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Sample records for type-i spiral ganglion

  1. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development

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    Housley Gary D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms that consolidate neural circuitry are a major focus of neuroscience. In the mammalian cochlea, the refinement of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN innervation to the inner hair cells (by type I SGNs and the outer hair cells (by type II SGNs is accompanied by a 25% loss of SGNs. Results We investigated the segregation of neuronal loss in the mouse cochlea using β-tubulin and peripherin antisera to immunolabel all SGNs and selectively type II SGNs, respectively, and discovered that it is the type II SGN population that is predominately lost within the first postnatal week. Developmental neuronal loss has been attributed to the decline in neurotrophin expression by the target hair cells during this period, so we next examined survival of SGN sub-populations using tissue culture of the mid apex-mid turn region of neonatal mouse cochleae. In organotypic culture for 48 hours from postnatal day 1, endogenous trophic support from the organ of Corti proved sufficient to maintain all type II SGNs; however, a large proportion of type I SGNs were lost. Culture of the spiral ganglion as an explant, with removal of the organ of Corti, led to loss of the majority of both SGN sub-types. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF added as a supplement to the media rescued a significant proportion of the SGNs, particularly the type II SGNs, which also showed increased neuritogenesis. The known decline in BDNF production by the rodent sensory epithelium after birth is therefore a likely mediator of type II neuron apoptosis. Conclusion Our study thus indicates that BDNF supply from the organ of Corti supports consolidation of type II innervation in the neonatal mouse cochlea. In contrast, type I SGNs likely rely on additional sources for trophic support.

  2. A novel model for rapid induction of apoptosis in spiral ganglions of mice.

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    Lee, Ji Eun; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kim, Tae Soo; Iguchi, Fukuichiro; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Dong, Youyi; Yuki, Kazuo; Naito, Yasushi; Lee, Sang Heun; Ito, Juichi

    2003-06-01

    The survival of the spiral ganglion (SG) is a critical issue in preservation of hearing. Research on topics related to this issue requires a mouse experimental model because such a model has advantages including use of genetic information and knockout or "knockin" mice. Thus, the aim of the study was to establish a mouse model for induction of apoptosis of SG neurons with a definite time course. Laboratory study using experimental animals. C57BL/6 mice were used as experimental animals and were subjected to direct application of cisplatin into the inner ear. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunostaining for Neurofilament 200-kD (NF) and peripherin were used for analysis of SG degeneration. In addition, generation of peroxynitrite in affected spiral ganglions was examined by immunostaining for nitrotyrosine. Cellular location of activated caspase-9 and cytochrome-c in dying SG neurons were examined for analysis of cell death pathway. The TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical analysis for NF and peripherin indicated that type I neurons in spiral ganglions were deleted through the apoptotic pathway over time. Spiral ganglion neurons treated with cisplatin exhibited expression of nitrotyrosine, indicating induction of peroxynitrite by cisplatin. In dying SG neurons, expression of activated caspase-9 and translocation of cytochrome-c from mitochondria to cytoplasm were observed, indicating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The predictable fashion of induction of apoptosis in SG neurons over a well-defined time course in the model in the study will aid studies of the molecular mechanism of cell death and elucidation of a strategy for prevention of SG degeneration.

  3. Unmasking of spiral ganglion neuron firing dynamics by membrane potential and neurotrophin-3.

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    Crozier, Robert A; Davis, Robin L

    2014-07-16

    Type I spiral ganglion neurons have a unique role relative to other sensory afferents because, as a single population, they must convey the richness, complexity, and precision of auditory information as they shape signals transmitted to the brain. To understand better the sophistication of spiral ganglion response properties, we compared somatic whole-cell current-clamp recordings from basal and apical neurons obtained during the first 2 postnatal weeks from CBA/CaJ mice. We found that during this developmental time period neuron response properties changed from uniformly excitable to differentially plastic. Low-frequency, apical and high-frequency basal neurons at postnatal day 1 (P1)-P3 were predominantly slowly accommodating (SA), firing at low thresholds with little alteration in accommodation response mode induced by changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) or added neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). In contrast, P10-P14 apical and basal neurons were predominately rapidly accommodating (RA), had higher firing thresholds, and responded to elevation of RMP and added NT-3 by transitioning to the SA category without affecting the instantaneous firing rate. Therefore, older neurons appeared to be uniformly less excitable under baseline conditions yet displayed a previously unrecognized capacity to change response modes dynamically within a remarkably stable accommodation framework. Because the soma is interposed in the signal conduction pathway, these specializations can potentially lead to shaping and filtering of the transmitted signal. These results suggest that spiral ganglion neurons possess electrophysiological mechanisms that enable them to adapt their response properties to the characteristics of incoming stimuli and thus have the capacity to encode a wide spectrum of auditory information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349688-15$15.00/0.

  4. Expression of EFR3A in the mouse cochlea during degeneration of spiral ganglion following hair cell loss.

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    Chen Nie

    Full Text Available Retrograde degeneration of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea following hair cell loss is similar to dying back in pathology. The EFR3A gene has recently been discovered to be involved in the pathogenesis of dying back. The relationship of EFR3A and spiral ganglion degeneration, however, was rarely investigated. In this study, we destroyed the hair cells of the mouse cochlea by co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide and then investigated the EFR3A expression during the induced spiral ganglion cell degeneration. Our results revealed that co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide quickly induced hair cell loss in the C57BL/6J mice and then resulted in progressive degeneration of the spiral ganglion beginning at day 5 following drug administration. The number of the spiral ganglion cells began to decrease at day 15. The expression of EFR3A increased remarkably in the spiral ganglion at day 5 and then decreased to near normal level within the next 10 days. Our study suggested that the change of EFR3A expression in the spiral ganglion was coincident with the time of the spiral ganglion degeneration, which implied that high expression of EFR3A may be important to prompt initiation of spiral ganglion degeneration following hair cell loss.

  5. Intracochlear electrical stimulation suppresses apoptotic signaling in rat spiral ganglion neurons after deafening in vivo.

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    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; Cagaanan, Alain P; Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Green, Steven H

    2013-11-01

    To establish the intracellular consequences of electrical stimulation to spiral ganglion neurons after deafferentation. Here we use a rat model to determine the effect of both low and high pulse rate acute electrical stimulation on activation of the proapoptotic transcription factor Jun in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons in vivo. Experimental animal study. Hearing research laboratories of the University of Iowa Departments of Biology and Otolaryngology. A single electrode was implanted through the round window of kanamycin-deafened rats at either postnatal day 32 (P32, n = 24) or P60 (n = 22) for 4 hours of stimulation (monopolar, biphasic pulses, amplitude twice electrically evoked auditory brainstem response [eABR] threshold) at either 100 or 5000 Hz. Jun phosphorylation was assayed by immunofluorescence to quantitatively assess the effect of electrical stimulation on proapoptotic signaling. Jun phosphorylation was reliably suppressed by 100 Hz stimuli in deafened cochleae of P32 but not P60 rats. This effect was not significant in the basal cochlear turns. Stimulation frequency may be consequential: 100 Hz was significantly more effective than was 5 kHz stimulation in suppressing phospho-Jun. Suppression of Jun phosphorylation occurs in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons after only 4 hours of electrical stimulation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that electrical stimulation can decrease spiral ganglion neuron death after deafferentation.

  6. Quantifying Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Behavior on Micropatterned Polymer Substrates.

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    Cheng, Elise L; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-01-01

    The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell (Fell, Arch Exp Zellforsch 7(1):69-81, 1928). Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth have been utilized in recent years (Zhang et al., J Neurosci Methods 160(1):149-162, 2007; Tapias et al., Neurobiol Dis 54:158-168, 2013). Here, we describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment.

  7. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

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    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  8. Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells.

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    Rettenmaier, Alexander; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation.

  9. CT-guided stellate ganglion blockade vs. radiofrequency neurolysis in the management of refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb

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    Kastler, Adrian [University Hospital CHU Gabriel Montpied, Radiology Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Aubry, Sebastien; Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Sailley, Nicolas; Michalakis, Demosthene [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Siliman, Gaye [University Hospital CHU St Jacques, Clinical Investigation Center, Besancon (France); Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Lajoie, Jean-Louis [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Pain evaluation and Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2013-05-15

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis (RFN) vs. local blockade of the stellate ganglion in the management of chronic refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb. Sixty-seven patients were included in this retrospective study between 2000 and 2011. All suffered from chronic upper limb type I CRPS refractory to conventional pain therapies. Thirty-three patients underwent stellate ganglion blockade and 34 benefited from radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion. CT guidance was used in both groups. The procedure was considered effective when pain relief was {>=}50 %, lasting for at least 2 years. Thirty-nine women (58.2 %) and 28 men (41.8 %) with a mean age of 49.5 years were included in the study. Univariate analysis performed on the blockade and RFN groups showed a significantly (P < 0.0001) higher success rate in the RFN group (67.6 %, 23/34) compared with the blockade group (21.2 %, 7/33) with an odds ratio of 7.76. CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion is a safe and successful treatment of chronic refractory type I CRPS of the upper limb. It appears to be more effective than stellate ganglion blockade. (orig.)

  10. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

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    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor rolipram improves survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

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    Katharina Kranz

    Full Text Available Sensorineural deafness is caused by damage of hair cells followed by degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons and can be moderated by cochlear implants. However, the benefit of the cochlear implant depends on the excitability of the spiral ganglion neurons. Therefore, current research focuses on the identification of agents that will preserve their degeneration. In this project we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Rolipram as a promising agent to improve the viability of the auditory neurons. It is a pharmaceutical agent that acts by selective inhibition of the phosphodiesterase 4 leading to an increase in cyclic AMP. Different studies reported a neuroprotective effect of Rolipram. However, its significance for the survival of SGN has not been reported so far. Thus, we isolated spiral ganglion cells of neonatal rats for cultivation with different Rolipram concentrations and determined the neuronal survival rate. Furthermore, we examined immunocytologically distinct proteins that might be involved in the neuroprotective signalling pathway of Rolipram and determined endogenous BDNF by ELISA. When applied at a concentration of 0.1 nM, Rolipram improved the survival of SGN in vitro. According to previous studies, our immunocytological data showed that Rolipram application induces the phosphorylation and thereby activation of the transcription factor CREB. This activation can be mediated by the cAMP-PKA-signalling pathway as well as via ERK as a part of the MAP-kinase pathway. However, only in cultures pre-treated with BDNF, an endogenous increase of BDNF was detected. We conclude that Rolipram has the potential to improve the vitality of neonatal auditory nerve cells in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to prove the effect of Rolipram in vivo in the adult organism after lesion of the hair cells and insertion of cochlear implants.

  12. Myelin-induced inhibition in a spiral ganglion organ culture - Approaching a natural environment in vitro.

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    Kramer, Benedikt; Tropitzsch, Anke; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2017-08-15

    The performance of a cochlear implant depends on the defined interaction between afferent neurons of the spiral ganglion and the inserted electrode. Neurite outgrowth can be induced by neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via tropomyosin kinase receptor B (TrkB). However, neurotrophin signaling through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75) inhibits neurite outgrowth in the presence of myelin. Organotypic cultures derived from postnatal (P3-5) mice were used to study myelin-induced inhibition in the cochlear spiral ganglion. Neurite outgrowth was analyzed and quantified utilizing an adapted Sholl analysis. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth was quantified after application of BDNF, the selective TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and a selective inhibitor of the Rho-associated kinase (Y27632), which inhibits the p75 pathway. Myelin-induced inhibition was assessed by application of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG-Fc) to stimulate the inhibitory p75 pathway. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was achieved by the selective TrkB inhibitor K252a. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth was observed after treatment with BDNF, 7,8 DHF and a combination of BDNF and Y27632. The 7,8-DHF-induced growth effects could be inhibited by K252a. Furthermore, inhibition of neurite outgrowth was observed after supplementation with MAG-Fc. Myelin-induced inhibition could be overcome by 7,8-DHF and the combination of BDNF and Y27632. In this study, myelin-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth was established in a spiral ganglion model. We reveal that 7,8-DHF is a viable novel compound for the stimulation of neurite outgrowth in a myelin-induced inhibitory environment. The combination of TrkB stimulation and ROCK inhibition can be used to overcome myelin inhibition. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of morphometry, myelinization and synaptic current strength on spike conduction in human and cat spiral ganglion neurons.

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    Frank Rattay

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the neural code in the auditory nerve is based to a large extent on experiments on cats. Several anatomical differences between auditory neurons in human and cat are expected to lead to functional differences in speed and safety of spike conduction.Confocal microscopy was used to systematically evaluate peripheral and central process diameters, commonness of myelination and morphology of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs along the cochlea of three human and three cats. Based on these morphometric data, model analysis reveales that spike conduction in SGNs is characterized by four phases: a postsynaptic delay, constant velocity in the peripheral process, a presomatic delay and constant velocity in the central process. The majority of SGNs are type I, connecting the inner hair cells with the brainstem. In contrast to those of humans, type I neurons of the cat are entirely myelinated. Biophysical model evaluation showed delayed and weak spikes in the human soma region as a consequence of a lack of myelin. The simulated spike conduction times are in accordance with normal interwave latencies from auditory brainstem response recordings from man and cat. Simulated 400 pA postsynaptic currents from inner hair cell ribbon synapses were 15 times above threshold. They enforced quick and synchronous spiking. Both of these properties were not present in type II cells as they receive fewer and much weaker (∼26 pA synaptic stimuli.Wasting synaptic energy boosts spike initiation, which guarantees the rapid transmission of temporal fine structure of auditory signals. However, a lack of myelin in the soma regions of human type I neurons causes a large delay in spike conduction in comparison with cat neurons. The absent myelin, in combination with a longer peripheral process, causes quantitative differences of temporal parameters in the electrically stimulated human cochlea compared to the cat cochlea.

  14. Impact of Morphometry, Myelinization and Synaptic Current Strength on Spike Conduction in Human and Cat Spiral Ganglion Neurons

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    Rattay, Frank; Potrusil, Thomas; Wenger, Cornelia; Wise, Andrew K.; Glueckert, Rudolf; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese

    2013-01-01

    Background Our knowledge about the neural code in the auditory nerve is based to a large extent on experiments on cats. Several anatomical differences between auditory neurons in human and cat are expected to lead to functional differences in speed and safety of spike conduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Confocal microscopy was used to systematically evaluate peripheral and central process diameters, commonness of myelination and morphology of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) along the cochlea of three human and three cats. Based on these morphometric data, model analysis reveales that spike conduction in SGNs is characterized by four phases: a postsynaptic delay, constant velocity in the peripheral process, a presomatic delay and constant velocity in the central process. The majority of SGNs are type I, connecting the inner hair cells with the brainstem. In contrast to those of humans, type I neurons of the cat are entirely myelinated. Biophysical model evaluation showed delayed and weak spikes in the human soma region as a consequence of a lack of myelin. The simulated spike conduction times are in accordance with normal interwave latencies from auditory brainstem response recordings from man and cat. Simulated 400 pA postsynaptic currents from inner hair cell ribbon synapses were 15 times above threshold. They enforced quick and synchronous spiking. Both of these properties were not present in type II cells as they receive fewer and much weaker (∼26 pA) synaptic stimuli. Conclusions/Significance Wasting synaptic energy boosts spike initiation, which guarantees the rapid transmission of temporal fine structure of auditory signals. However, a lack of myelin in the soma regions of human type I neurons causes a large delay in spike conduction in comparison with cat neurons. The absent myelin, in combination with a longer peripheral process, causes quantitative differences of temporal parameters in the electrically stimulated human cochlea compared to the cat

  15. Drug discovery for hearing loss: Phenotypic screening of chemical compounds on primary cultures of the spiral ganglion.

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    Whitlon, Donna S

    2017-06-01

    In the United States there are, at present, no drugs that are specifically FDA approved to treat hearing loss. Although several clinical trials are ongoing, including one testing D-methionine that is supported by the US Army, none of these trials directly address the effect of noise exposure on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. We recently published the first report of a systematic chemical compound screen using primary, mammalian spiral ganglion cultures in which we were able to detect a compound and others in its class that increased neurite elongation, a critical step in restoring cochlear synapses after noise induced hearing loss. Here we discuss the issues, both pro and con, that influenced the development of our approach. These considerations may be useful for future compound screens that target the same or other attributes of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spiral ganglion cell site of excitation I: comparison of scala tympani and intrameatal electrode responses.

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    Cartee, Lianne A; Miller, Charles A; van den Honert, Chris

    2006-05-01

    To determine the site of excitation on the spiral ganglion cell in response to electrical stimulation similar to that from a cochlear implant, single-fiber responses to electrical stimuli delivered by an electrode positioned in the scala tympani were compared to responses from stimuli delivered by an electrode placed in the internal auditory meatus. The response to intrameatal stimulation provided a control set of data with a known excitation site, the central axon of the spiral ganglion cell. For both intrameatal and scala tympani stimuli, the responses to single-pulse, summation, and refractory stimulus protocols were recorded. The data demonstrated that summation pulses, as opposed to single pulses, are likely to give the most insightful measures for determination of the site of excitation. Single-fiber summation data for both scala tympani and intrameatally stimulated fibers were analyzed with a clustering algorithm. Combining cluster analysis and additional numerical modeling data, it was hypothesized that the scala tympani responses corresponded to central excitation, peripheral excitation adjacent to the cell body, and peripheral excitation at a site distant from the cell body. Fibers stimulated by an intrameatal electrode demonstrated the greatest range of jitter measurements indicating that greater fiber independence may be achieved with intrameatal stimulation.

  17. Charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibits neurite extension of spiral ganglion neurons.

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    Shen, Na; Liang, Qiong; Liu, Yuehong; Lai, Bin; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhengmin; Li, Shufeng

    2016-06-15

    Intracochlear application of exogenous or transgenic neurotrophins, such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could promote the resprouting of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) neurites in deafened animals. These resprouting neurites might reduce the gap between cochlear implant electrodes and their targeting SGNs, allowing for an improvement of spatial resolution of electrical stimulation. This study is to investigate the impact of electrical stimulation employed in CI on the extension of resprouting SGN neurites. We established an in vitro model including the devices delivering charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation, and spiral ganglion (SG) dissociated culture treated with BDNF and NT-3. After electrical stimulation with varying durations and intensities, we quantified neurite lengths and Schwann cell densities in SG cultures. Stimulations that were greater than 50μA or longer than 8h significantly decreased SG neurite length. Schwann cell density under 100μA electrical stimulation for 48h was significantly lower compared to that in non-stimulated group. These electrical stimulation-induced decreases of neurite extension and Schwann cell density were attenuated by various types of voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blockers, or completely prevented by their combination, cadmium or calcium-free medium. Our study suggested that charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibited the extension of resprouting SGN neurites and decreased Schwann cell density in vitro. Calcium influx through multiple types of VDCCs was involved in the electrical stimulation-induced inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

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    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  19. Effect of Tissue Heterogeneity on the Transmembrane Potential of Type-1 Spiral Ganglion Neurons: A Simulation Study.

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    Sriperumbudur, Kiran Kumar; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; van Rienen, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve by cochlear implants has been a successful clinical intervention to treat the sensory neural deafness. In this pathological condition of the cochlea, type-1 spiral ganglion neurons in Rosenthal's canal play a vital role in the action potential initiation. Various morphological studies of the human temporal bones suggest that the spiral ganglion neurons are surrounded by heterogeneous structures formed by a variety of cells and tissues. However, the existing simulation models have not considered the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal while studying the electric field interaction with spiral ganglion neurons. Unlike the existing models, we have implemented the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal using a computationally inexpensive image based method in a two-dimensional finite element model. Our simulation results suggest that the spatial heterogeneity of surrounding tissues influences the electric field distribution in the Rosenthal's canal, and thereby alters the transmembrane potential of the spiral ganglion neurons. In addition to the academic interest, these results are especially useful to understand how the latest tissue regeneration methods such as gene therapy and drug-induced resprouting of peripheral axons, which probably modify the density of the tissues in the Rosenthal's canal, affect the cochlear implant functionality.

  20. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p ... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  1. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

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    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Cometin is a novel neurotrophic factor that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuroblast migration in vitro and supports survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Roland; Fransson, Anette; Fjord-Larsen, Lone

    2012-01-01

    properties in vitro, combined with the restricted inner ear expression during development, we further investigated Cometin in relation to deafness. In neomycin deafened guinea pigs, two weeks intracochlear infusion of recombinant Cometin supports spiral ganglion neuron survival and function. In contrast...... to the control group receiving artificial perilymph, Cometin treated animals retain normal electrically-evoked brainstem response which is maintained several weeks after treatment cessation. Neuroprotection is also evident from stereological analysis of the spiral ganglion. Altogether, these studies show...

  3. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

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    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  4. Photoacoustic microscopy of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-1) after stellate ganglion blocks in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yi, Xiaobin; Xing, Wenxin; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to assist diagnoses and monitor the progress and treatment outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). Blood vasculature and oxygen saturation (sO2) were imaged by PAM in eight adult patients with CRPS-1. Patients' hands and cuticles were imaged both before and after stellate ganglion block (SGB) for comparison. For all patients, both the vascular structure and sO2 could be assessed by PAM. In addition, more vessels and stronger signals were observed after SGB.

  5. Protective Effect of Edaravone on Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Spiral Ganglion Neurons

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    Xiaohui Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, but excessive amount of glutamate can cause “excitotoxicity” and lead to neuronal death. As bipolar neurons, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs function as a “bridge” in transmitting auditory information from the ear to the brain and can be damaged by excessive glutamate which results in sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, edaravone, a free radical scavenger, elicited both preventative and therapeutic effects on SGNs against glutamate-induced cell damage that was tested by MTT assay and trypan blue staining. Ho.33342 and PI double staining revealed that apoptosis as well as necrosis took place during glutamate treatment, and apoptosis was the main type of cell death. Oxidative stress played an important role in glutamate-induced cell damage but pretreatment with edaravone alleviated cell death. Results of western blot demonstrated that mechanisms underlying the toxicity of glutamate and the protection of edaravone were related to the PI3K pathway and Bcl-2 protein family.

  6. Protective Effect of Edaravone on Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Aiping; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Sun, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, but excessive amount of glutamate can cause “excitotoxicity” and lead to neuronal death. As bipolar neurons, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) function as a “bridge” in transmitting auditory information from the ear to the brain and can be damaged by excessive glutamate which results in sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, edaravone, a free radical scavenger, elicited both preventative and therapeutic effects on SGNs against glutamate-induced cell damage that was tested by MTT assay and trypan blue staining. Ho.33342 and PI double staining revealed that apoptosis as well as necrosis took place during glutamate treatment, and apoptosis was the main type of cell death. Oxidative stress played an important role in glutamate-induced cell damage but pretreatment with edaravone alleviated cell death. Results of western blot demonstrated that mechanisms underlying the toxicity of glutamate and the protection of edaravone were related to the PI3K pathway and Bcl-2 protein family. PMID:27957345

  7. The role of RIP3 mediated necroptosis in ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neurons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Ye; Ding, Zhong-jia; Yue, Bo; Zhang, Peng-zhi; Chen, Xiao-dong; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Fu-quan; Chen, Yang; Wang, Ren-feng; Mi, Wen-juan; Lin, Ying; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Jian-hua

    2014-08-22

    Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) injury is a generally accepted precursor of auditory neuropathy. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) has been reported as an important necroptosis pathway mediator that can be blocked by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). In our study, we sought to identify whether necroptosis participated in SGN injury. Ouabain was applied to establish an SGN injury model. We measured the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) threshold shift as an indicator of the auditory conditions. Positive β3-tubulin immunofluorescence staining indicated the surviving SGNs. RIP3 expression was evaluated using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. SGN injury promoted an increase in RIP3 expression that could be suppressed by application of the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1. A decreased ABR threshold shift and increased SGN density were observed when Nec-1 was administered with apoptosis inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD). These results demonstrated that necroptosis is an indispensable pathway separately from apoptosis leading to SGN death pathway, in which RIP3 plays an important role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose-dependent effects of ouabain on spiral ganglion neurons and Schwann cells in mouse cochlea.

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    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Guan, Hong-Xia; Yang, Kun; Xiao, Bo-Kui; Liao, Hua; Jiang, Yang; Zhou, Tao; Hua, Qing-Quan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed in fully investigating the toxicities of ouabain to mouse cochlea and the related cellular environment, and providing an optimal animal model system for cell transplantation in the treatment of auditory neuropathy (AN) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Different dosages of ouabain were applied to mouse round window. The auditory brainstem responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were used to evaluate the cochlear function. The immunohistochemical staining and cochlea surface preparation were performed to detect the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), Schwann cells and hair cells. Ouabain at the dosages of 0.5 mM, 1 mM and 3 mM selectively and permanently destroyed SGNs and their functions, while leaving the hair cells relatively intact. Ouabain at 3 mM resulted in the most severe SGNs loss and induced significant loss of Schwann cells started as early as 7 days and with further damages at 14 and 30 days after ouabain exposure. The application of ouabain to mouse round window induces damages of SGNs and Schwann cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, this study established a reliable and accurate animal model system of AN and SNHL.

  9. Intravenous regional block is similar to sympathetic ganglion block for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I

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    M.S.A. Nascimento

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic ganglion block (SGB or intravenous regional block (IVRB has been recommended for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I. Forty-five patients were initially selected but only 43 were accepted for the study. The present study evaluated the efficacy of IVRB produced by combining 70 mg lidocaine with 30 µg clonidine (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-50 years versus SGB produced by the injection of 70 mg lidocaine alone (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-54 years or combined with 30 µg clonidine (15 patients, 1 male/14 females, age range: 25-50 years into the stellate ganglion for pain management in patients with upper extremity CRPS-I. Each procedure was repeated five times at 7-day intervals, and pain intensity and duration were measured using a visual analog scale immediately before each procedure. A progressive and significant reduction in pain scores and a significant increase in the duration of analgesia were observed in all groups following the first three blocks, but no further improvement was obtained following the last two blocks. Drowsiness, the most frequent side effect, and dry mouth occurred only in patients submitted to SGB with lidocaine combined with clonidine. The three methods were similar regarding changes in pain intensity and duration of analgesia. However, IVRB seems to be preferable to SGB due to its easier execution and lower risk of undesirable effects.

  10. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

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    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  11. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Troy, Frederic A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders

  12. Coatings of Different Carbon Nanotubes on Platinum Electrodes for Neuronal Devices: Preparation, Cytocompatibility and Interaction with Spiral Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burblies, Niklas; Schulze, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Kranz, Katharina; Motz, Damian; Vogt, Carla; Lenarz, Thomas; Warnecke, Athanasia; Behrens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear and deep brain implants are prominent examples for neuronal prostheses with clinical relevance. Current research focuses on the improvement of the long-term functionality and the size reduction of neural interface electrodes. A promising approach is the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), either as pure electrodes but especially as coating material for electrodes. The interaction of CNTs with neuronal cells has shown promising results in various studies, but these appear to depend on the specific type of neurons as well as on the kind of nanotubes. To evaluate a potential application of carbon nanotube coatings for cochlear electrodes, it is necessary to investigate the cytocompatibility of carbon nanotube coatings on platinum for the specific type of neuron in the inner ear, namely spiral ganglion neurons. In this study we have combined the chemical processing of as-delivered CNTs, the fabrication of coatings on platinum, and the characterization of the electrical properties of the coatings as well as a general cytocompatibility testing and the first cell culture investigations of CNTs with spiral ganglion neurons. By applying a modification process to three different as-received CNTs via a reflux treatment with nitric acid, long-term stable aqueous CNT dispersions free of dispersing agents were obtained. These were used to coat platinum substrates by an automated spray-coating process. These coatings enhance the electrical properties of platinum electrodes, decreasing the impedance values and raising the capacitances. Cell culture investigations of the different CNT coatings on platinum with NIH3T3 fibroblasts attest an overall good cytocompatibility of these coatings. For spiral ganglion neurons, this can also be observed but a desired positive effect of the CNTs on the neurons is absent. Furthermore, we found that the well-established DAPI staining assay does not function on the coatings prepared from single-wall nanotubes.

  13. I h and HCN channels in murine spiral ganglion neurons: tonotopic variation, local heterogeneity, and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Manis, Paul B; Davis, Robin L

    2014-08-01

    One of the major contributors to the response profile of neurons in the auditory pathways is the I h current. Its properties such as magnitude, activation, and kinetics not only vary among different types of neurons (Banks et al., J Neurophysiol 70:1420-1432, 1993; Fu et al., J Neurophysiol 78:2235-2245, 1997; Bal and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 84:806-817, 2000; Cao and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 94:821-832, 2005; Rodrigues and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 95:76-87, 2006; Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010), but they also display notable diversity in a single population of spiral ganglion neurons (Mo and Davis, J Neurophysiol 78:3019-3027, 1997), the first neural element in the auditory periphery. In this study, we found from somatic recordings that part of the heterogeneity can be attributed to variation along the tonotopic axis because I h in the apical neurons have more positive half-activation voltage levels than basal neurons. Even within a single cochlear region, however, I h current properties are not uniform. To account for this heterogeneity, we provide immunocytochemical evidence for variance in the intracellular density of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α-subunit 1 (HCN1), which mediates I h current. We also observed different combinations of HCN1 and HCN4 α-subunits from cell to cell. Lastly, based on the physiological data, we performed kinetic analysis for the I h current and generated a mathematical model to better understand varied I h on spiral ganglion function. Regardless of whether I h currents are recorded at the nerve terminals (Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010) or at the somata of spiral ganglion neurons, they have comparable mean half-activation voltage and induce similar resting membrane potential changes, and thus our model may also provide insights into the impact of I h on synaptic physiology.

  14. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  15. Hypoxia Induces a Metabolic Shift and Enhances the Stemness and Expansion of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that hypoxia (1% O2 enhances stemness markers and expands the cell numbers of cochlear stem/progenitor cells (SPCs. In this study, we further investigated the long-term effect of hypoxia on stemness and the bioenergetic status of cochlear spiral ganglion SPCs cultured at low oxygen tensions. Spiral ganglion SPCs were obtained from postnatal day 1 CBA/CaJ mouse pups. The measurement of oxygen consumption rate, extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels corresponding to 20% and 5% oxygen concentrations was determined using a Seahorse XF extracellular flux analyzer. After low oxygen tension cultivation for 21 days, the mean size of the hypoxia-expanded neurospheres was significantly increased at 5% O2; this correlated with high-level expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (Hif-1α, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1, Abcg2, nestin, and Nanog proteins but downregulated expression of p27 compared to that in a normoxic condition. Low oxygen tension cultivation tended to increase the side population fraction, with a significant difference found at 5% O2 compared to that at 20% O2. In addition, hypoxia induced a metabolic energy shift of SPCs toward higher basal ECARs and higher maximum mitochondrial respiratory capacity but lower proton leak than under normoxia, where the SPC metabolism was switched toward glycolysis in long-term hypoxic cultivation.

  16. A Cell Culture Model of Latent and Lytic Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Spiral Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuehong; Li, Shufeng

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is supposed to be one of the causes of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. This study aims to establish a cell culture model of latent and lytic HSV-1 infection in spiral ganglia. In the presence of acyclovir, primary cultures of SGNs were latently infected with HSV-1 expressing green fluorescent protein. Four days later, these cells were treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a known chemical reactivator of HSV-1. TCID50 was used to measure the titers of virus in cultures on Vero cells. RNA from cultures was detected for the presence of transcripts of ICP27 and latency-associated transcript (LAT) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There is no detectable infectious HSV-1 in latently infected cultures, whereas they could be observed in both lytically infected and latently infected/TSA-treated cultures. LAT was the only detectable transcript during latent infection, whereas lytic ICP27 transcript was detected in lytically infected and latently infected/TSA-treated cultures. Cultured SGNs can be both latently and lytically infected with HSV-1. Furthermore, latently infected SGNs can be reactivated using TSA, yielding infectious virus.

  17. The Three-Dimensional Culture System with Matrigel and Neurotrophic Factors Preserves the Structure and Function of Spiral Ganglion Neuron In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gaoying; Liu, Wenwen; Fan, Zhaomin; Zhang, Daogong; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Qi, Jieyu; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Bradley T; Bai, Xiaohui; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Whole organ culture of the spiral ganglion region is a resourceful model system facilitating manipulation and analysis of live sprial ganglion neurons (SGNs). Three-dimensional (3D) cultures have been demonstrated to have many biomedical applications, but the effect of 3D culture in maintaining the SGNs structure and function in explant culture remains uninvestigated. In this study, we used the matrigel to encapsulate the spiral ganglion region isolated from neonatal mice. First, we optimized the matrigel concentration for the 3D culture system and found the 3D culture system protected the SGNs against apoptosis, preserved the structure of spiral ganglion region, and promoted the sprouting and outgrowth of SGNs neurites. Next, we found the 3D culture system promoted growth cone growth as evidenced by a higher average number and a longer average length of filopodia and a larger growth cone area. 3D culture system also significantly elevated the synapse density of SGNs. Last, we found that the 3D culture system combined with neurotrophic factors had accumulated effects in promoting the neurites outgrowth compared with 3D culture or NFs treatment only groups. Together, we conclude that the 3D culture system preserves the structure and function of SGN in explant culture.

  18. Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikar, Jennifer A; Batts, Shelley A; Pfingst, Bryan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2009-05-15

    Current cochlear histology methods do not allow in situ processing of cochlear implants. The metal components of the implant preclude standard embedding and mid-modiolar sectioning, and whole mounts do not have the spatial resolution needed to view the implant within the scala tympani. One focus of recent auditory research is the regeneration of structures within the cochlea, particularly the ganglion cells and their processes, and there are multiple potential benefits to cochlear implant users from this work. To facilitate experimental investigations of auditory nerve regeneration performed in conjunction with cochlear implantation, it is critical to visualize the cochlear tissue and the implant together to determine if the nerve has made contact with the implant. This paper presents a novel histological technique that enables simultaneous visualization of the in situ cochlear implant and neurofilament-labeled nerve processes within the scala tympani, and the spatial relationship between them.

  19. The host of the Type I SLSN 2017egm. A young, sub-solar metallicity environment in a massive spiral galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; García-Benito, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Cano, Z.; Kann, D. A.; Bensch, K.; Della Valle, M.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hedrosa, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) host galaxies are predominantly low-metallicity, highly star-forming (SF) dwarfs. One of the current key questions is whether Type I SLSNe can only occur in such environments and hosts. Aims: Here we present an integral-field study of the massive, high-metallicity spiral NGC 3191, the host of SN 2017egm, the closest Type I SLSN known to date. We use data from PMAS/CAHA and the public MaNGA survey to shed light on the properties of the SLSN site and the origin of star formation in this non-starburst spiral galaxy. Methods: We map the physical properties of different H II regions throughout the galaxy and characterise their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT fitting code. Kinematical information allows us to study a possible interaction with its neighbouring galaxy as the origin of recent star formation activity which could have caused the SLSN. Results: NGC 3191 shows intense star formation in the western part with three large SF regions of low metallicity. Taking only the properties of emitting gas, the central regions of the host have a higher metallicity, a lower specific star formation rate, and lower ionisation. Modelling the stellar populations gives a different picture: the SLSN region has two dominant stellar populations with different ages, the younger one with an age of 2-10 Myr and lower metallicity, likely the population from which the SN progenitor originated. Emission line kinematics of NGC 3191 show indications of interaction with its neighbour MCG+08-19-017 at 45 kpc, which might be responsible for the recent starburst. In fact, this galaxy pair has hosted a total of four SNe, 1988B (Type Ia), SN 2003ds (Type Ic in MCG+08-19-017), PTF10bgl (Type II), and 2017egm, underlying the enhanced SF in both galaxies due to interaction. Conclusions: Our study shows that care should be taken when interpreting global host and even gas properties without looking at the stellar population history of the region

  20. Direct Reprogramming of Spiral Ganglion Non-neuronal Cells into Neurons: Toward Ameliorating Sensorineural Hearing Loss by Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Noda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary auditory neurons (PANs play a critical role in hearing by transmitting sound information from the inner ear to the brain. Their progressive degeneration is associated with excessive noise, disease and aging. The loss of PANs leads to permanent hearing impairment since they are incapable of regenerating. Spiral ganglion non-neuronal cells (SGNNCs, comprised mainly of glia, are resident within the modiolus and continue to survive after PAN loss. These attributes make SGNNCs an excellent target for replacing damaged PANs through cellular reprogramming. We used the neurogenic pioneer transcription factor Ascl1 and the auditory neuron differentiation factor NeuroD1 to reprogram SGNNCs into induced neurons (iNs. The overexpression of both Ascl1 and NeuroD1 in vitro generated iNs at high efficiency. Transcriptome analyses revealed that iNs displayed a transcriptome profile resembling that of endogenous PANs, including expression of several key markers of neuronal identity: Tubb3, Map2, Prph, Snap25, and Prox1. Pathway analyses indicated that essential pathways in neuronal growth and maturation were activated in cells upon neuronal induction. Furthermore, iNs extended projections toward cochlear hair cells and cochlear nucleus neurons when cultured with each respective tissue. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PAN-like neurons can be generated from endogenous SGNNCs. This work suggests that gene therapy can be a viable strategy to treat sensorineural hearing loss caused by degeneration of PANs.

  1. Requirement of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit β2 in the Maintenance of Spiral Ganglion Neurons during Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianxin; Lei, Debin; Du, Yafei; Ohlemiller, Kevin K.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Role, Lorna W.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a major health concern for the elderly. Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the primary sensory relay of the auditory system, is associated consistently with presbycusis. The causative molecular events responsible for age-related loss of SGNs are unknown. Recent reports directly link age-related neuronal loss in cerebral cortex with the loss of high-affinity nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In cochlea, cholinergic synapses are made by olivocochlear efferent fibers on the outer hair cells that express α9 nAChR subunits and on the peripheral projections of SGNs that express α2, α4 –7, and β2–3 nAChR subunits. A significantly decreased expression of the β2 nAChR subunit in SGNs was found specifically in mice susceptible to presbycusis. Furthermore, mice lacking the β2 nAChR subunit (β2−/−), but not mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit (α5−/−), have dramatic hearing loss and significant reduction in the number of SGNs. Our findings clearly established a requirement for β2 nAChR subunit in the maintenance of SGNs during aging. PMID:15788760

  2. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  3. Development of a cell-based treatment for long-term neurotrophin expression and spiral ganglion neuron survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, M P; Hellström, M; Shepherd, R K; Harvey, A R; Gillespie, L N

    2014-09-26

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the target cells of the cochlear implant, undergo gradual degeneration following loss of the sensory epithelium in deafness. The preservation of a viable population of SGNs in deafness can be achieved in animal models with exogenous application of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3. For translation into clinical application, a suitable delivery strategy that provides ongoing neurotrophic support and promotes long-term SGN survival is required. Cell-based neurotrophin treatment has the potential to meet the specific requirements for clinical application, and we have previously reported that Schwann cells genetically modified to express BDNF can support SGN survival in deafness for 4 weeks. This study aimed to investigate various parameters important for the development of a long-term cell-based neurotrophin treatment to support SGN survival. Specifically, we investigated different (i) cell types, (ii) gene transfer methods and (iii) neurotrophins, in order to determine which variables may provide long-term neurotrophin expression and which, therefore, may be the most effective for supporting long-term SGN survival in vivo. We found that fibroblasts that were nucleofected to express BDNF provided the most sustained neurotrophin expression, with ongoing BDNF expression for at least 30 weeks. In addition, the secreted neurotrophin was biologically active and elicited survival effects on SGNs in vitro. Nucleofected fibroblasts may therefore represent a method for safe, long-term delivery of neurotrophins to the deafened cochlea to support SGN survival in deafness. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective deletion of cochlear hair cells causes rapid age-dependent changes in spiral ganglion and cochlear nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-05-20

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357878-14$15.00/0.

  5. Fractalkine Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recruitment into the Cochlea and Promotes the Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons after Selective Hair Cell Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Zamani, Darius; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Hirose, Keiko; Warchol, Mark E

    2015-11-11

    Macrophages are recruited into the cochlea in response to injury caused by acoustic trauma or ototoxicity, but the nature of the interaction between macrophages and the sensory structures of the inner ear remains unclear. The present study examined the role of fractalkine signaling in regulating the injury-evoked behavior of macrophages following the selective ablation of cochlear hair cells. We used a novel transgenic mouse model in which the human diphtheria toxin receptor (huDTR) is selectively expressed under the control of Pou4f3, a hair cell-specific transcription factor. Administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to these mice resulted in nearly complete ablation of cochlear hair cells, with no evident pathology among supporting cells, spiral ganglion neurons, or cells of the cochlear lateral wall. Hair cell death led to an increase in macrophages associated with the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Their numbers peaked at 14 days after DT and then declined at later survival times. Increased macrophages were also observed within the spiral ganglion, but their numbers remained elevated for (at least) 56 d after DT. To investigate the role of fractalkine signaling in macrophage recruitment, we crossed huDTR mice to a mouse line that lacks expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1). Disruption of fractalkine signaling reduced macrophage recruitment into both the sensory epithelium and spiral ganglion and also resulted in diminished survival of spiral ganglion neurons after hair cell death. Our results suggest a fractalkine-mediated interaction between macrophages and the neurons of the cochlea. It is known that damage to the inner ear leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells (macrophages), but the chemical signals that initiate this recruitment and the functions of macrophages in the damaged ear are unclear. Here we show that fractalkine signaling regulates macrophage recruitment into the cochlea and also promotes the survival of cochlear afferents after

  6. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4

  7. Establishment of a long-term spiral ganglion neuron culture with reduced glial cell number: Effects of AraC on cell composition and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Jana; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Scheper, Verena

    2016-08-01

    Sensorineural deafness is mainly caused by damage to hair cells and degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Cochlear implants can functionally replace lost hair cells and stimulate the SGN electrically. The benefit from cochlear implantation depends on the number and excitability of these neurons. To identify potential therapies for SGN protection, in vitro tests are carried out on spiral ganglion cells (SGC). A glial cell-reduced and neuron-enhanced culture of neonatal rat SGC under mitotic inhibition (cytarabine (AraC)) for up to seven days is presented. Serum containing and neurotrophin-enriched cultures with and without AraC-addition were analyzed after 4 and 7 days. The total number of cells was significantly reduced, while the proportion of neurons was greatly increased by AraC-treatment. Cell type-specific labeling demonstrated that nearly all fibroblasts and most of the glial cells were removed. Neither the neuronal survival, nor the neurite outgrowth or soma diameter were negatively affected. Additionally neurites remain partly free of surrounding non-neuronal cells. Recent culture conditions allow only for short-term cultivation of neonatal SGC and lack information on the influence of non-neuronal cells on SGN and of direct contact of neurites with test-materials. AraC-addition reduces the number of non-neuronal cells and increases the ratio of SGN in culture, without negative impact on neuronal viability. This treatment allows longer-term cultivation of SGC and provides deeper insight into SGN-glial cell interaction and the attachment of neurites on test-material surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlemiller Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family.

  9. [A study on toxic effects of sodium salicylate on rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons: dopamine receptors mediate expressions of NMDA and GABAA receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting-Jia; Chen, Hui-Ying; Huang, Xi; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Su, Ji-Ping

    2017-06-25

    The aim of the present study was to observe whether dopamine receptor (DR) was involved in the effects of sodium salicylate (SS) on the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Forty-eight hours after primary culture of rat SGNs, immunofluorescence technique was applied to detect expressions of DR1 and DR2, the two subtypes of dopamine receptors. Western blot was performed to assess NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and GABA A receptor subunit α2 (GABRα2) protein expressions in the SGNs after the treatments of SS alone or in combination with DR antagonists. The results demonstrated that: (1) The DR1 and DR2 were expressed in the bodies and axons of the SGN; (2) After the treatment with SS, the surface protein expressions of GABRα2 and NR1 were decreased by 44.69% and 21.57%, respectively, while the total protein expressions showed no significant changes; (3) Neither SS + SCH23390 (DR1 antagonist) group nor SS + Eticlopride (DR2 antagonist) group showed significant differences in GABRα2 and NR1 surface protein expressions compared with the control group. These results suggest that SS regulates the surface GABA A and NMDA receptors trafficking on SGN, and the mechanism may involve DR mediation.

  10. Wnt1 from cochlear schwann cells enhances neuronal differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat spiral ganglion neuron degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya; Zhang, Peng-Zhi; Sun, Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Xing-Wang; Mao, Xiao-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Although neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is widely expected to become a therapy for nervous system degenerative diseases and injuries, the low neuronal differentiation rate of NSCs transplanted into the inner ear is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration. In this study, we validated whether the local microenvironment influences the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs in the inner ear. Using a rat SGN degeneration model, we demonstrated that transplanted NSCs were more likely to differentiate into microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive neurons in SGN-degenerated cochleae than in control cochleae. Using real-time quantitative PCR and an immunofluorescence assay, we also proved that the expression of Wnt1 (a ligand of Wnt signaling) increases significantly in Schwann cells in the SGN-degenerated cochlea. We further verified that NSC cultures express receptors and signaling components for Wnts. Based on these expression patterns, we hypothesized that Schwann cell-derived Wnt1 and Wnt signaling might be involved in the regulation of the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs. We verified our hypothesis in vitro using a coculture system. We transduced a lentiviral vector expressing Wnt1 into cochlear Schwann cell cultures and cocultured them with NSC cultures. The coculture with Wnt1-expressing Schwann cells resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of NSCs that differentiated into MAP2-positive neurons, whereas this differentiation-enhancing effect was prevented by Dkk1 (an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway). These results suggested that Wnt1 derived from cochlear Schwann cells enhanced the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs through Wnt signaling pathway activation. Alterations of the microenvironment deserve detailed investigation because they may help us to conceive effective strategies to overcome the barrier of the low differentiation rate of transplanted

  11. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  12. Periosteal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Zidkova, H.; Matejovsky, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Ganglionic cysts are a common myxomatous degenerative disorder in periarticular connective tissues particularly in the hand and foot as well as within the subchondral bone adjacent to osteoarthritic joints. Compared with them, periosteal ganglia are only rarely reported in the literature. Their radiologic features are quite typical as documented by the following observation. (orig.) [de

  13. Ganglion Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Ganglion Cysts Email to a friend * required fields ...

  14. Glutaric aciduria type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.; Berant, M.; Braun, J.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa; El-Peleg, O.; Christensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Serial CT findings in an infant with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) are reported. The major CT features were dilatation of the insular cisterns, regression of the temporal lobes, with 'bat wings' dilatation of the Sylvian fissures and hypodensity of the lenticular nuclei. CT changes preceded the onset of symptoms by 3 months. An improvement in the temporal lobe atrophy was seen after a period of treatment, coinciding with marked clinical improvement. A peculiar feature was the presence of external hydrocephalus, which diverted the attention from manifestations of the primary disease and thus constituted a diagnostic pitfall. The delineation and recognition of the characteristic radiologic manifestations of GA-I are essential for allowing an adequate radiologist/clinician interaction in diagnosing this inborn error of metabolism. (orig.)

  15. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  16. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Switzerland) even today can see the. Archimedian spiral and the inscription under it on the tombstone of Jacob Bernoulli 1. Logarithmic Spiral in Nature. Apart from logarithmic spiral no other curve seems to have attracted the attention of scientists, ...

  17. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with [ 3 H]thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development

  18. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan

    1992-01-01

    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  19. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  20. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  1. Type I signal peptidases of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Bron, Sierd; Jongbloed, Jan; Meijer, Wilfried J.J.; Noback, Michiel; van Roosmalen, Maarten; Venema, Gerhardus; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hopsu Havu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains at least three chromosomally-encoded type I signal peptidases (SPases; SipS, SipT, and SipU), which remove signal peptides from secretory proteins. In addition, certain B. subtilis (natto) strains contain plasmid-encoded type I SPases (SipP). The known type I SPases from

  2. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  3. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  4. The meniscus ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Normal dimensions of the meniscus quoted in the literature vary somewhat; measurements were therefore carried out on the height and width on standardised arthrograms. This made it possible to evaluate changes in the height of the meniscus objectively and to diagnose degeneration with a ganglion at an earlier stage. Taking into account other, secondary, signs, 261 meniscus ganglia were diagnosed amongst 3133 meniscus lesions (8.3%) in the course of 5650 knee arthrograms. These were confirmed at operation and histologically. For the first time it has been possible to provide an estimate of the frequency of meniscus ganglion in the radiological literature. (orig.) [de

  5. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes...... and the environment. The idea of dynamic coexistence is developed on this foundation. In the context of Werner and Kaplan’s work, dynamic coexistence represents the syncretic nature of processes and levels of organization: they are neither innately fused nor organized. Instead, the antithesis between fusion...

  6. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  7. PROTOPLANETARY DISK RESONANCES AND TYPE I MIGRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, David

    2011-01-01

    Waves reflected by the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk are shown to significantly modify Type I migration, even allowing the trapping of planets near the inner disk edge for small planets in a range of disk parameters. This may inform the distribution of planets close to their central stars, as observed recently by the Kepler mission.

  8. Getting “Inside” Type I IFNs: Type I IFNs in Intracellular Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deann T. Snyder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome. This review focuses on type I IFN induction and downstream consequences during infection with the following intracellular bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, Legionella pneumophila, and Coxiella burnetii. Intracellular bacterial infections are unique because the bacteria must avoid, circumvent, and even co-opt microbial “sensing” mechanisms in order to reside and replicate within a host cell. Furthermore, life inside a host cell makes intracellular bacteria more difficult to target with antibiotics. Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections.

  9. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the prospect of treating migraine with sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurostimulation. BACKGROUND: Fuelled by preliminary studies showing a beneficial effect in cluster headache patients, the potential of treating migraine with neurostimulation...

  10. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  11. Pryce type I sequestration: no mosquito shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayan; Malempati, Amaresh Rao; Nemani, Lalita

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with congenital dual arterial supply to an otherwise normal left lower lobe, causing hyperperfusion lung injury. In addition to near normal pulmonary arterial supply, the lower lobe of the left lung received a systemic arterial supply from the descending thoracic aorta. The patient was successfully managed by surgical ligation of the systemic arterial supply without lobectomy. We discuss when to defer lobectomy in Pryce type I sequestration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Survey of Type I ELM dynamics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A W; Asakura, N; Boedo, J A; Becoulet, M; Counsell, G F; Eich, T; Fundamenski, W; Herrmann, A; Horton, L D; Kamada, Y; Kirk, A; Kurzan, B; Loarte, A; Neuhauser, J; Nunes, I; Oyama, N; Pitts, R A; Saibene, G; Silva, C; Snyder, P B; Urano, H; Wade, M R; Wilson, H R

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Type I edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics measurements from a number of tokamaks, including ASDEX-Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U and MAST, with the goal of providing guidance and insight for the development of ELM simulation and modelling. Several transport mechanisms are conjectured to be responsible for ELM transport, including convective transport due to filamentary structures ejected from the pedestal, parallel transport due to edge ergodization or magnetic reconnection and turbulent transport driven by the high edge gradients when the radial electric field shear is suppressed. The experimental observations are assessed for their validation, or conflict, with these ELM transport conjectures

  13. Bipolar nebulae and type I planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, N.; Peimbert, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that the bipolar nature of PN of type I can be explained in terms of their relatively massive progenitors (Msub(i) 2.4 Msub(o)), that had to lose an appreciable fraction of their mass and angular momentum during their planetary nebulae stage. The following objects are discussed in relation with this suggestion: NGC 6302, NGC 2346, NGC 2440, CRL 618, Mz-3 and M2-9. It is found that CRL 618 is overbundant in N/O by a factor of 5-10 relative to the Orion Nebula. (author)

  14. Radiative transfer in type I supernovae atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isern, J.; Lopez, R.; Simonneau, E.

    1987-01-01

    Type I Supernovae are thought to be the result of the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon oxygen white dwarf in a close binary system. As the only direct information concerning the physics and the triggering mechanism of supernova explosions comes from the spectrophotometry of the emitted radiation, it is worthwhile to put considerable effort on the understanding of the radiation transfer in the supernovae envelopes in order to set constraints on the theoretical models of such explosions. In this paper we analyze the role played by the layers curvature on the radiative transfer. (Author)

  15. Type I supernova models vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Axelrod, T.S.; Woosley, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper explores tHe observational consequences of models for Type I supernovae based on the detonation (or deflagration) of the degenerate cores of white dwarfs or intermediate mass (approx. = 9 M/sub sun/) stars. Such nuclear burning can be initiated either at the center of the core or near its edge. The model examined in most detail is that of a 0.5M/sub sun/ C/O white dwarf which undergoes an edge-lit He/C/O detonation after accreting 0.62 M/sub sun/ of he at 10 -8 M/sub sun//yr. The light curve resulting from this model is found to be in excellent agreement with those observed for Type I supernovae, particularly those in the fast subclass. The physical processes involved in the detailed numerical calculations which lead to this conclusion are quantitatively elucidated by simple analytic models, and effects of uncertainties in the input physics are explored

  16. Light curve of type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Kriese, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the intermediate and late time luminosity of type I supernovae based on 100% efficiency for optical emission of energy deposited by the Ni 56 decay chain give good agreement with observations provided M/sub ej/ v -2 = (2.2 +- 0.5) x 10 17 M. s 2 cm -2 where M/sub ej/ is the ejected mass an v is the expansion velocity. Account must be taken of the escape of both gamma rays and positrons. These two escape processes as well as the early luminosity peak as calculated by Colgate and McKee are all consistent with the same value of M/sub ej//v 2

  17. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation. PMID:28515597

  19. Electromechanics of graphene spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Topi; Koskinen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.koskinen@iki.fi [NanoScience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Among the most fascinating nanostructure morphologies are spirals, hybrids of somewhat obscure topology and dimensionality with technologically attractive properties. Here, we investigate mechanical and electromechanical properties of graphene spirals upon elongation by using density-functional tight-binding, continuum elasticity theory, and classical force field molecular dynamics. It turns out that electronic properties are governed by interlayer interactions as opposed to strain effects. The structural behavior is governed by van der Waals interaction: in its absence spirals unfold with equidistant layer spacings, ripple formation at spiral perimeter, and steadily increasing axial force; in its presence, on the contrary, spirals unfold via smooth local peeling, complex geometries, and nearly constant axial force. These electromechanical trends ought to provide useful guidelines not only for additional theoretical investigations but also for forthcoming experiments on graphene spirals.

  20. Ameloblasts express type I collagen during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf-Weill, N; Gasse, B; Silvent, J; Bardet, C; Sire, J Y; Davit-Béal, T

    2014-05-01

    Enamel and enameloid, the highly mineralized tooth-covering tissues in living vertebrates, are different in their matrix composition. Enamel, a unique product of ameloblasts, principally contains enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), while enameloid possesses collagen fibrils and probably receives contributions from both odontoblasts and ameloblasts. Here we focused on type I collagen (COL1A1) and amelogenin (AMEL) gene expression during enameloid and enamel formation throughout ontogeny in the caudate amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl. In this model, pre-metamorphic teeth possess enameloid and enamel, while post-metamorphic teeth possess enamel only. In first-generation teeth, qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) on sections revealed that ameloblasts weakly expressed AMEL during late-stage enameloid formation, while expression strongly increased during enamel deposition. Using ISH, we identified COL1A1 transcripts in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during enameloid formation. COL1A1 expression in ameloblasts gradually decreased and was no longer detected after metamorphosis. The transition from enameloid-rich to enamel-rich teeth could be related to a switch in ameloblast activity from COL1A1 to AMEL synthesis. P. waltl therefore appears to be an appropriate animal model for the study of the processes involved during enameloid-to-enamel transition, especially because similar events probably occurred in various lineages during vertebrate evolution.

  1. Complete synchronization in coupled type-I neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Complete synchronization; noise; coupled type-I neurons. Abstract. For a system of type-I neurons bidirectionally coupled through a nonlinear feedback mechanism, we discuss the issue of ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  2. Compensating for Type-I Errors in Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunnström, Kjell; Tavakoli, Samira; Søgaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact on compensating for Type-I errors in video quality assessment. A Type-I error is to incorrectly conclude that there is an effect. The risk increases with the number of comparisons that are performed in statistical tests. Type-I errors are an issue often neglected...

  3. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S E Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization.

  4. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  5. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  6. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  7. Extrapancreatic Autoantibody Profiles in Type I Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Lebovitz, Evan E.; Bren, Kathleen E.; Bayat, Ahmad; Paviol, Scott; Wenzlau, Janet M.; Barriga, Katherine J.; Rewers, Marian; Harlan, David M.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Type I diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Although several islet cell autoantigens are known, the breadth and spectrum of autoantibody targets has not been fully explored. Here the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) antibody profiling technology was used to study islet and other organ-specific autoantibody responses in parallel. Examination of an initial cohort of 93 controls and 50 T1D subjects revealed that 16% of the diabetic subjects showed anti-gastric ATPase autoantibodies which did not correlate with autoantibodies against GAD65, IA2, or IA2-β. A more detailed study of a second cohort with 18 potential autoantibody targets revealed marked heterogeneity in autoantibody responses against islet cell autoantigens including two polymorphic variants of ZnT8. A subset of T1D subjects exhibited autoantibodies against several organ-specific targets including gastric ATPase (11%), thyroid peroxidase (14%), and anti-IgA autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (12%). Although a few T1D subjects showed autoantibodies against a lung-associated protein KCNRG (6%) and S100-β (8%), no statistically significant autoantibodies were detected against several cytokines. Analysis of the overall autoantibody profiles using a heatmap revealed two major subgroups of approximately similar numbers, consisting of T1D subjects with and without organ-specific autoantibodies. Within the organ-specific subgroup, there was minimal overlap among anti-gastric ATPase, anti-thyroid peroxidase, and anti-transglutaminase seropositivity, and these autoantibodies did not correlate with islet cell autoantibodies. Examination of a third cohort, comprising prospectively collected longitudinal samples from high-risk individuals, revealed that anti-gastric ATPase autoantibodies were present in several individuals prior to detection of islet autoantibodies and before clinical onset of T1D. Taken together

  8. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  9. Spirals on the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Munk

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiral eddies were first seen in the sun glitter on the Apollo Mission 30 years ago; they have since been recorded on SAR missions and in the infrared. The spirals are globally distributed, 10-25 km in size and overwhelmingly cyclonic. They have not been explained. Under light winds favorable to visualization, linear surface features with high surfactant density and low surface roughness are of common occurrence. We have proposed that frontal formations concentrate the ambient shear and prevailing surfactants. Horizontal shear instabilities ensue when the shear becomes comparable to the coriolis frequency. The resulting vortices wind the liner features into spirals. The hypothesis needs to be tested by prolonged measurements and surface truth. Spiral eddies are a manifestation of a sub-mesoscale oceanography associated with upper ocean stirring; dimensional considerations suggest a horizontal diffusivity of order 103 m2 s-1.

  10. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  11. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  12. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  13. High-Assurance Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    HIGH-ASSURANCE SPIRAL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO...MU 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave Pittsburgh, PA 15217 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon HA SPIRAL Code Synthesis KeYmaera X Hybrid Theorem Prover

  14. High assurance SPIRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Franz; Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Johnson, Jeremy R.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we introduce High Assurance SPIRAL to solve the last mile problem for the synthesis of high assurance implementations of controllers for vehicular systems that are executed in today's and future embedded and high performance embedded system processors. High Assurance SPIRAL is a scalable methodology to translate a high level specification of a high assurance controller into a highly resource-efficient, platform-adapted, verified control software implementation for a given platform in a language like C or C++. High Assurance SPIRAL proves that the implementation is equivalent to the specification written in the control engineer's domain language. Our approach scales to problems involving floating-point calculations and provides highly optimized synthesized code. It is possible to estimate the available headroom to enable assurance/performance trade-offs under real-time constraints, and enables the synthesis of multiple implementation variants to make attacks harder. At the core of High Assurance SPIRAL is the Hybrid Control Operator Language (HCOL) that leverages advanced mathematical constructs expressing the controller specification to provide high quality translation capabilities. Combined with a verified/certified compiler, High Assurance SPIRAL provides a comprehensive complete solution to the efficient synthesis of verifiable high assurance controllers. We demonstrate High Assurance SPIRALs capability by co-synthesizing proofs and implementations for attack detection and sensor spoofing algorithms and deploy the code as ROS nodes on the Landshark unmanned ground vehicle and on a Synthetic Car in a real-time simulator.

  15. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  16. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  17. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  18. The Peculiar Characteristics of Fish Type I Interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Boudinot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral type I interferons (IFNs have been discovered in fish. Genomic studies revealed their considerable number in many species; some genes encode secreted and non-secreted isoforms. Based on cysteine motifs, fish type I IFNs fall in two subgroups, which use two different receptors. Mammalian type I IFN genes are intronless while type III have introns; in fish, all have introns, but structurally, both subgroups belong to type I. Type I IFNs likely appeared early in vertebrates as intron containing genes, and evolved in parallel in tetrapods and fishes. The diversity of their repertoires in fish and mammals is likely a convergent feature, selected as a response to the variety of viral strategies. Several alternative nomenclatures have been established for different taxonomic fish groups, calling for a unified system. The specific functions of each type I gene remains poorly understood, as well as their interactions in antiviral responses. However, distinct induction pathways, kinetics of response, and tissue specificity indicate that fish type I likely are highly specialized, especially in groups where they are numerous such as salmonids or cyprinids. Unravelling their functional integration constitutes the next challenge to understand how these cytokines evolved to orchestrate antiviral innate immunity in vertebrates.

  19. Chiral Magnetic Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basar, Goekce; Dunne, Gerald V.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the presence of a very strong magnetic field in the chirally broken phase induces inhomogeneous expectation values, of a spiral nature along the magnetic field axis, for the currents of charge and chirality, when there is finite baryon density or an imbalance between left and right chiralities. This 'chiral magnetic spiral' is a gapless excitation transporting the currents of (i) charge (at finite chirality), and (ii) chirality (at finite baryon density) along the direction of the magnetic field. In both cases it also induces in the transverse directions oscillating currents of charge and chirality. In heavy ion collisions, the chiral magnetic spiral possibly provides contributions both to the out-of-plane and the in-plane dynamical charge fluctuations recently observed at BNL RHIC.

  20. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    of Euroscepticism’, taking media autonomy seriously to understand how media logics and selective devices contribute to the shaping of public discourse about the EU. We review the literature on the media and EU legitimacy to show how media frames and their amplification on social media can account for the salience......Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...... of Eurosceptic opinions in the public sphere that then push parties to contest the EU in predominantly negative terms....

  1. Embracing the Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical research demands that we interrogate our own positionality and social location. Critical reflexivity is a form of researcher critical consciousness that is constant and dynamic in a complex spiral-like process starting within our own experiences as racialized, gendered, and classed beings embedded in particular sociopolitical contexts. Across diverse critical methodologies, a group of graduate students and their supervisor explored their own conceptualization of the reflexivity spiral by reflecting on how their research motivations and methodologies emerged from their racializing, colonizing, language-learning, parenting, and identity negotiating experiences. In this article, they present a spiral model of the critical reflexivity process, review the literature on reflexivity, and conclude with a description of critical reflexivity as a social practice within a supportive and collaborative graduate school experience.

  2. The mirror transform of type I vacua in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.; Sethi, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study certain compactifications of the type I string on K3. The three topologically distinct choices of gauge bundles for the type I theory are shown to be equivalent to type IIB orientifolds with different choices of background anti-symmetric tensor field flux. Using a mirror transformation we relate these models to orientifolds with fixed seven planes, and without any anti-symmetric tensor field flux. This map allows us to relate these type I vacua to particular six-dimensional F-theory and heterotic string compactifications. (orig.)

  3. Type I interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezalel, Shira; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Asher, Ilan; Sthoeger, Zev Moshe

    2014-04-01

    Type I interferons (IFN) are primarily regarded as an inhibitor of viral replication. However, type I IFN, mainly IFNalpha, plays a major role in activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multi-systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. SLE is characterized by dysregulation of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. An increased expression of type I IFN-regulated genes, termed IFN signature, has been reported in patients with SLE. We review here the role of IFNalpha in the pathogenesis and course of SLE and the possible role of IFNalpha inhibition as a novel treatment for lupus patients.

  4. Rotational KMS States and Type I Conformal Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberto; Tanimoto, Yoh

    2018-01-01

    We consider KMS states on a local conformal net on S 1 with respect to rotations. We prove that, if the conformal net is of type I, namely if it admits only type I DHR representations, then the extremal KMS states are the Gibbs states in an irreducible representation. Completely rational nets, the U(1)-current net, the Virasoro nets and their finite tensor products are shown to be of type I. In the completely rational case, we also give a direct proof that all factorial KMS states are Gibbs states.

  5. The spinning ball spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  6. GBAmutations in Gaucher type I Venezuelan patients: ethnic origins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gilberto GÓmez

    2017-09-08

    Sep 8, 2017 ... In Venezuela, 20 unrelated index cases with GD type I were ..... S, splenomegaly; T, thrombocytopenia; Bc, bone crisis; Hy, hypotonia; NA, data not available; ..... Management of neuronopathic Gaucher disease: a European.

  7. D-strings in unconventional type I vacuum configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Gava, E.; Morales, F.; Narain, K.S.

    1998-11-01

    We determine the spectrum of D-string bound states in various classes of generalized type I vacuum configurations with sixteen and eight supercharges. The precise matching of the BPS spectra confirms the duality between unconventional type IIB orientfolds with quantized NS-NS antisymmetric tensor and heterotic CHL models in D=8. A similar analysis puts the duality between type II (4,0) models and type I strings without open strings on a firmer ground. The analysis can be extended to type II (2,0) asymmetric orbifolds and their type I duals that correspond to unconventional K3 compactifications. Finally we discuss BPS-saturated threshold corrections to the corresponding low-energy effective lagrangians. In particular we show how the exact moduli dependence of some F 4 terms in the eight-dimensional type II (4,0) orbifold is reproduced by the infinite sum of D-instanton contributions in the dual type I theory. (author)

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  9. Characterization of a propylthiouracil-insensitive type I iodothyronine deiodinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders (Jo); S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMammalian type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) activates and inactivates thyroid hormone by outer ring deiodination (ORD) and inner ring deiodination (IRD), respectively, and is potently inhibited by propylthiouracil (PTU). Here we describe the cloning and

  10. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  11. CT and fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects and usefulness of fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan. Celiac ganglion block with 100% ethyl alcohol was performed in 50 cancer patients who were inoperable and had intractable abdominal pain. Duration and degree of pain relief after the procedure and its complication were analyzed. Early pain relief was observed in 98% and long term relief in 68% without serious complication. Fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan was a safe and valuable procedure in relieving intractable pain in terminal cancer patients and reduced the time in the CT room

  12. Mechanism of the thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their intrinsically low thermal conductivity, intermetallic type-I clathrates are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion, most notably for waste-heat recovery above room temperature. Combining their low thermal conductivity with the enhanced electrical power factor of strongly correlated materials can be considered as one of the most promising routes to a next generation thermoelectric material. However, although much investigated, the physical origin of the low thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates is still debated. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis was to gain deeper insight into the mechanism of the low thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates. On the basis of recent inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering studies on type-I clathrates and skutterudites, an analytical model for describing the phonon thermal conductivity of such filled cage compounds was developed within this thesis. This model is based on the phononic filter effect and on strongly enhanced Umklapp scattering. Data on several Ge-based single crystalline type-I clathrates are discussed in the context of this model, revealing the influence of host framework vacancies, charge carriers, and large defects such as grain boundaries on the low-temperature thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates. Since for waste heat recovery the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures is of interest, a sophisticated 3w-experiment for accurate measurements of bulk and thin film materials at elevated temperatures was developed. With the help of this experiment, a universal dependence of the intrinsic phonon thermal conductivity of type-I clathrates on the sound velocity and the lowest-lying guest Einstein mode was demonstrated for the first time. Further investigations on thermoelectric materials including the first Ce-containing type-I clathrate, skutterudites, and thin films complete this doctoral work. (author)

  13. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1989-10-01

    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  15. Type I interferons in tuberculosis: Foe and occasionally friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Teixeira, Lúcia; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sher, Alan; O'Garra, Anne

    2018-05-07

    Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and, despite its clinical significance, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of pathogenic and protective mechanisms triggered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Type I interferons (IFN) regulate a broad family of genes that either stimulate or inhibit immune function, having both host-protective and detrimental effects, and exhibit well-characterized antiviral activity. Transcriptional studies have uncovered a potential deleterious role for type I IFN in active tuberculosis. Since then, additional studies in human tuberculosis and experimental mouse models of M. tuberculosis infection support the concept that type I IFN promotes both bacterial expansion and disease pathogenesis. More recently, studies in a different setting have suggested a putative protective role for type I IFN. In this study, we discuss the mechanistic and contextual factors that determine the detrimental versus beneficial outcomes of type I IFN induction during M. tuberculosis infection, from human disease to experimental mouse models of tuberculosis. © 2018 Moreira-Teixeira et al.

  16. [Vertebral fractures in children with Type I Osteogenesis imperfecta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Andrea M; Terrazas, Claudia V; Sáez, Josefina; Reyes, María L

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an hereditary disease affecting conective tissue, mainly associated to growth retardation and pathological fractures. OI type I (OI type I), is the mildest, most often, and homogeneous in its fenotype. Vertebral fractures are the most significant complications, associated to skeletical and cardiopulmonary morbidity. To characterize clinically a cohort of children with OI type I. A cohort of OI type I children younger than 20 year old was evaluated. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiological data were registered. Sixty seven patients were included, 55% male, 69% resident in the Metropolitan Region. The mean age of diagnose was 2.9 years, 70% presented vertebral fractures on follow-up, mostly thoracic, and 50% before the age of 5 years. Fifty percentage presented vertebral fractures at diagnose, which was about the age of 5 years. Bone metabolic parameters were in the normal range, without significant change at the moment of vertebral fractures. Calcium intake was found to be below American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations at the time of the first fracture. In this study OI type I has an early diagnose, and vertebral fractures show a high incidence, mostly in toddlers. Calcium intake was found to be below reccomended values, and should be closely supervised in these patients.

  17. ATM supports gammaherpesvirus replication by attenuating type I interferon pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Eric J; Stoltz, Kyle P; Ledwith, Mitchell; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2017-10-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages. Using a mouse model that combines ATM and type I IFN receptor deficiencies we show that increased type I IFN response in the absence of ATM fully accounts for the proviral role of ATM during gammaherpesvirus replication. Further, increased type I IFN response rendered ATM deficient macrophages more susceptible to antiviral effects of type II IFN. This study identifies attenuation of type I IFN responses as the primary mechanism underlying proviral function of ATM during gammaherpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  19. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [de

  20. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  1. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  2. Spiral nonimaging optical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. Some of these spiral symmetry examples will be shown here, as well as their simulated results.

  3. Spiral 2 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop

  4. Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Sahoo, Bindusar; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2010-06-01

    We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)

  5. Heterotic/type I duality and D-brane instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachas, C.; Fabre, C.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N. A.; Vanhove, P.

    1998-01-01

    We study heterotic/type I duality in d = 8, 9 uncompactified dimensions. We consider the special ("BPS-saturated") F4 and R4 terms in the effective one-loop heterotic action, which are expected to be non-perturbatively exact. Under the standard duality map these translate to tree-level, perturbative and non-perturbative contributions on the type I side. We check agreement with the one-loop open string calculation, and discuss the higher-order perturbative contributions, which arise because of the mild non-holomorphicities of the heterotic elliptic genus. We put the heterotic world-sheet instanton corrections in a form that can be motivated as arising from a D-brane instanton calculation on the type I side.

  6. Heterotic/type I duality and D-brane instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, C.; Fabre, C.; Vanhove, P.

    1998-01-01

    We study heterotic/type I duality in d=8,9 uncompactified dimensions. We consider the special (''BPS-saturated'') F 4 and R 4 terms in the effective one-loop heterotic action, which are expected to be non-perturbatively exact. Under the standard duality map these translate to tree-level, perturbative and non-perturbative contributions on the type I side. We check agreement with the one-loop open string calculation, and discuss the higher-order perturbative contributions, which arise because of the mild non-holomorphicities of the heterotic elliptic genus. We put the heterotic world-sheet instanton corrections in a form that can be motivated as arising from a D-brane instanton calculation on the type I side. (orig.)

  7. Heterotic / type-I duality and D-brane instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, C P; Kiritsis, Elias B; Obers, N A; Vanhove, P

    1998-01-01

    We study heterotic/type-I duality in d=8,9 uncompactified dimensions. We consider the special (``BPS saturated'') F^4 and R^4 terms in the effective one-loop heterotic action, which are expected to be non-perturbatively exact. Under the standard duality map these translate to tree-level, perturbative and non-perturbative contributions on the type I side. We check agreement with the one-loop open string calculation, and discuss the higher-order perturbative contributions, which arise because of the mild non-holomorphicities of the heterotic elliptic genus. We put the heterotic world-sheet instanton corrections in a form that can be recognized easily as arising from a D-brane instanton calculation on the type-I side.

  8. Type I interferons instigate fetal demise after Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockey, Laura J; Jurado, Kellie A; Arora, Nitin; Millet, Alon; Rakib, Tasfia; Milano, Kristin M; Hastings, Andrew K; Fikrig, Erol; Kong, Yong; Horvath, Tamas L; Weatherbee, Scott; Kliman, Harvey J; Coyne, Carolyn B; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2018-01-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, growth restriction, and fetal demise. Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential for host resistance against ZIKV, and IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. Severe fetal growth restriction with placental damage and fetal resorption is observed after ZIKV infection of type I IFN receptor knockout ( Ifnar1 -/- ) dams mated with wild-type sires, resulting in fetuses with functional type I IFN signaling. The role of type I IFNs in limiting or mediating ZIKV disease within this congenital infection model remains unknown. In this study, we challenged Ifnar1 -/- dams mated with Ifnar1 +/- sires with ZIKV. This breeding scheme enabled us to examine pregnant dams that carry a mixture of fetuses that express ( Ifnar1 +/- ) or do not express IFNAR ( Ifnar1 -/- ) within the same uterus. Virus replicated to a higher titer in the placenta of Ifnar1 -/- than within the Ifnar1 +/- concepti. Yet, rather unexpectedly, we found that only Ifnar1 +/- fetuses were resorbed after ZIKV infection during early pregnancy, whereas their Ifnar1 -/- littermates continue to develop. Analyses of the fetus and placenta revealed that, after ZIKV infection, IFNAR signaling in the conceptus inhibits development of the placental labyrinth, resulting in abnormal architecture of the maternal-fetal barrier. Exposure of midgestation human chorionic villous explants to type I IFN, but not type III IFNs, altered placental morphology and induced cytoskeletal rearrangements within the villous core. Our results implicate type I IFNs as a possible mediator of pregnancy complications, including spontaneous abortions and growth restriction, in the context of congenital viral infections. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. MRI-visible pericochlear lesions in osteogenesis imperfecta type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziyeh, S.; Berger, R.; Reisner, K.

    2000-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited generalized disorder of type-I collagen synthesis often associated with hearing loss. We present a case of OI type I in which hearing loss led to examination of the temporal bone with MRI. In the osseous otic capsule MRI demonstrated pericochlear lesions with soft tissue signal intensity and contrast enhancement. Changes similar to otosclerosis have been described in the temporal bone of OI patients when applying CT, but reports on MRI findings do not yet exist. (orig.)

  10. MRI-visible pericochlear lesions in osteogenesis imperfecta type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyeh, S.; Berger, R.; Reisner, K. [Radiologische Klinik, St. Vincentiuskrankenhaeuser, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited generalized disorder of type-I collagen synthesis often associated with hearing loss. We present a case of OI type I in which hearing loss led to examination of the temporal bone with MRI. In the osseous otic capsule MRI demonstrated pericochlear lesions with soft tissue signal intensity and contrast enhancement. Changes similar to otosclerosis have been described in the temporal bone of OI patients when applying CT, but reports on MRI findings do not yet exist. (orig.)

  11. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: During each of the 10-test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle, and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  12. Redistribution of blood volume in Type I diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubels, FL; Muntinga, JHJ; Links, TP; Hoogenberg, K; Dullaart, RPF; Smit, AJ

    Aims/hypothesis. Impaired activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus will cause an increased vascular tone. Considering the lower production of nitric oxide in veins than in arteries, an impaired activity would have less vasoconstrictive effect in

  13. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  14. Bianchi Type-I Universe with wet dark fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi-type Universe; wet dark fluid; cosmological parameters. Abstract. The Bianchi Type-I Universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has been considered. A new equation of ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  15. Dentin dysplasia type I : Five cases within one family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Batenburg, RHK; Vissink, A

    Five cases of dentin dysplasia type I within one family are described. Clinically and radiologically, such patients are characterized by a delayed eruption pattern, opacity of the incisional margins, hypermobility of the teeth, short and defective roots, and obliterated pulp chambers. A conservative

  16. Quality of life of patients with type I diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, HE; Bilo, HJG; Redekop, WK; Stolk, RP; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess health related quality of life (QOL) in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DMT1) and to compare their QOL with the QOL of persons of comparable age in the general population. Furthermore we wanted to investigate which factors mostly influence QOL. In a

  17. Bianchi Type-I Universe with wet dark fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Bianchi Type-I Universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has ... model is in the spirit of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) [9], where a physically motivated .... From the mechanical point of view, eq. (2.28) can be ...

  18. Bianchi type I inflationary universe in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type I inflationary universe in the presence of massless scalar field with a flat potential. To get an inflationary solution, we have considered a flat region in which potential is constant. The inflationary scenario of the model is discussed in detail.

  19. Bianchi type I inflationary universe in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type I inflationary universe in the presence of massless scalar field with a flat potential. To get an inflationary solution, we have considered a flat region in which potentialV is constant. The inflationary scenario of the model is discussed in detail. Keywords. Inflationary universe ...

  20. Audiological findings in children with mucopolysaccharidoses type i-iv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Gamarra, María F; de Paula-Vernetta, Carlos; Vitoria Miñana, Isidro; Ibañez-Alcañiz, Isabel; Cavallé-Garrido, Laura; Alamar-Velazquez, Agustín

    The aim of our study is to reflect hearing impairment of 23children diagnosed with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) typeI, II, III and IV. Retrospective study of the clinical, audiological and treatment (medical vs surgical) findings of 23children diagnosed with MPS typeI, II, III or IV followed at a Tertiary Referral Hospital between 1997 and 2015. Six cases of MPSI, 8 of MPSII, 4 of MPSIII and 5 of MPSIV were reviewed. 71.2% of patients had secretory otitis media (SOM) and 54% of patients had some type of hearing loss (HL). The behaviour of hearing loss was variable in each of the subgroups of MPS, finding greater involvement and variability in typesI and II. Children with MPS have a high risk of hearing loss. A significant percentage of transmissive HL progressing to mixed or sensorineural HL was observed. This was more common in typesI and II. Periodic follow up of these patients is mandatory because of hearing impairment and consequences for their development and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  1. Type I collagen from bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) fallopian tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana catesbeiana) with a yield of 16.4%, on a dry weight basis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the PSC contained two alpha components (α1 and α2) and was classified as type I collagen ...

  2. Type I supernovae and angular anisotropy of the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Denmat, Gerard; Vigier, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    The observation of type I supernovae in distant galaxies yields an homogeneous sample of sources to evaluate their true distance. An examination of their distribution in the sky provides a significant confirmation of the angular anisotropy of the Hubble constant already observed by Rubin, Rubin and Ford [fr

  3. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  4. Genomic Analysis of Pathogenicity Determinants in Mycobacterium kansasii Type I

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Qingtian

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacteria, a genus within Actinobacteria Phylum, are well known for two pathogens that cause human diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Other than the obligate human mycobacteria, there is a group of bacteria that are present in the environment and occasionally cause diseases in immunocompromised persons: the non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii, which was first discovered in the Kansas state, is the main etiologic agent responsible for lung infections caused by NTM and raises attention because of its co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Five subspecies of M. kansasii (Type I-V) were described and only M. kansasii Type I is pathogenic to humans. M. kansasii is a Gram-positive bacteria that has a unique cell wall and secretion system, which is essential for its pathogenicity. We undertook a comparative genomics and transcriptomic approach to identify components of M. kansasii Type I pathogenicity. Our previous study showed that espA (ESX-1 essential protein) operon, a major component of the secretion system, is exclusively present in M. kansasii Type I. The purpose of this study was to test the functional role of the espA operon in pathogenicity and identify other components that may also be involved in pathogenicity. This study provides a new molecular diagnostic method for M. kansasii Type I infection using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique to target the espAoperon. With detailed manual curation of the comparative genomics datasets, we found several genes exclusively present in M. kansasii Type I including ppsA/ppsC and whiB6, that we believe are involved, or have an effect on ESX-mediated secretion system. We have also highlighted, in our study, the differences in genetic components coding for the cell membrane composition between the five subspecies of M. kansasii. These results shed light on genetic components that are responsible for pathogenicity determinants in Type I M. kansasii and may help to design better

  5. Nature of galaxy spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of galaxy spiral arms is discussed in a popular form. Two approaches in the theory of spiral arms are considered; they are related to the problem of differential galaxy rotation and the spiral structure wave theory. The example of Galaxy M31 is considered to compare the structural peculiarity of its spiral arms with the wave theory predictions. The situation in the central and south-eastern part of arm S4 in Galaxy M31 noted to be completely explained by the wave theory and modern concepts on the origin of massive stars

  6. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  7. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  8. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  9. Guidelines for management of glycogen storage disease type I - European study on glycogen storage disease type I (ESGSD I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rake, JP; Visser, G; Labrune, P; Leonard, JV; Ullrich, K; Smit, GPA

    2002-01-01

    Life-expectancy in glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I) has improved considerably. Its relative rarity implies that no metabolic centre has experience of large series of patients and experience with long-term management and follow-up at each centre is limited. There is wide variation in methods

  10. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Major Observing Programme Leads to New Theory of Galaxy Formation Summary Most present-day large galaxies are spirals, presenting a disc surrounding a central bulge. Famous examples are our own Milky Way or the Andromeda Galaxy. When and how did these spiral galaxies form? Why do a great majority of them present a massive central bulge? An international team of astronomers [1] presents new convincing answers to these fundamental questions. For this, they rely on an extensive dataset of observations of galaxies taken with several space- and ground-based telescopes. In particular, they used over a two-year period, several instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope. Among others, their observations reveal that roughly half of the present-day stars were formed in the period between 8,000 million and 4,000 million years ago, mostly in episodic burst of intense star formation occurring in Luminous Infrared Galaxies. From this and other evidence, the astronomers devised an innovative scenario, dubbed the "spiral rebuilding". They claim that most present-day spiral galaxies are the results of one or several merger events. If confirmed, this new scenario could revolutionise the way astronomers think galaxies formed. PR Photo 02a/05: Luminosity - Oxygen Abundance Relation for Galaxies (VLT) PR Photo 02b/05: The Spiral Rebuilding Scenario A fleet of instruments How and when did galaxies form? How and when did stars form in these island universes? These questions are still posing a considerable challenge to present-day astronomers. Front-line observational results obtained with a fleet of ground- and space-based telescopes by an international team of astronomers [1] provide new insights into these fundamental issues. For this, they embarked on an ambitious long-term study at various wavelengths of 195 galaxies with a redshift [2] greater than 0.4, i.e. located more than 4000 million light-years away. These galaxies were studied using ESO's Very Large Telescope, as well as the

  11. Search for harmonic emission in solar type I radio bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Benz, A.O.

    1982-03-01

    We have made a statistical analysis of the harmonic emission of type I bursts, based upon the latest plasma wave theories for the emission mechanism. No systematic harmonic emission is found within the detection limit. This is also the case for a superposed epoch analysis of many bursts. The derived upper limit of the Langmuir wave energy density is Wsub(L)<5 10/sup -7/.lsub(km)/sup -1/ erg cm/sup -3/, where lsub(km) is the depth of the source. In a few single cases there is emission at the harmonic frequency but we could not exclude that this are change hits of an independent activity present at that frequency. These observations provide a considerable constraint on plasma emission models of type I bursts.

  12. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  13. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  14. Global extinction in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, RB; Pierce, MJ; Saunders, W; Verheijen, MAW; Witchalls, PL

    Magnitude-limited samples of spiral galaxies drawn from the Ursa Major and Pisces Clusters are used to determine their extinction properties as a function of inclination. Imaging photometry is available for 87 spirals in the B, R, I, and K' bands. Extinction causes systematic scatter in

  15. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, Dimitar R; Stock, Erik; Franz, Clemens M; Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I

  16. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr

    2013-12-21

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified.

  17. The 1974 Type I supernova in NGC 4414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patchett, B.; Wood, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of Miss Burgat's supernova in NGC 4414 were taken with the Isaac Newton 2.5-m reflector during 1974 April and May. The spectra cover the period from just before maximum light to 20 days post-maximum, and show many features typical of Type I supernovae. In addition secondary features in the spectrum indicate the presence of thin shell or filamentary structure. A photographic light curve and direct plate are presented. (author)

  18. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, Dimitar R, E-mail: stamov@jpk.com [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Franz, Clemens M [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I.

  19. Notes on Type I Subjective Motion Expressions in English

    OpenAIRE

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we deal with what Matsumoto calls Type I subjective motion expressions in English. According to Matsumoto they cannot occur with frequency adverbs and do not generally allow the progressive aspect. We show that his observation is not valid by presenting naturally occurring examples of the expressions which involve frequency adverbs and the progressive aspect, respectively. Further we investigate how the frequency adverbs are allowed and what functions the progressive aspect has....

  20. Type I supergravity effective action from pure spinor formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Geova

    2009-01-01

    Using the pure spinor formalism, we compute the tree-level correlation functions for three strings, one closed and two open, in N = 1 D = 10 superspace. Expanding the superfields in components, the respective terms of the effective action for the type I supergravity are obtained. All terms found agree with the effective action known in the literature. This result gives one more consistency test for the pure spinor formalism.

  1. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified

  2. Type I Gaucher disease: extraosseous extension of skeletal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Moedder, U.; Dahl, S. vom; Haeussinger, D.; Sarbia, M.; Niederau, C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the frequency and morphology of extraosseous extension in patients with Gaucher disease type I.Design and patients. MRI examinations of the lower extremities were analyzed in 70 patients with Gaucher disease type I. Additionally, the thoracic spine and the midface were investigated on MRI in two patients.Results. Four cases are presented in which patients with Gaucher disease type I and severe skeletal involvement developed destruction or protrusion of the cortex with extraosseous extension into soft tissues. In one patient, Gaucher cell deposits destroyed the cortex of the mandible and extended into the masseter muscle. In the second patient, multiple paravertebral masses with localized destruction of the cortex were apparent in the thoracic spine. In the third and fourth patient, cortical destruction with extraosseous tissue extending into soft tissues was seen in the lower limbs.Conclusions. Extraosseous extension is a rare manifestation of Gaucher bone disease. While an increased risk of cancer, especially hematopoietic in origin, is known in patients with Gaucher disease, these extraosseous benign manifestations that may mimic malignant processes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extraosseous extension into soft tissues. A narrow neck of tissue was apparent in all cases connecting bone and extraosseous extensions. (orig.)

  3. Identification of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase as a selenoenzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Kyriakopoulos, A.; Meinhold, H.; Koehrle, J.

    1990-01-01

    A 27.8 kDa membrane selenoprotein was previously identified in rat thyroid, liver and kidney, the tissues with the highest activities of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. This membrane enzyme catalyzes the deiodination of L-thyroxine to the biologically active thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodothyronine. A decrease in the activity of this enzyme, observed here in the liver of selenium-deficient rats, was found to be due to the absence of a selenium-dependent membrane-bound component. By chemical and enzymatic fragmentation of the 75 Se-labeled selenoprotein and of the 27 kDa substrate binding type I 5'-deiodinase subunit, affinity-labeled with N-bromoacetyl-[ 125 I]L-thyroxine, and comparison of the tracer distribution in the peptide fragments the identity of the two proteins was shown. The data indicate that the deiodinase subunit contains one selenium atom per molecule and suggest that a highly reactive selenocysteine is the residue essential for the catalysis of 5'-deiodination. From the results it can be concluded that type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase is a selenoenzyme

  4. Central Role of ULK1 in Type I Interferon Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Saleiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide evidence that the Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1 is activated during engagement of the type I interferon (IFN receptor (IFNR. Our studies demonstrate that the function of ULK1 is required for gene transcription mediated via IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE and IFNγ activation site (GAS elements and controls expression of key IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We identify ULK1 as an upstream regulator of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and establish that the regulatory effects of ULK1 on ISG expression are mediated possibly by engagement of the p38 MAPK pathway. Importantly, we demonstrate that ULK1 is essential for antiproliferative responses and type I IFN-induced antineoplastic effects against malignant erythroid precursors from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Together, these data reveal a role for ULK1 as a key mediator of type I IFNR-generated signals that control gene transcription and induction of antineoplastic responses.

  5. Type I-II laryngeal cleft: clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonimsky, Guy; Carmel, Eldar; Drendel, Michael; Lipschitz, Noga; Wolf, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Laryngeal cleft (LC) is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting in a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorders and aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. The mild forms (types I-II) may be underdiagnosed, leading to protracted symptomatology and morbidity. To evaluate the diagnostic process, clinical course, management and outcome in children with type I-II laryngeal clefts. We conducted a retrospective case analysis for the years 2005-2012 in a tertiary referral center. Seven children were reviewed: five boys and two girls ranging in age from birth to 5 years. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, aspirations and pneumonia. Evaluation procedures included fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FOL), direct laryngoscopy (DL) and videofluoroscopy. Other pathologies were seen in three children. Six children underwent successful endoscopic surgery and one child was treated conservatively. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful in most of the cases. Types I-II LC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with protracted cough and aspirations. DL is crucial for establishing the diagnosis. Endoscopic surgery is safe and should be applied promptly when conservative measures fail.

  6. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  7. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  8. Piriformis ganglion: An uncommon cause of sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jeong, H J; Shin, H K; Park, S J; Lee, J H; Kim, E

    2016-04-01

    Sciatica can occur due to a spinal lesion, intrapelvic tumor, diabetic neuropathy, and rarely piriformis syndrome. The causes of piriformis syndrome vary by a space-occupying lesion. A ganglionic cyst can occur in various lesions in the body but seldom around the hip joint. In addition, sciatica due to a ganglionic cyst around the hip joint has been reported in one patient in Korea who underwent surgical treatment. We experienced two cases of sciatica from a piriformis ganglionic cyst and we report the clinical characterics and progress after non-operative treatment by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. The two cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and were treated by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. We followed the patients for more than 6months. The symptoms of piriformis syndrome from the ganglion improved following aspiration and this conservative treatment is a treatment method that can be used without extensive incision or cyst excision. Level IV historical case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jog, Chanda J.; Combes, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The light distribution in the disks of many galaxies is 'lopsided' with a spatial extent much larger along one half of a galaxy than the other, as seen in M101. Recent observations show that the stellar disk in a typical spiral galaxy is significantly lopsided, indicating asymmetry in the disk mass distribution. The mean amplitude of lopsidedness is 0.1, measured as the Fourier amplitude of the m=1 component normalized to the average value. Thus, lopsidedness is common, and hence it is important to understand its origin and dynamics. This is a new and exciting area in galactic structure and dynamics, in contrast to the topic of bars and two-armed spirals (m=2) which has been extensively studied in the literature. Lopsidedness is ubiquitous and occurs in a variety of settings and tracers. It is seen in both stars and gas, in the outer disk and the central region, in the field and the group galaxies. The lopsided amplitude is higher by a factor of two for galaxies in a group. The lopsidedness has a strong impact on the dynamics of the galaxy, its evolution, the star formation in it, and on the growth of the central black hole and on the nuclear fuelling. We present here an overview of the observations that measure the lopsided distribution, as well as the theoretical progress made so far to understand its origin and properties. The physical mechanisms studied for its origin include tidal encounters, gas accretion and a global gravitational instability. The related open, challenging problems in this emerging area are discussed

  10. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Brunenders: a partially attenuated historic poliovirus type I vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Liu, Ying; Brandjes, Alies; van Hoek, Vladimir; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Brunenders, a type I poliovirus (PV) strain, was developed in 1952 by J. F. Enders and colleagues through serial in vitro passaging of the parental Brunhilde strain, and was reported to display partial neuroattenuation in monkeys. This phenotype of attenuation encouraged two vaccine manufacturers to adopt Brunenders as the type I component for their inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPVs) in the 1950s, although today no licensed IPV vaccine contains Brunenders. Here we confirmed, in a transgenic mouse model, the report of Enders on the reduced neurovirulence of Brunenders. Although dramatically neuroattenuated relative to WT PV strains, Brunenders remains more virulent than the attenuated oral vaccine strain, Sabin 1. Importantly, the neuroattenuation of Brunenders does not affect in vitro growth kinetics and in vitro antigenicity, which were similar to those of Mahoney, the conventional type I IPV vaccine strain. We showed, by full nucleotide sequencing, that Brunhilde and Brunenders differ at 31 nucleotides, eight of which lead to amino acid changes, all located in the capsid. Upon exchanging the Brunenders capsid sequence with that of the Mahoney capsid, WT neurovirulence was regained in vivo, suggesting a role for the capsid mutations in Brunenders attenuation. To date, as polio eradication draws closer, the switch to using attenuated strains for IPV is actively being pursued. Brunenders preceded this novel strategy as a partially attenuated IPV strain, accompanied by decades of successful use in the field. Providing data on the attenuation of Brunenders may be of value in the further construction of attenuated PV strains to support the grand pursuit of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

  12. [Pseudohypoaldosteronisme type I: a rare cause of failure to thrive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derache, A-F; Rousseau, S; Holder-Espinasse, M; Bouquillon, S; Bresson, S; Ythier, H; Ganga-Zandzou, P-S

    2012-05-01

    We report on a boy, born on term, presenting with a weight loss and a persistent failure to thrive after 10 days despite a normal behavior under bottle-feeding. The clinical examination was normal and biological assessment revealed hyponatremia with hyponatriuria, normal kaliemia and elevated aldosterone values, leading to type I pseudohypoaldosteronism diagnosis. Treatment with salt supplementation allowed growth improvement. The diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of a mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor. This change was also found in several family members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Type-I superconductivity and neutron star precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2005-01-01

    Type-I proton superconducting cores of neutron stars break up in a magnetic field into alternating domains of superconducting and normal fluids. We examine two channels of superfluid-normal fluid friction where (i) rotational vortices are decoupled from the nonsuperconducting domains and the interaction is due to the strong force between protons and neutrons; (ii) the nonsuperconducting domains are dynamically coupled to the vortices and the vortex motion generates transverse electric fields within them, causing electronic current flow and Ohmic dissipation. The obtained dissipation coefficients are consistent with the Eulerian precession of neutron stars

  14. Raman scattering of type-I clathrate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Ogita, N.; Udagawa, M.; Avila, M.A.; Takabatake, T.

    2006-01-01

    Lattice dynamical properties of the type-I clathrate compounds of A 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 (A=Eu, Sr, Ba) have been investigated by Raman scattering. We are successful in the assignment of the observed Raman active phonons to proper symmetry and are able to separate the guest atom origin modes from framework origin modes for the first time experimentally. From the measurements of temperature dependence of the guest origin peaks, we also demonstrate the difference of the behavior of the guest atom at high temperature and low temperature

  15. Nonlinear Spinor Fields in Bianchi type-I spacetime reexamined

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    The specific behavior of spinor field in curve space-time with the exception of FRW model almost always gives rise to non-trivial non-diagonal components of the energy-momentum tensor. This non-triviality of non-diagonal components of the energy-momentum tensor imposes some severe restrictions either on the spinor field or on the metric functions. In this paper within the scope of an anisotropic Bianchi type-I Universe we study the role of spinor field in the evolution of the Universe. It is ...

  16. Orthopedic Pathology in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nato D. Vashakmadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and results from the defective activity of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase, which leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (mainly heparan and dermatan sulfate in the lysosomes and further multiple organ dysfunction. This severe genetic progressive disease can be detected at an early age by skeletal deformities and phenotypic data. Early enzyme replacement therapy and/or bone marrow transplantation can slow down irreversible damages to various organs and systems or reduce their severity and improve the quality of life for a child.

  17. Type I procollagen propeptide in patients on CAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Heaf, J G; Jensen, L T

    1995-01-01

    Serum procollagen type I carboxyterminal propeptide (PICP) has been shown to be a useful marker of bone formation in patients undergoing haemodialysis. However, PICP levels has not been evaluated in depth in patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Therefore serum...... and dialysate levels of PICP, its peritoneal clearance (Clp), mass transfer (MTp), and its possible relationship with osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone histomorphometry were studied in a group of CAPD patients. Serum PICP was just above the normal range with significant amounts detected...

  18. Polarization study of spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, D

    1987-01-01

    Optical polarimetry results are presented for four spiral galaxies: NGC 5194 (M51), NGC 1068, NGC 4565 and NGC 4594 (M104). M51 and NGC 1068 show spiral polarization patterns interpreted as indicating a spiral magnetic field in each case. NGC 4565 and M104 show polarizations in their dust lanes which are parallel to their galactic planes, and which are interpreted in terms of a magnetic field in the plane of each. It is hypothesized that the observed magnetic fields may be linked to galactic shocks. A discussion of the origin of galactic magnetic fields concludes that there is not evidence that necessitates a primordial magnetic field.

  19. Spiral phases of doped antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shraiman, B.I.; Siggia, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The dipole density field describing the holls in a doped antiferromagnet is considered for law hole density in the semiclassical limit. This yields a phase in which the order parameter is planar and spirals round a fixed direction. The single spiral state breaks the continuous spin rotational symmetry and exhibits long-range order at zero temperature. In it there is a global spin direction as rotation axis. The double spiral state, in which there are two perpendicular directions, is isotropic in both spin and real space. Several results of microscopic calculations, carried out to understand the electronic states, quantum fluctuations, lattice effects and normal mode dynamics, are recapitulated. 8 refs

  20. MKP1 deficit causes hair cell loss, spiral ganglion degeneration and progressive hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez-Muñoz, Jose Mª; Celaya, Adelaida M.; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Resumen del póster presentado al 1st Joint Meeting of the French-Portuguese-Spanish Biochemical and Molecular Biology Societies y al XL Spanish Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM) Congress, celebrado en Barcelona (España) del 23 al 26 de octubre de 2017.

  1. Glycogen storage disease type I: clinical and laboratory profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice L. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric profile of a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease type I managed at an outpatient referral clinic for inborn errors of metabolism. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional outpatient study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Data on diagnosis, management, anthropometric parameters, and follow-up were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were included (median age 10 years, range 1-25 years, all using uncooked cornstarch therapy. Median age at diagnosis was 7 months (range, 1-132 months, and 19 patients underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Overweight, short stature, hepatomegaly, and liver nodules were present in 16 of 21, four of 21, nine of 14, and three of 14 patients, respectively. A correlation was found between height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores (r = 0.561; p = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type I is delayed in Brazil. Most patients undergo liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation, even though the combination of a characteristic clinical presentation and molecular methods can provide a definitive diagnosis in a less invasive manner. Obesity is a side effect of cornstarch therapy, and appears to be associated with growth in these patients.

  2. An unusual presentation of osteogenesis imperfecta type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebelo M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marta Rebelo, Jandira Lima, José Diniz Vieira, José Nascimento CostaDepartment of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare inherited disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and genetic variability. The genetic diversity involves, in the majority of the cases, mutations in one of the genes that encodes the type 1 collagen protein (COL1 A1 and COL1 A2, but it is not a requirement for the diagnosis. The most benign form is OI type I. The authors present a case report of a 25-year-old woman who had severe low back pain associated with incapacity to walk and breast-feed post-partum. Symptoms developed 2 weeks after delivery. The radiological examination revealed severe osteoporosis with no abnormalities in the laboratory findings. The clinical signs and a positive personal and family history of multiple fractures in childhood suggested OI type I, although other diagnosis, such as pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, was also considered. The atypical presentation of this rare disorder in adulthood calls attention to the need for early diagnosis for prompt treatment. Treatment of OI is never curative, but it improves the quality of the patient’s life.Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta, collagen, pregnancy, osteoporosis

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: current knowledge on its pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Derbis; Monaga, Madelyn

    2012-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is one of the most frequent lysosomal storage diseases. It has a high morbidity and mortality, causing in many cases severe neurological and somatic damage in the first years of life. Although the clinical phenotypes have been described for decades, and the enzymatic deficiency and many of the mutations that cause this disease are well known, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to its development are not completely understood. In this review we describe and discuss the different pathogenic mechanisms currently proposed for this disease regarding its neurological damage. Deficiency in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, as well as its primary accumulation, may disrupt a variety of physiological and biochemical processes: the intracellular and extracellular homeostasis of these macromolecules, the pathways related to gangliosides metabolism, mechanisms related to the activation of inflammation, receptor-mediated signaling, oxidative stress and permeability of the lysosomal membrane, as well as alterations in intracellular ionic homeostasis and the endosomal pathway. Many of the pathogenic mechanisms proposed for mucopolysaccharidosis type I are also present in other lysosomal storage diseases with neurological implications. Results from the use of methods that allow the analysis of multiple genes and proteins, in both patients and animal models, will shed light on the role of each of these mechanisms and their combination in the development of different phenotypes due to the same deficiency.

  4. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ait-Djoudi, Fariza; Naceur, Wahib Mohamed; Soukane, Sofiane

    2015-01-01

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body

  5. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  6. A mouse model for degeneration of the spiral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, Shinpei; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated the importance of the spiral ligament (SL) in the pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to establish a mouse model for SL degeneration as the basis for the development of new strategies for SL regeneration. We injected 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, at various concentrations into the posterior semicircular canal of adult C57BL/6 mice. Saline-injected animals were used as controls. Auditory function was monitored by measurements of auditory brain stem responses (ABRs). On postoperative day 14, cochlear specimens were obtained after the measurement of the endocochlear potential (EP). Animals that were injected with 5 or 10 mM 3-NP showed a massive elevation of ABR thresholds along with extensive degeneration of the cochleae. Cochleae injected with 1 mM 3-NP exhibited selective degeneration of the SL fibrocytes but alterations in EP levels and ABR thresholds were not of sufficient magnitude to allow for testing functional recovery after therapeutic interventions. Animals injected with 3 mM 3-NP showed a reduction of around 50% in the EP along with a significant loss of SL fibrocytes, although degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells was still present in certain regions. These findings indicate that cochleae injected with 3 mM 3-NP may be useful in investigations designed to test the feasibility of new therapeutic manipulations for functional SL regeneration.

  7. DNA targeting by the type I-G and type I-A CRISPR–Cas systems of Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Joshua; Deighan, Trace; Westpheling, Jan; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems silence plasmids and viruses in prokaryotes. CRISPR–Cas effector complexes contain CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that include sequences captured from invaders and direct CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to destroy corresponding invader nucleic acids. Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) harbors three CRISPR–Cas immune systems: a Cst (Type I-G) system with an associated Cmr (Type III-B) module at one locus, and a partial Csa (Type I-A) module (lacking known invader sequence acquisition and crRNA processing genes) at another locus. The Pfu Cmr complex cleaves complementary target RNAs, and Csa systems have been shown to target DNA, while the mechanism by which Cst complexes silence invaders is unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of the Cst as well as Csa system in Pfu strains harboring a single CRISPR–Cas system. Plasmid transformation assays revealed that the Cst and Csa systems both function by DNA silencing and utilize similar flanking sequence information (PAMs) to identify invader DNA. Silencing by each system specifically requires its associated Cas3 nuclease. crRNAs from the 7 shared CRISPR loci in Pfu are processed for use by all 3 effector complexes, and Northern analysis revealed that individual effector complexes dictate the profile of mature crRNA species that is generated. PMID:26519471

  8. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  9. Neuronavigated percutaneous approach to the sphenopalatine ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Nicola; Perrini, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has been assumed to be involved in the genesis of several types of facial pain, including Sluder's neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, persistent idiopathic facial pain, cluster headache, and atypical facial pain. The gold standard treatments for SPG-related pain are percutaneous procedures performed with the aid of fluoroscopy or CT. In this technical note the authors present, for the first time, an SPG approach using the aid of a neuronavigator.

  10. Classical Bianchi Type I Cosmology in K-Essence Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Luis O.; Socorro, J.; Espinoza-García, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and we apply it to the classical anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid (p=γρ) modeling the usual matter content and with cosmological constant Λ. Classical exact solutions for any γ≠1 and Λ=0 are found in closed form, whereas solutions for Λ≠0 are found for particular values in the barotropic parameter. We present the possible isotropization of the cosmological model Bianchi I using the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the universe. We also include a qualitative analysis of the analog of the Friedmann equation.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome type I following pacemaker implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Kamath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old woman presented with burning pain and swelling over dorsum of right hand and small joints of the fingers, associated with redness, feeling of warmth, and stiffness of the fingers, with inability to bend the fingers since 2 months. The symptoms were progressively increasing in intensity for the past 1 month. There was no history of fever or trauma to the hand. Two months before her symptoms started, she had permanent pacemaker implanted for complete heart block with syncope. She was hypertensive and was on regular medication. Her X-ray of right hand showed decreased bone density (demineralisation, suggestive of osteopenia. A diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome type I induced by pacemaker insertion was made. She was treated with amitriptyline and steroids, after which her symptoms improved dramatically.

  12. Fivebrane instantons and higher derivative couplings in type I theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.

    2000-01-01

    We express the infinite sum of D5-brane instanton corrections to R 2 couplings in N=4 type I string vacua, in terms of an elliptic index counting 1/2-BPS excitations in the effective Sp(N) brane theory. We compute the index explicitly in the infrared, where the effective theory is argued to flow to an orbifold CFT. The form of the instanton sum agrees completely with the predicted formula from a dual one-loop computation in type IIA theory on K3xT 2 . The proposed CFT provides a proper description of the whole spectrum of masses, charges and multiplicities for 1/2- and 1/4-BPS states, associated to bound states of D5-branes and KK momenta. These results are applied to show how fivebrane instanton sums, entering higher derivative couplings which are sensitive to 1/4-BPS contributions, also match the perturbative results in the dual type IIA theory

  13. Clustered chimera states in systems of type-I excitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vüllings, Andrea; Omelchenko, Iryna; Hövel, Philipp; Hizanidis, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    The chimera state is a fascinating phenomenon of coexisting synchronized and desynchronized behaviour that was discovered in networks of nonlocally coupled identical phase oscillators over ten years ago. Since then, chimeras have been found in numerous theoretical and experimental studies and more recently in models of neuronal dynamics as well. In this work, we consider a generic model for a saddle-node bifurcation on a limit cycle representative of neural excitability type I. We obtain chimera states with multiple coherent regions (clustered chimeras/multi-chimeras) depending on the distance from the excitability threshold, the range of nonlocal coupling and the coupling strength. A detailed stability diagram for these chimera states and other interesting coexisting patterns (like traveling waves) is presented. (paper)

  14. The decorin sequence SYIRIADTNIT binds collagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders; Oldberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    Decorin belongs to the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, interacts with fibrillar collagens, and regulates the assembly, structure, and biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The decorin-collagen type I-binding region is located in leucine-rich repeats 5-6. Site......-directed mutagenesis of this 54-residue-long collagen-binding sequence identifies Arg-207 and Asp-210 in leucine-rich repeat 6 as crucial for the binding to collagen. The synthetic peptide SYIRIADTNIT, which includes Arg-207 and Asp-210, inhibits the binding of full-length recombinant decorin to collagen in vitro....... These collagen-binding amino acids are exposed on the exterior of the beta-sheet-loop structure of the leucine-rich repeat. This resembles the location of interacting residues in other leucine-rich repeat proteins....

  15. Type I Interferon in the Pathogenesis of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have applied insights from studies of the innate immune response to define type I interferon (IFN-I), with IFN-α the dominant mediator, as central to the pathogenesis of this prototype systemic autoimmune disease. Genetic association data identify regulators of nucleic acid degradation and components of TLR-independent, endosomal TLR-dependent, and IFN-I signaling pathways as contributors to lupus disease susceptibility. Together with a gene expression signature characterized by IFNI-induced gene transcripts in lupus blood and tissue, those data support the conclusion that many of the immunologic and pathologic features of this disease are a consequence of a persistent self-directed immune reaction driven by IFN-I and mimicking a sustained anti-virus response. This expanding knowledge of the role of IFN-I and the innate immune response suggests candidate therapeutic targets that are being tested in lupus patients. PMID:24907379

  16. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Glycogen Storage Disease Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D. Torok MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare and highly fatal disease that has been reported in 8 patients with glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI. We describe an additional case of an acute presentation of PAH in a 14-year-old patient with GSDI, which was successfully treated with inhaled nitric oxide and sildenafil. We investigated the incidence of PAH in 28 patients with GSDI on routine echocardiography and found no evidence of PAH and no significant cardiac abnormalities. This study highlights that PAH is a rare disease overall, but our case report and those previously described suggest an increased incidence in patients with GSDI. Should cardiopulmonary symptoms develop, clinicians caring for patients with GSDI should have a high degree of suspicion for acute PAH and recognize that prompt intervention can lead to survival in this otherwise highly fatal disease.

  17. Glycogen storage disease type I: clinical and laboratory profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice L. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric profile of a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease type I managed at an outpatient referral clinic for inborn errors of metabolism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional outpatient study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Data on diagnosis, management, anthropometric parameters, and follow-up were assessed. Results: Twenty-one patients were included (median age 10 years, range 1–25 years, all using uncooked cornstarch therapy. Median age at diagnosis was 7 months (range, 1–132 months, and 19 patients underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Overweight, short stature, hepatomegaly, and liver nodules were present in 16 of 21, four of 21, nine of 14, and three of 14 patients, respectively. A correlation was found between height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores (r = 0.561; p = 0.008. Conclusions: Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type I is delayed in Brazil. Most patients undergo liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation, even though the combination of a characteristic clinical presentation and molecular methods can provide a definitive diagnosis in a less invasive manner. Obesity is a side effect of cornstarch therapy, and appears to be associated with growth in these patients. Resumo: Objetivos: Caracterizar o perfil clínico, laboratorial e antropométrico de uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com doença de depósito de glicogênio tipo I tratados em um ambulatório de referência para erros inatos do metabolismo. Métodos: Este foi um estudo ambulatorial transversal com base em uma estratégia de amostragem de conveniência. Foram avaliados os dados com relação ao diagnóstico, tratamento, parâmetros antropométricos e acompanhamento. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 pacientes (idade média de 10 anos, faixa 1-25 anos de idade, e todos se encontravam em terapia de amido de milho cru. A idade média na época do diagn

  18. Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J

    2015-04-15

    The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Type I Interferon Signaling in Pediatric Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Melki, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Briggs, Tracy A; Rodero, Mathieu P; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Oojageer, Anthony; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Quartier, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J

    2017-02-01

    Increased type I interferon is considered relevant to the pathology of a number of monogenic and complex disorders spanning pediatric rheumatology, neurology, and dermatology. However, no test exists in routine clinical practice to identify enhanced interferon signaling, thus limiting the ability to diagnose and monitor treatment of these diseases. Here, we set out to investigate the use of an assay measuring the expression of a panel of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in children affected by a range of inflammatory diseases. A cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2016 at the University of Manchester, UK, and the Institut Imagine, Paris, France. RNA PAXgene blood samples and clinical data were collected from controls and symptomatic patients with a genetically confirmed or clinically well-defined inflammatory phenotype. The expression of six ISGs was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the median fold change was used to calculate an interferon score (IS) for each subject compared to a previously derived panel of 29 controls (where +2 SD of the control data, an IS of >2.466, is considered as abnormal). Results were correlated with genetic and clinical data. Nine hundred ninety-two samples were analyzed from 630 individuals comprising symptomatic patients across 24 inflammatory genotypes/phenotypes, unaffected heterozygous carriers, and controls. A consistent upregulation of ISG expression was seen in 13 monogenic conditions (455 samples, 265 patients; median IS 10.73, interquartile range (IQR) 5.90-18.41), juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (78 samples, 55 patients; median IS 10.60, IQR 3.99-17.27), and juvenile dermatomyositis (101 samples, 59 patients; median IS 9.02, IQR 2.51-21.73) compared to controls (78 samples, 65 subjects; median IS 0.688, IQR 0.427-1.196), heterozygous mutation carriers (89 samples, 76 subjects; median IS 0.862, IQR 0.493-1.942), and individuals with non-molecularly defined autoinflammation (89 samples, 69

  20. Vestibulocochlear manifestations in patients with type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagenberg, Karlin Fabianne; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon; Martins-Bassetto, Jackeline

    2007-01-01

    Glucose metabolism has a significant impact on inner ear physiology, and small changes may result in hearing and balance disorders. To investigate vestibulocochlear symptoms in patients with type I diabetes mellitus. a cross-sectional study of a contemporary group. 30 patients referred from Clinical Hospital-UFPR to the Laboratory of Otoneurology-UTP between Mar/2004 to Feb/2005 were evaluated. The following procedures were carried out: a medical history, otological inspections, audiometry, acoustic impedance tests, and vestibular function tests. The prevalence of otoneurologic complaints was: headache (23.3%), vertigo (16.6%), and tinnitus (13.3%). The prevalence of associated complaints and habits was: caffeine abuse (20.0%), allergies (10.0%), and alcohol abuse (10.0%). The prevalence of normal auditory thresholds was 90.0%. Acoustic impedance showed no changes. The vestibular test showed changes in 60.0% of cases. Peripheral vestibular deficiency syndromes were also found. Significant vestibular system changes were found (60.0%) compared to the auditory system (10.0%). Audiometry revealed mostly normal results. The vestibular test showed changes in the peripheral vestibular system and the peripheral vestibular deficiency syndrome.

  1. Changes in type I collagen following laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L S; Moazami, N; Pocsidio, J; Oz, M C; LoGerfo, P; Treat, M R

    1992-01-01

    Selection of ideal laser parameters for tissue welding is inhibited by poor understanding of the mechanism. We investigated structural changes in collagen molecules extracted from rat tail tendon (> 90% type I collagen) after tissue welding using an 808 nm diode laser and indocyanine green dye applied to the weld site. Mobility patterns on SDS-PAGE were identical in the lasered and untreated tendon extracts with urea or acetic acid. Pepsin incubation after acetic acid extraction revealed a reduction of collagen alpha and beta bands in lasered compared with untreated specimens. Circular dichroism studies of rat tail tendon showed absence of helical structure in collagen from lasered tendon. No evidence for covalent bonding was present in laser-treated tissues. Collagen molecules are denatured by the laser wavelength and parameters used in this study. No significant amount of helical structure is regenerated on cooling. We conclude that non-covalent interactions between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the creation of tissue welding.

  2. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  3. Thermal denaturation of type I collagen vitrified gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Zhiyong; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Trexler, Morgana; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Guo, Qiongyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the denaturation of vitrigels synthesized under different conditions. ► Overall denaturation kinetics consisted of both reversible and irreversible steps. ► More stable vitrigels were formed under high level of vitrification. - Abstract: The denaturation kinetics of type I collagen vitrigels synthesized under different vitrification time and temperature were analyzed by the classical Kissinger approach and the advanced model free kinetics (AMFK) using the Vyazovkin algorithm. The AMFK successfully elucidated the overall denaturation into reversible and irreversible processes. Depending on vitrification conditions, the activation energy for the irreversible process ranged from 100 to 200 kJ/mol, and the reversible enthalpy ranged from 250 to 300 kJ/mol. All of these values increased with the vitrification time and temperature, indicating that a more stable and complex structure formed with increased vitrification. The classical Kissinger method predicted the presence of a critical temperate of approximately 60 °C for the transition between reversible and irreversible processes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of fibril structures in vitrigels both before and after full denaturation; however the fibrils had became thicker and rougher after denaturation.

  4. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  5. Origins of galactic spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of galactic structure are reviewed briefly before comparing them with recent observations. Also reviewed is the evidence for an intergalactic magnetic field and its possible effects on gas concentrations and patterns of star creation, including spiral arms. It is then shown that normal spiral galaxies may be divided into the M51-type and others. The rare M51-type have H I gas arms coincident with unusually filamentary and luminous optical arms; they also have a companion galaxy. The remaining great majority of spirals have no well-defined gas arms and their optical arms are irregular, broader and less luminous; they have no companion galaxy. It appears that without exception the half-dozen or so galaxies whose structures appear to support the density-wave theory show one or more of the characteristics of the rare type of spiral, and that 'the three principal confirmations of the spiral-wave idea' (M51, M81, M101) have companions which may account for their arms. Toomre has rejected this idea on the grounds that his models do not agree with the observed structures. It is shown that these models are inadequate in two major respects, and when replaced by magneto-tidal models using non-uniform gas disks one might expect agreement. The original hydromagnetic model of spiral arms is now reserved for non-interacting galaxies, of which M33 might be taken as a prototype. The model predicts broad or 'massive' optical arms and no corresponding arms of neutral hydrogen, as observed. (Auth.)

  6. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation is used to probe dark matter (DM) in the optical regions of spiral galaxies. By establishing it at several different isophotal radii in an appropriate sample of 58 galaxies with good B-band photometry and rotation curves, it is shown that some of its attributes (such as scatter, residuals, nonlinearity, and bias) dramatically decrease moving from the disk edge inward. This behavior challenges any mass model which assumes no DM or a luminosity-independent DM mass fraction interior to the optical radius of spiral galaxies. 58 refs

  7. Subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, L.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve cases of subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion) have been seen and their clinical features, radiological findings and differential diagnosis are described. The lesion is a benign cystic tumour-like mass in the subchondral portion of a synovial joint. Our findings in respect of age, sex and localisation are compared with those of other authors. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the lesion is not completely understood. There is an increased incidence in middle life and joints with high dynamic and static stress are favoured, particularly in the lower extremities. Chronic stress or microtrauma, causing damage to the involved joint, therefore appears to be a plausible explanation. (orig.) [de

  8. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  9. Type I Shell Galaxies as a Test of Gravity Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakili, Hajar; Rahvar, Sohrab [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: vakili@physics.sharif.edu [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-10-10

    Shell galaxies are understood to form through the collision of a dwarf galaxy with an elliptical galaxy. Shell structures and kinematics have been noted to be independent tools to measure the gravitational potential of the shell galaxies. We compare theoretically the formation of shells in Type I shell galaxies in different gravity theories in this work because this is so far missing in the literature. We include Newtonian plus dark halo gravity, and two non-Newtonian gravity models, MOG and MOND, in identical initial systems. We investigate the effect of dynamical friction, which by slowing down the dwarf galaxy in the dark halo models limits the range of shell radii to low values. Under the same initial conditions, shells appear on a shorter timescale and over a smaller range of distances in the presence of dark matter than in the corresponding non-Newtonian gravity models. If galaxies are embedded in a dark matter halo, then the merging time may be too rapid to allow multi-generation shell formation as required by observed systems because of the large dynamical friction effect. Starting from the same initial state, the observation of small bright shells in the dark halo model should be accompanied by large faint ones, while for the case of MOG, the next shell generation patterns iterate with a specific time delay. The first shell generation pattern shows a degeneracy with the age of the shells and in different theories, but the relative distance of the shells and the shell expansion velocity can break this degeneracy.

  10. Suicide behavior and neuropsychological assessment of type I bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Neves, Fernando Silva; Abrantes, Suzana Silva Costa; Fuentes, Daniel; Corrêa, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are often described in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Some symptoms and/or associated characteristics of BD can be more closely associated to those cognitive impairments. We aimed to explore cognitive neuropsychological characteristics of type I bipolar patients (BPI) in terms of lifetime suicide attempt history. We studied 39 BPI outpatients compared with 53 healthy controls (HC) matched by age, educational and intellectual level. All subjects were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment of executive functions, decision-making and declarative episodic memory. When comparing BDI patients, regardless of suicide attempt history or HC, we observed that bipolar patients performed worse than controls on measures of memory, attention, executive functions and decision-making. Patients with a history of suicide attempt performed worse than non-attempters on measures of decision-making and there were a significant negative correlation between the number of suicide attempts and decision-making results (block 3 and net score). We also found significant positive correlation between the number of suicide attempts and amount of errors in Stroop Color Word Test (part 3). The sample studied can be considered small and a potentially confounding variable - medication status - were not controlled. Our results show the presence of neuropsychological deficits in memory, executive functions, attention and decision-making in BPI patients. Suicide attempts BPI scored worse than non-suicide attempt BPI on measures of decision-making. More suicide attempts were associated with a worse decision-making process. Future research should explore the relationship between the association between this specific cognitive deficits in BPIs, serotonergic function and suicide behavior in bipolar patients as well other diagnostic groups.

  11. Phenotype prediction for mucopolysaccharidosis type I by in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li; Przybilla, Michael J; Whitley, Chester B

    2017-07-04

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), a lysosomal enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans (GAG) heparan and dermatan sulfate. To achieve optimal clinical outcomes, early and proper treatment is essential, which requires early diagnosis and phenotype severity prediction. To establish a genotype/phenotype correlation of MPS I disease, a combination of bioinformatics tools including SIFT, PolyPhen, I-Mutant, PROVEAN, PANTHER, SNPs&GO and PHD-SNP are utilized. Through analyzing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by these in silico approaches, 28 out of 285 missense SNPs were predicted to be damaging. By integrating outcomes from these in silico approaches, a prediction algorithm (sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%) was thereby developed. Three dimensional structural analysis of 5 candidate SNPs (P533R, P496R, L346R, D349G, T374P) were performed by SWISS PDB viewer, which revealed specific structural changes responsible for the functional impacts of these SNPs. Additionally, SNPs in the untranslated region were analyzed by UTRscan and PolymiRTS. Moreover, by investigating known pathogenic mutations and relevant patient phenotypes in previous publications, phenotype severity (severe, intermediate or mild) of each mutation was deduced. Collectively, these results identified potential candidate SNPs with functional significance for studying MPS I disease. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness, reliability and simplicity of these in silico approaches in addressing complexity of underlying genetic basis of MPS I disease. Further, a step-by-step guideline for phenotype prediction of MPS I disease is established, which can be broadly applied in other lysosomal diseases or genetic disorders.

  12. Quantification of type I error probabilities for heterogeneity LOD scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paula C; Hodge, Susan E; Greenberg, David A

    2002-02-01

    Locus heterogeneity is a major confounding factor in linkage analysis. When no prior knowledge of linkage exists, and one aims to detect linkage and heterogeneity simultaneously, classical distribution theory of log-likelihood ratios does not hold. Despite some theoretical work on this problem, no generally accepted practical guidelines exist. Nor has anyone rigorously examined the combined effect of testing for linkage and heterogeneity and simultaneously maximizing over two genetic models (dominant, recessive). The effect of linkage phase represents another uninvestigated issue. Using computer simulation, we investigated type I error (P value) of the "admixture" heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score, i.e., the LOD score maximized over both recombination fraction theta and admixture parameter alpha and we compared this with the P values when one maximizes only with respect to theta (i.e., the standard LOD score). We generated datasets of phase-known and -unknown nuclear families, sizes k = 2, 4, and 6 children, under fully penetrant autosomal dominant inheritance. We analyzed these datasets (1) assuming a single genetic model, and maximizing the HLOD over theta and alpha; and (2) maximizing the HLOD additionally over two dominance models (dominant vs. recessive), then subtracting a 0.3 correction. For both (1) and (2), P values increased with family size k; rose less for phase-unknown families than for phase-known ones, with the former approaching the latter as k increased; and did not exceed the one-sided mixture distribution xi = (1/2) chi1(2) + (1/2) chi2(2). Thus, maximizing the HLOD over theta and alpha appears to add considerably less than an additional degree of freedom to the associated chi1(2) distribution. We conclude with practical guidelines for linkage investigators. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Genetic homogeneity of autoimmune polyglandular disease type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerses, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Vikman, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease (MIM 240300) characterized by hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical failure, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The disease is highly prevalent in two isolated populations, the Finnish population and the Iranian Jewish one. Sporadic cases have been identified in many other countries, including almost all European countries. The APECED locus has previously been assigned to chromosome 21q22.3 by linkage analyses in 14 Finnish families. Locus heterogeneity is a highly relevant question in this disease affecting multiple tissues and with great phenotypic diversity. To solve this matter, we performed linkage and haplotype analyses on APECED families rising from different populations. Six microsatellite markers on the critical chromosomal region of 2.6 cM on 21q22.3 were analyzed. Pair-wise linkage analyses revealed significant LOD scores for all these markers, maximum LOD score being 10.23. The obtained haplotype data and the geographic distribution of the great-grandparents of the Finnish APECED patients suggest the presence of one major, relatively old mutation responsible for {approximately}90% of the Finnish cases. Similar evidence for one founder mutation was also found in analyses of Iranian Jewish APECED haplotypes. These haplotypes, however, differed totally from the Finnish ones. The linkage analyses in 21 non-Finnish APECED families originating from several European countries provided independent evidence for linkage to the same chromosomal region on 21q22.3 and revealed no evidence for locus heterogeneity. The haplotype analyses of APECED chromosomes suggest that in different populations APECED is due to a spectrum of mutations in a still unknown gene on chromosome 21. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Targeted exon sequencing in Usher syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakowska, Kinga M; Consugar, Mark; Place, Emily; Harper, Shyana; Lena, Jaclyn; Taub, Daniel G; White, Joseph; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Weigel DiFranco, Carol; Farkas, Michael H; Gai, Xiaowu; Berson, Eliot L; Pierce, Eric A

    2014-12-02

    Patients with Usher syndrome type I (USH1) have retinitis pigmentosa, profound congenital hearing loss, and vestibular ataxia. This syndrome is currently thought to be associated with at least six genes, which are encoded by over 180 exons. Here, we present the use of state-of-the-art techniques in the molecular diagnosis of a cohort of 47 USH1 probands. The cohort was studied with selective exon capture and next-generation sequencing of currently known inherited retinal degeneration genes, comparative genomic hybridization, and Sanger sequencing of new USH1 exons identified by human retinal transcriptome analysis. With this approach, we were able to genetically solve 14 of the 47 probands by confirming the biallelic inheritance of mutations. We detected two likely pathogenic variants in an additional 19 patients, for whom family members were not available for cosegregation analysis to confirm biallelic inheritance. Ten patients, in addition to primary disease-causing mutations, carried rare likely pathogenic USH1 alleles or variants in other genes associated with deaf-blindness, which may influence disease phenotype. Twenty-one of the identified mutations were novel among the 33 definite or likely solved patients. Here, we also present a clinical description of the studied cohort at their initial visits. We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied USH1 cohort with multiplicity of mutations, of which many were novel. No obvious influence of genotype on phenotype was found, possibly due to small sample sizes of the genotypes under study. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Radiographically ossified ganglion cyst of finger in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Anavim, A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Orange (United States); Lin, F. [Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    Ganglion cysts are fibrous-walled cystic lesions closely associated with joint or tendon sheaths and contain gelatinous mucinous fluid. The radiographic appearance is usually normal. Calcification or ossification in these cysts is extremely unusual. We report on an unusual appearing ganglion cyst of the little finger in a swimmer with ossification resembling myositis ossificans. (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Ganglion Cell Complex Parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr femi Oderinlo

    in the eyes, the optic nerve head, nerve fibre layer and retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells encompass three layers ... of the macula in eyes with mild diabetic retinopathy. 8. *Correspondence: O Oderinlo, Eye Foundation ... most sensitive detection of GCC thinning. FLV provides a. 10 quantitative measure of the ...

  17. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A ganglion is a cystic formation close to joints or tendinous sheaths, frequently found in the wrist, foot or knee. Intra-articular ganglia of the knee are rare, and most of them are located in the anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical picture for these ganglia comprises pain and movement restrictions in the knee, causing significant impairment to the patient. Symptoms are non-specific, and anterior cruciate ligament ganglia are usually diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopy. Not all ganglia diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging need to undergo surgical treatment: only those that cause clinical signs and symptoms do. Surgical results are considered good or excellent in the vast majority of cases. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old male presented with pain in the left knee during a marathon race. Physical examination revealed limitation in the maximum range of knee extension and pain in the posterior aspect of the left knee. Radiographs of the left knee were normal, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-lobed cystic structure adjacent to the anterior cruciate ligament, which resembled a ganglion cyst. The mass was removed through arthroscopy, and pathological examination revealed a synovial cyst. Patient recovery was excellent, and he resumed his usual training routine five months later.

  19. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  20. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-07

    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  1. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  2. Structural and evolutionary relationships of "AT-less" type I polyketide synthase ketosynthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Ma, Ming; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Nocek, Boguslaw; Kim, Youngchang; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Mack, Jamey; Bigelow, Lance; Li, Hui; Endres, Michael; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2015-10-13

    Acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) break the type I PKS paradigm. They lack the integrated AT domains within their modules and instead use a discrete AT that acts in trans, whereas a type I PKS module minimally contains AT, acyl carrier protein (ACP), and ketosynthase (KS) domains. Structures of canonical type I PKS KS-AT didomains reveal structured linkers that connect the two domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs have remnants of these linkers, which have been hypothesized to be AT docking domains. Natural products produced by AT-less type I PKSs are very complex because of an increased representation of unique modifying domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs possess substrate specificity and fall into phylogenetic clades that correlate with their substrates, whereas canonical type I PKS KSs are monophyletic. We have solved crystal structures of seven AT-less type I PKS KS domains that represent various sequence clusters, revealing insight into the large structural and subtle amino acid residue differences that lead to unique active site topologies and substrate specificities. One set of structures represents a larger group of KS domains from both canonical and AT-less type I PKSs that accept amino acid-containing substrates. One structure has a partial AT-domain, revealing the structural consequences of a type I PKS KS evolving into an AT-less type I PKS KS. These structures highlight the structural diversity within the AT-less type I PKS KS family, and most important, provide a unique opportunity to study the molecular evolution of substrate specificity within the type I PKSs.

  3. Structural and evolutionary relationships of “AT-less” type I polyketide synthase ketosynthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Ma, Ming; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Nocek, Boguslaw; Kim, Youngchang; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Mack, Jamey; Bigelow, Lance; Li, Hui; Endres, Michael; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) break the type I PKS paradigm. They lack the integrated AT domains within their modules and instead use a discrete AT that acts in trans, whereas a type I PKS module minimally contains AT, acyl carrier protein (ACP), and ketosynthase (KS) domains. Structures of canonical type I PKS KS-AT didomains reveal structured linkers that connect the two domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs have remnants of these linkers, which have been hypothesized to be AT docking domains. Natural products produced by AT-less type I PKSs are very complex because of an increased representation of unique modifying domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs possess substrate specificity and fall into phylogenetic clades that correlate with their substrates, whereas canonical type I PKS KSs are monophyletic. We have solved crystal structures of seven AT-less type I PKS KS domains that represent various sequence clusters, revealing insight into the large structural and subtle amino acid residue differences that lead to unique active site topologies and substrate specificities. One set of structures represents a larger group of KS domains from both canonical and AT-less type I PKSs that accept amino acid-containing substrates. One structure has a partial AT-domain, revealing the structural consequences of a type I PKS KS evolving into an AT-less type I PKS KS. These structures highlight the structural diversity within the AT-less type I PKS KS family, and most important, provide a unique opportunity to study the molecular evolution of substrate specificity within the type I PKSs. PMID:26420866

  4. Structural and evolutionary relationships of "AT-less" type I polyketide synthase ketosynthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, Jeremy; Ma, Ming; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Nocek, Boguslaw; Kim, Youngchang; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne E.; Mack, Jamey; Bigelow, Lance; Li, Hui; Endres, Michael; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, B G

    2015-10-13

    Acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) break the type I PKS paradigm. They lack the integrated AT domains within their modules and instead use a discrete AT that acts in trans, whereas a type I PKS module minimally contains AT, acyl carrier protein (ACP), and ketosynthase (KS) domains. Structures of canonical type I PKS KS-AT didomains reveal structured linkers that connect the two domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs have remnants of these linkers, which have been hypothesized to be AT docking domains. Natural products produced by AT-less type I PKSs are very complex because of an increased representation of unique modifying domains. AT-less type I PKS KSs possess substrate specificity and fall into phylogenetic clades that correlate with their substrates, whereas canonical type I PKS KSs are monophyletic. We have solved crystal structures of seven AT-less type I PKS KS domains that represent various sequence clusters, revealing insight into the large structural and subtle amino acid residue differences that lead to unique active site topologies and substrate specificities. One set of structures represents a larger group of KS domains from both canonical and AT-less type I PKSs that accept amino acid-containing substrates. One structure has a partial AT-domain, revealing the structural consequences of a type I PKS KS evolving into an AT-less type I PKS KS. These structures highlight the structural diversity within the AT-less type I PKS KS family, and most important, provide a unique opportunity to study the molecular evolution of substrate specificity within the type I PKSs.

  5. Interaction of multiarmed spirals in bistable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-feng; Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Fu-cheng

    2013-05-01

    We study the interaction of both dense and sparse multiarmed spirals in bistable media modeled by equations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type. A dense one-armed spiral is characterized by its fixed tip. For dense multiarmed spirals, when the initial distance between tips is less than a critical value, the arms collide, connect, and disconnect continuously as the spirals rotate. The continuous reconstruction between the front and the back drives the tips to corotate along a rough circle and to meander zigzaggedly. The rotation frequency of tip, the frequency of zigzagged displacement, the frequency of spiral, the oscillation frequency of media, and the number of arms satisfy certain relations as long as the control parameters of the model are fixed. When the initial distance between tips is larger than the critical value, the behaviors of individual arms within either dense or sparse multiarmed spirals are identical to that of corresponding one-armed spirals.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of tibial periosteal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, R.; Melloni, P.; Darnell, A.; Munoz, J.; Canalies, J.

    1997-01-01

    A case of a soft tissue tumor situated in the anterior surface of the proximal end of the tibia in an adult patient is demonstrated by conventional radiographs, CT, and MRI. The lesion was well defined with respect to the adjacent soft tissue. The CT exam showed a soft tissue mass with external cortical erosion and thick spicules by periosteal reaction. On T1-weighted images the mass was homogeneous and of low signal intensity, whereas on T2-weighted images it showed a high signal intensity, with some septa in the mass. The differential considerations include a periosteal chondroma, a lipoma, a subperiosteal hematoma, an inflammatory process, a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and a parosteal osteosarcoma. The CT and MR features of these entities are reviewed as an aid in differential diagnosis of the periosteal ganglion. (orig.). With 4 figs

  7. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  8. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  9. Dynamical models of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosbol, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of changing the basic parameters of rotation curve steepness, amount of bulge, and pitch angle of the imposed spiral pattern in the galactic model of Contoupolos and Grosbel (1986) are investigated. The general conclusions of the model are confirmed and shown to be insensitive to the specific choice of parameters for the galactic potential. The exact amplitude at which the nonlinear effects at the 4:1 resonance become important do, however, depend on the model

  10. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  11. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  12. Mitochondrial function in type I cells isolated from rabbit arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchen, M R; Biscoe, T J

    1992-05-01

    1. In this, and the accompanying paper (Duchen & Biscoe, 1992), we test the hypothesis that the oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial electron transport forms a basis for transduction in the carotid body, the primary peripheral arterial oxygen sensor. We here describe for isolated type I cells the changes in autofluorescence of mitochondrial NAD(P)H that accompany changes in PO2. 2. NAD(P)H autofluorescence (excitation, 340-360 nm; emission peak, 450 nm) increased with anoxia, reflecting a rise in the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratio. Graded increases in autofluorescence were seen in response to graded decreases in PO2, suggesting that mitochondrial function is progressively altered below a PO2 of about 60 mmHg. 3. A mitochondrial origin for the NAD(P)H autofluorescence was suggested by the mutual exclusion of the responses to anoxia and cyanide. 4. Oxidized flavoproteins fluoresce when excited at 450 nm with an emission peak at 550 nm. The small signals obtained under these conditions increased with uncoupler and showed a graded decrease with falling PO2 reflecting a rise in the FADH/FAD ratio. 5. Hypoxia raises [Ca2+]i. The hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial function were not secondary to this rise. A brief K(+)-induced depolarization leads to a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. At the same time there is a rapid decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence followed by an increase that far outlasts the rise in [Ca2+]i. This delayed increase in autofluorescence was smaller than was the increase with anoxia, even though K(+)-induced depolarization raised [Ca2+]i more than does anoxia. In Ca(2+)-free solutions the depolarization-induced changes were abolished, while those associated with hypoxia were maintained. 6. The changes of autofluorescence with K(+)-induced depolarization appear to reflect (i) oxidation of NAD(P)H by stimulation of respiration following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and (ii) reduction of NAD(P) by the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This

  13. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin; Owens, Trevor

    2013-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in the formation of neuromyelitis optica lesions. Immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was injected intracerebrally with human complement to type I interferon receptor deficient and wildtype mice. Loss of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein was reduced in type I interferon receptor deficient mice brain. Our findings suggest that type I interferon signaling contributes to neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Collective excitations in itinerant spiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the coupled charge and spin collective excitations in the spiral phases of the two-dimensional Hubbard model using a generalized random-phase approximation. Already for small doping the spin-wave excitations are strongly renormalized due to low-energy particle-hole excitations. Besides the three Goldstone modes of the spiral state the dynamical susceptibility reveals an extra zero mode for low doping and strong coupling values signaling an intrinsic instability of the homogeneous spiral state. In addition, near-zero modes are found in the vicinity of the spiral pitch wave number for out-of-plane spin fluctuations. Their origin is found to be the near degeneracy with staggered noncoplanar spiral states which, however, are not the lowest energy Hartree-Fock solutions among the homogeneous spiral states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  16. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  17. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bachy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  18. Analisa Kekuatan Spiral Bevel Gear Dengan Variasi Sudut Spiral Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    OpenAIRE

    Deta Rachmat Andika; Agus Sigit Pramono

    2017-01-01

    Seiring perkembangan zaman,  teknologi roda gigi dituntut untuk mampu mentransmisikan daya yang besar dengan efisiensi yang besar pula. Pada jenis intersecting shaft gear, tipe roda gigi payung spiral (spiral bevel gear)  merupakan perkembangan dari roda gigi payung bergigi lurus (straight bevel gear). Kelebihan dari spiral bevel gear antara  lain adalah kemampuan transmisi daya dan efisiensi yang lebih besar pada geometri yang sama serta tidak terlalu berisik. Akan tetapi spiral bevel gear j...

  19. Solvable model of spiral wave chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Laing, Carlo R; Strogatz, Steven H

    2010-01-29

    Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core.

  20. Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development Tutorial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hantos, P

    2005-01-01

    .... NSS Acquisition Policy 03-01 provided some space-oriented customization and, similarly to the original DOD directives, also positioned Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development as preferred...

  1. Solvable Model of Spiral Wave Chimeras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Laing, Carlo R.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral...... can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core....

  2. Antonius Balthazar Raymundus Hirsch and the peregrination of "gasserian ganglion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonig, Ashish; Thakur, Jai; Grass, Monica; Khan, Imad Saeed; Gandhi, Viraj; Nanda, Anil

    2013-09-01

    The anatomical description of the fifth cranial nerve ganglion lacked detail before the work of Antonius Balthazar Raymundus Hirsch (1744-1778). Hirsch used new dissection techniques that resulted in the most meticulous report of the trigeminal ganglion (the gasserian ganglion) to have been reported. In 1765, the 21-year-old published these findings in a thesis, Paris Quinti Nervorum Encephali Disquisitio Anatomica In Quantum Ad Ganglion Sibi Proprium, Semilunare, Et Ad Originem Nervi Intercostalis Pertinet [An anatomical inquiry of the fifth pair of the nerves of the brain, so far as it relates to the ganglion unto itself, the semilunar, and to the source of the intercostal nerve]. Hirsch wrote his thesis as a paean to his ailing teacher, Johann Lorenz Gasser, but Gasser died before Hirsch was able to defend his thesis. Thereafter, Hirsch applied to teach anatomy at his alma mater, the University of Vienna, but the university did not consider his application, deeming him too young for the position. Oddly, Hirsch died at the young age of 35. For the present paper, the library at the University of Vienna (Universität Wien), Austria, was contacted, and Anton Hirsch's thesis was digitized and subsequently translated from Latin into English. The authors here attempt to place the recognition of the fifth cranial nerve ganglion within a historical perspective and trace the trajectory of its anatomical descriptions.

  3. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  4. Patterns of lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic nerve cells of superior cervical ganglion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Considering available literature lipofuscin is a classical age pigment of postmitotic cells, and a consistently recognized phenomenon in humans and animals. Lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic for nerve cells that are postmitotic. This research was focused on lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic cells (GC (postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies of superior cervical ganglion in humans during ageing. Methods. We analysed 30 ganglions from cadavers ranging from 20 to over 80 years of age. As material the tissue samples were used from the middle portion of the ganglion, which was separated from the surrounding tissue by the method of macrodissection. The tissue samples were routinely fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin for classical histological analysis, then three consecutive (successive sections 5 μm thick were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin method (HE, silver impregnation technique by Masson Fontana and trichrome stain by Florantin. Results. Immersion microscopy was used to analyse patterns of lipofuscin accumulation during ageing making possible to distinguish diffuse type (lipofuscin granules were irregularly distributed and non-confluent, unipolar type (lipofuscin granules were grouped at the end of the cell, bipolar type (lipofuscin granules were concentrated at the two opposite ends of a cell with the nucleus in between at the center of a cell, annular type (lipofuscin granules were in the shape of a complete or incomplete ring around the nucleus and a cell completely filled with lipofuscin (two subtypes distinguishing, one with visible a nucleus, and the other with invisible one. Even at the age of 20 there were cells with lipofuscin granules accumulated in diffuse way, but in smaller numbers; the GC without lipofuscin were dominant. Growing older, especially above 60 years, all of the above mentioned patterns of lipofuscin accumulation were present with the evident increase in cells

  5. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10{sup 14} fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 11} particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC{sub 2} target with {sup 3,4}He, {sup 6,7}Li or {sup 12}C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  6. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10 14 fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10 6 to 10 11 particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC 2 target with 3,4 He, 6,7 Li or 12 C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  7. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 3. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general ... In this paper, we have investigated a tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model filled with dust of perfect fluid in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition  ...

  8. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity ... In this paper, we have investigated a tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model filled with dust of perfect fluid in general relativity. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News ...

  9. DMPD: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...hways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways...R, Slater L, Johnston SL. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep;9(11):1245-51. Epub 2007 Jul 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling pat

  10. Impaired Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Tyrosinemia Type I Receiving Nitisinone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendadi, Fatiha; de Koning, Tom J.; Visser, Gepke; Prinsen, Hubertus C. M. T.; de Sain, Monique G. M.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Sinnema, Gerben; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    Objective To examine cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study to establish cognitive functioning in children with tyrosinemia type I compared with their unaffected siblings.

  11. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m. 2007 May 25;282(21):15319-23. Epub 2007 Mar 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Pub...medID 17395581 Title Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Authors Uematsu S,

  12. Injury-Induced Type I IFN Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Innate glial response is critical for the induction of inflammatory mediators and recruitment of leukocytes to sites of the injury in the CNS. We have examined the involvement of type I IFN signaling in the mouse hippocampus following sterile injury (transection of entorhinal afferents). Type I I...

  13. The content and ratio of type I and III collagen in skin differ with age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    III ratio and changes in skin tension, elasticity, and healing. Also, the content of type I, III collagen and type I/III ratio are significantly altered in hypertrophic scar tissue compared to uninjured age-matched controls, resulting in a different structural ...

  14. Quality of life and cochlear implantation in Usher syndrome type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this descriptive, retrospective study were to evaluate quality of life, hearing, and vision in patients with Usher syndrome type I with and without cochlear implant. METHODS: Quality of life (QoL) of 14 patients with Usher type I (USH1) with a cochlear implant (CI)

  15. Usher syndrome type I associated with bronchiectasis and immotile nasal cilia in two brothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, D; Raymond, F; Kremer, C; Klossek, J M; Kaplan, J; Patte, F

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by congenital sensorineural deafness, involvement of the vestibular system, and progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa. Here we report the association of this disease with bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, and reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in two sibs and we suggest Usher syndrome type I could be a primary ciliary disorder.

  16. A note on glN type-I integrable defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Type-I quantum defects are considered in the context of the gl N spin chain. The type-I defects are associated with the generalized harmonic oscillator algebra, and the chosen defect matrix is that of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model. The transmission matrices relevant to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology. (paper)

  17. The rotation of spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1983-06-24

    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  18. Spiral density waves in M81. I. Stellar spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Aside from the grand-design stellar spirals appearing in the disk of M81, a pair of stellar spiral arms situated well inside the bright bulge of M81 has been recently discovered by Kendall et al. The seemingly unrelated pairs of spirals pose a challenge to the theory of spiral density waves. To address this problem, we have constructed a three-component model for M81, including the contributions from a stellar disk, a bulge, and a dark matter halo subject to observational constraints. Given this basic state for M81, a modal approach is applied to search for the discrete unstable spiral modes that may provide an understanding for the existence of both spiral arms. It is found that the apparently separated inner and outer spirals can be interpreted as a single trailing spiral mode. In particular, these spirals share the same pattern speed 25.5 km s –1 kpc –1 with a corotation radius of 9.03 kpc. In addition to the good agreement between the calculated and the observed spiral pattern, the variation of the spiral amplitude can also be naturally reproduced.

  19. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  20. Spiral modes in cold cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The linearized hydrodynamical equations governing the non-axisymmetric free modes of oscillation of cold cylindrical stellar systems are separated in cylindrical coordinates and solved numerically for two models. Short-wavelength unstable modes corresponding to tight spirals do not exist; but there exists an unstable growing mode which has the form of trailing spirals which are quite open. (orig.) [de

  1. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  2. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  3. Colours and morphology of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.

    1981-01-01

    Tinsley has proposed that late-type spirals have relatively more non-luminous material than early-type spirals. A re-examination of the data indicates that this proposal is equally consistent with dark matter being more dominant in barred galaxies than in unbarred galaxies. Neither conclusion can be firm, since the dataset is far from ideal. (author)

  4. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  5. Improved reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Mariager, Christian; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI (spectroscopic imaging scheme developed for hyperpolarized dynamic metabolic MR imaging) can be improved by using regularization with a sparsity constraint. By exploiting sparsity of the spectral domain, IDEAL spiral CSI can...

  6. Radiological anatomy assessment of the fissura pterygomaxillaris for a surgical approach to ganglion pterygopalatinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Torres, Miguel; Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Campos-Peláez, Ana; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso A

    2017-12-01

    revealed that males' fissurae pterygomaxillares were significantly larger than those of females in all three measures. Having analysed fissures, a typological classification was made according to the morphological patterns found. A 2-mm limiting measure was considered, and Measures A, B and C of each fissure were classified depending on whether they had a value above or equal to 2 mm, or below 2 mm. With this classification criterion, four fissurae pterygomaxillares types were obtained. Type I and II fissure values (with a higher prevalence) were equal to or were greater than 2 mm in all three measures, or in two measures. Type III fissure values were only greater than or equal to 2 mm in Measure A, whereas all the Type IV fissure values were below 2 mm. Future studies are necessary to correlate the fissure types successfully proposed in the surgical ganglion pterygopalatinum approach. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of four assays to detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I or type I/II antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, H.; Reesink, H. W.; Zaaijer, H. L.; van der Poel, C. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Lelie, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assays that detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody (HTLV-I/II) are widely used in the routine screening of blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four commercially available anti-HTLV-I (Fujirebio and Organon Teknika) or -HTLV-I/II assays (Murex and Ortho) were

  8. Murine CMV-induced hearing loss is associated with inner ear inflammation and loss of spiral ganglia neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D Bradford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV occurs in 0.5-1% of live births and approximately 10% of infected infants develop hearing loss. The mechanism(s of hearing loss remain unknown. We developed a murine model of CMV induced hearing loss in which murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection of newborn mice leads to hematogenous spread of virus to the inner ear, induction of inflammatory responses, and hearing loss. Characteristics of the hearing loss described in infants with congenital HCMV infection were observed including, delayed onset, progressive hearing loss, and unilateral hearing loss in this model and, these characteristics were viral inoculum dependent. Viral antigens were present in the inner ear as were CD(3+ mononuclear cells in the spiral ganglion and stria vascularis. Spiral ganglion neuron density was decreased after infection, thus providing a mechanism for hearing loss. The lack of significant inner ear histopathology and persistence of inflammation in cochlea of mice with hearing loss raised the possibility that inflammation was a major component of the mechanism(s of hearing loss in MCMV infected mice.

  9. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok

    2016-01-21

    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  11. Correlation study of multislice spiral CT and pathology in relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule and bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jinwei; Ye Xuanguang; Zhou Kangrong; Jiang Yaping; Wang Qun; Xu Songtao; Tan Lijie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and bronchus and its value in predicting the nature of nodule. Methods: Continuous volume targeted scans of 0.5 mm collimation were prospectively performed with multislice spiral CT (MSCT) and reconstructed images of MPR, CPR, and SSD in workstation in 75 patients of SPN with ≤3 cm in diameter were acquired. The emphasis was paid on the manifestation of the shapes and patterns of SPN with related bronchi. The results were correlated with macroscopic and microscopic specimens. Results: (1) The SPN-bronchus relationship was shown very clearly in all patients by the designed protocol. CT demonstrated the relations between SPN and bronchus in 44 (86.3%) malignant and 16 (66.7%) benign nodules. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.065). (2) Five types of SPN-bronchus relationship were identified with MSCT. Type I: bronchus was obstructed abruptly by the SPN, type II: bronchus penetrated into SPN with tapered narrow and interruption, type III: bronchus lumen shown within SPN was patent and intact, type IV: bronchus ran at the periphery of SPN with intact lumen, and type V: bronchus was displaced, compressed, and narrowed by SPN. (3) With respect to the nature of SPN, malignant nodule most commonly showed type I, secondly type IV, and rarely type V. Benign nodule most often showed type V, secondly type I, and no type II. With respect to the pattern, type I, II, and IV patterns were more commonly seen in malignant nodule, whereas type V pattern was seen frequently in benign nodule. Type III pattern was slightly more common in benign cases. Conclusion: Spiral targeted scan of ultra-thin section with MSCT and followed by MPR, CPR, and SSD reconstruction can greatly improve the manifestation of the bronchioles and accurately demonstrate the patterns of SPN-bronchus relationship. Varied patterns are corresponding to certain nodule and reflect definite pathologic changes

  12. Mass of the spirals galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupome, L; Pismis, P; Aguilar, L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have found that the total mass of galaxies-especially of the spirals-based on values published until 1975, decreased as the Hubble type varied from Sa through Sc and Irregulars. It was also pointed out that masses determined from the hydrogen 21-cm line were higher than the optically determined masses. To investigate the cause of these tendencies we have estimated the masses using an analytic rotation curve of Brandt adjusted to the optical observations in order to include all the mass of a galaxy up to the last observed point. Although the masses computed in this manner were found to be larger, as expected, the decrease of mass with Hubble type found earlier is confirmed. However, there is a discrepancy in the earlier types (Sa, Sab) in that their radio-masses are smaller than the optically determined ones. At present, the cause of this is not clear.

  13. No Evidence for Presence of Bacteria in Modic Type I Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, Niels; Thomsen, Karsten; Manniche, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest an association between sciatica and Propionibacterium acnes. "Modic type I changes" in the vertebrae are closely associated with sciatica and lower back pain, and recent studies have questioned the ability of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  14. Comparison of candidate serologic markers for type I and type II ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dan; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bristow, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers....

  15. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to chicken type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmayer, T F; Hendrix, M J; Little, C D

    1979-01-01

    We have shown that lymphocyte-myeloma cell hybridization can be used to produce large amounts of extremely high-titer specific antibodies against type I collagen, a macromolecule normally of low immunogenicity. In a passive hemagglutination assay the antibody had a high titer against chicken type I collagen but showed no activity against chicken type II or rat type I collagen. By using a two-step fluorescence histochemical procedure on sections of embryonic chicken tibia, strong fluorescence was observed in the perichondrium and surrounding connective tissue (known to contain type I collagen) but not over the cartilage (characterized by type II collagen). When used in conjunction with Staphylococcus aureus as a solid phase immunoadsorbant, the antibody was shown to bind to labeled collagen synthesized in vitro by embryonic chicken calvaria. Images PMID:291035

  16. Expanding the phenotypic and mutational spectrum in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Issa, Mahmoud; Magdy, Ahmed; El-Kotoury, Ahmed; Amr, Khalda

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I. It encodes U4atac, a small nuclear RNA that is a component of the minor spliceosome. Six distinct mutations in 30 patients diagnosed as microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I have been described. We report on three additional patients from two unrelated families presenting with a milder phenotype of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I and metopic synostosis. Patient 1 had two novel heterozygous mutations in the 3' prime stem-loop, g.66G > C and g.124G > A while Patients 2 and 3 had a homozygous mutation g.55G > A in the 5' prime stem-loop. Although they manifested the known spectrum of clinical features of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I, they lacked evidence of severe developmental delay and neurological symptoms. These findings expand the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Dönmez

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization.

  18. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  19. OI Issues: Type I - Understanding the Mildest Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues: Type I—Understanding the Mildest Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type I OI Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a ... 223-0344 Toll free: 800-624-BONE (2663) Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation Website: http://www.oif.org The National ...

  20. Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric and Nonparametric Tests of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1987-01-01

    Estimated Type I Error rates and power are reported for the Brown-Forsythe, O'Brien, Klotz, and Siegal-Tukey procedures. The effect of aligning the data using deviations from group means or group medians is investigated. (RB)

  1. TNF blockade induces a dysregulated type I interferon response without autoimmunity in paradoxical psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Curdin; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Mylonas, Alessio; Belkhodja, Cyrine; Demaria, Olivier; Navarini, Alexander A; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; French, Lars E; Vernez, Maxime; Gilliet, Michel

    2018-01-02

    Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are highly effective in the treatment of psoriasis, 2-5% of treated patients develop psoriasis-like skin lesions called paradoxical psoriasis. The pathogenesis of this side effect and its distinction from classical psoriasis remain unknown. Here we show that skin lesions from patients with paradoxical psoriasis are characterized by a selective overexpression of type I interferons, dermal accumulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and reduced T-cell numbers, when compared to classical psoriasis. Anti-TNF treatment prolongs type I interferon production by pDCs through inhibition of their maturation. The resulting type I interferon overexpression is responsible for the skin phenotype of paradoxical psoriasis, which, unlike classical psoriasis, is independent of T cells. These findings indicate that paradoxical psoriasis represents an ongoing overactive innate inflammatory process, driven by pDC-derived type I interferon that does not lead to T-cell autoimmunity.

  2. IMRT delivery verification using a spiral phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Susan L.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.; McNutt, Todd R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on the testing and verification of a system for IMRT delivery quality assurance that uses a cylindrical solid water phantom with a spiral trajectory for radiographic film placement. This spiral film technique provides more complete dosimetric verification of the entire IMRT treatment than perpendicular film methods, since it samples a three-dimensional dose subspace rather than using measurements at only one or two depths. As an example, the complete analysis of the predicted and measured spiral films is described for an intracranial IMRT treatment case. The results of this analysis are compared to those of a single field perpendicular film technique that is typically used for IMRT QA. The comparison demonstrates that both methods result in a dosimetric error within a clinical tolerance of 5%, however the spiral phantom QA technique provides a more complete dosimetric verification while being less time consuming. To independently verify the dosimetry obtained with the spiral film, the same IMRT treatment was delivered to a similar phantom in which LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were arranged along the spiral trajectory. The maximum difference between the predicted and measured TLD data for the 1.8 Gy fraction was 0.06 Gy for a TLD located in a high dose gradient region. This further validates the ability of the spiral phantom QA process to accurately verify delivery of an IMRT plan

  3. Stimulation of type I collagen activity in healing of pulp perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Kunarti, Sri

    2008-01-01

    Background: TGF-β1 is a connective tissue stimulant, potential regulator for tissue repair, and promoter in wound healing. The healing of pulp perforation is decided by quantity and quality of new collagen deposition. TGF-β1 upregulates collagen transcription. However, after several weeks production of type I collagen synthesis is stopped and enzymatic degradation of collagen matrix will occur. Purpose: Observe synthesis type I collagen during the process of pulp perforation healing in 7, 14,...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  5. Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6... High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers Report Term: 0-Other Email: leon.shterengas@stonybrook.edu Distribution Statement: 1-Approved

  6. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  8. Water absorption through salivary gland type I acini in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i.e., types II and III during the tick blood feeding phase. In this study, we tested the function of type I acini in unfed female Ixodes scapularis. The route of ingested water was tracked after forced feeding of water with fluorescent dye rhodamine123. We found that type-I acini of the salivary glands, but not type II and III, are responsible for water uptake. In addition, the ingestion of water through the midgut was also observed. Injection or feeding of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed water absorption in type I acini. When I. scapularis was offered a droplet of water, ticks rarely imbibed water directly (5%, while some approached the water droplet to use the high humidity formed in the vicinity of the droplet (23%. We conclude that during both on- and off-host stages, type I acini in salivary glands of female Ixodes scapularis absorb water and ions.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  10. Ganglion Cyst Associated with Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear That Caused Ulnar Nerve Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Anil Bingol, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyonʼs canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.

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  10. Type I and type II interferons upregulate functional type I interleukin-1 receptor in a human fibroblast cell line TIG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, T; Niki, N; Yang, D; Kimura, H; Ito, A; Hayashi, H; Onozaki, K

    1995-12-01

    The regulation of type I interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression by type I, interferon (IFN)-alpha A/D, and type II IFN, IFN-gamma, in a human fibroblast cell line TIG-1 was investigated. After 2 h stimulation with human IFN-alpha A/D or IFN-gamma, the levels of type I IL-1R mRNA increased. We previously reported that IL-1 upregulates transcription and cell surface molecules of type I IL-1R in TIG-1 cells through induction of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and cAMP accumulation. However, indomethacin was unable to inhibit the effect of IFNs, indicating that IFNs augment IL-1R expression through a pathway distinct from that of IL-1. The augmentation was also observed in other fibroblast cell lines. Nuclear run-on assays and studies of the stability of mRNA suggested that the increase in IL-1R mRNA was a result of the enhanced transcription of IL-1R gene. Binding studies using 125I-IL-1 alpha revealed that the number of cell surface IL-1R increased with no change in binding affinity by treatment with these IFNs. Pretreatment of the cells with IFNs enhanced IL-1-induced IL-6 production, indicating that IFNs upregulate functional IL-1R. IL-1 and IFNs are produced by the same cell types, as well as by the adjacent different cell types, and are concomitantly present in lesions of immune and inflammatory reactions. These results therefore suggest that IFNs exhibit synergistic effects with IL-1 through upregulation of IL-1R. Augmented production of IL-6 may also contribute to the reactions.

  11. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup, and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and PKR than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.

  12. Echo-Interleaved-Spiral MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Shirrie; Azhari, Haim [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Montag, Avram [Elscint Ltd., MRI division, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-12-31

    Interleaved-Spiral imaging is an efficient method for MRI fast scans. However, images suffer from blurring and artifacts due to field inhomogeneities and the long readout times. In this paper, we combine interleaved-spirals with spin-echo for 3D scans. The refocusing RF-pulses (echoes) refocus off-resonance spins, thus allowing longer acquisition times per excitation, by limiting inhomogeneity effects. The total number of excitations for a 3D scan is reduced by half. The 3D Fourier transform of an object is divided into pairs of slices, one slice is scanned in an outgoing interleaved-spiral, initiated after a 90 degree pulse has been applied. The second slice is scanned in an ingoing interleaved-spiral, after a 180 degree pulse has been applied, thus reaching the slice origin at the echo time. (authors) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Echo-Interleaved-Spiral MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Shirrie; Azhari, Haim; Montag, Avram

    1998-01-01

    Interleaved-Spiral imaging is an efficient method for MRI fast scans. However, images suffer from blurring and artifacts due to field inhomogeneities and the long readout times. In this paper, we combine interleaved-spirals with spin-echo for 3D scans. The refocusing RF-pulses (echoes) refocus off-resonance spins, thus allowing longer acquisition times per excitation, by limiting inhomogeneity effects. The total number of excitations for a 3D scan is reduced by half. The 3D Fourier transform of an object is divided into pairs of slices, one slice is scanned in an outgoing interleaved-spiral, initiated after a 90 degree pulse has been applied. The second slice is scanned in an ingoing interleaved-spiral, after a 180 degree pulse has been applied, thus reaching the slice origin at the echo time. (authors)

  14. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  15. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  16. Pulsatile spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Fabian; Hye, Md Abdul; Paul, Manosh C

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile spiral blood flow in a modelled three-dimensional arterial stenosis, with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction, is investigated by using numerical fluid dynamics. Two-equation k-ω model is used for the simulation of the transitional flow with Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000. It is found that the spiral component increases the static pressure in the vessel during the deceleration phase of the flow pulse. In addition, the spiral component reduces the turbulence intensity and wall shear stress found in the post-stenosis region of the vessel in the early stages of the flow pulse. Hence, the findings agree with the results of Stonebridge et al. (2004). In addition, the results of the effects of a spiral component on time-varying flow are presented and discussed along with the relevant pathological issues.

  17. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  18. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  19. Characterization of the bovine type I IFN locus: rearrangements, expansions, and novel subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type I interferons (IFN have major roles in the innate immune response to viruses, a function that is believed to have led to expansion in the number and complexity of their genes, although these genes have remained confined to single chromosomal region in all mammals so far examined. IFNB and IFNE define the limits of the locus, with all other Type I IFN genes except IFNK distributed between these boundaries, strongly suggesting that the locus has broadened as IFN genes duplicated and then evolved into a series of distinct families. Results The Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus has undergone significant rearrangement and expansion compared to mouse and human, however, with the constituent genes separated into two sub-loci separated by >700 kb. The IFNW family is greatly expanded, comprising 24 potentially functional genes and at least 8 pseudogenes. The IFNB (n = 6, represented in human and mouse by one copy, are also present as multiple copies in Bos taurus. The IFNT, which encode a non-virally inducible, ruminant-specific IFN secreted by the pre-implantation conceptus, are represented by three genes and two pseudogenes. The latter have sequences intermediate between IFNT and IFNW. A new Type I IFN family (IFNX of four members, one of which is a pseudogene, appears to have diverged from the IFNA lineage at least 83 million years ago, but is absent in all other sequenced genomes with the possible exception of the horse, a non-ruminant herbivore. Conclusion In summary, we have provided the first comprehensive annotation of the Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus, thereby providing an insight into the functional evolution of the Type I IFN in ruminants. The diversity and global spread of the ruminant species may have required an expansion of the Type I IFN locus and its constituent genes to provide broad anti-viral protection required for foraging and foregut fermentation.

  20. Statistical analysis of metallicity in spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1981-04-01

    A principal component analysis of metallicity and other integral properties of 33 spiral galaxies is presented; the involved parameters are: morphological type, diameter, luminosity and metallicity. From the statistical analysis it is concluded that the sample has only two significant dimensions and additonal tests, involving different parameters, show similar results. Thus it seems that only type and luminosity are independent variables, being the other integral properties of spiral galaxies correlated with them.

  1. Galactic models with variable spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Sellwood, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A series of three-dimensional computer simulations of disc galaxies has been run in which the self-consistent potential of the disc stars is supplemented by that arising from a small uniform Population II sphere. The models show variable spiral structure, which is more pronounced for thin discs. In addition, the thin discs form weak bars. In one case variable spiral structure associated with this bar has been seen. The relaxed discs are cool outside resonance regions. (author)

  2. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  3. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Staurosporine-Mediated Death of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burugula, Balabharathi; Ganesh, Bhagyalaxmi S.; Chintala, Shravan K.

    2011-01-01

    The functional effect of curcumin, a free radical scavenger and an herbal medicine from Indian yellow curry spice, Curcuma longa, on protease-mediated retinal ganglion cell death was investigated. These results show, for the first time, that curcumin indeed prevents the protease-mediated death of RGCs, both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Ganglion Plexus Ablation in Advanced Atrial Fibrillation: The AFACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Antoine H. G.; Berger, Wouter R.; Krul, Sébastien P. J.; van den Berg, Nicoline W. E.; Neefs, Jolien; Piersma, Femke R.; Chan Pin Yin, Dean R. P. P.; de Jong, Jonas S. S. G.; van Boven, WimJan P.; de Groot, Joris R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long duration of atrial fibrillation (AF), enlarged atria, or failed catheter ablation have advanced AF and may require more extensive treatment than pulmonary vein isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of additional ganglion plexus (GP) ablation

  6. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  7. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  8. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10 13 fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10 6 euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10 6 euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10 6 euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron

  9. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  10. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  11. Nuclear export signal of PRRSV NSP1α is necessary for type I IFN inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Shaoning; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Feng; Ren, Sufang; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun; Zhou, Shun; Wu, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. NSP1α was also found to interact with CBP, which implies a possible mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α. Taken together, our results describe a novel mechanism of PRRSV NSP1α for type I IFN inhibition and suppression of the host innate antiviral response. - Highlights: •NSP1α contains the NES and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. •NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm continuously. •The nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. •NSP1α interacts with CBP, which implies the mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α.

  12. SOLAR RADIO TYPE-I NOISE STORM MODULATED BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, K.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Shimojo, M.; Shiota, D.; Inoue, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first coordinated observations of an active region using ground-based radio telescopes and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites from different heliocentric longitudes were performed to study solar radio type-I noise storms. A type-I noise storm was observed between 100 and 300 MHz during a period from 2010 February 6 to 7. During this period the two STEREO satellites were located approximately 65° (ahead) and –70° (behind) from the Sun-Earth line, which is well suited to observe the earthward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio flux of the type-I noise storm was enhanced after the preceding CME and began to decrease before the subsequent CME. This time variation of the type-I noise storm was directly related to the change of the particle acceleration processes around its source region. Potential-field source-surface extrapolation from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO/MDI) magnetograms suggested that there was a multipolar magnetic system around the active region from which the CMEs occurred around the magnetic neutral line of the system. From our observational results, we suggest that the type-I noise storm was activated at a side-lobe reconnection region that was formed after eruption of the preceding CME. This magnetic structure was deformed by a loop expansion that led to the subsequent CME, which then suppressed the radio burst emission.

  13. Nuclear export signal of PRRSV NSP1α is necessary for type I IFN inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Shaoning [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong Institute of Veterinary Drug Quality Inspection, Shandong Key Laboratory for Quality Safety Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Animal Products, Huaicun Street No. 68, Jinan 250722, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Biology and Microbiology, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ren, Sufang; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Shun [College of marine science and engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Changcheng Road No. 700, Qingdao 266109 (China); Wu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: wujiaqiang2000@sina.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); and others

    2016-12-15

    The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. NSP1α was also found to interact with CBP, which implies a possible mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α. Taken together, our results describe a novel mechanism of PRRSV NSP1α for type I IFN inhibition and suppression of the host innate antiviral response. - Highlights: •NSP1α contains the NES and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. •NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm continuously. •The nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. •NSP1α interacts with CBP, which implies the mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α.

  14. Quantification and characterization of grouped type I myofibers in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Stec, Michael J; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-01-01

    Myofiber type grouping is a histological hallmark of age-related motor unit remodeling. Despite the accepted concept that denervation-reinnervation events lead to myofiber type grouping, the completeness of those conversions remains unknown. Type I myofiber grouping was assessed in vastus lateralis biopsies from Young (26 ± 4 years; n = 27) and Older (66 ± 4 years; n = 91) adults. Grouped and ungrouped type I myofibers were evaluated for phenotypic differences. Higher type I grouping in Older versus Young was driven by more myofibers per group (i.e., larger group size) (P grouped type I myofibers displayed larger cross-sectional area, more myonuclei, lower capillary supply, and more sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase I (SERCA I) expression (P Grouped type I myofibers retain type II characteristics suggesting that conversion during denervation-reinnervation events is either progressive or incomplete. Muscle Nerve 57: E52-E59, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Suljevic, Şenay; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Bilgili, Hasan; Demirel, Haydar Ali

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) on serum type I collagen turnover in immobilized rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: immobilization (IS), immobilization + remobilization (IR), immobilization + WBV (IV), control (C), and WBV control (CV). Immobilization was achieved by casting from the crista iliaca anterior superior to the lower part of the foot for 2 weeks. The applied WBV protocol involved a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm for 7 days starting a day after the end of the immobilization period. Serum type I collagen turnover markers were measured by using ELISA kits. Serum NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) levels were significantly lower in the immobilization groups (p immobilization groups. Similarly, serum COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels were higher in the WBV controls than their own controls (p Immobilization led to deterioration of tendon tissue, as observed by histopathological analysis with a transmission electron microscope. Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The highly virulent variola and monkeypox viruses express secreted inhibitors of type I interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, María del Mar; Alejo, Alí; Hudson, Paul; Damon, Inger K.; Alcami, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Variola virus (VARV) caused smallpox, one of the most devastating human diseases and the first to be eradicated, but its deliberate release represents a dangerous threat. Virulent orthopoxviruses infecting humans, such as monkeypox virus (MPXV), could fill the niche left by smallpox eradication and the cessation of vaccination. However, immunomodulatory activities and virulence determinants of VARV and MPXV remain largely unexplored. We report the molecular characterization of the VARV- and MPXV-secreted type I interferon-binding proteins, which interact with the cell surface after secretion and prevent type I interferon responses. The proteins expressed in the baculovirus system have been purified, and their interferon-binding properties characterized by surface plasmon resonance. The ability of these proteins to inhibit a broad range of interferons was investigated to identify potential adaptation to the human immune system. Furthermore, we demonstrate by Western blot and activity assays the expression of the type I interferon inhibitor during VARV and MPXV infections. These findings are relevant for the design of new vaccines and therapeutics to smallpox and emergent virulent orthopoxviruses because the type I interferon-binding protein is a major virulence factor in animal models, vaccination with this protein induces protective immunity, and its neutralization prevents disease progression.—Fernández de Marco, M. M., Alejo, A., Hudson, P., Damon, I. K., Alcami, A. The highly virulent variola and monkeypox viruses express secreted inhibitors of type I interferon. PMID:20019241

  17. Petrosal Ganglion: a more complex role than originally imagined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Antonio Retamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The petrosal ganglion is a peripheral sensory ganglion, composed of pseudomonopolar sensory neurons that innervate the posterior third of the tongue and the carotid sinus and body. According to their electrical properties petrosal ganglion neurons can be ascribed to one of two categories: i neurons with action potentials presenting an inflection (hump on its repolarizing phase and ii neurons with fast and brisk action potentials. Although there is some correlation between the electrophysiological properties and the sensory modality of the neurons in some species, no general pattern can be easily recognized. On the other hand, petrosal neurons projecting to the carotid body are activated by several transmitters, with acetylcholine and ATP being the most conspicuous in most species. Petrosal neurons are completely surrounded by a multi-cellular sheet of glial (satellite cells that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neurons. Thus, petrosal ganglion neurons are regarded as mere wires that communicate the periphery (i.e., carotid body and the central nervous system. However, it has been shown that in other sensory ganglia satellite glial cells and their neighboring neurons can interact, partly by the release of chemical neuro-glio transmitters. This intercellular communication can potentially modulate the excitatory status of sensory neurons and thus the afferent discharge. In this mini review, we will briefly summarize the general properties of petrosal ganglion neurons and the current knowledge about the glial-neuron communication in sensory neurons and how this phenomenon could be important in the chemical sensory processing generated in the carotid body.

  18. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  19. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia as a component of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makharia, Govind K; Tandon, Nikhil; Stephen, Neil de Jesus Rangel; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Tandon, Rakesh K

    2007-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea and steatorrhea occur frequently in patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type I. Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported earlier as a cause of steatorrhea in a young girl with APS Type I. We describe 2 patients with APS Type I who were found to have intestinal lymphangiectasia, one of whom had symptomatic protein-losing enteropathy.

  20. Analysis of hepatic vein variations in healthy people with 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Li Yong; Shen Jun; Zeng Weike; Li Jieting; Huang Suiqiao; Liang Biling; Liu Chao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze variations of hepatic vein in healthy people with 64-slice spiral CT. Methods: Seventy-five healthy subjects underwent multi-slice spiral computed (MSCT) hepatic venography. The anatomy of the junction of the hepatic veins with the inferior vena cava and the intrahepatic drainage territory of the hepatic veins and tributaries were evaluated. The hepatic veins were classified according to three anatomic classification (Nakamura's, Marcos's and Kawasaki's classification) methods respectively. Results: There was a common trunk of the middle and left hepatic veins before joining the IVC in 86.7% (65/75)of the cases. In 13.3% (10/75)of the cases, the three main hepatic veins joined the IVC separately. The ratios of Nakamma's classification type A, B, C of hepatic veins were 49.4% (37/75), 37.3% (28/75), and 13.3% (10/75) respectively. The ratios of Marcos's classification type A, B, C of hepatic veins were 56.0% (42/75), 24.0% (18/75), and 20.0% (15/75) respectively. The ratios of Kawasaki's classification type I, II of hepatic vein were 40.0% (30/75) and 60.0% (45/75). Conclusion: Multi-slice spiral CT hepatic venography can provide visualization of peripheral hepatic venous branches in details. (authors)

  1. Impaired cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I receiving nitisinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendadi, Fatiha; de Koning, Tom J; Visser, Gepke; Prinsen, Hubertus C M T; de Sain, Monique G M; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Sinnema, Gerben; van Spronsen, Francjan J; van Hasselt, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    To examine cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. We performed a cross-sectional study to establish cognitive functioning in children with tyrosinemia type I compared with their unaffected siblings. Intelligence was measured using age-appropriate Wechsler Scales. To assess cognitive development over time, we retrieved sequential IQ scores in a single-center subset of patients. We also evaluated whether plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine levels during treatment was correlated with cognitive development. Average total IQ score in 10 patients with tyrosinemia type I receiving nitisinone was significantly lower compared with their unaffected siblings (71 ± 13 vs 91 ± 13; P = .008). Both verbal and performance IQ subscores differed (77 ± 14 vs 95 ± 11; P cognitive function despite a protein-restricted diet. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of type I IFN signaling on anti-MOG antibody-mediated demyelination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Carsten Tue; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Asgari, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibodies with specificity for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are implicated in multiple sclerosis and related diseases. The pathogenic importance of anti-MOG antibody in primary demyelinating pathology remains poorly characterized. Objective The objective of this study...... is to investigate whether administration of anti-MOG antibody would be sufficient for demyelination and to determine if type I interferon (IFN) signaling plays a similar role in anti-MOG antibody-mediated pathology, as has been shown for neuromyelitis optica-like pathology. Methods Purified IgG2a monoclonal anti...... demyelination in wild-type and IFNAR1-KO mice. Conclusions Anti-MOG antibody and complement was sufficient to induce callosal demyelination, and pathology was dependent on type I IFN. Induction of EAE in IFNAR1-KO mice overcame the dependence on type I IFN for anti-MOG and complement-mediated demyelination....

  3. Estimates for the ionization and mass of type I supernova envelopes, based on the radioactivity hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskii, I.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of spectroscopic evidence for supernova 1972e fully confirms the hypothesis that radioactive 56 Ni decay produces the exponential tail in type I light curves. Relativistic positrons formed through the β decay of 56 Co will interact with material in the envelope thrown off by the supernova outburst; hence the ionization of the envelope can be estimated. The chief supplier of free electrons to the envelope will evidently be helium, the most abundant element there; iron, on the other hand, will mainly be in the Fe II state. The envelope would then have a mass of roughly-equal0.6 M/sub sun/ and a kinetic energy of roughly-equal5 x 10 50 erg, in agreement with observation. Accordingly, neutron stars should develop in type I as well as type II outbursts. Only type I supernovae, however, will synthesize the iron in the universe

  4. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...

  5. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. ► TGF-β1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. ► Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. ► MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both α1and α2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-β1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-β receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of α2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  6. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Hiroyuki [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Division of Radioisotope Research, Department of Research Support, Research Promotion Project, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki [Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Yoshioka, Hidekatsu, E-mail: hidey@oita-u.ac.jp [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  7. The emerging trend of non-operative treatment in paediatric type I open forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Fanelli, M; Adams, C; Graham, J; Seeley, M

    2017-08-01

    Open fractures are considered an orthopaedic emergency and are generally an indication for operative debridement. Recent studies have questioned this approach for the management of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open fractures in the paediatric population. This meta-analysis studies the non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. An Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed database literature search was performed for studies that involved a quantified number of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open forearm fractures in the paediatric population, which were treated without operative intervention. A fixed-effect meta-analysis, weighting each study based on the number of patients, and a pooled estimate of infection risk (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) was performed. The search results yielded five studies that were eligible for inclusion. No included patients had operative debridement and all were treated with antibiotics. The number of patients in each study ranged from 3 to 45, with a total of 127 paediatric patients in the meta-analysis. The infection rate was 0% for all patients included. The meta-analysis estimated a pooled infection risk of 0% (95% CI 0 to 2.9). The five included studies had a total of 127 patients with no cases of infection after non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. The infection rate of Type I fractures among operatively managed patients is 1.9%. The trend in literature towards non-operative treatment of paediatric Type I open fractures holds true in this meta-analysis.

  8. Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) as an indicator of type I collagen metabolism: ELISA development, reference interval, and hypovitaminosis D induced hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orum, O; Hansen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    1996-01-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of the N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP) utilizing purified alpha 1-chain specific rabbit antibodies is described. The ELISA measured the content of the alpha 1-chain of PINP independent of the molecular....../mL, these values being significantly different from the normal range (p ELISA was superior to commercially available assays for PICP and osteocalcin in separation between healthy controls and patients with osteomalaci. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug...

  9. Orthodontic treatment in adult with type I temporomandibular dysfunction : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between occlusion and TMJ has been the subject of considerable controversy. It is widely believed that the TMJ signs and symptoms such as Joint pain, clicking, locking and headaches are secondary to abnormalities of occlusion, with actual derangement being uncommon. This case report is to put forward the hypothesis that, type I TMD is often due primarily to occlusal interferences for which orthodontic treatment is generally effective. This case report underlines the significance of fixed orthodontic appliance along with the anterior bite plane splint used in correction of type I TMD.

  10. On the exact solutions of high order wave equations of KdV type (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Hasan; Pandir, Yusuf; Baskonus, Haci Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, by means of a proper transformation and symbolic computation, we study high order wave equations of KdV type (I). We obtained classification of exact solutions that contain soliton, rational, trigonometric and elliptic function solutions by using the extended trial equation method. As a result, the motivation of this paper is to utilize the extended trial equation method to explore new solutions of high order wave equation of KdV type (I). This method is confirmed by applying it to this kind of selected nonlinear equations.

  11. No association of the IRS1 and PAX4 genes with type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, R.; Brorsson, C.; Boehm, B.

    2009-01-01

    To reassess earlier suggested type I diabetes (T1D) associations of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and the paired domain 4 gene (PAX4) genes, the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the two genomic regions. Sixteen SNPs we...... of tagging SNPs, more than one genotyping platform in high throughput studies, and sufficient power to draw solid conclusions in genetic studies of human complex diseases. Genes and Immunity (2009) 10, S49-S53; doi:10.1038/gene.2009.91 Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12...

  12. Locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmology in f(R, T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M.F. [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2015-08-15

    This manuscript is devoted to the investigation of the Bianchi type I universe in the context of f(R, T) gravity. For this purpose, we explore the exact solutions of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I spacetime. The modified field equations are solved by assuming an expansion scalar θ proportional to the shear scalar σ, which gives A = B{sup n}, where A, B are the metric coefficients and n is an arbitrary constant. In particular, three solutions have been found and physical quantities are calculated in each case. (orig.)

  13. [Prescribed drug use for bipolar disorder type I and II in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Charlotte; Kardell, Mathias; Karanti, Alina; Isgren, Anniella; Annerbrink, Kristina; Landen, Mikael

    2017-01-10

    Prescribed drug use for bipolar disorder type I and II in clinical practice Practice guidelines based on available evidence and clinical consensus are available for the treatment of bipolar disorder. We surveyed to which extent those guidelines are implemented in clinical practice in Sweden. We analysed pharmacological treatment in patients with bipolar disorder in 2015 using the national quality register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR). We compared bipolar disorder type I (BDI) with type bipolar disorder type II (BDII). The vast majority of patients were prescribed a mood stabilizer either as monotherapy or as a part of combination therapy (BDI 87%, BDII 83%, pbipolar disorder.

  14. Magnetic diagnostic of SOL-filaments generated by type I ELMs on JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Vianello, N.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    to a simple model, motivated by observations. A new diagnostic in the form of a reciprocating probe with three magnetic pickup loops was developed for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Measurements during the passage of type-I ELM filaments determine the filaments to be in the scrape off layer (SOL) and to carry currents......This contribution is focused on the magnetic signatures of type I ELM filaments. On JET a limited number of high time resolution magnetic coils were used to derive essential ELM filament parameters. The method uses forward modelling and simultaneous fitting of magnetic pickup coil signals...

  15. Investigation of logarithmic spiral nanoantennas at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anamika; Pandey, Awanish; Mishra, Vigyanshu; Singh, Ten; Alam, Aftab; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    2013-12-01

    The first study is reported of a logarithmic spiral antenna in the optical frequency range. Using the finite integration technique, we investigated the spectral and radiation properties of a logarithmic spiral nanoantenna and a complementary structure made of thin gold film. A comparison is made with results for an Archimedean spiral nanoantenna. Such nanoantennas can exhibit broadband behavior that is independent of polarization. Two prominent features of logarithmic spiral nanoantennas are highly directional far field emission and perfectly circularly polarized radiation when excited by a linearly polarized source. The logarithmic spiral nanoantenna promises potential advantages over Archimedean spirals and could be harnessed for several applications in nanophotonics and allied areas.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  17. Analysis of spiral components in 16 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considere, S.; Athanassoula, E.

    1988-01-01

    A Fourier analysis of the intensity distributions in the plane of 16 spiral galaxies of morphological types from 1 to 7 is performed. The galaxies processed are NGC 300,598,628,2403,2841,3031,3198,3344,5033,5055,5194,5247,6946,7096,7217, and 7331. The method, mathematically based upon a decomposition of a distribution into a superposition of individual logarithmic spiral components, is first used to determine for each galaxy the position angle PA and the inclination ω of the galaxy plane onto the sky plane. Our results, in good agreement with those issued from different usual methods in the literature, are discussed. The decomposition of the deprojected galaxies into individual spiral components reveals that the two-armed component is everywhere dominant. Our pitch angles are then compared to the previously published ones and their quality is checked by drawing each individual logarithmic spiral on the actual deprojected galaxy images. Finally, the surface intensities for angular periodicities of interest are calculated. A choice of a few of the most important ones is used to elaborate a composite image well representing the main spiral features observed in the deprojected galaxies

  18. Gene identification in the congenital disorders of glycosylation type I by whole-exome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timal, Sharita; Hoischen, Alexander; Lehle, Ludwig; Adamowicz, Maciej; Huijben, Karin; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Paprocka, Justyna; Jamroz, Ewa; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Koerner, Christian; Gilissen, Christian; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Eidhof, Ilse; Van den Heuvel, Lambert; Thiel, Christian; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Veltman, Joris; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation type I (CDG-I) form a growing group of recessive neurometabolic diseases. Identification of disease genes is compromised by the enormous heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and the large number of potential genes involved. Until now, gene identification included

  19. Quantification in immunohistochemistry: the measurement of the ratios of collagen types I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, C. M.; Marijianowski, M. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative techniques in immunohistochemistry are needed, but they are rarely applied because of doubtful reproducibility. We have developed a method for the detection of collagen types I and III in situ. The method applied was a two-step immuno-alkaline phosphatase technique with visualization of

  20. The influence of hormone therapies on type I and II endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Keiding, Niels

    2016-01-01

    identified from the National Cancer Registry: 4,972 Type I tumors and 500 Type II tumors. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with women never on HT, the RR of endometrial cancer was increased with conjugated estrogen: 4.27 (1...

  1. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in ...

  2. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin; Limborg, Signe

    2012-01-01

    the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD71 and HLA-DR (activated T cells), and this was associated with an increased risk of clinical disease activity. In contrast, induction of CD71 and HLA-DR was not observed in untreated MS patients with evidence of endogenous type IFN I activity. In conclusion......Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with the type I interferon (IFN) IFN-ß lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship...... with endogenous type I IFN-like activity, the effect of IFN-ß therapy, and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity in MS patients. Endogenous type I IFN activity was associated with decreased expression of the integrin subunit CD49d (VLA-4) on CD4+CD26(high) T cells (Th1 helper cells...

  3. Determination of markers for collagen type I turnover in peritendinous human tissue by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J L; Langberg, Henning; Heinemeier, K M

    2006-01-01

    Previous results from our group have shown that loading of human tendon elevates tendinous type I collagen production measured by microdialysis. However, exclusion of the observed elevation as a response to trauma from inserting the microdialysis catheters or a possible influence from the collage...

  4. De-novo mutation in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, J. E.; Hensels, G. W.; Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; Gabreëls, F. J.; Janssen, E. A.; de Jonghe, P.; Martin, J. J.; van Broeckhoven, C.; Valentijn, L. J.; Baas, F.

    1992-01-01

    Isolated cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1) have been thought to be most frequently autosomal recessive. We have found that a recently discovered duplication in chromosome 17, responsible for most cases of autosomal dominant HMSN I,

  5. An Active Type I-E CRISPR-Cas System Identified in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Qiu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems, the small RNA-dependent immune systems, are widely distributed in prokaryotes. However, only a small proportion of CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified to be active in bacteria. In this work, a naturally active type I-E CRISPR-Cas system was found in Streptomyces avermitilis. The system shares many common genetic features with the type I-E system of Escherichia coli, and meanwhile shows unique characteristics. It not only degrades plasmid DNA with target protospacers, but also acquires new spacers from the target plasmid DNA. The naive features of spacer acquisition in the type I-E system of S. avermitilis were investigated and a completely conserved PAM 5'-AAG-3' was identified. Spacer acquisition displayed differential strand bias upstream and downstream of the priming spacer, and irregular integrations of new spacers were observed. In addition, introduction of this system into host conferred phage resistance to some extent. This study will give new insights into adaptation mechanism of the type I-E systems in vivo, and meanwhile provide theoretical foundation for applying this system on the genetic modification of S. avermitilis.

  6. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  7. Inference on the reliability of Weibull distribution with multiply Type-I censored data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Jiang, Ping; Guo, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring, which is a general form of Type-I censoring. In multiply Type-I censoring in this study, all units in the life testing experiment are terminated at different times. Reliability estimation with the maximum likelihood estimate of Weibull parameters is conducted. With the delta method and Fisher information, we propose a confidence interval for reliability and compare it with the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence interval. Furthermore, a scenario involving a few expert judgments of reliability is considered. A method is developed to generate extended estimations of reliability according to the original judgments and transform them to estimations of Weibull parameters. With Bayes theory and the Monte Carlo Markov Chain method, a posterior sample is obtained to compute the Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the proposed confidence interval outperforms the bootstrap one. The Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability are both satisfactory. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods. - Highlights: • We focus on reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring. • The proposed confidence interval for the reliability is superior after comparison. • The Bayes estimates with a few expert judgements on reliability are satisfactory. • We specify the cases where the MLEs do not exist and present methods to remedy it. • The distribution of estimate of reliability should be used for accurate estimate.

  8. Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi type-I massive string cosmological model for perfect fluid distribution in the presence of magnetic field is investigated in Rosen's [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 435 (1973)] bimetric theory of gravitation. To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time, we have used the condition A = ( B C ) n , where n is a constant, ...

  9. Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo models in modified generalized scalar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bianchi type; scalar–tensor theory; cosmological term; scalar field. ... We obtain exact solutions of the field equations in Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo space–times. The evolution of the scale factor ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  10. Bianchi type-I model with conformally invariant scalar and electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A Bianchi type-I exact solution of the Einstein theory representing the homogeneous anisotropic models with the electromagnetic field and the conformally invariant scalar field is studied. The solution contains Kasner model, pure electromagnetic and pure scalar models as special cases. It is found that the models evolve from an initial Kasner type to a final open Friedmann type universe. (Author) [pt

  11. Cerebral H-1 MR spectroscopy revealing white matter NAA decreases in glutaric aciduria type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P. E.; Smit, G. P. A.; Meiners, L. C.; Oudkerk, M.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    MR spectroscopy in two patients with glutaric aciduria type I revealed reductions in the white matter N-acetylaspartate signal, in the more severe case accompanied by a loss of glutamate and the appearance of lactate signals. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Goris, R.J.A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was

  13. Mannitol as salvage treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Tacken, M.C.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Goor, H. van; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS I) is a continuation of symptoms and signs due to a pathological exaggerated reaction in an extremity of the human body after an injury or operation. Although the clinical picture of CRPS I in the majority of patients is well known, the

  14. Antibodies to the human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I in Dutch haemophiliacs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Breederveld, C.; Terpstra, F.; Roos, M.; Schellekens, P.; Melief, C.

    1986-01-01

    95 Dutch haemophiliacs were tested for antibodies to membrane antigens on cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I-MA) by indirect immunofluorescence and to purified HTLV-I by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to HTLV-I-MA were present in 8 of 95 (8%) haemophiliacs,

  15. Random Numbers Demonstrate the Frequency of Type I Errors: Three Spreadsheets for Class Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes three spreadsheet exercises demonstrating the nature and frequency of type I errors using random number generation. The exercises are designed specifically to address issues related to testing multiple relations using correlation (Demonstration I), t tests varying in sample size (Demonstration II) and multiple comparisons…

  16. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  17. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT IN A PATIENT WITH ARNOLD-CHI ARI MALFORMATION TYPE I AND SYRINGOMYELIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika; Pratap; Vijayalaxmi; Kalyan Chakravarthy; Nagaraju

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Syringomyelia is an unusual neurological condition characterised by the the presence of cystic cavity in the spinal cord resultin g in neurological manifestations. Here, we report a safe anesthetic management of patient with Arnold-Ch iari malformation type I and syringomyelia posted for foramen magnum decompression . INTRODUCTION: Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) is a developmental malformation characterised by downward displacement of cere...

  18. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  19. Nanoscale Structure of Type I Collagen Fibrils: Quantitative Measurement of D-spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Blake; Fang, Ming; Wallace, Joseph M.; Orr, Bradford G.; Les, Clifford M.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a quantitative method to measure the D-periodic spacing of Type I collagen fibrils using Atomic Force Microscopy coupled with analysis using a 2D Fast Fourier Transform approach. Instrument calibration, data sampling and data analysis are all discussed and comparisons of the data to the complementary methods of electron microscopy and X-ray scattering are made. Examples of the application of this new approach to the analysis of Type I collagen morphology in disease models of estrogen depletion and Osteogenesis Imperfecta are provided. We demonstrate that it is the D-spacing distribution, not the D-spacing mean, that showed statistically significant differences in estrogen depletion associated with early stage Osteoporosis and Osteogenesis Imperfecta. The ability to quantitatively characterize nanoscale morphological features of Type I collagen fibrils will provide important structural information regarding Type I collagen in many research areas, including tissue aging and disease, tissue engineering, and gene knock out studies. Furthermore, we also envision potential clinical applications including evaluation of tissue collagen integrity under the impact of diseases or drug treatments. PMID:23027700

  20. Distribution and mechanism of Type I-E CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, R.H.J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the CRISPR type I system encompasses six different subtypes (I-A to I-F), only three subtypes have been studied in detail to date. This review includes an analysis of the distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems among the different bacterial and archaeal lineages, and will focus on our

  1. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; van Rijen, M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; van Boxtel, A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently,

  2. Bianchi Type I Cosmological Models in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Harko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamics of a barotropic cosmological fluid in an anisotropic, Bianchi type I space-time in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld (EiBI gravity. By assuming isotropic pressure distribution, we obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form. The behavior of the geometric and thermodynamic parameters of the Bianchi type I Universe is studied, by using both analytical and numerical methods, for some classes of high density matter, described by the stiff causal, radiation, and pressureless fluid equations of state. In all cases the study of the models with different equations of state can be reduced to the integration of a highly nonlinear second order ordinary differential equation for the energy density. The time evolution of the anisotropic Bianchi type I Universe strongly depends on the initial values of the energy density and of the Hubble function. An important observational parameter, the mean anisotropy parameter, is also studied in detail, and we show that for the dust filled Universe the cosmological evolution always ends into isotropic phase, while for high density matter filled universes the isotropization of Bianchi type I universes is essentially determined by the initial conditions of the energy density.

  3. Chiari Type I Malformations in Young Adults: Implications for the College Health Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Mary Jane; Vaughn, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe 2 cases of Chiari type I malformation (CM-I) in students presenting to a college health center within a 6-month period. A review of CM-I, including epidemiology, typical presentation, evaluation, and management, is followed by a discussion of the clinical and functional implications of the disorder in an…

  4. Palliative care in children with spinal muscular atrophy type I: What do they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salido, Alberto; de Paso-Mora, María García; Monleón-Luque, Manuel; Martino-Alba, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to describe the clinical evolution and needs of children with spinal muscular atrophy type I treated in a domiciliary palliative care program. We undertook a retrospective chart review of nine consecutive patients. Descriptions of the clinical and demographic profile of children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type I were referred to a pediatric palliative care team (PPCT). Six males and three females were admitted to the PPCT, all before six months of age, except for one afflicted with SMA type I with respiratory distress. The median time of attention was 57 days (range 1-150). The domiciliary attention mainly consisted of respiratory care. The patient with SMA type I with respiratory distress required domiciliary mechanical ventilation by tracheotomy. In all cases, a nasogastric tube (NT) was indicated. As end-of-life care, eight required morphine to manage the dyspnea, four received it only by enteral (oral or NT) administration, and four received it first by enteral administration with continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSI) later. Three of the four patients with CSI also received benzodiazepines. While they were attended by the PPCT, none required hospital admission. All the patients died at home except for the one attended to for just one day. Domiciliary care for these patients is possible. The respiratory morbidity and its management are the main issues. Application of an NT is useful to maintain nutritional balance. Morphine administration is necessary to manage the dyspnea. Palliative sedation is not always necessary.

  5. On the theory of type-I superconductor surface tension and twinning-plane-superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    A correction is found to the surface tension in type-I superconductors which is proportional to the square root of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter. This correction is essential for obtaining the phase diagram and other thermodynamical variables of the narrow superconducting layer arising near the twinning plane in some metals

  6. Subset selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. We obtain exact results for the probability of correct selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations which only differ in their location parameter. Some open problems are formulated.

  7. Type I Error Inflation in DIF Identification with Mantel-Haenszel: An Explanation and a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

    2014-01-01

    It is known that sum score-based methods for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF), such as the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) approach, can be affected by Type I error inflation in the absence of any DIF effect. This may happen when the items differ in discrimination and when there is item impact. On the other hand, outlier DIF methods…

  8. Traumatic separation of a type I patella bipartite in a sportsman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Casper Smedegaard; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Holck, Kim

    2014-01-01

    fibrocartilage was found on both parts of the patella. Asymptomatic patella bi-partite was found on X-ray imaging of the patient's left knee, and he was diagnosed to have traumatic separation of a type I patella bipartite. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical and radiological findings....

  9. Immune cell-poor melanomas benefit from PD-1 blockade after targeted type I IFN activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, Tobias; Landsberg, Jennifer; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Renn, Marcel; Glodde, Nicole; Jansen, Philipp; Gaffal, Evelyn; Steitz, Julia; Tolba, Rene; Kalinke, Ulrich; Limmer, Andreas; Jönsson, Göran; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Infiltration of human melanomas with cytotoxic immune cells correlates with spontaneous type I IFN activation and a favorable prognosis. Therapeutic blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors in patients with preexisting lymphocytic infiltrates prolongs survival, but new complementary strategies are needed to activate cellular antitumor immunity in immune cell-poor melanomas. Here, we show that primary melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice, which imitate human immune cell-poor melanomas with a poor outcome, escape IFN-induced immune surveillance and editing. Peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory RNA initiated a cytotoxic inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment and significantly impaired tumor growth. This critically required the coordinated induction of type I IFN responses by dendritic, myeloid, natural killer, and T cells. Importantly, antibody-mediated blockade of the IFN-induced immune-inhibitory interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors further prolonged the survival. These results highlight important interconnections between type I IFNs and immune-inhibitory receptors in melanoma pathogenesis, which serve as targets for combination immunotherapies. Using a genetically engineered mouse melanoma model, we demonstrate that targeted activation of the type I IFN system with immunostimulatory RNA in combination with blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors is a rational strategy to expose immune cell-poor tumors to cellular immune surveillance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Initial Dynamics of The Norrish Type I Reaction in Acetone: Probing Wave Packet Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2011-01-01

    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S1 (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels...

  11. Type I interferon induction is detrimental during infection with the Whipple's disease bacterium, Tropheryma whipplei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatoun Al Moussawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the first line of defense against pathogens. Upon infection macrophages usually produce high levels of proinflammatory mediators. However, macrophages can undergo an alternate polarization leading to a permissive state. In assessing global macrophage responses to the bacterial agent of Whipple's disease, Tropheryma whipplei, we found that T. whipplei induced M2 macrophage polarization which was compatible with bacterial replication. Surprisingly, this M2 polarization of infected macrophages was associated with apoptosis induction and a functional type I interferon (IFN response, through IRF3 activation and STAT1 phosphorylation. Using macrophages from mice deficient for the type I IFN receptor, we found that this type I IFN response was required for T. whipplei-induced macrophage apoptosis in a JNK-dependent manner and was associated with the intracellular replication of T. whipplei independently of JNK. This study underscores the role of macrophage polarization in host responses and highlights the detrimental role of type I IFN during T. whipplei infection.

  12. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity in Alberta Hutterites with Usher syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Lenger, Chaeli; Smith, Richard; Kimberling, William J; Ye, Ming; Lehmann, Ordan; MacDonald, Ian

    2012-01-01

    To identify the genetic defect in a Hutterite population from northern Alberta with Usher syndrome type I. Complete ophthalmic examinations were conducted on two boys and two girls from two related Hutterite families diagnosed with Usher syndrome type I. DNA from patients and their parents was first evaluated for a mutation in exon 10 of the protocadherin-related 15 (PCDH15) gene (c.1471delG), previously reported in southern Alberta Hutterite patients with Usher syndrome (USH1F). Single nucleotide polymorphic linkage analysis was then used to confirm another locus, and DNA was analyzed with the Usher Chip v4.0 platform. Severe hearing impairment, unintelligible speech, and retinitis pigmentosa with varying degrees of visual acuity and visual field loss established a clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome type I. The patients did not carry the exon 10 mutation in the PCDH15 gene; however, with microarray analysis, a previously reported mutation (c.52C>T; p.Q18X) in the myosin VIIA (MYO7A) gene was found in the homozygous state in the affected siblings. The finding of a MYO7A mutation in two related Hutterite families from northern Alberta provides evidence of genetic heterogeneity in Hutterites affected by Usher syndrome type I.

  13. Psychosocial Implications of Usher Syndrome, Type I, throughout the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, I. D.

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome, Type I, requires multiple adaptations throughout the life cycle because each stage of life has tasks and losses associated with deafness and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This article examines the issues raised at each stage, using clinical vignettes from persons who have this condition and their families. (Author/DB)

  14. Nature of elevated blood pressure in normoalbuminuric type I diabetic patients. Essential hypertension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Rasmussen, E; Jensen, T

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize type I diabetic patients with essential hypertension with respect to kidney function, renal hormones, and endothelial function. After 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the following groups: group 1, 14 ...

  15. Training-induced changes in peritendinous type I collagen turnover determined by microdialysis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Rosendal, L; Kjaer, M

    2001-01-01

    1. Acute exercise is found to increase collagen type I formation locally in peritendinous connective tissue of the Achilles' tendon in humans, as determined from changes in interstitial concentrations of collagen propeptide (PICP) and a collagen degradation product (ICTP) by the use of microdialy...

  16. Increased Levels of Type I and III Collagen and Hyaluronan in Scleroderma Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Heickendorff, Lene; L, Risteli

    1997-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and hyaluronan (HA) were measured in plasma and suction blister fluid from 13 systemic sclerosis patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and skin biopsies were...

  17. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in Type I diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Parving, H H

    1999-01-01

    , serum creatinine 109 (53-558) micromol/l], and 140 Type I diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria [79 men, 47+/-10 years, urinary albumin excretion rate 8 (0-30) mg/24 h, and serum creatinine 81 (55-121) micromol/l]. Patients with and without nephropathy were comparable with respect to sex...

  18. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  19. Expanding the product portfolio of fungal type I fatty acid synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Krivoruchko, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Fungal type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) are mega-enzymes with two separated, identical compartments, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle substrates to catalytically active sites embedded in the chamber wall. We devised synthetic FASs by integrating heterologous enzymes into ...

  20. Perfect fluid Bianchi Type-I cosmological models with time varying G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bianchi Type-I cosmological models containing perfect fluid with time vary- ing G and Λ have been presented. The solutions obtained represent an expansion scalar θ bearing a constant ratio to the anisotropy in the direction of space-like unit vector λi. Of the two models obtained, one has negative vacuum energy ...

  1. Resilience in patients with amputation because of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Schrier, Ernst; Krans, Hilde K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although controversial, an amputation for longstanding and therapy-resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) may improve quality of life and pain intensity. Resilience, the way people deal with adversity in a positive way may be related to these positive outcomes. This study

  2. Fragmentation of the CRISPR-Cas Type I-B signature protein Cas8b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hagen; Rompf, Judith; Wiegel, Julia; Rau, Kristina; Randau, Lennart

    2017-11-01

    CRISPR arrays are transcribed into long precursor RNA species, which are further processed into mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). Cas proteins utilize these crRNAs, which contain spacer sequences that can be derived from mobile genetic elements, to mediate immunity during a reoccurring virus infection. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems are defined by the presence of different Cascade interference complexes containing large and small subunits that play major roles during target DNA selection. Here, we produce the protein and crRNA components of the Type I-B CRISPR-Cas complex of Clostridium thermocellum and Methanococcus maripaludis. The C. thermocellum Cascade complexes were reconstituted and analyzed via size-exclusion chromatography. Activity of the heterologous M. maripaludis CRISPR-Cas system was followed using phage lambda plaques assays. The reconstituted Type-I-B Cascade complex contains Cas7, Cas5, Cas6b and the large subunit Cas8b. Cas6b can be omitted from the reconstitution protocol. The large subunit Cas8b was found to be represented by two tightly associated protein fragments and a small C-terminal Cas8b segment was identified in recombinant complexes and C. thermocellum cell lysate. Production of Cas8b generates a small C-terminal fragment, which is suggested to fulfill the role of the missing small subunit. A heterologous, synthetic M. maripaludis Type I-B system is active in E. coli against phage lambda, highlighting a potential for genome editing using endogenous Type-I-B CRISPR-Cas machineries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Incidence of childhood type I diabetes in Extremadura, Spain, 2003-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Benítez, A; Luengo Pérez, L M; Suero Villa, P; Suero Villa, S; Sánchez Vega, J

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown an increasing incidence of type I diabetes in children in Europe over the last 20 years. The present study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and development of type I diabetes in children under 15 years of age in Extremadura in the period 2003-2007. The study applied the capture-recapture method using the national hospital discharge database as primary source. Data were collected from children under 15 years of age diagnosed with diabetes type I during the study period. Secondary data source were insulin prescriptions from the public health system. Rates were standardised and a Poisson regression was used to assess the development of the disease during the study period. The overall adjusted incidence rate was 25.2/100.000 (95%CI: 21.8-28.6) with 100% completeness; no significant differences were observed by sex or provinces. Age group rates were 20.2/100.000 (95%CI: 10.1-30.3) for aged 0-4 years, 24.8/100.000 (95%CI: 20.1-29.4) for aged 5-9 years, and 30.0/100.000 (95%CI: 25.8-34.1) for aged 10-14 years, with a RR of 1.67 (95%CI: 1.18-2.36; P=.004) for 10-14 year olds relative to 0-4 year olds. The number of cases among children aged 0-4 years increased from 5 cases in 2003 to 15 cases in 2006, although this increase was not significantly different. The overall rates of incidence of type I diabetes were higher than the expected incidence values in Extremadura. Careful surveillance is required to confirm the increased trend in the incidence of type I diabetes observed among children aged 0-4 years. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. IRF3 and type I interferons fuel a fatal response to myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin R; Aguirre, Aaron D; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Sun, Yuan; Roh, Jason D; Ng, Richard P; Kohler, Rainer H; Arlauckas, Sean P; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Savol, Andrej; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Kelly, Mark; Fitzgibbons, Timothy P; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Mitchison, Timothy; Libby, Peter; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-12-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and type I interferons (IFNs) protect against infections and cancer, but excessive IRF3 activation and type I IFN production cause autoinflammatory conditions such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and STING-associated vasculopathy of infancy (SAVI). Myocardial infarction (MI) elicits inflammation, but the dominant molecular drivers of MI-associated inflammation remain unclear. Here we show that ischemic cell death and uptake of cell debris by macrophages in the heart fuel a fatal response to MI by activating IRF3 and type I IFN production. In mice, single-cell RNA-seq analysis of 4,215 leukocytes isolated from infarcted and non-infarcted hearts showed that MI provokes activation of an IRF3-interferon axis in a distinct population of interferon-inducible cells (IFNICs) that were classified as cardiac macrophages. Mice genetically deficient in cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), its adaptor STING, IRF3, or the type I IFN receptor IFNAR exhibited impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression and, in the case of mice deficient in IRF3 or IFNAR, improved survival after MI as compared to controls. Interruption of IRF3-dependent signaling resulted in decreased cardiac expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration of the heart, as well as in attenuated ventricular dilation and improved cardiac function. Similarly, treatment of mice with an IFNAR-neutralizing antibody after MI ablated the interferon response and improved left ventricular dysfunction and survival. These results identify IRF3 and the type I IFN response as a potential therapeutic target for post-MI cardioprotection.

  5. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  6. Muscle myeloid type I interferon gene expression may predict therapeutic responses to rituximab in myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Rayavarapu, Sree; Phadke, Aditi; Rider, Lisa G; Hoffman, Eric P; Miller, Frederick W

    2016-09-01

    To identify muscle gene expression patterns that predict rituximab responses and assess the effects of rituximab on muscle gene expression in PM and DM. In an attempt to understand the molecular mechanism of response and non-response to rituximab therapy, we performed Affymetrix gene expression array analyses on muscle biopsy specimens taken before and after rituximab therapy from eight PM and two DM patients in the Rituximab in Myositis study. We also analysed selected muscle-infiltrating cell phenotypes in these biopsies by immunohistochemical staining. Partek and Ingenuity pathway analyses assessed the gene pathways and networks. Myeloid type I IFN signature genes were expressed at higher levels at baseline in the skeletal muscle of rituximab responders than in non-responders, whereas classic non-myeloid IFN signature genes were expressed at higher levels in non-responders at baseline. Also, rituximab responders have a greater reduction of the myeloid and non-myeloid type I IFN signatures than non-responders. The decrease in the type I IFN signature following administration of rituximab may be associated with the decreases in muscle-infiltrating CD19(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages in responders. Our findings suggest that high levels of myeloid type I IFN gene expression in skeletal muscle predict responses to rituximab in PM/DM and that rituximab responders also have a greater decrease in the expression of these genes. These data add further evidence to recent studies defining the type I IFN signature as both a predictor of therapeutic responses and a biomarker of myositis disease activity. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf British Society for Rheumatology 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Kallikrein–Kinin System Suppresses Type I Interferon Responses: A Novel Pathway of Interferon Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Seliga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein–Kinin System (KKS, comprised of kallikreins (klks, bradykinins (BKs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, and many other molecules, regulates a number of physiological processes, including inflammation, coagulation, angiogenesis, and control of blood pressure. In this report, we show that KKS regulates Type I IFN responses, thought to be important in lupus pathogenesis. We used CpG (TLR9 ligand, R848 (TLR7 ligand, or recombinant IFN-α to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and proteins, and observed that this response was markedly diminished by BKs, klk1 (tissue kallikrein, or captopril (an ACE inhibitor. BKs significantly decreased the ISGs induced by TLRs in vitro and in vivo (in normal and lupus-prone mice, and in human PBMCs, especially the induction of Irf7 gene (p < 0.05, the master regulator of Type I IFNs. ISGs induced by IFN-α were also suppressed by the KKS. MHC Class I upregulation, a classic response to Type I IFNs, was reduced by BKs in murine dendritic cells (DCs. BKs decreased phosphorylation of STAT2 molecules that mediate IFN signaling. Among the secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines analyzed (IL-6, IL12p70, and CXCL10, the strongest suppressive effect was on CXCL10, a highly Type I IFN-dependent cytokine, upon CpG stimulation, both in normal and lupus-prone DCs. klks that break down into BKs, also suppressed CpG-induced ISGs in murine DCs. Captopril, a drug that inhibits ACE and increases BK, suppressed ISGs, both in mouse DCs and human PBMCs. The effects of BK were reversed with indomethacin (compound that inhibits production of PGE2, suggesting that BK suppression of IFN responses may be mediated via prostaglandins. These results highlight a novel regulatory mechanism in which members of the KKS control the Type I IFN response and suggest a role for modulators of IFNs in the pathogenesis of lupus and interferonopathies.

  8. Progress towards discovery of antifibrotic drugs targeting synthesis of type I collagen

    KAUST Repository

    Fritz, Dillon Jeffery; Cai, Le; Stefanovic, Lela; Stefanovic, Branko

    2011-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. Fibrosis is characterized by excessive synthesis of type I collagen in parenchymal organs. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, about 45% of all natural deaths are attributable to some fibroproliferative disease. There is no cure for fibrosis. To find specific antifibrotic therapy targeting type I collagen, critical molecular interactions regulating its synthesis must be elucidated. Type I and type III collagen mRNAs have a unique sequence element at the 5' end, the 5' stem-loop. This stem-loop is not found in any other mRNA. We cloned LARP6 as the protein which binds collagen 5' stem-loop with high affinity and specificity. Mutation of the 5' stem-loop or knock down of LARP6 greatly diminishes collagen expression. Mice with mutation of the 5' stem-loop are resistant to development of liver fibrosis. LARP6 associates collagen mRNAs with filaments composed of nonmuscle myosin; disruption of these filaments abolishes synthesis of type I collagen. Thus, LARP6 dependent collagen synthesis is the specific mechanism of high collagen expression seen in fibrosis. We developed fluorescence polarization (FP) method to screen for drugs that can inhibit binding of LARP6 to 5' stem-loop RNA. FP is high when LARP6 is bound, but decreases to low levels when the binding is competed out. Thus, by measuring decrease in FP it is possible to identify chemical compounds that can dissociate LARP6 from the 5' stem-loop. The method is simple, fast and suitable for high throughput screening. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  9. Leniency programs and socially beneficial cooperation: Effects of type I errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study operationalizes the concept of hostility tradition in antitrust as mentioned by Oliver Williamson and Ronald Coase through erroneous law enforcement effects. The antitrust agency may commit type I, not just type II, errors when evaluating an agreement in terms of cartels. Moreover, firms can compete in a standard way, collude or engage in cooperative agreements that improve efficiency. The antitrust agency may misinterpret such cooperative agreements, committing a type I error (over-enforcement. The model set-up is drawn from Motta and Polo (2003 and is extended as described above using the findings of Ghebrihiwet and Motchenkova (2010. Three effects play a role in this environment. Type I errors may induce firms that would engage in socially efficient cooperation absent errors to opt for collusion (the deserved punishment effect. For other parameter configurations, type I errors may interrupt ongoing cooperation when investigated. In this case, the firms falsely report collusion and apply for leniency, fearing being erroneously fined (the disrupted cooperation effect. Finally, over-enforcement may prevent beneficial cooperation from starting given the threat of being mistakenly fined (the prevented cooperation effect. The results help us understand the negative impact that a hostility tradition in antitrust — which is more likely for inexperienced regimes and regimes with low standards of evidence — and the resulting type I enforcement errors can have on social welfare when applied to the regulation of horizontal agreements. Additional interpretations are discussed in light of leniency programs for corruption and compliance policies for antitrust violations.

  10. "PREVALENCE OF AUTOANTIBODIES TO THYROID PEROXIDASE AND AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE IN TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moayeri A. Rabbani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes mellitus (DM is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Association of ATD and type I DM has been described with varying frequencies but there is still debate about the situation in the Iranian population. We investigated the prevalence of anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies and ATD in children and adolescents with type I DM. A total of 145 patients with type I DM were participated in this study. They were screened for anti-TPO antibodies and TSH levels. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and the presence of goiter were sought. A group of 50 healthy unrelated girls and boys aged 11-16 years served as controls. Anti-TPO antibodies were found in 34 (23.4% diabetic patients and 1 subject (2% in the control group (P<0.001. Frequency of anti TPO antibodies was significantly higher in girls than boys (P<0.05. We failed to show any significant correlation between thyroid autoimmunity and duration of DM. We found that younger patients at diagnosis are more likely to be anti-TPO negative (P<0.001. Out of 145 diabetic patients, 32 (22% had visible goiter. Subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis occurred in 1, 9 and 1 patients, respectively. Visible goiter was found in 2 subjects (4% of the control group, but all of them were euthyroid. In conclusion, the evaluation of thyroid autoimmunity in type I diabetic patients may improve the diagnosis of thyroid disease in early stages. Yearly examination of anti-TPO antibodies allows identifying diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity.

  11. Type I interferons induced by endogenous or exogenous viral infections promote metastasis and relapse of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matteo; Castiglioni, Patrik; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Eren, Remzi Onur; Prével, Florence; Desponds, Chantal; Utzschneider, Daniel T; Zehn, Dietmar; Cusi, Maria G; Kuhlmann, F Matthew; Beverley, Stephen M; Ronet, Catherine; Fasel, Nicolas

    2017-05-09

    The presence of the endogenous Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) replicating stably within some parasite species has been associated with the development of more severe forms of leishmaniasis and relapses after drug treatment in humans. Here, we show that the disease-exacerbatory role of LRV1 relies on type I IFN (type I IFNs) production by macrophages and signaling in vivo. Moreover, infecting mice with the LRV1-cured Leishmania guyanensis ( LgyLRV1 - ) strain of parasites followed by type I IFN treatment increased lesion size and parasite burden, quantitatively reproducing the LRV1-bearing ( LgyLRV1 + ) infection phenotype. This finding suggested the possibility that exogenous viral infections could likewise increase pathogenicity, which was tested by coinfecting mice with L. guyanensis and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or the sand fly-transmitted arbovirus Toscana virus (TOSV). The type I IFN antiviral response increased the pathology of L. guyanensis infection, accompanied by down-regulation of the IFN-γ receptor normally required for antileishmanial control. Further, LCMV coinfection of IFN-γ-deficient mice promoted parasite dissemination to secondary sites, reproducing the LgyLRV1 + metastatic phenotype. Remarkably, LCMV coinfection of mice that had healed from L. guyanensis infection induced reactivation of disease pathology, overriding the protective adaptive immune response. Our findings establish that type I IFN-dependent responses, arising from endogenous viral elements (dsRNA/LRV1), or exogenous coinfection with IFN-inducing viruses, are able to synergize with New World Leishmania parasites in both primary and relapse infections. Thus, viral infections likely represent a significant risk factor along with parasite and host factors, thereby contributing to the pathological spectrum of human leishmaniasis.

  12. Progress towards discovery of antifibrotic drugs targeting synthesis of type I collagen

    KAUST Repository

    Fritz, Dillon Jeffery

    2011-08-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. Fibrosis is characterized by excessive synthesis of type I collagen in parenchymal organs. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, about 45% of all natural deaths are attributable to some fibroproliferative disease. There is no cure for fibrosis. To find specific antifibrotic therapy targeting type I collagen, critical molecular interactions regulating its synthesis must be elucidated. Type I and type III collagen mRNAs have a unique sequence element at the 5\\' end, the 5\\' stem-loop. This stem-loop is not found in any other mRNA. We cloned LARP6 as the protein which binds collagen 5\\' stem-loop with high affinity and specificity. Mutation of the 5\\' stem-loop or knock down of LARP6 greatly diminishes collagen expression. Mice with mutation of the 5\\' stem-loop are resistant to development of liver fibrosis. LARP6 associates collagen mRNAs with filaments composed of nonmuscle myosin; disruption of these filaments abolishes synthesis of type I collagen. Thus, LARP6 dependent collagen synthesis is the specific mechanism of high collagen expression seen in fibrosis. We developed fluorescence polarization (FP) method to screen for drugs that can inhibit binding of LARP6 to 5\\' stem-loop RNA. FP is high when LARP6 is bound, but decreases to low levels when the binding is competed out. Thus, by measuring decrease in FP it is possible to identify chemical compounds that can dissociate LARP6 from the 5\\' stem-loop. The method is simple, fast and suitable for high throughput screening. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of type I and type II feline coronavirus in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Alazawy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV are two important coronaviruses of domestic cat worldwide. Although FCoV is prevalent among cats; the fastidious nature of type I FCoV to grow on cell culture has limited further studies on tissue tropism and pathogenesis of FCoV. While several studies reported serological evidence for FCoV in Malaysia, neither the circulating FCoV isolated nor its biotypes determined. This study for the first time, describes the isolation and biotypes determination of type I and type II FCoV from naturally infected cats in Malaysia. Findings Of the total number of cats sampled, 95% (40/42 were RT-PCR positive for FCoV. Inoculation of clinical samples into Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK, and Feline catus whole fetus-4 cells (Fcwf-4, show cytopathic effect (CPE characterized by syncytial cells formation and later cell detachment. Differentiation of FCoV biotypes using RT-PCR assay revealed that, 97.5% and 2.5% of local isolates were type I and type II FCoV, respectively. These isolates had high sequence homology and phylogenetic similarity with several FCoV isolates from Europe, South East Asia and USA. Conclusions This study reported the successful isolation of local type I and type II FCoV evident with formation of cytopathic effects in two types of cell cultures namely the CrFK and Fcwf-4 , where the later cells being more permissive. However, the RT-PCR assay is more sensitive in detecting the antigen in suspected samples as compared to virus isolation in cell culture. The present study indicated that type I FCoV is more prevalent among cats in Malaysia.

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of type I and type II feline coronavirus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Alazawy; Siti Suri, Arshad; Abdul Rahman, Omar; Mohd, Hair Bejo; Faruku, Bande; Saeed, Sharif; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim

    2012-11-21

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) are two important coronaviruses of domestic cat worldwide. Although FCoV is prevalent among cats; the fastidious nature of type I FCoV to grow on cell culture has limited further studies on tissue tropism and pathogenesis of FCoV. While several studies reported serological evidence for FCoV in Malaysia, neither the circulating FCoV isolated nor its biotypes determined. This study for the first time, describes the isolation and biotypes determination of type I and type II FCoV from naturally infected cats in Malaysia. Of the total number of cats sampled, 95% (40/42) were RT-PCR positive for FCoV. Inoculation of clinical samples into Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK), and Feline catus whole fetus-4 cells (Fcwf-4), show cytopathic effect (CPE) characterized by syncytial cells formation and later cell detachment. Differentiation of FCoV biotypes using RT-PCR assay revealed that, 97.5% and 2.5% of local isolates were type I and type II FCoV, respectively. These isolates had high sequence homology and phylogenetic similarity with several FCoV isolates from Europe, South East Asia and USA. This study reported the successful isolation of local type I and type II FCoV evident with formation of cytopathic effects in two types of cell cultures namely the CrFK and Fcwf-4 , where the later cells being more permissive. However, the RT-PCR assay is more sensitive in detecting the antigen in suspected samples as compared to virus isolation in cell culture. The present study indicated that type I FCoV is more prevalent among cats in Malaysia.

  15. Sharp corners as sources of spiral pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y.; Rabinovitch, A.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that using the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, stimulation of excitable media inside a region possessing sharp corners, can lead to the appearance of sources of spiral-pairs of sustained activity. The two conditions for such source creation are: The corners should be less than 120 deg. and the range of stimulating amplitudes should be small, occurring just above the threshold value and decreasing with the corner angle. The basic mechanisms driving the phenomenon are discussed. These include: A. If the corner angle is below 120 deg., the wave generated inside cannot emerge at the corner tip, resulting in the creation of two free edges which start spiraling towards each other. B. Spiraling must be strong enough; otherwise annihilation of the rotating arms would occur too soon to create a viable source. C. The intricacies of the different radii involved are elucidated. Possible applications in heart stimulation and in chemical reactions are considered.

  16. Principles of spiral CT: III. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, C.; Kalender, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1989 spiral CT has gained wide clinical acceptance and meanwhile it covers a large range of CT applications. This new technology, however, has not yet been recognized and acknowledged in the national or international regulations on scanner quality assurance (QA) programs. The conventional QA procedures should be extended to check the distribution of resolution and noise within the image plane. Imaging performance in the axial direction constitutes one of the major advantages of spiral scanning. Therefore, the slice sensitivity profiles and the spatial and low-contrast resolution along the z-axis have to be assessed. The high demands on table feed accuracy require additional tests. We suggest phantoms and procedures to check and quantify these parameters. Thereby, we hope to support the ongoing discussion about spiral CT quality assurance. (orig.) [de

  17. Spiral loaded cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Klein, H.

    1976-01-01

    A transmission line theory of the spiral resonator has been performed and the calculated and measured properties will be compared. Shunt impedances up to 50 MΩ/m have been measured. In a number of high power tests the structure has been tested and its electrical and mechanical stability has been investigated. The static frequency shift due to ponderomotoric forces was between 0.2 and 50 kHz/kW dependent on the geometrical parameters of the spirals. The maximum field strength obtained on the axis was 16 MV/m in pulsed operation and 9.2 MV/m in cw, corresponding to a voltage gain per cavity of up to 0.96 MV. The results show that spiral resonators are well suited as heavy ion accelerator cavities. (author)

  18. Organic carbon spiralling in stream ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V

    1982-01-01

    The term spiralling has been used to describe the combined processes of cycling and longitudinal transport in streams. As a measure or organic carbon spiralling, we introduced organic carbon turnover length, S, defined as the average or expected downstream distance travelled by a carbon atom between its entry or fixation in the stream and its oxidation. Using a simple model for organic carbon dynamics in a stream, we show that S is closely related to fisher and Likens' ecosystem efficiency. Unlike efficiency, however, S is independent of the length of the study reach, and values of S determined in streams of differing lengths can be compared. Using data from three different streams, we found the relationship between S and efficiency to agree closely with the model prediction. Hypotheses of stream functioning are discussed in the context of organic carbeon spiralling theory.

  19. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  20. Considerations of an oscillating spiral universe cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that if the spiral configuration of galaxies is explicable in terms of the equations of motion of its constituent stars, as an expression of global laws of nature, then the universe as a whole may be similarly described in terms of the motions of its constituent galaxies with a similar spiral dynamics. With the functional form of the spiral paths in terms of Fresnel integrals, taken from solutions of equations in general relativity (from previous analyses of galactic configurations) the density of the universe at the big bang stage is determined. It is found to depend, numerically, on the neutron lifetime and the period of oscillation of the universe as a whole. There is some concluding discussion of the implications of this analysis of the matter of the universe at the big bang stage vis a vis the black hole state of matter

  1. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, T.M.

    1984-02-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz was surveyed in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy. Comparison of this survey with similar H1 data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21 cm features. To each of the classical 21 cm H1 spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is devised for the galactic distribution of molecular clouds. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide

  2. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  3. Spiral CT for evaluation of chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnert, W.; Weise, R.

    1997-01-01

    After implementation of spiral CT in our department, we carried out an analysis for determining anew the value of CT as a modality of chest trauma diagnosis in the emergency department. The retrospective study covers a period of 10 months and all emergency patients with chest trauma exmined by spiral CT. The major lesions of varying seriousness covered by this study are: pneumothorax, hematothorax, pulmonary contusion or laceration, mediastinal hematoma, rupture of a vessel, injury of the heart and pericardium. The various fractures are not included in this study. In many cases, spiral CT within relatively short time yields significant diagnostic findings, frequently saving additional angiography. A rigid diagnostic procedure cannot be formulated. Plain-film chest radiography still remains a diagnostic modality of high value. (Orig.) [de

  4. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Simulations of the flocculent spiral M33: what drives the spiral structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Pettitt, A. R.; Corbelli, E.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    We perform simulations of isolated galaxies in order to investigate the likely origin of the spiral structure in M33. In our models, we find that gravitational instabilities in the stars and gas are able to reproduce the observed spiral pattern and velocity field of M33, as seen in HI, and no interaction is required. We also find that the optimum models have high levels of stellar feedback which create large holes similar to those observed in M33, whilst lower levels of feedback tend to produce a large amount of small scale structure, and undisturbed long filaments of high surface density gas, hardly detected in the M33 disc. The gas component appears to have a significant role in producing the structure, so if there is little feedback, both the gas and stars organise into clear spiral arms, likely due to a lower combined Q (using gas and stars), and the ready ability of cold gas to undergo spiral shocks. By contrast models with higher feedback have weaker spiral structure, especially in the stellar component, compared to grand design galaxies. We did not see a large difference in the behaviour of Qstars with most of these models, however, because Qstars stayed relatively constant unless the disc was more strongly unstable. Our models suggest that although the stars produce some underlying spiral structure, this is relatively weak, and the gas physics has a considerable role in producing the large scale structure of the ISM in flocculent spirals.

  6. Neutrons for science (NFS) at spiral-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Both cross section measurements and various applications could be realised successfully using the high energy neutrons that will be produced at SPIRAL-2. Two particular cases were examined in more detail, namely: (a) neutron time-of-flight (nToF) measurements with pulsed neutron beams, and (b) material activation-irradiation with high-energy high-intensity neutron fluxes. Thanks to the high energy and high intensity neutron flux available, SPIRAL-2 offers a unique opportunity for material irradiations both for fission and fusion related research, tests of various detection systems and of resistance of electronics components to irradiations, etc. SPIRAL-2 also could be considered as an intermediate step towards new generation dedicated irradiation facilities as IFMIF previewed only beyond 2015. Equally, the interval from 0.1 MeV to 40 MeV for neutron cross section measurements is an energy range that is of particular importance for energy applications, notably accelerator driven systems (ADS) and Gen-IV fast reactors, as well as for fusion related devices. It is also the region where pre-equilibrium approaches are often used to link the low (evaporation) and high energy (intra-nuclear cascade) reaction models. With very intense neutron beams of SPIRAL-2 measurements of very low mass (often radioactive) targets and small cross sections become feasible in short experimental campaigns. Production of radioactive targets for dedicated physics experiments is also an attractive feature of SPIRAL-2. In brief, it was shown that SPIRAL-2 has got a remarkable potential for neutron based research both for fundamental physics and various applications. In addition, in the neutron energy range from a few MeV to, say, 35 MeV this research would have a leading position for the next 10-15 years if compared to other neutron facilities in operation or under construction worldwide. (author)

  7. Kidney spiral CT, indications, realization, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, R.; Beilicke, M.; Hundt, W.; Breiteneder, T.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of spiral computed tomography (spiral CT) has vastly enriched the methodologically diversity of computer-tomographic scans. It allows for the recording of different perfusion or excretion stages of the kidney parenchyma of the urine draining paths by carrying out long-distance, phase-identical multiple examinations of the retroperitoneum. The description of the findings which are characterized by their local and contrasts behavior is possible. The following report describes the indications and technological process of kidney spiral CT using kidney-typical intravenous contrast media. Special emphasis is put on the advantages and limits of multiple phase spiral CT. Decisive preconditions are: 1. Specific clinical query, 2. selection of the corresponding phase contrasts of the kidneys and uretra or bladder, 3. exact technical and temporal adjustment of the acquisition parameters. Scanning times are in the range of seconds. The overall examination can be carried out quick and without any major strain on the part of the patient. A sound proof and a general differentiation of focal kideny lesions can be derived from the acquired data. This is also true for kidneys and ureters findings. Bladder findings can be localized and differentiated according to stage. More than two 'spiral acquisitions' should be carried out with restraint taking exposure to radiation into account. Due to the sound registration of focal lesions, its capability of reproduction and its short-time examination, the spiral CT of the kidneys can be said to be the most effective current scanning method of the retroperitoneum following clinical examinations and sonography. (orig.) [de

  8. Staging of gastric adenocarcinoma using two-phase spiral CT: correlation with pathologic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won

    1998-01-01

    To correlate the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma using two-phase spiral CT with pathologic staging. One hundred and eighty patients with gastric cancers confirmed during surgery underwent two-phase spiral CT, and were evaluated retrospectively. CT scans were obtained in the prone position after ingestion of water. Scans were performed 35 and 80 seconds after the start of infusion of 120mL of non-ionic contrast material with the speed of 3mL/sec. Five mm collimation, 7mm/sec table feed and 5mm reconstruction interval were used. T-and N-stage were determined using spiral CT images, without knowledge of the pathologic results. Pathologic staging was later compared with CT staging. Pathologic T-stage was T1 in 70 cases(38.9%), T2 in 33(18.3%), T3 in 73(40.6%), and T4 in 4(2.2%). Type-I or IIa elevated lesions accouted for 10 of 70 T1 cases(14.3%) and flat or depressed lesions(type IIb, IIc, or III) for 60(85.7%). Pathologic N-stage was NO in 85 cases(47.2%), N1 in 42(23.3%), N2 in 31(17.2%), and N3 in 22(12,2%). The detection rate of early gastric cancer using two-phase spiral CT was 100.0%(10 of 10 cases) among elevated lesions and 78.3%(47 of 60 cases) among flat or depressed lesions. With regard to T-stage, there was good correlation between CT image and pathology in 86 of 180 cases(47.8%). Overstaging occurred in 23.3%(42 of 180 cases) and understaging in 28.9%(52 of 180 cases). With regard to N-stage, good correlation between CT image and pathology was noted in 94 of 180 cases(52.2%). The rate of understaging(31.7%, 57 of 180 cases) was higher than that of overstaging(16.1%, 29 of 180 cases)(p<0.001). The detection rate of early gastric cancer using two-phase spiral CT was 81.4%, and there was no significant difference in detectability between elevated and depressed lesions. Two-phase spiral CT for determing the T-and N-stage of gastric cancer was not effective;it was accurate in abont 50% of cases understaging tended to occur.=20

  9. Ganglion impar block in patients with chronic coccydynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Gonnade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coccydynia refers to pain in the terminal segment of the spinecaused by abnormal sitting and standing posture. Coccydynia is usually managed conservatively, however in nonresponsive patients, ganglion impar block is used as a good alternate modality for pain relief. This article studies the effect of ganglion impar block in coccydynia patients who were not relieved by conservative management. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at the pain clinic in the departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Radiology in a tertiary centre in India.It was a prospective hospital-based study, in which 35 patients with coccydynia were considered for fluoroscopy-guided trans-sacro-coccygeal ganglion impar block. The outcome assessment was done using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores for a follow-up period of 6 months. Of the 35 patients, 4 were lost to follow-up. Analysis was done usingthe data from the remaining 31 patients. Results: The mean age of the patients suffering from chronic coccydynia was 42.9 ± 8.39 years, and patients' age range was 28–57 years. The mean score of NRS and ODI before the procedure was 7.90 ± 0.16 and 48.97 ± 1.05, respectively. The interquartile range (IQR of NRS score remained almost unchanged during pre and postprocedure, however, IQR of ODI varied during the pre and post procedural events. The NRS and ODI scores immediately after the procedure decreased drastically showing significant pain relief in patients, and the difference of scores till the end of study was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study recommends the trans-sacro-coccygeal “needle inside needle” technique for local anesthetic block of the ganglion impar for pain relief in patients with coccydynia. This should be integrated with rehabilitative measures including ergonomical modification for prolonging pain free period.

  10. Arthroscopic Resection of Wrist Ganglion Arising from the Lunotriquetral Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Michael C. K.; Ho, Pak-cheong; Tse, W. L.; Wong, Clara W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal wrist ganglion is the most common wrist mass, and previous studies have shown that it arises from the scapholunate interval in the vast majority of cases. Treatment has traditionally been open excision, and more recently arthroscopic resection has been established as an effective and less invasive treatment method. However, application of this technique to ganglia in atypical locations has not been reported, where open excision is the usual practice. This report describes two cases...

  11. Ganglionic cysts related to the scapula: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ae Kyeong; Kim, Sung Moon; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Myung Jin; Chun, Jae Myeung; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of ganglionic cysts related to the scapula. We retrospectively reviewed 15 ganglionic cysts diagnosed by MR imaging in 14 patients who subsequently underwent surgical excision (n=8) or needle aspiration (n=1). Five other patients whose lesion-related symptoms were not too severe to manage underwent conservative treatment. We analyzed MR findings with regard to the size, shape and presence of internal septa, the location and signal intensity of the lesion, and associated findings such as change of rotator cuff muscle, labral tear and bone erosion. We also evaluated the presence of tear of rotator cuff tendon, tendinosis, and subacromial enthesophyte. The diameter of ganglionic cysts was 0.5-5.5 (mean, 2.8)cm, and they were round (n=2), ovoid (n=6), or elongated (n=7). Where internal septa were present (n=13), cysts were lobulated. Lesions were located in both scapular and spinoglenoid notches (n=9), only in the scapular notch (n=2), only in the spinoglenoid notch (n=2) or within the bone (n=2). In eleven cases they were very close to the superoposterior aspect of the glenoid labrum (n=11). On T1-weighted images, all lesions were seen to be iso- or hypointense to muscle, while on T2-weighted images, they were hyperintense, resembling joint fluid (n=14), except in one patient with hemorrhage. Associated findings were edema of the infraspinatus muscle (n=4), pressure erosion of the scapular neck (n=1), and labral tear (n=1). A torn supraspinatus tendon (n=2), supraspinatus tendinosis (n=3), and subacromial enthesophyte (n=2) were also present. MR imaging was helpful in diagnosing ganglionic cysts and detecting associated lesions

  12. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  13. Graphite target for the spiral project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putaux, J.C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Ferro, A.; Foury, P.; Kotfila, L.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J.; Loiselet, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the thermal and physical properties of graphite targets for the SPIRAL project is presented. The main objective is to develop an optimized set-up both mechanically and thermally resistant, presenting good release properties (hot targets with thin slices). The results of irradiation tests concerning the mechanical and thermal resistance of the first prototype of SPIRAL target with conical geometry are presented. The micro-structural properties of the graphite target is also studied, in order to check that the release properties are not deteriorated by the irradiation. Finally, the results concerning the latest pilot target internally heated by an electrical current are shown. (author)

  14. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  15. Stellate ganglion block for persistent idiopathic facial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a facial pain disorder without any identifiable cause. A patient has persistent facial pain without any objective sign on clinical examination or investigations. There are associated psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. This condition is poorly responsive to therapy with anticonvulsants or analgesics. Stellate ganglion block interrupts the sympathetic supply to head, neck, and upper extremities. This block can be used to alleviate pain of sympathetic origin in head and neck region as well as upper extremities. We report a case of a middle-aged female with persistent idiopathic facial pain on the right side of face with no response to analgesics and anticonvulsants. Her pain was provoked by exposure to cold weather or wind. Assuming a sympathetic component to her pain, we did a right-sided stellate ganglion block for her with local anesthetic and steroid. The patient had significant pain relief (>80% after the block. This indicates that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in initiation and perpetuation of this pain condition. Stellate ganglion block can be done early in such patients both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

  16. X-ray and CT diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xiangyang; Zhang Weimin; Yan Shigui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, imaging features, and differential diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion. Methods: Clinical and imaging features of 15 cases (5 men, 10 women; mean age 39.7 years) with intraosseous ganglia were retrospectively analyzed. There were 17 lesions, including 6 acetabular, 4 lunate, 3 proximal ends of tibia, 1 major tuberculum of humeral, 1 femoral head, 1 scaphoid, and 1 phalange. Results: ( 1 ) Common radiological features included a unilocular or multilocular cyst surrounded by a full and thin rim of sclerotic: bone in the subchondral epiphysis without any signs of degenerative joint disease. (2) Lesions were displayed as well-defined round radiolucent defect or multi-cystic changes with surrounding bony sclerosis or cystic and expansile change with irregular shape on CT scans. (3) CT showed an intraosseous ganglion communicating with adjacent joint in 1 patient. (4) CT values of the lesions were between 15 - 80 HU. (5) Gas in the cyst could be seen in 3 cases. Conclusion: Combined with patient's age, lesion distribution, clinical manifestations, and imaging features, it is possible to make a correct diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

  17. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  18. Packing of equal discs on a parabolic spiral lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong, F.; Bursill, L.A.; Julin, P.

    1989-01-01

    A contact disc model is investigated to determine the most closely-packed parabolic spiral lattice. The most space-efficient packings have divergence angles in agreement with the priority ranking of natural spiral structures

  19. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Keith M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2016-02-24

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS I) in which a specific nerve lesion has not been identified, and type II (CRPS II) where there is an identifiable nerve lesion. Guidelines recommend the inclusion of a variety of physiotherapy interventions as part of the multimodal treatment of people with CRPS, although their effectiveness is not known. To determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for treating the pain and disability associated with CRPS types I and II. We searched the following databases from inception up to 12 February 2015: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, PEDro, Web of Science, DARE and Health Technology Assessments, without language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of physiotherapy interventions for treating pain and disability in people CRPS. We also searched additional online sources for unpublished trials and trials in progress. We included RCTs of physiotherapy interventions (including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, electrotherapy, physiotherapist-administered education and cortically directed sensory-motor rehabilitation strategies) employed in either a stand-alone fashion or in combination, compared with placebo, no treatment, another intervention or usual care, or of varying physiotherapy interventions compared with each other in adults with CRPS I and II. Our primary outcomes of interest were patient-centred outcomes of pain intensity and functional disability. Two review authors independently evaluated those studies

  20. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  1. Salivary flow rate and xerostomia in patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Amineh; Mirzapour, Ali; Bijani, Ali; Shirzad, Atena

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, with complications such as decreased salivary flow rate and xerostomia. This study aimed to determine the salivary flow rate and xerostomia in type I and II diabetic patients in comparison with healthy controls. This case-control study was performed on diabetic patients of a private office in Babol, Iran, between May 2015 and October 2016. This study involved two study groups (type I and II diabetes, with 40 in each group) and two control groups (control I and II, with 35 in each group) which were age- and sex-matched with the related study groups. They were all selected through simple sampling. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected through Navazesh method and the salivary flow rate was measured (ml/min). Xerostomia was evaluated via Fox's test. Moreover, the patients' data were recorded including age, sex, disease duration, type of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1C. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 17. Independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, Pearson correlation and multiple comparison post-hoc tests were employed as appropriated. psalivary flow rate in type I diabetics (0.35±0.11 ml/min) was lower than that in control I (0.50±0.07 ml/min) (p=0.01). The same difference was observed between type II diabetics (0.37±0.13 ml/min) and control II groups (0.47±0.11 ml/min) (p=0.01). No significant difference was observed in the salivary flow rate between type I and II diabetics (p=0.345). Furthermore, xerostomia was higher in type I (2.70±2.50, 1.17±1.60) and II (2.65±2.20-1.62±1.50) diabetics compared with the related control groups (p=0.01), (p=0.02). Type I, II diabetic patients revealed lower salivary flow rate and higher xerostomia compared with healthy controls. The salivary flow rate and xerostomia had inverse correlation.

  2. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  3. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2007-01-01

    Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2) with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia. PMID:17908330

  4. A Case Report of an Acromioclavicular Joint Ganglion Associated with a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Suguru; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-04-13

    We report a case of subcutaneous ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint with massive rotator cuff tear [1-7]. An 81-year-old woman presented with a ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint that had first been identified 9 months earlier. The ganglion had recurred after having been aspirated by her local physician, so she was referred to our hospital. The puncture fluid was yellowish, clear and viscous. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a massive rotator cuff tear with multi- lobular cystic lesions continuous to the acromioclavicular joint, presenting the "geyser sign". During arthroscopy, distal clavicular resection and excision of the ganglion were performed together with joint debridement. At present, the ganglion has not recurred and the patient has returned to normal daily activity. In this case, the ganglion may have developed subsequent to the concomitant massive cuff tear, due to subcutaneous fluid flow through the damaged acromioclavicular joint.

  5. The dynamics of the spiral galaxy M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the observations of the spiral galaxy M81 with the density-wave theory for tightly-wound spirals is presented. In particular, hydrogen-line observations are compared with the nonlinear density-wave theory for the gas with the aim of constructing a density-wave model for the spiral galaxy M81

  6. Adaptation of the control system in view of SPIRAL integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1998-01-01

    As soon as the collaboration between the SPIRAL project and the Control Group has been defined, the first implementation of the SPIRAL control system started following various directions. Both the global hardware and software architectures has been specified and some practical works have been undertaken such as the Ethernet network installation or the first SPIRAL oriented software design and coding. (authors)

  7. [The implications of the automatic blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the type I diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobuz, C

    2009-01-01

    The connection between hypertension and diabetes emerges, in medical practice, from the current belief imposed by the European Society of Cardiology adding to the notion of total cardiovascular risk. An increse in the systolic blood pressure at night time is the first detectable manifestation of the regulation disorders of the blood pressure in type I diabetes. An early increase of the nocturnal blood pressure can play a key role in the detection of the evolution towards diabetic nephropathy. This modification can be a valuable potential marker for the diabetic nephropathy and could provide a reason for treating the high risk patients before the onset of microalbuminuria. The evaluation of the nefropathy risk in the early stages of type I diabetes using Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) method offers the best premisses for preventing the progression of the disease towards microalbuminuria and hypertension.

  8. Hybrid type I-type II superconducting behavior in magnesium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchur, M.N.; Saracila, G.; Arcos, D.A.; Cui, Y.; Pogrebnyakov, A.; Orgiani, P.; Xi, X.X.

    2006-01-01

    In traditional type-II superconductors, an applied magnetic field depresses the transition temperature and introduces magnetic flux vortices that cause resistive losses accompanied by a broadening of the transition. High-field high-pulsed-current measurements have revealed a new hybrid behavior in disordered magnesium diboride films: The superconductivity survives high magnetic fields by entering a mixed state with vortices (like a type II superconductor) but holds its vortices nearly motionless and avoids dissipation (like a type I superconductor). A study of this phenomenon in magnesium diboride films with varying degrees of scattering indicate that the hybrid type I-type II behavior arises from the two-band nature of the superconductivity and the different degrees of influence that disorder exerts on its different bands. (author)

  9. Role for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 in the inhibition of type I interferon signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Song, Byeongwoon; Knipe, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Host cells respond to viral infection by many mechanisms, including the production of type I interferons which act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce the expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Viruses have evolved means to inhibit interferon signaling to avoid induction of the innate immune response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has several mechanisms to inhibit type I interferon production, the activities of ISGs, and the interferon signaling pathway itself. We report that the inhibition of the Jak/STAT pathway by HSV-1 requires viral gene expression and that viral immediate-early protein ICP27 plays a role in downregulating STAT-1 phosphorylation and in preventing the accumulation of STAT-1 in the nucleus. We also show that expression of ICP27 by transfection causes an inhibition of IFN-induced STAT-1 nuclear accumulation. Therefore, ICP27 is necessary and sufficient for at least some of the effects of HSV infection on STAT-1

  10. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis and glutaric aciduria type I: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gu-Ling; Hong, Fang; Tong, Fan; Fu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Ai-Min

    2016-08-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutation of the glutaryl- CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) gene. The occurrence of rhabdomyolysis with GA-I is extremely rare. We reported a child with recurrent rhabdomyolysis and undiagnosed glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I). And a literature review was performed. A 4.5-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to recurrent rhabdomyolysis for 3 times within three years. At the third admission, she was diagnosed with GA-I by biochemical testing and mutation analysis. The girl was found to have a serine to leucine replacement mutation of the GCDH gene in exon 8 at position 764. Other three patients with rhabdomyolysis and GA-I were discovered by literature searching. This report highlights that patients with GA-I may have an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Types I and III procollagen extension peptides in serum respond to fracture in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Jensen, L T; Andersen, G R

    1992-01-01

    Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles' fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP......). Significant increases were found of PIIINP within 1 week and of PICP within 2 weeks. This sequential appearance of PIIINP and PICP was found to be in agreement with the appearance of types III and I collagen during early fracture healing as demonstrated in previous animal experimental studies. PICP had...... levelled off after 9 months, whereas PIIINP remained elevated. Osteocalcin, a serum marker of osteoblast activity, increased within 1 week and levelled off after 9 months. Correlations between the change in osteocalcin and those in PICP and PIIINP, respectively, were weak. These new biochemical markers may...

  12. Chemical functionalization and stabilization of type I collagen with organic tanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Deselnicu, Viorica; Ioannidis, Ioannis; Deselnicu, Dana; Chelaru, Ciprian

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between selected organic tanning agents and type I fibrillar collagen as a model fibrillar substrate to enable the fast direct evaluation and validation of interpretations of tanning activity. Type I fibrillar collagen (1%) as gel was used as substrate of tanning and tannic acid, resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde and their combination at three concentrations as crosslinking agents (tannins). To evaluate the stability of collagen during tanning, the crosslinked gels at 2.8, 4.5 and 9.0 pHs were freeze-dried as discs which were characterized by FTIR, shrinkage temperature, enzymatic degradation and optical microscopy, and the results were validated by statistical analyses. The best stability was given by combinations between resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde at isoelectric pH

  13. Chemical functionalization and stabilization of type I collagen with organic tanning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Deselnicu, Viorica; Ioannidis, Ioannis; Deselnicu, Dana; Chelaru, Ciprian [Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the interactions between selected organic tanning agents and type I fibrillar collagen as a model fibrillar substrate to enable the fast direct evaluation and validation of interpretations of tanning activity. Type I fibrillar collagen (1%) as gel was used as substrate of tanning and tannic acid, resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde and their combination at three concentrations as crosslinking agents (tannins). To evaluate the stability of collagen during tanning, the crosslinked gels at 2.8, 4.5 and 9.0 pHs were freeze-dried as discs which were characterized by FTIR, shrinkage temperature, enzymatic degradation and optical microscopy, and the results were validated by statistical analyses. The best stability was given by combinations between resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde at isoelectric pH.

  14. Vortex lattice in effective type-I superconducting films with periodic arrays of submicron holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.; Milosevic, M.V.; Peeters, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The vortex matter and related phenomena in superconducting films with periodic arrays of microholes (antidots) are studied within the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. By varying the GL parameter κ, the vortex-vortex interaction is fine tuned, from repulsive to attractive behavior. This interaction is of crucial importance for equilibrium vortex structures, the saturation number of the antidots, and the related quantities, such as critical current. Due to vortex attraction in effectively type-I samples, the giant-vortex state becomes energetically favorable (contrary to the type-II behavior). For the same reason, the number of vortices which can be captured by antidots, increases with decreasing κ. As a result, for given magnetic field, the critical current is larger for effectively type-I superconductors than in conventional type-II cases

  15. Rare co-occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta type I and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefele, Julia; Mayer, Karin; Marschall, Christoph; Alberer, Martin; Klein, Hanns-Georg; Kirschstein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    There are several clinical reports about the co-occurrence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and connective tissue disorders. A simultaneous occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I and ADPKD has not been observed so far. This report presents the first patient with OI type I and ADPKD. Mutational analysis of PKD1 and COL1A1 in the index patient revealed a heterozygous mutation in each of the two genes. Mutational analysis of the parents indicated the mother as a carrier of the PKD1 mutation and the father as a carrier of the COL1A1 mutation. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders has an estimated frequency of 3.5:100 000 000. In singular cases, ADPKD can occur in combination with other rare disorders, e.g. connective tissue disorders.

  16. Loss of prion protein induces a primed state of type I interferon-responsive genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malachin, Giulia; Reiten, Malin R.; Salvesen, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the Pr...... genotypes. About 70% of these were classified as interferon-responsive genes. In goats without PrPC, the majority of type I interferon-responsive genes were in a primed, modestly upregulated state, with fold changes ranging from 1.4 to 3.7. Among these were ISG15, DDX58 (RIG-1), MX1, MX2, OAS1, OAS2...... and DRAM1, all of which have important roles in pathogen defense, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunomodulation and DNA damage response. Our data suggest that PrPC contributes to the fine-tuning of resting state PBMCs expression level of type I interferon-responsive genes. The molecular mechanism...

  17. Bosonic decays of charged Higgs bosons in a 2HDM type-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arhrib, A. [Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tangier (Morocco); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Benbrik, R. [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Cadi Ayyad University, LPHEA, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Faculte Polydisciplinaire de Safi, MSISM Team, Sidi Bouzid, Safi (Morocco); Moretti, S. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we focus on the bosonic decays of light charged Higgs bosons in the 2-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) Type-I. We quantify the Branching Ratios (BRs) of the H{sup ±} → W{sup ±}h and H{sup ±} → W{sup ±}A channels and show that they could be substantial over several areas of the parameter space of the 2HDM Type-I that are still allowed by Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other experimental data as well as theoretical constraints. We suggest that H{sup ±} → W{sup ±}h and/or H{sup ±} → W{sup ±}A could be used as a feasible discovery channel alternative to H{sup ±} → τν. (orig.)

  18. Mutation Profile of the CDH23 Gene in 56 Probands with Usher Syndrome Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, A.; Jaijo, T.; Aller, E.; Millan, J.M.; Carney, C.; Usami, S.; Moller, C.; Kimberling, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human gene encoding cadherin 23 (CDH23) cause Usher syndrome type 1D (USH1D) and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Individuals with Usher syndrome type I have profound congenital deafness, vestibular areflexia and usually begin to exhibit signs of RP in early adolescence. In the present study, we carried out the mutation analysis in all 69 exons of the CDH23 gene in 56 Usher type 1 probands already screened for mutations in MYO7A. A total of 18 of 56 subjects (32.1%) were observed to have one or two CDH23 variants that are presumed to be pathologic. Twenty one different pathologic genome variants were observed of which 15 were novel. Out of a total of 112 alleles, 31 (27.7%) were considered pathologic. Based on our results it is estimated that about 20% of patients with Usher syndrome type I have CDH23 mutations. PMID:18429043

  19. Wolter type I x-ray focusing mirror using multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it.Cr/Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications

  20. Figure tolerance of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft-x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2007-01-01

    The demand for an x-ray microscope has received much attention because of the desire to study living cells at a high resolution and in a hydrated environment. A Wolter type I mirror used for soft-x-ray microscope optics has many advantages. From the mirror fabrication point of view, it is necessary to perform tolerance analysis, particularly with respect to figure errors that considerably degrade the image quality.The figure tolerance of a Wolter type I mirror for a biological application in terms of the image quality and the state-of-the-art fabrication technology is discussed. The figure errors rapidly destroyed the image quality, and the required slope error depended on the detector used in the soft-x-ray microscope

  1. Ganglion of the Flexor Tendon Sheath at the A2 Pulley - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gunaseelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reported cases of flexor tendon sheath ganglion arising from the A2 pulley. We report a case of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion in a 17-year old female who presented with pain, triggering and a swelling at the base of her right ring finger. During the excision biopsy, a ganglion measuring 0.5×0.8×0.4 cm in size was removed from the A2 pulley area.

  2. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  3. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost

  4. Irrational Numbers Can "In-Spiral" You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leslie D.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the instructional process of helping students visualize irrational numbers. Students learn to create a spiral, called "the wheel of Theodorus," which demonstrates irrational and rational lengths. Examples of student work help the reader appreciate the delightful possibilities of this project. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  6. Spiral CT-angiography of the aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Eikelboom, B. C.; van Leeuwen, M. S.; Noordzij, J.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the new technique of CT-angiography was accurate in displaying the complex anatomy of the aorta and its major branches. METHODS: Seventeen patients with a variety of aortic pathology were examined. Using a spiral CT-scanner a volumetric scan was made during injection of

  7. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  8. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  9. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  10. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  11. Space charge effect in the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and numerical theory of the space charge effects in the beam in the spiral inflector. It considers a simplified model of a 'straight' cylindrical beam by using a uniform particle distribution. Numerical results represented in this paper are obtained by using a modified version of the program CASINO

  12. Some optical properties of the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan; Subotic, Krunoslav

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares some optical properties of different spiral inflectors using the program CASINO. The electric field distribution in the inflectors has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field using the RELAX3D program. (author)

  13. A nutrient’s downstream spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of a stream’s ability to remove nutrients provide insights on watershed integrity and stream habitat characteristics that are needed to help managers to restore stream ecosystem services. We used the Tracer Additon Spiraling Characterization Curve (TASCC) to mea...

  14. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  15. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  16. The Spiral Curriculum. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Spiral Curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner (1960), who wrote, "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development." In other words, even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by…

  17. Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradford D.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

  18. The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    1988-01-01

    Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…

  19. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  20. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  1. Cell-specific type I IFN signatures in autoimmunity and viral infection: what makes the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Kyogoku

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has revealed a crucial role for type I interferon (IFN in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, it is unclear how particular leucocyte subsets contribute to the overall type I IFN signature of PBMCs and whole blood samples.Furthermore, a detailed analysis describing the differences in the IFN signature in autoimmune diseases from that observed after viral infection has not been performed to date. Therefore, in this study, the transcriptional responses in peripheral T helper cells (CD4(+ and monocyte subsets (CD16(- inflammatory and CD16(+ resident monocytes isolated from patients with SLE, healthy donors (ND immunised with the yellow fever vaccine YFV-17Dand untreated controls were compared by global gene expression profiling.It was striking that all of the transcripts that were regulated in response to viral exposure were also found to be differentially regulated in SLE, albeit with markedly lower fold-change values. In addition to this common IFN signature, a pathogenic IFN-associated gene signature was detected in the CD4(+ T cells and monocytes from the lupus patients. IL-10, IL-9 and IL-15-mediated JAK/STAT signalling was shown to be involved in the pathological amplification of IFN responses observed in SLE. Type I IFN signatures identified were successfully applied for the monitoring of interferon responses in PBMCs of an independent cohort of SLE patients and virus-infected individuals. Moreover, these cell-type specific gene signatures allowed a correct classification of PBMCs independent from their heterogenic cellular composition. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that monocytes and CD4 cells are sensitive biosensors to monitor type I interferon response signatures in autoimmunity and viral infection and how these transriptional responses are modulated in a cell- and disease-specific manner.

  2. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. LARP6 Meets Collagen mRNA: Specific Regulation of Type I Collagen Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in all vertebrates, but its constitutive rate of synthesis is low due to long half-life of the protein (60–70 days. However, several hundred fold increased production of type I collagen is often seen in reparative or reactive fibrosis. The mechanism which is responsible for this dramatic upregulation is complex, including multiple levels of regulation. However, posttranscriptional regulation evidently plays a predominant role. Posttranscriptional regulation comprises processing, transport, stabilization and translation of mRNAs and is executed by RNA binding proteins. There are about 800 RNA binding proteins, but only one, La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6, is specifically involved in type I collagen regulation. In the 5′untranslated region (5’UTR of mRNAs encoding for type I and type III collagens there is an evolutionally conserved stem-loop (SL structure; this structure is not found in any other mRNA, including any other collagen mRNA. LARP6 binds to the 5′SL in sequence specific manner to regulate stability of collagen mRNAs and their translatability. Here, we will review current understanding of how is LARP6 involved in posttranscriptional regulation of collagen mRNAs. We will also discuss how other proteins recruited by LARP6, including nonmuscle myosin, vimentin, serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP, 25 kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP25 and RNA helicase A (RHA, contribute to this process.

  4. Type I IFN-related NETosis in ataxia telangiectasia and Artemis deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ersin; Sayar, Esra Hazar; Gungor, Bilgi; Eroglu, Fehime Kara; Surucu, Naz; Keles, Sevgi; Guner, Sukru Nail; Findik, Siddika; Alpdundar, Esin; Ayanoglu, Ihsan Cihan; Kayaoglu, Basak; Geckin, Busra Nur; Sanli, Hatice Asena; Kahraman, Tamer; Yakicier, Cengiz; Muftuoglu, Meltem; Oguz, Berna; Cagdas Ayvaz, Deniz Nazire; Gursel, Ihsan; Ozen, Seza; Reisli, Ismail; Gursel, Mayda

    2017-11-16

    Pathological inflammatory syndromes of unknown etiology are commonly observed in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Artemis deficiency. Similar inflammatory manifestations also exist in patients with STING-associated vasculopathy in infancy (SAVI). We sought to test the hypothesis that the inflammation-associated manifestations observed in patients with AT and Artemis deficiency stem from increased type I IFN signature leading to neutrophil-mediated pathological damage. Cytokine/protein signatures were determined by ELISA, cytometric bead array, or quantitative PCR. Stat1 phosphorylation levels were determined by flow cytometry. DNA species accumulating in the cytosol of patients' cells were quantified microscopically and flow cytometrically. Propensity of isolated polymorhonuclear granulocytes to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was determined using fluorescence microscopy and picogreen assay. Neutrophil reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial stress were assayed using fluorogenic probes, microscopy, and flow cytometry. Type I and III IFN signatures were elevated in plasma and peripheral blood cells of patients with AT, Artemis deficiency, and SAVI. Chronic IFN production stemmed from the accumulation of DNA in the cytoplasm of AT and Artemis-deficient cells. Neutrophils isolated from patients spontaneously produced NETs and displayed indicators of oxidative and mitochondrial stress, supportive of their NETotic tendencies. A similar phenomenon was also observed in neutrophils from healthy controls exposed to patient plasma samples or exogeneous IFN-α. Type I IFN-mediated neutrophil activation and NET formation may contribute to inflammatory manifestations observed in patients with AT, Artemis deficiency, and SAVI. Thus, neutrophils represent a promising target to manage inflammatory syndromes in diseases with active type I IFN signature. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. The Scaffolding Protein IQGAP1 Interacts with NLRC3 and Inhibits Type I IFN Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocker, Aaron M; Durocher, Emily; Jacob, Kimberly D; Trieschman, Kate E; Talento, Suzanna M; Rechnitzer, Alma A; Roberts, David M; Davis, Beckley K

    2017-10-15

    Sensing of cytosolic nucleotides is a critical initial step in the elaboration of type I IFN. One of several upstream receptors, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, binds to cytosolic DNA and generates dicyclic nucleotides that act as secondary messengers. These secondary messengers bind directly to stimulator of IFN genes (STING). STING recruits TNFR-associated NF-κB kinase-binding kinase 1 which acts as a critical node that allows for efficient activation of IFN regulatory factors to drive the antiviral transcriptome. NLRC3 is a recently characterized nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein (NLR) that negatively regulates the type I IFN pathway by inhibiting subcellular redistribution and effective signaling of STING, thus blunting the transcription of type I IFNs. NLRC3 is predominantly expressed in lymphoid and myeloid cells. IQGAP1 was identified as a putative interacting partner of NLRC3 through yeast two-hybrid screening. In this article, we show that IQGAP1 associates with NLRC3 and can disrupt the NLRC3-STING interaction in the cytosol of human epithelial cells. Furthermore, knockdown of IQGAP1 in THP1 and HeLa cells causes significantly more IFN-β production in response to cytosolic nucleic acids. This result phenocopies NLRC3-deficient macrophages and fibroblasts and short hairpin RNA knockdown of NLRC3 in THP1 cells. Our findings suggest that IQGAP1 is a novel regulator of type I IFN production, possibly via interacting with NLRC3 in human monocytic and epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Matérn's hard core models of types I and II with arbitrary compact grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Hörig, Mario

    Matérn's classical hard core models can be interpreted as models obtained from a stationary marked Poisson process by dependent thinning. The marks are balls of fixed radius, and a point is retained when its associated ball does not hit any other balls (type I) or when its random birth time is st...... of this model with the process of intact grains of the dead leaves model and the Stienen model leads to analogous results for the latter....

  7. Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Model with Time Varying Λ Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Jha, Navin Kumar

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I cosmological model for stiff matter and a vacuum solution with a cosmological term proportional to R −m (R is the scale factor and m is a positive constant). The cosmological term decreases with time. We obtain that for both the cases the present universe is accelerating with a large fraction of cosmological density in the form of a cosmological term

  8. Some discussion on the acceleration mechanism of particles in the type-I plasma comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhongyuan; Guo Sheyu.

    1991-07-01

    Earlier, the large acceleration of plasma (300 cm/s 2 ) were already observed in type-I tail. Recently, the direct measurements for comet G-Z showed that the energy of particle reaches 2x10 5 eV, an energy much higher than the initial energy of comet particles (≤ 2x10 4 eV). So there should be an accelerated process in the comet. 14 refs, 3 figs

  9. Current aspects of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of children with type I galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Volgina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the topical problems arising in children with the most severe form of type I galactosemia. It describes the specific features of neonatal screening for galactosemia. Diagnostic criteria for the classic, clinical, and biochemical variants of galactosemia are presented. The basic characteristics of the clinical picture and late sequels of the disease are identified. Particular emphasis is placed on management tactics for ill children via dietary correction, complication treatments, preventive measures, and a follow-up.

  10. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provide...

  11. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of tradi...

  12. Total plasma homocysteine is associated with hypertension in Type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, S; Tarnow, L; Stehouwer, C D

    2002-01-01

    between plasma homocysteine concentrations, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism, hypertension, diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with kidney function. METHODS: Vascular complications, hypertension, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (RFLP...... was an independent determinant of plasma homocysteine, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism was neither associated with diabetic vascular complications nor with hypertension. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma homocysteine concentrations but not the T allele per se, enhance the risk...... of hypertension and of CHD in Danish Type I diabetic patients with normal renal function....

  13. Type I Clathrates as Novel Silicon Anodes: An Electrochemical and Structural Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas A.; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Baggetto, Lo?c; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Ellis?Terrell, Carol; Miller, Michael A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Chan, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon clathrates contain cage?like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. An electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8Al y Si46?y as the anode material for lithium?ion batteries is presented here. Postcycling characterization with nuclear magnetic resonance and X?ray diffraction shows no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li (?1 Li/Si) into the clathrate structure. The observed properties ...

  14. [Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenova, N V; Strokova, T V; Starodubova, A V

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.

  15. EUV and Magnetic Activities Associated with Type-I Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ruan, G. P.; Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Kong, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    Type-I bursts ( i.e. noise storms) are the earliest-known type of solar radio emission at the meter wavelength. They are believed to be excited by non-thermal energetic electrons accelerated in the corona. The underlying dynamic process and exact emission mechanism still remain unresolved. Here, with a combined analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), radio and photospheric magnetic field data of unprecedented quality recorded during a type-I storm on 30 July 2011, we identify a good correlation between the radio bursts and the co-spatial EUV and magnetic activities. The EUV activities manifest themselves as three major brightening stripes above a region adjacent to a compact sunspot, while the magnetic field there presents multiple moving magnetic features (MMFs) with persistent coalescence or cancelation and a morphologically similar three-part distribution. We find that the type-I intensities are correlated with those of the EUV emissions at various wavelengths with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 - 0.8. In addition, in the region between the brightening EUV stripes and the radio sources there appear consistent dynamic motions with a series of bi-directional flows, suggesting ongoing small-scale reconnection there. Mainly based on the induced connection between the magnetic motion at the photosphere and the EUV and radio activities in the corona, we suggest that the observed type-I noise storms and the EUV brightening activities are the consequence of small-scale magnetic reconnection driven by MMFs. This is in support of the original proposal made by Bentley et al. ( Solar Phys. 193, 227, 2000).

  16. Zika Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon Responses during Infection of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Bowen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors. Historic isolates from Africa and Asia also infected DCs with distinct viral replication kinetics between strains. African lineage viruses displayed more rapid replication kinetics and infection magnitude as compared to Asian lineage viruses, and uniquely induced cell death. Infection of DCs with both contemporary and historic ZIKV isolates led to minimal up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, along with limited secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of type I interferon (IFN protein translation was observed during ZIKV infection, despite strong induction at the RNA transcript level and up-regulation of other host antiviral proteins. Treatment of human DCs with RIG-I agonist potently restricted ZIKV replication, while type I IFN had only modest effects. Mechanistically, we found all strains of ZIKV antagonized type I IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Combined, our findings show that ZIKV subverts DC immunogenicity during infection, in part through evasion of type I IFN responses, but that the RLR signaling pathway is still capable of inducing an antiviral state, and therefore may serve as an antiviral therapeutic target.

  17. Soliton and periodic solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is twofold. First, a new ansaetze is introduced for the construction of exact solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I). We show the existence of a class of discontinuous soliton solutions with infinite spikes. Second, the projective Riccati technique is implemented as an alternate approach for obtaining new exact solutions, solitary solutions, and periodic wave solutions

  18. The type I interferon response during viral infections: a "SWOT" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaajetaan, Giel R; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stassen, Frank R

    2012-03-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) response is a strong and crucial moderator for the control of viral infections. The strength of this system is illustrated by the fact that, despite some temporary discomfort like a common cold or diarrhea, most viral infections will not cause major harm to the healthy immunocompetent host. To achieve this, the immune system is equipped with a wide array of pattern recognition receptors and the subsequent coordinated type I IFN response orchestrated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). The production of type I IFN subtypes by dendritic cells (DCs), but also other cells is crucial for the execution of many antiviral processes. Despite this coordinated response, morbidity and mortality are still common in viral disease due to the ability of viruses to exploit the weaknesses of the immune system. Viruses successfully evade immunity and infection can result in aberrant immune responses. However, these weaknesses also open opportunities for improvement via clinical interventions as can be seen in current vaccination and antiviral treatment programs. The application of IFNs, Toll-like receptor ligands, DCs, and antiviral proteins is now being investigated to further limit viral infections. Unfortunately, a common threat during stimulation of immunity is the possible initiation or aggravation of autoimmunity. Also the translation from animal models to the human situation remains difficult. With a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats ("SWOT") analysis, we discuss the interaction between host and virus as well as (future) therapeutic options, related to the type I IFN system. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Isolation and molecular characterization of type I and type II feline coronavirus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Amer, Alazawy; Siti Suri, Arshad; Abdul Rahman, Omar; Mohd, Hair Bejo; Faruku, Bande; Saeed, Sharif; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) are two important coronaviruses of domestic cat worldwide. Although FCoV is prevalent among cats; the fastidious nature of type I FCoV to grow on cell culture has limited further studies on tissue tropism and pathogenesis of FCoV. While several studies reported serological evidence for FCoV in Malaysia, neither the circulating FCoV isolated nor its biotypes determined. This study for the first...

  20. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with activation of the type i interferon system and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tydén, Helena; Lood, Christian; Gullstrand, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Endothelial dysfunction may be connected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Type I interferons (IFNs) are central in SLE pathogenesis and are suggested to induce both endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. In this study, we investigated...... with activation of platelets and the type I IFN system. We suggest that an interplay between the type I IFN system, injured endothelium and activated platelets may contribute to development of CVD in SLE....