi; Paisley, Courtney; Lebowitz, Eli; Silverman, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Parenting children with ASD has a complex history. Given parents' increasingly pivotal role in children's treatment, it is critical to consider parental style and behaviours. This study (1) compares parenting style of parents of children with ASD, parents of children with anxiety disorders, and parents of typically developing (TD) children and (2)…

  6. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  7. Swedish Upper Secondary Students' Perspectives on the Typical Mathematics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Larson, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a group interview study of Swedish upper secondary students' perspectives on the typical mathematics lesson. Students, from four demographically different schools, constructed a collective synthesis of their many years' experience of mathematics classrooms. Transcriptions were subjected to a constant comparison analysis, which…

  8. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  9. Spontaneous Lexical Alignment in Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Holly P.; Tosi, Alessia; Gillespie-Smith, Karri

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that adults converge on common referring expressions in dialogue, and that such lexical alignment is important for successful and rewarding communication. The authors show that children with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children also show spontaneous…

  10. Computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Jensen, Jesper; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Norling Mathiassen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30 J...... of safe cancellation of planned ICAs....

  11. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  12. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  13. Severity of Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Poor and Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…

  14. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  15. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  16. Of tissue blocks and higher anatomy: A typical day in the life of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    succumb, sleep the only respite life has gifted me. Tomorrow shall be yet another day…yet another opportunity to learn. It starts as a typical Monday... all Mondays do - the frantic typing that fills the air, reminiscent of a typing press. Be it a literature review or the presentation for the afternoon class, the innocent bystander may ...

  17. Comparison of Endoscopic and Histological Findings between Typical and Atypical Celiac Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Pooja; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Rahul; Garg, Kapil

    2018-04-01

    Celiac disease is a common non-communicable disease with varied presentations. Purpose of this study was to find the duodeno-endoscopic features in celiac disease and to compare duodeno-endoscopic and histological findings between typical and atypical celiac disease in children. Hospital based observational study was conducted at Sir Padampat Mother and Child Health Institute, Jaipur from June 2015 to May 2016. Patients were selected and divided in two groups- typical and atypical celiac disease based upon the presenting symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy was performed for serology positive patients. Results were analysed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Out of 101 enrolled patients, 47.5% were male. Age ranged from 1 to 18 years. Study showed that 54.5% were typical and 45.5% were atypical. Patients presenting with atypical symptoms were predominantly of older age group. On endoscopy, scalloping, mosaic pattern, reduced fold height and absent fold height; and in histology, advanced Marsh stage were significantly higher in the typical group. Awareness of atypical presentations as well as duodeno-endoscopic features may have considerable practical importance for the diagnosis of celiac disease in children. Scalloping, mosaic pattern, reduced fold height and nodularity are main endoscopic markers of celiac disease in children. Endoscopic markers of duodenal mucosa may be important in early diagnosis of celiac disease, in children subjected to endoscopy for atypical presentations or indication other than suspected celiac disease.

  18. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  19. Typical Plan : The Architecture of Labor and the Space of Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marullo, F.

    2014-01-01

    In a short essay dealing with the repetitive homogeneity of the Manhattan’s office layouts, Rem Koolhaas defined the term Typical Plan as one of the purest American architectural archetypes. A plan stripped of all its qualities and reduced to a calculated relation between discreet standardised

  20. The Readiness of Typical Student in Communication By Using Sign Language in Hearing Impairment Integration Programe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hanafi Mohd Yasin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is regarding the readiness of typical student in communication by using sign language in Hearing Impairment Integration Programme. There were 60 typical students from a Special Education Integration Programme of secondary school in Malacca were chosen as research respondents. The instrument of the research was a set of questionnaire which consisted of four parts, namely Student’s demography (Part A, Student’s knowledge (Part B, Student’s ability to communicate (Part C and Student’s interest to communicate (Part D. The questionnaire was adapted from the research of Asnul Dahar and Rabiah's 'The Readiness of Students in Following Vocational Subjects at Jerantut District, Rural Secondary School in Pahang'.  Descriptive analysis was used to analysis the data. Mean score was used to determine the level of respondents' perception of each question. The findings showed a positive relationship between typical students towards communication medium by using sign language. Typical students were seen to be interested in communicating using sign language and were willing to attend the Sign Language class if offered.

  1. Comparison with the Typical College Student Predicts Graduation When Identity Is Uncertain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of personal identity and social comparison on college graduation. First-year college students completed an online survey measuring exploration and commitment to personal identity and perceptions of the prototypical student. Those who perceived the typical student as favorable but dissimilar to themselves had the…

  2. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  3. The Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct "intolerance of uncertainty" and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged…

  4. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young Seh

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

  5. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS). Under current IHS procedures, an environmental review is performed on all construction projects. During the IHS...

  6. Adjunctive Treatment of Acute Mania with Risperidone versus Typical Antipsychotics: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hsiu Tsai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have directly compared atypical antipsychotics (e.g. risperidone with typical antipsychotics as adjunctive therapy in patients hospitalized for acute mania, especially during a lengthy hospital stay. Our retrospective, case-controlled study is a chart review of 64 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, defined bipolar I disorder (current episode, mania. Patients were divided into two groups according to the adjunctive medications used: the risperidone group (mood stabilizers plus risperidone and the control group (mood stabilizers plus typical antipsychotics. Outcome at discharge, medications, adverse drug effects, and length of hospital stay were compared between groups, controlling for gender, age, number of prior admissions, and duration of illness. Results indicated no statistically significant differences between groups in the controlled factors, Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores, and adverse drug events. Patients in the risperidone group used significantly lower doses of trihexyphenidyl than those in the control group (p < 0.05. Patients treated with risperidone had a shorter hospital stay than those treated with typical antipsychotics (p < 0.01. In conclusion, antipsychotics are effective as adjunctive agents in the treatment of acute mania. The use of risperidone, in particular, decreases the need for anticholinergics and may lead to a shorter hospital stay compared with typical antipsychotics.

  7. Maternal Support for Autonomy: Relationships with Persistence for Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal…

  8. Effects of biochar addition on evaporation in the five typical Loess Plateau soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil evaporation is the main route of soil moisture loss and often exceeds precipitation in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. This study was conducted to determine whether biochar addition could reduce soil evaporation in drylands. We measured the evaporative loss in five typical ...

  9. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing…

  10. A Hybrid Method for Generation of Typical Meteorological Years for Different Climates of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a representative dataset of the climatological features of a location is important for calculations relating to many fields, such as solar energy system, agriculture, meteorology and architecture, there is a need to investigate the methodology for generating a typical meteorological year (TMY. In this paper, a hybrid method with mixed treatment of selected results from the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto method, and the modified typical meteorological year method is proposed to determine typical meteorological years for 35 locations in six different climatic zones of China (Tropical Zone, Subtropical Zone, Warm Temperate Zone, Mid Temperate Zone, Cold Temperate Zone and Tibetan Plateau Zone. Measured weather data (air dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, sunshine duration and global solar radiation, which cover the period of 1994–2015, are obtained and applied in the process of forming TMY. The TMY data and typical solar radiation data are investigated and analyzed in this study. It is found that the results of the hybrid method have better performance in terms of the long-term average measured data during the year than the other investigated methods. Moreover, the Gaussian process regression (GPR model is recommended to forecast the monthly mean solar radiation using the last 22 years (1994–2015 of measured data.

  11. Social Analogical Reasoning in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M.; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In…

  12. Theory of Mind and Children's Trait Attributions about Average and Typically Stigmatized Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Candace; Boseovski, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children hold negative beliefs about peers with foreign accents, physical disabilities, and people who are obese. The current study examined skills associated with individual differences in children's social judgements about these typically stereotyped groups. Theory of mind, memory, and cognitive inhibition were…

  13. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  14. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  15. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  16. Dietary Patterns and Feeding Problems of Turkish Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…

  17. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents' speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent-child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of maternal and paternal language were categorized in terms of the primary function of each speech unit. Parents (both mothers and fathers) of children with Down syndrome used more affect-salient speech compared to parents of typically developing children. Although parents used the same amounts of information-salient speech, parents of children with Down syndrome used more direct statements and asked fewer questions than did parents of typically developing children. Concerning parent gender, in both groups mothers used more language than fathers and specifically more descriptions. These findings held controlling for child age and MLU and family SES. This study highlights strengths and weaknesses of parental communication to children with Down syndrome and helps to identify areas of potential improvement through intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1512 - Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Actuator Showing Grip Dimension EC03OC91.072 ...

  19. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  20. LAND COVER CHANGE MONITORING OF TYPICAL FUNCTIONAL COMMUNITIES OF SICHUAN PROVINCE BASED ON ZY-3 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  1. Training Class Inclusion Responding in Typically Developing Children and Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Siri; Mulhern, Teresa; Stewart, Ian; Moran, Laura; Bynum, Kellie

    2018-01-01

    In a "class inclusion" task, a child must respond to stimuli as being involved in two different though hierarchically related categories. This study used a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) paradigm to assess and train this ability in three typically developing preschoolers and three individuals with autism spectrum disorder, all of whom had…

  2. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and prognosis in typical angina pectoris and negative exercise electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairey, C.N.; Rozanski, A.; Maddahi, J.; Resser, K.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a history of typical angina but negative exercise electrocardiography represent a subgroup with an intermediate likelihood of having coronary artery disease and future cardiac events. A retrospective study of the prognostic utility of stress-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed in 190 such patients. A second group of 203 patients with typical angina and a positive exercise electrocardiogram were analyzed for comparative scintigraphic purposes. The cardiac event rate for the 144 negative exercise electrocardiogram patients with normal thallium results was 5 vs 15% in the 46 patients with abnormal thallium results (p = 0.01). These patients were further stratified into high (14 to 18%), intermediate (9%) and low (less than 2%) risk groups for future cardiac events based on combining the thallium results with the percentage of maximal predicted heart rate achieved. A multivariate analysis revealed that an abnormal thallium result was the only significant correlate of future cardiac events. Mechanisms responsible for the discordant finding of a negative exercise electrocardiogram in patients with typical angina include (1) false-positive angina symptomatology in low prevalence coronary artery disease groups in whom the thallium test is negative, and (2) electrocardiographically silent ischemia in patients in whom the thallium test is positive. These findings reveal that thallium stress-redistribution scintigraphy can be used to stratify 1-year prognosis in this subgroup of patients with typical angina and negative exercise electrocardiograms

  3. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion

  4. The typical steps of radiation processes development. Experience in investigation, designing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, I. Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The typical steps of radiation processes development are discussed as: primary laboratory investigations; primary economic evaluation; more exact estimation of situation in industry; comparative analysis; development of a flow sheet; pilot plant; obtaining of initial data for designing of industrial scale plant; prediction of industrial situation; designing of semi-industrial or industrial plant; industrial plant. (U.K.)

  5. The Production of Figurative Language in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lauren; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the development of figurative language production, including different types of figurative expressions, during a fictional narrative in 20 typically developing (TD) children and 20 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 7-18 years old. In contrast to previous studies, developmental trajectories showed that (1) the…

  6. Development of Novel Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task…

  7. The Development of Metaphorical Language Comprehension in Typical Development and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Van Duuren, Mike; Purser, Harry R. M.; Mareschal, Denis; Ansari, Daniel; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The domain of figurative language comprehension was used to probe the developmental relation between language and cognition in typically developing individuals and individuals with Williams syndrome. Extending the work of Vosniadou and Ortony, the emergence of nonliteral similarity and category knowledge was investigated in 117 typically…

  8. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  9. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  10. Television, Video Game and Social Media Use among Children with ASD and Typically Developing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…

  11. Development of Pointing Gestures in Children with Typical and Delayed Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Carina; Ritterfeld, Ute; Grimminger, Angela; Liszkowski, Ulf; Rohlfing, Katharina J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study compared the development of hand and index-finger pointing in children with typical language development (TD) and children with language delay (LD). First, we examined whether the number and the form of pointing gestures during the second year of life are potential indicators of later LD. Second, we analyzed the…

  12. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  13. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  14. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacke, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  15. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  16. Building Alliance for Preschool Inclusion: Parents of Typically Developing Children, Attitudes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; Maine, Erica; McNeil, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes of parents of typically developing children enrolled in inclusive 3-year-old and 4-year-old preschool classrooms. Using a qualitative approach, guided by ecological system theory semi-structured interviews with parents (N = 7) were completed. Several common themes related to…

  17. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  18. Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of the Typical, Desirable, and Ideal Woman and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Over 400 college students used the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to describe either a typical, desirable, or ideal man or woman. Findings obtained from Bem's androgeny score are contrasted with those from its component masculinity and femininity scale scores. Recommendations are made for using the component scores as separate variables. (Author/GC)

  19. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  20. Working hard and working smart: Motivation and ability during typical and maximum performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between what people can do (maximum performance) and what they will do (typical performance) has received considerable theoretical but scant empirical attention in industrial-organizational psychology. This study of 138 participants performing an Internet-search task offers an

  1. Fate and removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products by three different treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-ying; Wang, Xing-nan; Huang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The presence and distribution of typical of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which comprise two types of polycyclic musks (PCMs) including Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) as well as six types of estrogens containing estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jiangsu, China. Only raw wastewater was treated in WWTP A while WWTP B was serving an urban-industrialized area. In the influent, the concentrations of EE2 (2193–4437 ng L −1 ), E2 (1126–1170 ng L −1 ), and DES (268–421 ng L −1 ) were generally higher than the previously reported values, whereas the concentrations of HHCB (306–316 ng L −1 ), E1 (29–129 ng L −1 ), E3 (53 ng L −1 ), and BPA (26–176 ng L −1 ) were much lower than those reported in other previous studies. In addition, AHTN was not detected in either WWTP and E3 was not found in WWTP B. The detected processes including anaerobic/oxic process (A/O), combined orbal oxidation ditch process (C-orbal OD) and anaerobic/anoxic/anoxic/oxic membrane biological reactor (A/A/A/O-MBR) showed higher removal efficiencies for HHCB (67–71%) and EE2 (87%) than those in other previous studies. Besides, the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 6.7 and 20.0 h, sludge retention time (SRT) ranged between 8 and 23 d, and water temperature ranged from 24.8 to 28.2 °C. The removal efficiencies for estrogens in biological processes were related to the following factors: the level of hydrophobic estrogens, the type of removal process (C-orbal OD was consistently less efficient in removing estrogens than A/O and A/A/A/O-MBR), and a high SRT or HRT (A/A/A/O-MBR with higher SRT and HRT showed higher and more stable removal of hydrophobic estrogens). - Highlights: ► We investigated 8 kinds of PPCPs in each unit at 2 WWTPs with different processes. ► Agilent 1290

  2. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  3. Social maturity and theory of mind in typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia P; Paynter, Jessica

    2007-12-01

    Results of several studies using the Vineland scale to explore links between social behavior and theory of mind (ToM) have produced mixed results, especially for children on the autism spectrum. The present pair of studies developed a psychometrically sound, age-referenced measure of social maturity to explore these issues further. In Study 1, 37 typically developing preschoolers took a battery of standard false belief tests of ToM and were rated by their teachers on a newly developed age-referenced social maturity scale with 7 items. In Study 2, a further group of 43 children aged 4 to 12 years (13 with autism, 14 with Asperger's disorder and 16 with typical development) took part in the same procedure. In Study 1, ToM was found to predict typical preschoolers' social maturity independently of age and verbal maturity. In Study 2, children with autism scored below age-matched and younger typical developers in both ToM and social maturity. Those with Asperger's disorder did well on ToM but poorly on social maturity. Study 2 replicated Study 1's finding (for typical children and for the full sample) that ToM was linked with social maturity independently of age and verbal ability, although the link was not independent of autism diagnosis. Teachers are capable of rating children's social behavior with peers as advanced, on-time or delayed for their age. Suggestive links between these ratings and ToM require further investigation, especially among children on the autism spectrum.

  4. Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2002-01-01

    Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Advancing Continence in Typically Developing Children: Adapting the Procedures of Foxx and Azrin for Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzak, William J; Forcino, Stacy S; Sanberg, Sela Ann; Gross, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    To (1) identify and summarize procedures of Foxx and Azrin's classic toilet training protocol that continue to be used in training typically developing children and (2) adapt recent findings with the original Foxx and Azrin procedures to inform practical suggestions for the rapid toilet training of typically developing children in the primary care setting. Literature searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases used the search terms "(toilet* OR potty* AND train*)." Selection criteria were only peer-reviewed experimental articles that evaluated intensive toilet training with typically developing children. Exclusion criteria were (1) nonpeer reviewed research, (2) studies addressing encopresis and/or enuresis, (3) studies excluding typically developing children, and (4) studies evaluating toilet training during infancy. In addition to the study of Foxx and Azrin, only 4 publications met the above criteria. Toilet training procedures from each article were reviewed to determine which toilet training methods were similar to components described by Foxx and Azrin. Common training elements include increasing the frequency of learning opportunities through fluid loading and having differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet versus elsewhere. There is little research on intensive toilet training of typically developing children. Practice sits and positive reinforcement for voids in the toilet are commonplace, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol, whereas positive practice as a corrective procedure for wetting accidents often is omitted. Fluid loading and differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet also are suggested procedures, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol.

  6. Positive experiences with a specialist as facilitator in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2012-01-01

    The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explores...

  7. Inverse operator theory method mathematics-mechanization for the solutions of nonlinear equations and some typical applications in nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1992-12-01

    Inverse operator theory method (IOTM) has developed rapidly in the last few years. It is an effective and useful procedure for quantitative solution of nonlinear or stochastic continuous dynamical systems. Solutions are obtained in series form for deterministic equations, and in the case of stochastic equation it gives statistic measures of the solution process. A very important advantage of the IOTM is to eliminate a number of restrictive and assumption on the nature of stochastic processes. Therefore, it provides more realistic solutions. The IOTM and its mathematics-mechanization (MM) are briefly introduced. They are used successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamical systems for the first time in the world. As typical examples, the Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation, two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by the use of the IOTM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with ones by the Runge-Kutta method (RKM). It has higher accuracy and faster convergence. So the IOTM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear science

  8. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-07-01

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  9. Quantum wells and the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blado, Gardo; Owens, Constance; Meyers, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The finite and infinite square wells are potentials typically discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. In this paper, we discuss these potentials in the light of the recent studies of the modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) as a consequence of attempts to formulate a quantum theory of gravity. The fundamental concepts of the minimal length scale and the GUP are discussed and the modified energy eigenvalues and transmission coefficient are derived. (paper)

  10. A Comparative Study of Standardized Infinity Reference and Average Reference for EEG of Three Typical Brain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of different reference electrodes plays an important role in deciphering the functional meaning of electroencephalography (EEG signals. In recent years, the infinity zero reference using the reference electrode standard technique (REST has been increasingly applied, while the average reference (AR was generally advocated as the best available reference option in previous classical EEG studies. Here, we designed EEG experiments and performed a direct comparison between the influences of REST and AR on EEG-revealed brain activity features for three typical brain behavior states (eyes-closed, eyes-open and music-listening. The analysis results revealed the following observations: (1 there is no significant difference in the alpha-wave-blocking effect during the eyes-open state compared with the eyes-closed state for both REST and AR references; (2 there was clear frontal EEG asymmetry during the resting state, and the degree of lateralization under REST was higher than that under AR; (3 the global brain functional connectivity density (FCD and local FCD have higher values for REST than for AR under different behavior states; and (4 the value of the small-world network characteristic in the eyes-closed state is significantly (in full, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands higher than that in the eyes-open state, and the small-world effect under the REST reference is higher than that under AR. In addition, the music-listening state has a higher small-world network effect than the eyes-closed state. The above results suggest that typical EEG features might be more clearly presented by applying the REST reference than by applying AR when using a 64-channel recording.

  11. Effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stargardt, Tom; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Busse, Reinhard; Juckel, Georg; Gericke, Christian A

    2008-06-01

    In two recent randomised clinical trials, a meta-analysis and in an effectiveness study analysing routine data from the U.S. Veterans Administration the superiority of the newer atypical drugs over typical antipsychotic drugs, concerning both their efficacy and their side-effect profile, has been questioned. To analyse the effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in routine care. Cohort study using routine care data from a statutory sickness fund with 5.4 million insured in Germany. To be included, patients had to be discharged with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in 2003 and fulfil membership criteria. Main outcome measures were rehospitalisation rates, mean hospital bed days, mean length of stay, cost of inpatient and pharmaceutical care to the sickness fund during follow-up and medication used to treat side-effects. 3121 patients were included into the study. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of atypical and typical antipsychotics on rehospitalisation during follow-up (rehospitalisation rate ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.33). However, there were consistent observations of atypical antipsychotics being more effective for severe cases of schizophrenia (14.6% of study population; >61 prior bed days per year in 2000-2002) in the follow-up period, whereas for the other severity strata typical antipsychotics seemed more effective in reducing various rehospitalisation outcomes. Patients treated with atypical antipsychotics received significantly less prescriptions for anticholinergics or tiaprid (relative risk 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.38). The effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia on rehospitalisation measures appeared similar to that of typical antipsychotics. With the exception of severe cases, the higher costs for atypical antipsychotics were not offset by savings from reduced inpatient care. Major limitations include the lack of

  12. Phonological awareness of children with developmental dysphasia and children with typical language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is the ability of phonological processing of words. Children with developmental dysphasia manifest interference in the development of phonological abilities vital for the development of other language skills. The aim of this study is to investigate phonological awareness in children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia at preschool age. Phonological awareness is tested in 60 preschool children by a part of the ELLA test (Emerging Literacy & Language Assessment. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the tested elements of phonological awareness among children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia. The most significant differences are deletion of phonemes (p≤0.000, replacement of phonemes, as well as segmentation at the level of whole words (p≤0.000.

  13. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  14. Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: friend versus non-friend comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-07-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments included: mothers' and teachers' reports about friends' and friendship characteristics and observed individual and dyadic behaviors throughout interactions with friends versus non-friends during construction, drawing, and free-play situations. Findings revealed group differences in peer interaction favoring the typical development group, thus supporting the neuropsychological profile of HFASD. However, both groups' interactions with friends surpassed interactions with acquaintances on several key socio-communicative and intersubjective capabilities, thus suggesting that friendship may contribute to enhancement and practice of social interaction in HFASD.

  15. Analysis of radiological consequences in a typical BWR with a mark-II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    INS/NUPEC in Japan has been carrying out the Level 3 PSA program. In the program, the MACCS2 code has been extensively applied to analyze radiological consequences for typical BWR and PWR plants in Japan. The present study deals with analysis of effects of the AMs, which were implemented by industries, on radiological consequence for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment. In the present study, source terms and their frequencies of source terms were used based on results of Level 2 PSA taking into account AM countermeasures. Radiological consequences were presented with dose risks (Sv/ry), which were multiplied doses (Sv) by containment damage frequencies (/ry), and timing of radionuclides release to the environment. The results of the present study indicated that the dose risks became negligible in most cases taking AM countermeasures and evacuations. (author)

  16. Brain mechanisms for social perception: lessons from autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin A; Carter, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-01

    In this review, we summarize our research program, which has as its goal charting the typical and atypical development of the social brain in children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism. We highlight recent work using virtual reality stimuli, eye tracking, and functional magnetic resonance imaging that has implicated the superior temporal sulcus (STS) region as an important component of the network of brain regions that support various aspects of social cognition and social perception. Our work in typically developing adults has led to the conclusion that the STS region is involved in social perception via its role in the visual analysis of others' actions and intentions from biological-motion cues. Our work in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism has implicated the STS region as a mechanism underlying social perception dysfunction in this neurodevelopmental disorder. We also report novel findings from a study of biological-motion perception in young children with and without autism.

  17. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Maternal support for autonomy: relationships with persistence for children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal strategies when helping their child. There were also no group differences in child mastery behaviors, measured as persistence with two optimally challenging tasks. However, the two groups differed in the relationships of maternal style with child persistence. Children with Down syndrome whose mothers were more supportive of their autonomy in the shared task displayed greater persistence when working independently on a challenging puzzle, while children of highly directive mothers displayed lower levels of persistence. For typically developing children, persistence was unrelated to maternal style, suggesting that mother behaviors may have different causes or consequences in the two groups.

  19. A technique to identify some typical radio frequency interference using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchao; Li, Mingtao; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to automatically identify some typical radio frequency interference from pulsar surveys using support vector machine. The technique has been tested by candidates. In these experiments, to get features of SVM, we use principal component analysis for mosaic plots and its classification accuracy is 96.9%; while we use mathematical morphology operation for smog plots and horizontal stripes plots and its classification accuracy is 86%. The technique is simple, high accurate and useful.

  20. Examples of in-service inspections and typical maintenance schedule for low-power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1997-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for low-power research reactors are described which have been developed during the past 37 years of the operation of the TRIGA reactor Vienna. Special tools have been developed during this period and their application for maintenance and in-serve inspection is discussed. Two practical in-service inspections at a TRIGA reactor and at a MTR reactor are presented. Further a typical maintenance plan for a TRIGA reactor is listed in the annex. (author)

  1. Generation of typical solar radiation data for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Haixiang; Xu, Qingshan; Bian, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, typical solar radiation data are generated from both measured data and synthetic generation for 35 stations in six different climatic zones of China. (1) By applying the measured weather data during at least 10 years from 1994 to 2009, typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 35 cities are generated using the Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of daily global solar radiation (DGSR) for each year is compared with the CDF of DGSR for the long-term years in six different climatic stations (Sanya, Shanghai, Zhengzhou, Harbin, Mohe and Lhasa). The daily global solar radiation as typical data obtained from the TMYs are presented in the Table. (2) Based on the recorded global radiation data from at least 10 years, a new daily global solar radiation model is developed with a sine and cosine wave (SCW) equation. The results of the proposed model and other empirical regression models are compared with measured data using different statistical indicators. It is found that solar radiation data, calculated by the new model, are superior to these from other empirical models at six typical climatic zones. In addition, the novel SCW model is tested and applied for 35 stations in China. -- Highlights: ► Both TMY method and synthetic generation are used to generate solar radiation data. ► The latest and accurate long term weather data in six different climates are applied. ► TMYs using new weighting factors of 8 weather indices for 35 regions are obtained. ► A new sine and cosine wave model is proposed and utilized for 35 major stations. ► Both TMY method and the proposed regression model perform well on monthly bases.

  2. Promoting interaction during sociodramatic play: teaching scripts to typical preschoolers and classmates with disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, H; Cisar, C L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teaching sociodramatic scripts on subsequent interaction among three triads, each containing 2 typical children and 1 child with autistic characteristics. The same type and rate of teacher prompts were implemented throughout structured play observations to avoid the confounding effects of script training and teacher prompting. After learning the scripts, all children demonstrated more frequent theme-related social behavior. These improvements in social-communica...

  3. Quantification of Gains and Risks of Static Thermal Rating Based on Typical Meteorological Year

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heckenbergerová, Jana; Musílek, P.; Filimonenkov, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2013), s. 227-235 ISSN 0142-0615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Overhead power transmission lines * Conductor ampacity * Probabilistic static thermal rating * Typical meteorological year * Risk tolerance * Energy throughput Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2012

  4. Case Reports of Cat Scratch Disease with Typical and Atypical Clinical Manifestations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Umbreen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation

  5. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Meisenzahl, E.; Scherer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  6. Do Verbal Children with Autism Comprehend Gesture as Readily as Typically Developing Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, N.; Özçalışkan, Ş.; Adamson, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Gesture comprehension remains understudied, particularly in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have difficulties in gesture production. Using a novel gesture comprehension task, Study 1 examined how 2- to 4-year-old typically-developing (TD) children comprehend types of gestures and gesture-speech combinations, and showed better comprehension of deictic gestures and reinforcing gesture-speech combinations than iconic/conventional gestures and supplementary gesture-speech combina...

  7. Distribution of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae in typical and atypical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernanda B; Abreu, Afonso G; Nunes, Kamila O; Gomes, Tânia A T; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P

    2017-06-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an agent of acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide, categorized in typical or atypical subgroups. Some EAEC virulence factors are members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE). The presence of SPATE-encoding genes of different E. coli pathotypes was searched in a large collection of EAEC strains, and a possible association between SPATEs and E. coli phylogroups was investigated. Among 108 typical and 85 atypical EAEC, pic was the most prevalent gene, detected in 47.1% of the strains, followed by sat (24.3%), espI (21.2%), pet (19.2%), sepA (13.5%), sigA (4.1%), eatA (4.1%), vat (1.0%), espP and tsh, detected in one strain (0.5%) each; while epeA and espC were not detected. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 39.9% of the strains belonged to group A, 23.3% to B1, 10.9% to B2, 7.8% to D, 8.8% to E and 1.5% to F. The majority of the SPATE genes were distributed in typical and atypical strains without association with any phylogroup. In addition, pic and pet were strongly associated with typical EAEC and sepA was detected in close association with atypical EAEC. Our data indicate that SPATEs may represent important virulence traits in both subgroups of EAEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FORECASTING AT VARIOUS TYPICAL URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kapsky

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides investigation results pertaining to development of methodology for forecasting traffic accidents using a “conflict zone” method that considers potential danger for two typical urban areas, namely: signaled crossings and bumps that are made in the areas of zebra crossings and it also considers various types and kinds of conflicts. The investigations have made it possible to obtain various indices of threshold sensitivity in respect of  potential risks  and in relation to tra...

  9. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Horwood, Anna M.; Toor, Sonia S.; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction\\ud Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency and intermittent strabismus, true treatment effects can be confounded by placebo, practice and encouragement factors. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in typical naïve young adults after two weeks of exercises compared to control conditions to assess the extent of treatment effects occur above other factors.\\ud Methods\\ud 156 asymptomatic young a...

  10. Sex typicality and attractiveness in childhood and adulthood: assessing their relationships from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Gygax, Lorenz; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Siler-Knogl, Amber; Moskowitz, David A; Bailey, J Michael

    2011-02-01

    Prior research suggests that sex typicality (especially femininity of females, but also masculinity of males) relates to perceptions of attractiveness, for both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Using videos from childhood and adulthood, we investigated how different components of sex typicality contributed to this effect, whether the sex of the evaluator or of the target moderated the effect, and how the relationship of attractiveness with sex typicality varied across the lifespan. In Study 1, videos of 45 female and 50 male heterosexual and homosexual adult targets (ages 18-30 years) were judged by 56 female and 65 male heterosexual and homosexual raters (ages 18-30 years). Results suggested that both heterosexual men and lesbians viewed more feminine women as more attractive. Femininity of appearance was a primary contributor to this relationship. Masculinity was not related to men's attractiveness. Study 2 used similar methodology (44 male and 46 female heterosexual and homosexual targets and 22 male and 20 female heterosexual raters). Study 2 replicated results of Study 1. In addition, Study 2 included ratings of childhood videos of targets (ages 0-15). Results suggested that childhood femininity related to attractiveness of both young girls and young boys and that the relationship became stronger for girls as they got older. The impact of femininity on attractiveness may, therefore, depend on both targets' sex and their maturity.

  11. The non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Wu Qingde; Yao Xuanjun; Chen Jie; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Ding Yi; Ge Zili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts in order to improve their diagnoses. Methods: 10 cases with branchial cleft cysts proven by surgery and pathology were collected and their MRI features were analyzed. There were 6 male and 4 female, aged 15 to 70, with an averaged age of 37. All patients underwent plain MR scan, 6 patients underwent enhanced scan, and 4 patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography. Results: All 10 cases were second branchial cleft cysts, including 4 of Bailey type I and 6 of type II. The non-typical MRI findings were composed of haematocele (2 cases), extraordinarily thick cyst wall (4 cases), solidified cystic fluid (2 cases), and concomitant canceration (2 cases), which made the diagnoses more difficult. Conclusion: The diagnoses of the branchial cleft cysts with non-typical MRI features should combined with its characteristic of position that located at the lateral portion of the neck adjacent to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the mandibular angle. The findings, such as thickened wall, ill-defined margin, and vascular involvement or jugular lymphadenectasis, strongly suggest cancerous tendency. (authors)

  12. [Inventory and environmental impact of VOCs emission from the typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Wang, Xing-Rui; He, Min; Guo, Wei-Guang

    2013-12-01

    Based on Sichuan province environmental statistical survey data and other relevant activity data, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province were calculated for the year of 2011 by applying the emission factor method. Besides, ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of these typical anthropogenic sources were discussed. The total VOC emission from these sources was about 482 kt in Sichuan province, biomass burning, solvent utilization, industrial processes, storage and distribution of fuel, and fossil fuel combustion contributed 174 kt, 153 kt, 121 kt, 21 kt and 13 kt, respectively; architecture wall painting, furniture coating, wood decoration painting and artificial board were the major emission sectors of the solvent utilization; while for the industrial processes, 19.4% of VOCs emission was from the wine industry. Chengdu was the largest contributor compared to the other cities in Sichuan, whose VOCs emission from these typical anthropogenic sources in 2011 was 112 kt. OFP of these sources was 1,930 kt altogether. Solvent utilization contributed 50.5% of the total SOA formation potentials, biomass burning and industrial processes both contributed about 23% , with storage and distribution of fuel and fossil fuel combustion accounting for 1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  13. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  14. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health.

  15. Suicide ideation and attempts in children with psychiatric disorders and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson Mayes, Susan; Calhoun, Susan L; Baweja, Raman; Mahr, Fauzia

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for suicide behavior. This is the first study to compare frequencies of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with specific psychiatric disorders and typical children while controlling for comorbidity and demographics. Mothers rated the frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 1,706 children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and typical development, 6-18 years of age. For the typical group, 0.5% had suicide behavior (ideation or attempts), versus 24% across the psychiatric groups (bulimia 48%, depression or anxiety disorder 34%, oppositional defiant disorder 33%, ADHD-combined type 22%, anorexia 22%, autism 18%, intellectual disability 17%, and ADHD-inattentive type 8%). Most alarming, 29% of adolescents with bulimia often or very often had suicide attempts, compared with 0-4% of patients in the other psychiatric groups. It is important for professionals to routinely screen all children and adolescents who have psychiatric disorders for suicide ideation and attempts and to treat the underlying psychiatric disorders that increase suicide risk.

  16. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  17. Probabilistic Harmonic Analysis on Distributed Photovoltaic Integration Considering Typical Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Che; Ruoying, Yu; Dongsheng, Dang; Xiangyan, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) integrating to the network would cause the harmonic pollution which would cause damages on electrical devices and affect the normal operation of power system. On the other hand, due to the randomness of the wind and solar irradiation, the output of DG is random, too, which leads to an uncertainty of the harmonic generated by the DG. Thus, probabilistic methods are needed to analyse the impacts of the DG integration. In this work we studied the harmonic voltage probabilistic distribution and the harmonic distortion in distributed network after the distributed photovoltaic (DPV) system integrating in different weather conditions, mainly the sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day and the snowy day. The probabilistic distribution function of the DPV output power in different typical weather conditions could be acquired via the parameter identification method of maximum likelihood estimation. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was adopted to calculate the probabilistic distribution of harmonic voltage content at different frequency orders as well as the harmonic distortion (THD) in typical weather conditions. The case study was based on the IEEE33 system and the results of harmonic voltage content probabilistic distribution as well as THD in typical weather conditions were compared.

  18. Connectivity dynamics in typical development and its relationship to autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan L; Miller, Robyn; Damaraju, Eswar; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Erhardt, Erik B; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-03-30

    Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided significant insights into developmental trajectories of human brain function. Characterizations of typical neurodevelopment provide a framework for understanding altered neurodevelopment, including differences in brain function related to developmental disorders and psychopathology. Historically, most functional connectivity studies of typical and atypical development operate under the assumption that connectivity remains static over time. We hypothesized that relaxing stationarity assumptions would reveal novel features of both typical brain development related to children on the autism spectrum. We employed a "chronnectomic" (recurring, time-varying patterns of connectivity) approach to evaluate transient states of connectivity using resting-state functional MRI in a population-based sample of 774 6- to 10-year-old children. Dynamic connectivity was evaluated using a sliding-window approach, and revealed four transient states. Internetwork connectivity increased with age in modularized dynamic states, illustrating an important pattern of connectivity in the developing brain. Furthermore, we demonstrated that higher levels of autistic traits and ASD diagnosis were associated with longer dwell times in a globally disconnected state. These results provide a roadmap to the chronnectomic organization of the developing brain and suggest that characteristics of functional brain connectivity are related to children on the autism spectrum. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlsten, O C O; Oliveira, R; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In Oliveira et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 130502) we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within O(N 3 ) steps, where N is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cutoff moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically, we find that the mutual information appears to behave similarly to the quantum correlations and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium. We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions

  20. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  1. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  2. A novel STXBP1 mutation causes typical Rett syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, Kotaro; Iwama, Kazuhiro; Yonee, Chihiro; Matsufuji, Mayumi; Sano, Nozomi; Saikusa, Tomoko; Yae, Yukako; Yamashita, Yushiro; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2018-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age. Her epilepsy onset was earlier than is typical for RTT patients. However, she fully met the 2010 diagnostic criteria of typical RTT. STXBP1 mutations cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), various intractable epilepsies, and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the case described here presented a unique clinical presentation of typical RTT without EIEE and a novel STXBP1 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood apraxia of speech: A survey of praxis and typical speech characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmenholt, Ann; Lohmander, Anette; McAllister, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge of the diagnosis childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in Sweden and compare speech characteristics and symptoms to those of earlier survey findings in mainly English-speakers. In a web-based questionnaire 178 Swedish speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anonymously answered questions about their perception of typical speech characteristics for CAS. They graded own assessment skills and estimated clinical occurrence. The seven top speech characteristics reported as typical for children with CAS were: inconsistent speech production (85%), sequencing difficulties (71%), oro-motor deficits (63%), vowel errors (62%), voicing errors (61%), consonant cluster deletions (54%), and prosodic disturbance (53%). Motor-programming deficits described as lack of automatization of speech movements were perceived by 82%. All listed characteristics were consistent with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) consensus-based features, Strand's 10-point checklist, and the diagnostic model proposed by Ozanne. The mode for clinical occurrence was 5%. Number of suspected cases of CAS in the clinical caseload was approximately one new patient/year and SLP. The results support and add to findings from studies of CAS in English-speaking children with similar speech characteristics regarded as typical. Possibly, these findings could contribute to cross-linguistic consensus on CAS characteristics.

  4. Genetic structure of typical and atypical populations of Candida albicans from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forche, A; Schönian, G; Gräser, Y; Vilgalys, R; Mitchell, T G

    1999-11-01

    Atypical isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans have been reported with increasing frequency. To investigate the origin of a set of atypical isolates and their relationship to typical isolates, we employed a combination of molecular phylogenetic and population genetic analyses using rDNA sequencing, PCR fingerprinting, and analysis of co-dominant DNA nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize the population structure of one typical and two atypical populations of C. albicans from Angola and Madagascar. The extent of clonality and recombination was assessed in each population. The analyses revealed that the structure of all three populations of C. albicans was predominantly clonal but, as in previous studies, there was also evidence for recombination. Allele frequencies differed significantly between the typical and the atypical populations, suggesting very low levels of gene flow between them. However, allele frequencies were quite similar in the two atypical C. albicans populations, suggesting that they are closely related. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences encoding the nuclear 26S rDNA demonstrated that all three populations belong to a single monophyletic group, which includes the type strain of C. albicans. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Typical Features of Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Patients with Bartter’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Martelli-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is due to many inherited defects of enamel formation that affect the quantity and quality of enamel, leading to delay in tooth eruption and cosmetic consequences. AI has been described in association with nephrocalcinosis, which is called the enamel-renal syndrome. The aim of this case report is to describe typical features of AI in 2 patients with Bartter’s syndrome (BS for the first time. Methods: -Eight patients with confirmed BS were systematically screened for dental abnormalities as part of protocol. Those with suggestive clinical features of AI were submitted to panoramic X-ray and decayed teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Typical features of AI were detected in 2 girls with BS. These 2 patients showed nephrocalcinosis, and diagnosis and adequate clinical control were delayed. Genetic analysis detected the mutation responsible for BS in 1 of these patients. In this case, BS was due to a homozygous mutation of exon 5 of the KCNJ1 gene resulting in a substitution of valine for alanine at the codon 214 (A214V. Conclusions: The finding of typical features of AI in BS might constitute preliminary evidence that abnormalities of the biomineralization process found in patients with renal tubular disorders might also affect calcium deposition in dental tissues.

  6. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  7. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  8. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  9. Generalized quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leivo, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The algebraic approach to quantum groups is generalized to include what may be called an anyonic symmetry, reflecting the appearance of phases more general than ±1 under transposition. (author). 6 refs

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  11. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  12. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  13. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  14. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  15. Perfect-use and typical-use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund Scherwitzl, E; Lundberg, O; Kopp Kallner, H; Gemzell Danielsson, K; Trussell, J; Scherwitzl, R

    2017-12-01

    The Natural Cycles application is a fertility awareness-based contraceptive method that uses dates of menstruation and basal body temperature to inform couples whether protected intercourse is needed to prevent pregnancies. Our purpose with this study is to investigate the contraceptive efficacy of the mobile application by evaluating the perfect- and typical-use Pearl Index. In this prospective observational study, 22,785 users of the application logged a total of 18,548 woman-years of data into the application. We used these data to calculate typical- and perfect-use Pearl Indexes, as well as 13-cycle pregnancy rates using life-table analysis. We found a typical-use Pearl Index of 6.9 pregnancies per 100 woman-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5-7.2], corrected to 6.8 (95% CI: 6.4-7.2) when truncating users after 12months. We estimated a 13-cycle typical-use failure rate of 8.3% (95% CI: 7.8-8.9). We found that the perfect-use Pearl Index was 1.0 pregnancy per 100 woman-years (95% CI: 0.5-1.5). Finally, we estimated that the rate of pregnancies from cycles where the application erroneously flagged a fertile day as infertile was 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7) per 100 woman-years. We estimated a discontinuation rate over 12months of 54%. This study shows that the efficacy of a contraceptive mobile application is higher than usually reported for traditional fertility awareness-based methods. The application may contribute to reducing the unmet need for contraception. The measured typical- and perfect-use efficacies of the mobile application Natural Cycles are important parameters for women considering their contraceptive options as well as for the clinicians advising them. The large available data set in this paper allows for future studies on acceptability, for example, by studying the efficacy for different cohorts and geographic regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  17. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  18. Two generalizations of Kohonen clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, James C.; Pal, Nikhil R.; Tsao, Eric C. K.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the sequential hard c-means (SHCM), learning vector quantization (LVQ), and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms is discussed. LVQ and SHCM suffer from several major problems. For example, they depend heavily on initialization. If the initial values of the cluster centers are outside the convex hull of the input data, such algorithms, even if they terminate, may not produce meaningful results in terms of prototypes for cluster representation. This is due in part to the fact that they update only the winning prototype for every input vector. The impact and interaction of these two families with Kohonen's self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM), which is not a clustering method, but which often leads ideas to clustering algorithms is discussed. Then two generalizations of LVQ that are explicitly designed as clustering algorithms are presented; these algorithms are referred to as generalized LVQ = GLVQ; and fuzzy LVQ = FLVQ. Learning rules are derived to optimize an objective function whose goal is to produce 'good clusters'. GLVQ/FLVQ (may) update every node in the clustering net for each input vector. Neither GLVQ nor FLVQ depends upon a choice for the update neighborhood or learning rate distribution - these are taken care of automatically. Segmentation of a gray tone image is used as a typical application of these algorithms to illustrate the performance of GLVQ/FLVQ.

  19. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  20. The importance of being 'well-placed': the influence of context on perceived typicality and esthetic appraisal of product appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijlevens, Janneke; Gemser, Gerda; Mugge, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Earlier findings have suggested that esthetic appraisal of product appearances is influenced by perceived typicality. However, prior empirical research on typicality and esthetic appraisal of product appearances has not explicitly taken context effects into account. In this paper, we investigate how a specific context influences perceived typicality and thus the esthetic appraisal of product appearances by manipulating the degree of typicality of a product's appearance and its context. The findings of two studies demonstrate that the perceived typicality of a product appearance and consequently its esthetic appraisal vary depending on the typicality of the context in which the product is presented. Specifically, contrast effects occur for product appearances that are perceived as typical. Typical product appearances are perceived as more typical and are more esthetically appealing when presented in an atypical context compared to when presented in a typical context. No differences in perceived typicality and esthetic appraisal were found for product appearances that are perceived as atypical. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generalized Hankel type transformation; Parserval relation; generalized ... The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | News.

  2. Generally covariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of generally covariant gauge theories in four space-time dimensions is investigated. The field variables are taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection 1-form and a scalar density. Modulo an important degeneracy, complex [euclidean] vacuum general relativity corresponds to a special case in this class. A canonical analysis of the generally covariant gauge theories with the same gauge group as general relativity shows that they describe two degrees of freedom per space point, qualifying therefore as a new set of neighbors of general relativity. The modification of the algebra of the constraints with respect to the general relativity case is computed; this is used in addressing the question of how general relativity stands out from its neighbors. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of health resources expenditure in two groups of psychotic patients treated with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics in a Italian Mental Health Department in Calabria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Italian and international trials have studied the global costs of treatment with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics. Our analysis confirms those results. In our study, treatment with olanzapine, as compared to typical neuroleptics, was associated with a greater reduction in emergency interventions (hospitalisations, with an increased use of rehabilitation services and with a small increase in the number of working days. The differences between the two groups for this variable were not great, while the differences in the assessment scores appeared important and statistically significant. The results of present study are relative to the practice of one Italian Mental Health Department and, for this reason, cannot be generalized. Anyway, they are another indication of increased efficiency of atypicals treatment over older neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

  4. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author)

  5. Review: typically-developing students' views and experiences of inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Helen; McCafferty, Aileen; Quayle, Ethel; McKenzie, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to summarize and critique existing qualitative studies that have examined typically-developing students' views of inclusive education (i.e. the policy of teaching students with special educational needs in mainstream settings). Guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were followed, outlining the criteria by which journal articles were identified and critically appraised. Narrative Synthesis was used to summarize findings across studies. Fourteen studies met the review's inclusion criteria and were subjected to quality assessment. Analysis revealed that studies were of variable quality: three were of "good" methodological quality, seven of "medium" quality, and four of "poor" quality. With respect to findings, three overarching themes emerged: students expressed mostly negative attitudes towards peers with disabilities; were confused by the principles and practices of inclusive education; and made a number of recommendations for improving its future provision. A vital determinant of the success of inclusive education is the extent to which it is embraced by typically-developing students. Of concern, this review highlights that students tend not to understand inclusive education, and that this can breed hostility towards it. More qualitative research of high methodological quality is needed in this area. Implications for Rehabilitation Typically-developing students are key to the successful implementation of inclusive education. This review shows that most tend not to understand it, and can react by engaging in avoidance and/or targeted bullying of peers who receive additional support. Schools urgently need to provide teaching about inclusive education, and increase opportunities for contact between students who do and do not receive support (e.g. cooperative learning).

  6. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author).

  7. The BioFIND study: Characteristics of a clinically typical Parkinson's disease biomarker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Xie, Tao; Tuite, Paul; Henchcliffe, Claire; Hogarth, Penelope; Amara, Amy W.; Frank, Samuel; Rudolph, Alice; Casaceli, Cynthia; Andrews, Howard; Gwinn, Katrina; Sutherland, Margaret; Kopil, Catherine; Vincent, Lona; Frasier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Identifying PD‐specific biomarkers in biofluids will greatly aid in diagnosis, monitoring progression, and therapeutic interventions. PD biomarkers have been limited by poor discriminatory power, partly driven by heterogeneity of the disease, variability of collection protocols, and focus on de novo, unmedicated patients. Thus, a platform for biomarker discovery and validation in well‐characterized, clinically typical, moderate to advanced PD cohorts is critically needed. Methods BioFIND (Fox Investigation for New Discovery of Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease) is a cross‐sectional, multicenter biomarker study that established a repository of clinical data, blood, DNA, RNA, CSF, saliva, and urine samples from 118 moderate to advanced PD and 88 healthy control subjects. Inclusion criteria were designed to maximize diagnostic specificity by selecting participants with clinically typical PD symptoms, and clinical data and biospecimen collection utilized standardized procedures to minimize variability across sites. Results We present the study methodology and data on the cohort's clinical characteristics. Motor scores and biospecimen samples including plasma are available for practically defined off and on states and thus enable testing the effects of PD medications on biomarkers. Other biospecimens are available from off state PD assessments and from controls. Conclusion Our cohort provides a valuable resource for biomarker discovery and validation in PD. Clinical data and biospecimens, available through The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, can serve as a platform for discovering biomarkers in clinically typical PD and comparisons across PD's broad and heterogeneous spectrum. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:27113479

  8. Calculated k-effectives for light water reactor typical, U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III; Mincey, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program has as a goal the design of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment. In order to validate computer codes used for criticality analyses in the design of such equipment, k-effectives have been calculated for several U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments. As of January 1981, descriptions of 45 unpoisoned, U + Pu solution experiments were available in the open literature. Twelve of these experiments were performed with solutions which have physical characteristics typical of dissolved, light water reactor fuel. This paper contains a discussion of these twelve experiments, a review of the calculational procedure used to determine k-effectives, and the results of the calculations

  9. A review of typical thermal fatigue failure models for solder joints of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ruifeng; Wang, Yongdong

    2017-09-01

    For electronic components, cyclic plastic strain makes it easier to accumulate fatigue damage than elastic strain. When the solder joints undertake thermal expansion or cold contraction, different thermal strain of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate is caused by the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate, leading to the phenomenon of stress concentration. So repeatedly, cracks began to sprout and gradually extend [1]. In this paper, the typical thermal fatigue failure models of solder joints of electronic components are classified and the methods of obtaining the parameters in the model are summarized based on domestic and foreign literature research.

  10. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  11. SARDAN- A program for the transients simulation in a typical PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos Santos, R.L.P. de.

    1979-10-01

    A program in FORTRAN-IV language was developed that simulates the behaviour of the primary circuit in a typical PWR plant during condition II transients, in particular uncontrolled withdrawal of a control rod set, control rod set drops and uncontrolled boron dilution. It the mathematical model adopted the reactor core, the hot piping to which a pressurizer is coupled, the steam generator and the cold piping are considered. The results obtained in the analysis of the mentioned accidents are compared to those present at the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the Angra-1 reactor and are considered satisfactory. (F.E.) [pt

  12. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Several Indonesian Plants Typically Used in Jamu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyowati, Retno; Agil, Mangestuti

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the chemical constituents and bioactivities of several Indonesian plants typically used in Jamu prescriptions in Indonesia. Jamu is Indonesia traditional medicine: it consists of either a single ingredient or a mixture of several medicinal plants. One plant family always used in Jamu is Zingiberaceae (ginger), such as Curcuma domestica/C. longa, C. xanthorrhizae, C. heyneana, C. zedoaria, C. aeruginosa, Zingiber aromaticum, Alpinia galanga. We also report other commonly used plant families such as Justicia gendarussa and Cassia siamea, whose activities have been extensively explored by our department.

  13. Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an Eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol and gases campaign was performed at Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta region over Eastern China from late March to early June 2009. This study provided a complementary picture of typical haze types and the formation mechanisms in megacities over China by using a synergy of ground-based monitoring, satellite and lidar observations. During the whole study period, several extreme low visibility periods were observed with distinct characteristics, and three typical haze types were identified, i.e. secondary inorganic pollution, dust, and biomass burning. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for a major part of PM2.5 mass during the secondary inorganic pollution, and the good correlation between SO2/NOx/CO and PM2.5 indicated that coal burning and vehicle emission were the major sources. Large-scale regions with high AOD (aerosol optical depths and low Ångström exponent were detected by remote-sensing observation during the dust pollution episode, and this episode corresponded to coarse particles rich in mineral components such as Al and Ca contributing 76.8% to TSP. The relatively low Ca/Al ratio of 0.75 along with the air mass backward trajectory analysis suggested the dust source was from Gobi Desert. Typical tracers for biomass burning from satellite observation (column CO and HCHO and from ground measurement (CO, particulate K+, OC, and EC were greatly enhanced during the biomass burning pollution episode. The exclusive linear correlation between CO and PM2.5 corroborated that organic aerosol dominated aerosol chemistry during biomass burning, and the high concentration and enrichment degree of arsenic (As could be also partly derived from biomass burning. Aerosol optical profile observed by lidar demonstrated that aerosol was mainly constrained below the boundary layer and comprised of spheric aerosol (depolarization ratio <5% during the secondary

  14. Internal hemorrhoids - their typical radiological appearance and differential diagnosis to carcinoma of rectum and anus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Koester, R.

    1984-11-01

    The main indication for colon barium enema examination is occult bleeding or bleeding noticed by the patient himself. The radiologist has to take into account all clinical details that could lead to bleeding and to document them. The most frequent causes of rectal bleeding are hemorrhoids and diverticulosis/itis which in marked cases may have a tumor-like appearance. A good double-contrast examination of the colon must not only exclude tumors, polyps or inflammatary diseases but also demonstrate other causes of bleeding. The presented paper describes typical roentgen signs and gives criteria to differentiate hemorrhoids from deeply situated cancer of the rectum or anus.

  15. Internal hemorrhoids - their typical radiological appearance and differential diagnosis to carcinoma of rectum and anus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, V.; Koester, R.

    1984-01-01

    The main indication for colon barium enema examination is occult bleeding or bleeding noticed by the patient himself. The radiologist has to take into account all clinical details that could lead to bleeding and to document them. The most frequent causes of rectal bleeding are hemorrhoids and diverticulosis/itis which in marked cases may have a tumor-like appearence. A good double-contrast examination of the colon must not only exclude tumors, polyps or inflammotary diseases but also demonstrate other causes of bleeding. The presented paper describes typical roentgen signs and gives criteria to differentiate hemorrhoids from deeply situated cancer of the rectum or anus. (orig.) [de

  16. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of Fine Particles Source Spectrum Bank in Typical Region and Empirical Research of Matching Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Sun, Wenliang; Guo, Min; Li, Minjiao; Li, Wan

    2018-01-01

    The research object of this paper is fine particles in typical region. The construction of component spectrum bank is based on the technology of online source apportionment, then the result of the apportionment is utilized to verify the effectiveness of fine particles component spectrum bank and which also act as the matching basis of online source apportionment receptor sample. On the next, the particle source of air pollution is carried through the matching diagnosis empirical research by utilizing online source apportionment technology, to provide technical support for the cause analysis and treatment of heavy pollution weather.

  18. Performance Monitoring in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury Compared to Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Wilkinson PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with traumatic brain injury are reported to have deficits in performance monitoring, but the mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Four performance monitoring hypotheses were explored by comparing how 28 children with traumatic brain injury and 28 typically developing controls (matched by age and sex performed on the stop-signal task. Control children slowed significantly more following incorrect than correct stop-signal trials, fitting the error monitoring hypothesis. In contrast, the traumatic brain injury group showed no performance monitoring difference with trial types, but significant group differences did not emerge, suggesting that children with traumatic brain injury may not perform the same way as controls.

  19. Three typical examples of activation of the International Charter ``space and major disasters''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.-L.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North-East and South of France in January and September 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  20. Can Automated Facial Expression Analysis Show Differences Between Autism and Typical Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, Zsófia; Gyori, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory analyses of emotional expressions using a commercially available facial expression recognition software are reported, from the context of a serious game for screening purposes. Our results are based on a comparative analysis of two matched groups of kindergarten-age children (high-functioning children with autism spectrum condition: n=13; typically developing children: n=13). Results indicate that this technology has the potential to identify autism-specific emotion expression features, and may play a role in affective diagnostic and assistive technologies.

  1. How general are general source conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathé, Peter; Hofmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Error analysis of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces is based on smoothness assumptions in terms of source conditions. In the traditional setup, i.e. when smoothness is in a power scale, we see that not all elements in the underlying Hilbert space possess some smoothness with this scale. Our main result asserts that this can be overcome when turning to general source conditions defined in terms of index functions. We conclude with some consequences

  2. Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia

    2018-01-17

    During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Risk of Hg Exposure Associated with Rice Consumption in a Typical City (Suzhou) in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Gong, Yu; Zhu, Yi-Xin; Miao, Ai-Jun; Yang, Liu-Yan; Zhong, Huan

    2017-05-12

    Recent studies have revealed that not only fish but also rice consumption may significantly contribute to human exposure to mercury (Hg) in Asian countries. It is therefore essential to assess dietary exposure to Hg in rice and its associated health risk. However, risk assessments of Hg in rice in non-contaminated areas are generally lacking in Asian countries. In the present study, Hg concentrations were measured in rice samples collected from markets and supermarkets in Suzhou, a typical city in Eastern China. In addition, the rice ingestion rates (IR) were assessed via a questionnaire-based survey of Suzhou residents. The data were then used to assess the risk of Hg exposure associated with rice consumption, by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Hg contents in rice samples were well below the national standard (20 μg/kg), ranging from 1.46 to 8.48 ng/g. They were also significantly ( p > 0.05) independent of the area of production and place of purchase (markets vs. supermarkets in the different districts). Our results indicate a low risk of Hg exposure from rice in Suzhou (HQ: 0.005-0.05), despite the generally high personal IR (0.05-0.4 kg/day). The risk of Hg associated with rice consumption for Suzhou residents was not significantly affected by the age or sex of the consumer ( p > 0.05). Overall, our results provide a study of human exposure to Hg in rice in Chinese cities not known to be contaminated with Hg. Future studies should examine Hg exposure in different areas in China and in potentially vulnerable major food types.

  4. Upper Extremity Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Acute Gout Attack but without Trauma or Other Typical Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 30-year-old Polynesian male with a severe gout flare of multiple joints and simultaneous acute compartment syndrome (ACS of his right forearm and hand without trauma or other typical causes. He had a long history of gout flares, but none were known to be associated with compartment syndrome. He also had concurrent infections in his right elbow joint and olecranon bursa. A few days prior to this episode of ACS, high pain and swelling occurred in his right upper extremity after a minimal workout with light weights. A similar episode occurred seven months prior and was attributed to a gout flare. Unlike past flares that resolved with colchicine and/or anti-inflammatory medications, his current upper extremity pain/swelling worsened and became severe. Hand and forearm fasciotomies were performed. Workup included general medicine, rheumatology and infectious disease consultations, myriad blood tests, and imaging studies including Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography. Additional clinical history suggested that he had previously unrecognized recurrent exertional compartment syndrome that led to the episode of ACS reported here. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS presents a difficult diagnosis when presented with multiple symptoms concurrently. This case provides an example of one such diagnosis.

  5. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  6. Unsupervised Learning and Generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy ...... with supervised learning. The empirical and analytical estimates are compared for principal component analysis and for K-means clustering based density estimation......The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mission model. 3 years before launch (Ref. § 1215.109(c). Submit general user requirements to permit preliminary planning. Begin payment for pre-mission activities (Ref. § 1215.115(b)(5)). 18 months before...

  8. Generalization of concurrence vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the generalization of concurrence vectors for bipartite pure state with respect to employing tensor product of generators of the corresponding rotation groups, we generalize concurrence vectors to the case of mixed states; a new criterion of separability of multipartite pure states is given out, for which we define a concurrence vector; we generalize the vector to the case of multipartite mixed state and give out a good measure of free entanglement

  9. General quantum variational calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur M. C. Brito da Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new variational calculus based in the general quantum difference operator recently introduced by Hamza et al. In particular, we obtain optimality conditions for generalized variational problems where the Lagrangian may depend on the endpoints conditions and a real parameter, for the basic and isoperimetric problems, with and without fixed boundary conditions. Our results provide a generalization to previous results obtained for the $q$- and Hahn-calculus.

  10. Generalized quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics

  11. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  12. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  13. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  14. Comparative analysis of station blackout accident progression in typical PWR, BWR, and PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Young; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2012-01-01

    Since the crisis at the Fukushima plants, severe accident progression during a station blackout accident in nuclear power plants is recognized as a very important area for accident management and emergency planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative characteristics of anticipated severe accident progression among the three typical types of nuclear reactors. A station blackout scenario, where all off-site power is lost and the diesel generators fail, is simulated as an initiating event of a severe accident sequence. In this study a comparative analysis was performed for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The study includes the summarization of design differences that would impact severe accident progressions, thermal hydraulic/severe accident phenomenological analysis during a station blackout initiated-severe accident; and an investigation of the core damage process, both within the reactor vessel before it fails and in the containment afterwards, and the resultant impact on the containment.

  15. Wildfire Risk Assessment in a Typical Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interface of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Ioannis; Mallinis, Giorgos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess spatial wildfire risk in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface (WUI) in Greece and the potential effect of three different burning condition scenarios on the following four major wildfire risk components: burn probability, conditional flame length, fire size, and source-sink ratio. We applied the Minimum Travel Time fire simulation algorithm using the FlamMap and ArcFuels tools to characterize the potential response of the wildfire risk to a range of different burning scenarios. We created site-specific fuel models of the study area by measuring the field fuel parameters in representative natural fuel complexes, and we determined the spatial extent of the different fuel types and residential structures in the study area using photointerpretation procedures of large scale natural color orthophotographs. The results included simulated spatially explicit fire risk components along with wildfire risk exposure analysis and the expected net value change. Statistical significance differences in simulation outputs between the scenarios were obtained using Tukey's significance test. The results of this study provide valuable information for decision support systems for short-term predictions of wildfire risk potential and inform wildland fire management of typical WUI areas in Greece.

  16. LOCA assessment experiments in a full-elevation, CANDU-typical test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, P.J.; McGee, G.R.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The RD-14 thermal-hydraulics test facility, located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, is a full-elevation model representative of a CANDU primary heat transport system. The facility is scaled to accommodate a single, full-scale (5.0 MW, 21 kg/s), electrically heated channel per pass. The steam generators, pumps, headers, feeders and heated channels are arranged in a typical CANDU figure-of-eight geometry. The loop has an emergency coolant injection system (ECI) that may be operated in several modes, including typical features of the various ECI systems found in CANDU reactors. A series of experiments has been performed in RD-14 to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour during the blowdown and injection phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The tests were designed to cover a full range of break sizes from feeder-sized breaks to guillotine breaks in either an inlet or an outlet header. Breaks resulting in channel flow stagnation were also investigated. This paper reviews the results of some of the LOCA tests carried out in RD-14, and discusses some of the behaviour observed. Plans for future experiments in a multiple-channel RD-14 facility, modified to contain multiple flow channels, are outlined. (orig.)

  17. Co-existence of freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in a typical subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play an important role in microbial community dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, yet their ecological characteristics in estuarine ecosystems are unclear. Here, virioplankton communities in a typical subtropical estuary, the Jiulong River estuary (JRE) in China, were investigated. The abundance of virioplankton ranged from 1.01 ± 0.05 × 107 to 1.62 ± 0.09 × 107 particles mL-1 in JRE, and the population size of viruses was correlated with temperature and nutrient levels. Three tailed viral morphotypes (myovirus, siphovirus and podovirus) were observed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the g23 sequences in the JRE fell into three previously established groups (Marine, Paddy and Lake Groups) and two potential Estuary Groups. This demonstrates the co-existence of typical freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in the estuarine ecosystem, suggesting the movement of viruses and their hosts among biomes. Additionally, the spatial variation of g23 sequences suggests a geographic distribution pattern of T4-like myoviruses in the JRE, which might be shaped by the environmental gradient and/or their host distribution. These results provide valuable insights into the abundance, diversity and distribution patterns of virioplankton, as well as the factors influencing them, in subtropical estuarine ecosystems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Generation of a typical meteorological year for north–east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohunakin, Olayinka S.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Oyewola, Olanrewaju M.; Fagbenle, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TMY for sites in north–east Nigeria was produced using Finkelstein–Schafer method. • It was found the TMY can be used to represents the long-term weather parameters. • The generated TMY can be used the design and evaluation of solar energy systems. • A handy database in the estimation of building heating loads in north–east Nigeria. - Abstract: The Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze a 34-year period (1975–2008) hourly measured weather data which includes global solar radiation, dry bulb temperatures, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in order to generate typical meteorological year (TMY) for five locations spreading across north–east zone, Nigeria. The selection criteria are based on solar radiation together with the dry bulb temperature values and representative typical meteorological months (TMMs) were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term cumulative distribution function. A close-fit agreement is observed between the generated TMY and long-term averages. The TMY generated will be very useful for optimal design and performance evaluation of solar energy conversion systems, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and other solar energy dependent systems to be located in this part of Nigeria

  19. Parameterized Finite Element Modeling and Buckling Analysis of Six Typical Composite Grid Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Changliang; Wang, Junbiao; Liu, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    Six typical composite grid cylindrical shells are constructed by superimposing three basic types of ribs. Then buckling behavior and structural efficiency of these shells are analyzed under axial compression, pure bending, torsion and transverse bending by finite element (FE) models. The FE models are created by a parametrical FE modeling approach that defines FE models with original natural twisted geometry and orients cross-sections of beam elements exactly. And the approach is parameterized and coded by Patran Command Language (PCL). The demonstrations of FE modeling indicate the program enables efficient generation of FE models and facilitates parametric studies and design of grid shells. Using the program, the effects of helical angles on the buckling behavior of six typical grid cylindrical shells are determined. The results of these studies indicate that the triangle grid and rotated triangle grid cylindrical shell are more efficient than others under axial compression and pure bending, whereas under torsion and transverse bending, the hexagon grid cylindrical shell is most efficient. Additionally, buckling mode shapes are compared and provide an understanding of composite grid cylindrical shells that is useful in preliminary design of such structures.

  20. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Chen Ying; Zhang Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao Lei

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China. - Highlights: ► Provides specific methods guidance for agricultural NPS assessment in China. ► Crops do not contribute significant N and P to watercourses in North China Plain. ► Rural living contributes almost no N and P to watercourses. ► Livestock is the only significant agricultural source of COD, N and P. - We address the methodology for agricultural NPS pollution assessment. We show that livestock, not rural living or crops, is the significant pollutant source.