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Sample records for type-3 enstatite chondrite

  1. Intensive parameters of enstatite chondrite metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert A.; Hess, Paul C.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1989-01-01

    A geothermometer based on the assemblage kamacite-quartz-enstatite-oldhamite-troilite found in enstatite chondrites is described. Data obtained with the geothermometer reveal that the EL6 meteorites experienced temperatures exceeding 1000 C. These temperatures imply a metal-sulfide melting event that may have fractionated the melt from the source region.

  2. The formation of FeO-rich pyroxene and enstatite in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: A petrologic-trace element (SIMS) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Fogel, R. A.; Shimizu, N.

    1993-01-01

    Enstatite (En) chondrites record the most reducing conditions known in the early solar system. Their oxidation state may be the result of condensation in a nebular region having an enhanced C/O ratio, reduction of more oxidized materials in a reducing nebula, reduction during metamorphic reheating in a parent body, or a combination of these events. The presence of more oxidized Fe-rich silicates, two types of En (distinguished by red and blue CL), and the juxtaposition of FeO-rich pyroxenes (Fe-pyx) surrounded by blue En (enstatite) in the UEC's (unequilibrated enstatite chondrites) is intriguing and led to the examination of the question of enstatite chondrite formation. Previously, data was presented on the petrologic-geochemical characteristics of the Fe-pyx and coexisting red and blue En. Here minor and trace element abundances (determined by ion probe-SIMS) on these three types of pyroxenes are reported on in the following meteorites: Kota Kota and LEW87223 (EH3), MAC88136 (EL3), St. Marks (EH4), and Hvittis (EL6). More data are currently being collected.

  3. Deformation of Ordinary Chondrite Under Very Reducing Conditons: Implications for Liquid Metal Compositions, HSE Partitioning and Enstatite Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, T.; Corgne, A.

    2008-12-01

    One important method in which to gain insight into metallic liquid compositions and their ability to control HSE (highly siderophile element) distribution is through experimentation. Deformation experiments can additionally provide information into mechanisms and chemical consequences of dynamic liquid metal segregation under a variety of conditions. We report results on metallic liquid HSE compositions and their distribution from a set of deformation experiments on a natural H6 ordinary chondrite, performed under very reducing conditions and a series of phase equilibria experiments focused on HSE partitioning between Si-rich and S-rich Fe molten alloys. The deformation experiments were conducted at temperatures between 925°C and 950°C, at 1.3 GPa confining pressure with a strain rate of 10-4/s. Major element analyses of both silicate and metal phases show that they are considerably reduced and the typically lithophile elements are behaving like siderophiles. Fe-Ni-Si compositions are found in the shear zones produced during the deformation experiment. Metallic compositions also include (Mg,Fe,Ca)S, Fe-Ni-Si, FeP, and Fe-Ni-S quench metal. Silicate phases include forsterite (Fo92-96) and enstatite (En98). Highly siderophile element (HSE) concentrations have been measured in the sulphide ((Fe,Mg,Ca)S) and metal (Fe- Ni-Si) phases by LA-ICPMS and compared with results from an earlier set of experiments on the same material but which were not performed under reducing conditions. The partitioning of the PGE is modified by the changing conditions with elements such as Ir and Os having higher DMetal/Sulphide values under reducing conditions. Partitioning experiments between molten FeS and Ni-, Si-bearing molten Fe were performed at 1.5-5.0 GPa and 1500-1750° to further investigate this observation. The starting material is synthetic, doped with a range of trace and HSE elements. The results confirm the preference of the HSE for the metallic phase with DMetal

  4. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

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    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  5. Enstatite chondrites EL3 as building blocks for the Earth: The debate over the 146Sm-142Nd systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyet, M.; Bouvier, A.; Frossard, P.; Hammouda, T.; Garçon, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2018-04-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd extinct decay scheme (146Sm half-life of 103 My) is a powerful tool to trace early Earth silicate differentiation. Differences in 142Nd abundance measured between different chondrite meteorite groups and the modern Earth challenges the interpretation of the 142Nd isotopic variations found in terrestrial samples because the origin of the Earth and the nature of its building blocks is still an ongoing debate. As bulk meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC) have isotope signatures that are the closest to the Earth value with an average small deficit of ∼10 ppm in 142Nd relative to modern terrestrial samples. Here we review all the Nd isotope data measured on EC so far, and present the first measurements on an observed meteorite fall Almahata Sitta containing pristine fragments of an unmetamorphosed enstatite chondrite belonging to the EL3 subgroup. Once 142Nd/144Nd ratios are normalized to a common chondritic evolution, samples from the EC group (both EL and EH) have a deficit in 142Nd but the dispersion is important (μ142 Nd = - 10 ± 12 (2SD) ppm). This scatter reflects their unique mineralogy associated to their formation in reduced conditions (low fO2 or high C/O). Rare-earth elements are mainly carried by the sulfide phase oldhamite (CaS) that is more easily altered than silicates by weathering since most of the EC meteorites are desert finds. The EL6 have fractionated rare-earth element patterns with depletion in the most incompatible elements. Deviations in Nd mass independent stable isotope ratios in enstatite chondrites relative to terrestrial standard are not resolved with the level of analytical precision achieved by modern mass spectrometry techniques. Here we show that enstatite chondrites from the EL3 and EL6 subgroups may come from different parent bodies. Samples from the EL3 subgroup have Nd (μ142 Nd = - 0.8 ± 7.0, 2SD) and Ru isotope ratios undistinguishable from that of the Bulk Silicate Earth. EL3 samples have never been

  6. Micro-X-ray diffraction assessment of shock stage in enstatite chondrites

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    Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Banerjee, Neil R.; McCausland, Philip J. A.

    2011-05-01

    A new method for assessing the shock stage of enstatite chondrites has been developed, using in situ micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) to measure the full width at half maximum (FWHMχ) of peak intensity distributed along the direction of the Debye rings, or chi angle (χ), corresponding to individual lattice reflections in two-dimensional XRD patterns. This μXRD technique differs from previous XRD shock characterization methods: it does not require single crystals or powders. In situ μXRD has been applied to polished thin sections and whole-rock meteorite samples. Three frequently observed orthoenstatite reflections were measured: (020), (610), and (131); these were selected as they did not overlap with diffraction lines from other phases. Enstatite chondrites are commonly fine grained, stained or darkened by weathering, shock-induced oxidation, and metal/sulfide inclusions; furthermore, most E chondrites have little olivine or plagioclase. These characteristics inhibit transmitted-light petrography, nevertheless, shock stages have been assigned MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02837 (EL3) S3, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91020 (EL3) S5, MAC 02747 (EL4) S4, Thiel Mountains (TIL) 91714 (EL5) S2, Allan Hills (ALHA) 81021 (EL6) S2, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87746 (EH3) S3, Meteorite Hills (MET) 00783 (EH4) S4, EET 96135 (EH4-5) S2, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88180 (EH5) S2, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94204 (EH7) S2, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02225 (EH impact melt) S1; for the six with published shock stages, there is agreement with the published classification. FWHMχ plotted against petrographic shock stage demonstrates positive linear correlation. FWHMχ ranges corresponding to shock stages were assigned as follows: S1 3.5°, S6—not measured. Slabs of Abee (EH impact-melt breccia), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2212 (EL6) were examined using μXRD alone; FWHMχ values place both in the S2 range, consistent with literature values. Micro-XRD analysis may be applicable to other shocked orthopyroxene

  7. 146Sm-142Nd systematics measured in enstatite chondrites reveals a heterogeneous distribution of 142Nd in the solar nebula.

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    Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Boyet, Maud; Rizo, Hanika; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2011-05-10

    The short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer (T(1/2) = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm-Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios are also characterized by small (144)Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between (144)Sm and (142)Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to (142)Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision (144)Sm measurements to interpret properly measured (142)Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion.

  8. LEW 88180, LEW 87119, and ALH 85119: New EH6, EL7, and EL4 Enstatite Chondrites

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    Zhang, Y.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    The EH and EL chondrites formed in a uniquely reducing environment, containing low-Fe pyroxene, abundant metal, and a number of unusual sulphides and other minerals [1]. An important aspect of their history is that while the EL chondrites consist predominantly of metamorphosed meteorites, the EH consist primarily of little-metamorphosed meteorites (e.g., [2]), and yet EL chondrites have lower equilibrium temperatures than EH chondrite [3,4]. To help understand this observation and its implication for the history of the classes, we have been searching for new enstatite chondrites, looking especially for meteorites of previously unknown chemical-petrologic class. Using our normal INAA methods [5] and sample splits of 100-200 mg, the bulk composition of nine Antarctic enstatite chondrites and one fall were determined. The data were used to assign the meteorites to chemical classes, the Ni/Ir vs. Al/V plot (Fig. 1) being especially useful since it uses the refractory element difference between EH and EL chondrites and is insensitive to metal-silicate heterogeneity. The well-analyzed Qingzhen was included to check our method. ALH84170, ALH84206, and EET87746, which Mason described as E3, E4, and E4 were all found to be EH chondrites [6]. Our data for the three paired EL3 chondrites were discussed earlier (MAC88136, 88180, and 88184) [7,8]. LEW88180, LEW87119, and ALH85119, which Mason described as type E6, E6, and E4 respectively [6], are EH, EL, and EL; thus LEW88180 and ALH85119 appear to be the first EH6 and EL4 chondrites. The compositions of kamacite, phosphide, and niningerite-alabandite (Fig. 2) for ALH84170, ALH84206, EET87746, LEW88180, and ALH85119 are consistent with Mason's petrologic type assignments [6]. The mineral composition of LEW88180 (2.7% Si and 9.4% Ni in the kamacite, 7.8% Ni in the phosphide, and 60% FeS in the niningerite) confirms our classification of this meteorite as EH6. ALH85119 contains kamacite with 0.5% Si and 7% Ni, phosphide with 46

  9. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection

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    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

    2014-07-01

    Chondrites are the most primitive meteorites. However, they were all modified in some ways by post-accretion geological processes operating on their asteroidal parent bodies. Hence, to decipher the formation(s) and origin(s) of their components, we must first understand how chondritic materials were modified in their asteroidal parent bodies. The modifications induced by secondary processes should not be underestimated and have to be precisely estimated before any interpretation of chondrite properties in terms of cosmochemistry. In particular, all chondrites contain some organic components that were potentially chemically and physically modified through post-accretion processes. A thin understanding of the induced evolution is required to allow for pertinent comparisons with other primitive extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains, to finally address questions such as the origin of organics in the Solar System. Type 3 chondrites experienced thermal metamorphism on their asteroidal parent body due to the radioactive decay of elements such as ^{26}Al. Temperatures higher than 300 °C were experienced on timescales of several thousands of years. Still, type 3 chondrites remain as unequilibrated rocks and common mineralogical thermometers cannot be applied. The polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is sensitive to thermal episodes (of long and short duration) experienced by the host meteorite. In particular, its structural order directly reflects the thermal history experienced on their parent bodies. The structural modification of the aromatic carbonaceous matter towards a higher order is irreversible, and independent of the mineralogy and degree of aqueous alteration. It is mainly controlled by the peak metamorphic temperature. Moreover, under the assumption of fairly similar organic precursors among chondrites of distinct groups, the structural order of polyaromatic organic matter allows for a direct comparison of their metamorphic grades. It is then possible

  10. High resolution TEM of chondritic carbonaceous matter: Metamorphic evolution and heterogeneity

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    Le Guillou, Corentin; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël.; Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Derenne, Sylvie; Remusat, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    The insoluble carbonaceous matter from 12 chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV, EH, and UOC), was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Besides ubiquitous nanoglobules, the insoluble organic matter from petrologic type 1 and 2 chondrites and Semarkona (LL 3.0) is composed of a highly disordered polyaromatic component. No structural differences were observed between these IOMs, in agreement with the limited thermal metamorphism they all experienced. In chondrites of petrologic type >3.0, the evolution of the IOM is controlled by the extent of thermal metamorphism. The polyaromatic layers, shorter than 1 nm in petrologic type ≤3.0 chondrites, grow up to sizes between 5 and 10 nm in petrologic type >3.6 chondrites, contributing to the increase of the degree of structural order. In addition, we find rare, but ubiquitous onion-like carbons, which may be the product of nanodiamond graphitization. The insoluble carbonaceous matter of the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH 3) is different from the other meteorites studied here. It is more heterogeneous and displays a high abundance of graphitized particles. This may be the result of a mixture between (1) the disordered carbon located in the matrix, and (2) catalytic graphitized phases associated with metal, potentially originating from partial melting events. The structural and nanostructural evolution are similar in all IOMs. This suggests that the structure of the accreted precursors and the parent body conditions of their secondary thermal modifications (temperature, duration, and pressure) were similar. The limited degree of organization of the most metamorphosed IOMs compared with terrestrial rocks submitted to similar temperature suggests that the conditions are not favorable to graphitization processes, due to the chemical nature of the precursor or the lack of confinement pressure.

  11. Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes

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    Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and

  12. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

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    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  13. Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite meteorites and relations to other planetary reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee-Yon; Marti, Kurt; Wacker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the interpretation of xenon that was measured in the Abee meteorite. Reported Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite chondrites (EC's) show some variability, and this makes comparisons to other solar system reservoirs rather difficult. In contrast, we find uniform Xe isotopic abundances in the EC chondrite Abee for a variety of clasts, except for 128 Xe and 129 Xe, the isotopes affected by neutron capture in I and by extinct 129 I. We report averages for the studied clasts which are consistent within error limits with OC-Xe and with the Q-Xe signature. On the other hand, the elemental abundance ratios Ar/Xe are variable between clasts. A strongly reducing environment which is indicated for enstatite meteorites was generally assumed to be consistent with conditions existing in the early inner solar system. Xe isotopic abundances in SNC meteorites from Mars and also those in some terrestrial wells show that distinct isotopic reservoirs coexisted on the same planets. In particular, the Xe isotopic signatures in terrestrial well gases show the presence of a minor distinct component in two of the reported four well gases. These authors suggested that the extra component represents solar Xe, but we show that also a meteoritic xenon reservoir of the Abee-Xe structure is an option. The reported Xe data in Ar-rich (subsolar) EC's show isotopic abundances slightly lighter than those in Abee-Xe, but the relative abundances of Ar, Kr, and Xe indicate only a minor component of elementally unfractionated solar Xe. The elemental ratios suggest rather a different origin for these gases: the loading of solar particles into grain surfaces during exposure at elevated temperatures during accretion of matter in the inner solar system. A model of this type was suggested for the accretion of gases now observed in the atmosphere on Venus. We note that disks of crystalline silicates (including enstatite and olivine) have been observed in T Tauri stars during their early

  14. Temperature effects on cathodoluminescence of enstatite

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    Ohgo, S.; Nishido, H.

    2017-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) of enstatite has been extensively investigated for planetary science applications. The CL features are affected by many factors of impurities such as transition metal elements, structural defects and sample temperature. However, the temperature effects on enstatite CL have not been clarified so far. In this study, we have quantitatively evaluated temperature effects on enstatite CL. Three samples of luminescent enstatite were employed for CL spectral measurements. Color CL imaging was carried out using a cold-cathode type Luminoscope with a cooled-CCD camera. CL spectroscopy was made by a SEM-CL system, which is comprised of SEM (JEOL: JSM-5410LV) combined with a grating monochromator (OXFORD: Mono CL2). The CL emitted from the sample was collected in the range of 300-800 nm with a photomultiplier tube by a photon counting method at various temperatures from -193-50 degree C. All CL spectra were corrected for total instrumental response. Color CL imaging reveals various CL emissions with red, reddish-purple and bluish-purple in the terrestrial and extraterrestrial enstatite. All of them have two broad emission bands at around 400 nm in a blue region and at around 670 nm in a red region at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectral peak in a red region is sharpened and enhanced at lower temperature due to reduction of thermal lattice vibration and an increase in luminescent efficiency. CL intensity at around 670 nm of enstatite decreases with an increase in sample temperature up to -110 degree C from -193 degree C, and increases with an increase in sample temperature between -110 and 50 degree C. This behavior is not able to be explained by a temperature quenching theory based on an increase in the probability of non-radiative transition with the rise of temperature. A least-square fitting of the Arrhenius plot by assuming a Mott-Seitz model provides an activation energy of less than 0.01 eV in temperature quenching process from

  15. Possible impact-induced refractory-lithophile fractionations in EL chondrites

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    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz; Wasson, John T.

    2009-03-01

    Literature data show that refractory-lithophile elements in most chondrite groups are unfractionated relative to CI chondrites; the principal exception is the EL-chondrite group whose observed falls (all of which are type 6) are depleted in Ca and light REE. In contrast, literature data and our new INAA data on EL3 PCA 91020, EL3 MAC 88136 and EL4 Grein 002 show that some replicates of these samples have nearly flat REE patterns (unlike those of EL6 chondrites); other replicates exhibit fractionated REE patterns similar to those of EL6 chondrites. Petrographic examination shows that many EL6 (and some EL3 and EL4) chondrites are impact-melt breccias or contain impact-melted portions. We suggest that the same impact processes that formed these breccias and produced melt are responsible for the observed bulk compositional fractionations in refractory-lithophile elements, i.e., EL6 chondrites were produced from initially unequilibrated EL3 material. When large amounts of impact heat were deposited, plagioclase and/or oldhamite (CaS) (the major REE carriers in enstatite chondrites) may have been melted and then transported appreciable (>10 cm) distances. EL6 chondrites represent the residuum that is depleted in REE (particularly in LREE) and Ca. Unlike the case for EL chondrites, our new INAA data on ALH 84170, EET 87746 and SAH 97096 (all EH3) show some scatter but are consistent with the EH group having uniform refractory-lithophile abundances.

  16. Growth of enstatite and enstatite-forsterite reaction rims under wet conditions during isostatic annealing and triaxial deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, Vanessa; Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the influence of differential stress and microstructure on reaction rates, we studied experimentally enstatite-forsterite double rim formation in between periclase and quartz according to the reaction MgO +

  17. The Origin of the Compositional Diversity of Mercury's Surface Constrained From Experimental Melting of Enstatite Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is known as an endmember planet as it is the most reduced terrestrial planet with the highest core/mantle ratio. MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that its surface is FeO-poor (2-4 wt%) and Srich (up to 6-7 wt%), which confirms the reducing nature of its silicate mantle. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting important melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. This interpretation was confirmed by the high crustal thickness (up to 100 km) derived from Mercury's gravity field. This is also corroborated by a recent experimental result that showed that Mercurian partial melts are expected to be highly buoyant within the Mercurian mantle and could have risen from depths as high as the core-mantle boundary. In addition MESSENGER spacecraft provided relatively precise data on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed important chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. However, the extent and nature of compositional variations produced by partial melting remains poorly constrained for the particular compositions of Mercury (very reducing conditions, low FeO-contents and high sulfur-contents). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the processes that lead to the various compositions of Mercury's surface. Melting experiments with bulk Mercury-analogue compositions were performed and compared to the compositions measured by MESSENGER.

  18. Aubrite and Impact Melt Enstatite Chondrite Meteorites as Potential Analogs to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Z. E.; Udry, A.; Mccubbin, Francis M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Combs, L. M.; Rahib, R. R.; McCoy, C.; McCoy, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    The MESSENGER (MErcury Sur-face, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) orbiter measured the Mercurian surface abundances of key rock-forming elements to help us better understand the planet's surface and bulk geochemistry. A major discovery is that the Mercurian surface and interior are characterized by an extremely low oxygen fugacity (ƒO2; Iron-Wüstite (IW) -7.3 to IW-2.6. This is supported by low Fe and high S abundances on the surface. This low ƒO2 causes a different elemental partioning from what is observed on Earth. Using surface composition, it was shown that the Mercurian surface mainly consists of normative plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, and exotic sulfides, such as niningerite ((Mg,Mn, Fe)S) and oldhamite (CaS).

  19. Experimental Behavior of Sulfur Under Primitive Planetary Differentiation Processes, the Sulfide Formations in Enstatite Meteorites and Implications for Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavergne, V.; Brunet, F.; Righter, K.; Zanda, B.; Avril, C.; Borensztajn, S.; Berthet, S.

    2012-01-01

    Enstatite meteorites are the most reduced naturally-occuring materials of the solar system. The cubic monosulfide series with the general formula (Mg,Mn,Ca,Fe)S are common phases in these meteorite groups. The importance of such minerals, their formation, composition and textural relationships for understanding the genesis of enstatite chondrites (EC) and aubrites, has long been recognized (e.g. [1]). However, the mechanisms of formation of these sulfides is still not well constrained certainly because of possible multiple ways to produce them. We propose to simulate different models of formation in order to check their mineralogical, chemical and textural relevancies. The solubility of sulfur in silicate melts is of primary interest for planetary mantles, particularly for the Earth and Mercury. Indeed, these two planets could have formed, at least partly, from EC materials (e.g. [2, 3, 4]). The sulfur content in silicate melts depends on the melt composition but also on pressure (P), temperature (T) and oxygen fugacity fO2. Unfortunately, there is no model of general validity in a wide range of P-T-fO2-composition which describes precisely the evolution of sulfur content in silicate melts, even if the main trends are now known. The second goal of this study is to constrain the sulfur content in silicate melts under reducing conditions and different temperatures.

  20. Experimental hydrothermal dissolution of forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and labradorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponader, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Natural hydrothermal water/rock interactions such as those which occur during mineral dissolution and serpentinization were experimentally duplicated using a flow-through apparatus. Labradorite, forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and lherzolite powders were reached with flowing aqueous fluids ({approximately} 10 ml/day) at 300 C and 300 bars for up to 58 days in order to quantify mineral stabilities and dissolution rates, and to characterize dissolution textures and mechanisms. The principal methods for characterization of the solids included surface sensitive spectroscopies (SAM and SPS), SEM, and XRD; reacted fluids were analyzed for major element chemistry and pH. Chapters 1 and 2 investigate labradorite dissolution by deionized water. The labradorite powder dissolved extensively while boehmite and halloysite precipitated. The SAM results show that, in general, the reacted surfaces are enriched in Al and depleted in Si, Na, and Ca. Chapter 3 describes the experiments that reacted deionized water with diopside, enstatite, forsterite, and lherzolite, from which lizardite {plus minus} chrysotile {plus minus} Fe-oxides precipitated. The reacted diopside and enstatite surfaces appeared highly corroded; their crystal structures, in part, control the mechanisms by which they dissolve. The stabilities of the minerals decrease in the order: lherzolite > diopside > enstatite > forsterite. At near neutral pH, the degree to which total surface areas influence dissolution rates appears greater that the effect of mineral composition and interaction of the primary minerals within the lherzolite.

  1. Tellurium stable isotope fractionation in chondritic meteorites and some terrestrial samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Manuela A.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Parkinson, Ian J.

    2018-02-01

    New methodologies employing a 125Te-128Te double-spike were developed and applied to obtain high precision mass-dependent tellurium stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and some terrestrial samples by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analyses of standard solutions produce Te stable isotope data with a long-term reproducibility (2SD) of 0.064‰ for δ130/125Te. Carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites display a range in δ130/125Te of 0.9‰ (0.2‰ amu-1) in their Te stable isotope signature, whereas ordinary chondrites present larger Te stable isotope fractionation, in particular for unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, with an overall variation of 6.3‰ for δ130/125Te (1.3‰ amu-1). Tellurium stable isotope variations in ordinary chondrites display no correlation with Te contents or metamorphic grade. The large Te stable isotope fractionation in ordinary chondrites is likely caused by evaporation and condensation processes during metamorphism in the meteorite parent bodies, as has been suggested for other moderately and highly volatile elements displaying similar isotope fractionation. Alternatively, they might represent a nebular signature or could have been produced during chondrule formation. Enstatite chondrites display slightly more negative δ130/125Te compared to carbonaceous chondrites and equilibrated ordinary chondrites. Small differences in the Te stable isotope composition are also present within carbonaceous chondrites and increase in the order CV-CO-CM-CI. These Te isotope variations within carbonaceous chondrites may be due to mixing of components that have distinct Te isotope signatures reflecting Te stable isotope fractionation in the early solar system or on the parent bodies and potentially small so-far unresolvable nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of up to 0.27‰. The Te stable isotope data of carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites displays a general correlation with the oxidation state and hence might

  2. CRYSTALLIZATION EXPERIMENTS ON AMORPHOUS MAGNESIUM SILICATE. II. EFFECT OF STACKING FAULTS ON INFRARED SPECTRA OF ENSTATITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.; Chihara, H.; Koike, C.; Takakura, T.; Imai, Y.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Noguchi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out experiments of low-temperature infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy of enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) synthesized by heating of amorphous magnesium silicate. There is a discrepancy between the infrared feature of enstatite obtained in this experiment and that of fine powdered single crystals. This reflects stacking disorder of enstatite. We show that circumstellar dust emission of enstatite is similar to the infrared feature measured in this experiment. This result strongly suggests that circumstellar enstatite has abundant stacking faults and is different from the single crystal.

  3. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  4. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on δ 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on δ 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with δ 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for δ 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for δ 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites

  5. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  6. The selenium isotopic variations in chondrites are mass-dependent; Implications for sulfide formation in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, J.; König, S.; Kurzawa, T.; Yierpan, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2018-01-01

    Element transfer from the solar nebular gas to solids occurred either through direct condensation or via heterogeneous reactions between gaseous molecules and previously condensed solid matter. The precursors of altered sulfides observed in chondrites are for example attributed to reactions between gaseous hydrogen sulfide and metallic iron grains. The transfer of selenium to solids likely occurred through a similar pathway, allowing the formation of iron selenides concomitantly with sulfides. The formation rate of sulfide however remains difficult to assess. Here we investigate whether the Se isotopic composition of meteorites contributes to constrain sulfide formation during condensation stages of our solar system. We present high precision Se concentration and δ 82 / 78 Se data for 23 chondrites as well as the first δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se data for a sub-set of seven chondrites. We combine our dataset with previously published sulfur isotopic data and discuss aspects of sulfide formation for various types of chondrites. Our Se concentration data are within uncertainty to literature values and are consistent with sulfides being the dominant selenium host in chondrites. Our overall average δ 82 / 78 Se value for chondrites is - 0.21 ± 0.43 ‰ (n = 23, 2 s.d.), or - 0.14 ± 0.21 ‰ after exclusion of three weathered chondrites (n = 20, 2 s.d.). These average values are within uncertainty indistinguishable from a previously published estimate. For the first time however, we resolve distinct δ 82 / 78 Se between ordinary (- 0.14 ± 0.07 ‰, n = 9, 2 s.d.), enstatite (- 0.27 ± 0.05 ‰, n = 3, 2 s.d.) and CI carbonaceous chondrites (- 0.01 ± 0.06 ‰, n = 2, 2 s.d.). We also resolve a Se isotopic variability among CM carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we report on δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se values determined for 7 chondrites. Our data allow evaluating the mass dependency of the δ 82 / 78 Se variations. Mass

  7. Clues to the origin of metal in Almahata Sitta EL and EH chondrites and implications for primitive E chondrite thermal histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Marian; Humayun, Munir; Bischoff, Addi

    2014-09-01

    Enstatite (E) chondrites are a group of texturally highly variable meteorites formed under strongly reducing conditions giving rise to unique mineral and chemical characteristics (e.g., high abundances of various sulfides and Si-bearing metal). In particular the abundant metal comprises a range of textures in E chondrites of different petrologic type, but available in situ siderophile trace element data on metal are limited. Nine samples of E chondrites from the recent Almahata Sitta fall [one EH3, two EL3/4, two EL6, two EL impact melt rocks (IMR), two EH IMR] were investigated in this study in addition to St. Mark's (EH5) and Grein 002 (EL4/5), with a focus on the nature of their metal constituents. Special attention was given to metal-silicate intergrowths (MSSI) that occur in many primitive E chondrites, which have been interpreted as post-accretionary asteroidal impact melts or primitive nebular condensates. This study shows that siderophile trace element systematics in E chondrite metal are independent of petrologic type of the host rock and distinct from condensation signatures. Three basic types of siderophile trace element signatures can be distinguished, indicating crystallization from a melt, thermal equilibration upon metamorphism/complete melting, and exsolution of schreibersite-perryite-sulfide. Textural and mineral-chemical constraints from EL3/4s are used to evaluate previously proposed formation processes of MSSI (impact melting vs. nebular condensation) and elucidate which other formation scenarios are feasible. It is shown that post-accretionary (in situ) impact melting or metallic melt injection forming MSSI on the thin section scale, and nebular condensation, are unlikely formation processes. This leads to the conclusion that MSSIs are pre-accretionary melt objects that were formed during melting processes prior to the accretion of the primitive E chondrites. The same can be concluded for metal nodules in the EH3 chondrite examined. The pre

  8. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.

    2017-12-01

    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  9. Reconstructing the thermal evolution of the CK chondrite parent body using Northwest Africa 5343, the least metamorphosed CK chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, T. L.; Gross, J.; O'Hara, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) represent some of the most pristine solar system material, providing constraints on the early formation of planetesimals. The CK chondrites are the only group of CCs to exhibit the full range of thermal metamorphism (petrologic type 3 to 6). Most unequilibrated CK chondrites (CK3s) have been metamorphosed to petrologic subtype 3.8 or higher. However, homogeneity of olivine suggests that CK3 chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5343 is less metamorphosed than the other CK3s. The presence of unrecrystallized matrix indicates that it is less than petrologic type 3.7. To better assess the lower limits of metamorphism on the CK chondrite parent body, we performed a detailed analysis of matrix material in NWA 5343. Ascertaining the lower limit of metamorphism in the CK chondrites is critical when addressing the CK-CV parent body debate (e.g., one vs. two parent bodies), and will shed light onto the evolution of metamorphosed CC parent bodies. We recognize two texturally distinct regions in the matrix of NWA 5343. Both have similar mineralogies (mostly olivine with lesser pyroxene and plagioclase), but differ in grain size, shape, and porosity. The porous region of the sample is characterized by subhedral-rounded olivine grains, typically Skeletal pyroxene is also common. Original pore space is filled with a Ca-rich glass that appears to originate from an unusual vein in this region. Most interestingly, the extent of metamorphism varies within NWA 5343. Larger, anhedral olivine in the glassy region suggest that this region is more metamorphosed than the porous region. Even within the porous region there is a range of metamorphism, with small patches of granoblastic olivine intermixed with the clastic matrix. This suggests that NWA 5343 may represent a metamorphic breccia, a common occurrence in OCs and CCs of lower petrologic types, and provides insight into the evolution of the only completely metamorphosed CC parent body.

  10. The compositional classification of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallemeyn, G.W.; Wasson, J.T.; California Univ., Los Angeles; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1985-01-01

    Six specimens of unusual chondritic materials were analyzed by neutron activation for 30 elements in order to assess their degree of chondritic compositional pristinity and to search for evidence of genetic links to other chondrites. Five have highly recrystallized textures: the other, the Cumberland Falls chondrite, has suffered minor metamorphic recrystallization. Acapulco and Allan Hills A77081, are closely related and have subpristine compositions; they are more distantly related to Enon which has an altered composition. Udei Station appears to be a IAB meteorite even though its FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratio is slightly above the IAB field. The highly weathered meteorite Tierra Blanca is closely related to IAB but has a delta 18 O value 5 standard deviations higher than the IAB mean, and is designated ungrouped. Udei Station and Tierra Blanca have altered compositions; rare earth element patterns indicate loss of a phosphate phase. The elemental composition of the Cumberland Falls chondrite is virtually identical to that of LL chondrites, and its O-isotope composition is closely similar to those of some unequilibrated ordinary chondrites including LL Semarkona. The FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratios in its olivine are generally much lower than those in pyroxene. (author)

  11. The origin and evolution of chondrites recorded in the elemental and isotopic compositions of their macromolecular organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Fogel, M.; Yabuta, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2007-09-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter in meteorites potentially retains a unique record of synthesis and chemical/thermal modification by parent body, nebular and even presolar processes. In a survey of the elemental and isotopic compositions of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from 75 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites, we find dramatic variations within and between chondrite classes. There is no evidence that these variations correlate with the time and/or location of chondrite formation, or with any primary petrologic or bulk compositional features that are associated with nebular processes (e.g., chondrule and volatile trace element abundances). Nor is there evidence for the formation of the IOM by Fischer-Tropsch-Type synthesis in the nebula or in the parent bodies. The elemental variations are consistent with thermal maturation and/or oxidation of a common precursor. For reasons that are unclear, there are large variations in isotopic composition within and between chondrite classes that do not correlate in a simple way with elemental composition or petrologic type. Nevertheless, because of the pattern of elemental variations with petrologic type and the lack of any correlation with the primary features of the chondrite classes, at present the most likely explanation is that all IOM compositional variations are the result of parent body processing of a common precursor. If correct, the range of isotopic compositions within and between chondrite classes implies that the IOM is composed of several isotopically distinct components whose relative stability varied with parent body conditions. The most primitive IOM is found in the CR chondrites and Bells (CM2). Isotopically, the IOM from these meteorites resembles the IOM in interplanetary dust particles. Chemically, their IOM resembles the CHON particles of comet Halley. Despite the large isotopic anomalies in the IOM from these meteorites, it is uncertain whether the IOM formed in the interstellar medium or

  12. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  13. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  14. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  15. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 1. CI chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Mann, P.

    2011-03-01

    Existing reflectance spectra of CI chondrites (18 spectra of 3 CIs) have been augmented with new (18 spectra of 2 CIs) reflectance spectra to ascertain the spectral variability of this meteorite class and provide insights into their spectral properties as a function of grain size, composition, particle packing, and viewing geometry. Particle packing and viewing geometry effects have not previously been examined for CI chondrites. The current analysis is focused on the 0.3-2.5 μm interval, as this region is available for the largest number of CI spectra. Reflectance spectra of powdered CI1 chondrites are uniformly dark (IOM), as no other CI opaque phase appears able to produce concurrent darkening and bluing. Magnetite can also explain the presence of an absorption feature near 1 μm in some CI spectra. The most blue-sloped spectra are generally associated with the larger grain size samples. For incidence and emission angles <60°, increasing phase angle results in darker and redder spectra, particularly below ∼1 μm. At high incidence angles (60°), increasing emission angle results in brighter and redder spectra. More densely packed samples and underdense (fluffed) samples show lower overall reflectance than normally packed and flat-surface powdered samples. Some B-class asteroids exhibit selected spectral properties consistent with CI chondrites, although perfect spectral matches have not been found. Because many CI chondrite spectra exhibit absorption features that can be related to specific mineral phases, the search for CI parent bodies can fruitfully be conducted using such parameters.

  16. Assessing the Formation of Ungrouped Achondrite Northwest Africa 8186: Residue, Crystallization Product, or Recrystallized Chondrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of primitive achondrites, metachondrites, and type 7 chondrites challenge the long held idea that all chondrites and achondrites form on separate parent bodies. These meteorites have experienced metamorphic temperatures above petrologic type 6 and have partially melted to various degrees. However, because of their isotopic and compositional similarities to both undifferentiated and differentiated groups, the provenance of these 'type 6+' meteorites remains largely unknown. CK and CV chondrites have recently been linked to a few achondrites due to their strong compositional, mineralogical, and isotopic similarities], suggesting a common origin between these meteorites. Although CVs have generally undergone low degrees of alteration near petrologic type 3, CKs have experienced a wide range of thermal alteration from petrologic type 3 to 6. Thermal evolution models on early accreting bodies predict that an early forming body can partially differentiate due to radiogenic heating, and, as a result, form radial layers of material increasing in thermal grade (types 3 to 6+) from the unmelted chondritic surface towards the differentiated core.Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is an ungrouped achondrite that provides compelling evidence for higher degrees of thermal processing and/or melting and differentiation on some CK/CV parent bodies. NWA 8186 plots on the CCAM line on a 3-oxygen isotope diagram directly with CK and CV chondrites and also plots with the CKs in regards to Cr isotopes. This meteorite is dominated by Nickel(II)Oxygen-rich olivine (less than 80%), lacks iron metal, and contains four oxide phases, indicating a high fOxygen (above FMQ) similar to the CKs. Additionally, NWA 8186 does not contain chondrules. We have further investigated the origins of NWA 8186 by examining and comparing the bulk composition of this CK-like achondrite with CK and CV chondrites, allowing us to assess the various scenarios in which NWA 8186 may have formed from

  17. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  18. Experimental determination of magnesia and silica solubilities in graphite-saturated and redox-buffered high-pressure COH fluids in equilibrium with forsterite + enstatite and magnesite + enstatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraboschi, Carla; Tumiati, Simone; Sverjensky, Dimitri; Pettke, Thomas; Ulmer, Peter; Poli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the dissolution of forsterite, enstatite and magnesite in graphite-saturated COH fluids, synthesized using a rocking piston cylinder apparatus at pressures from 1.0 to 2.1 GPa and temperatures from 700 to 1200 °C. Synthetic forsterite, enstatite, and nearly pure natural magnesite were used as starting materials. Redox conditions were buffered by Ni-NiO-H2O (ΔFMQ = - 0.21 to - 1.01), employing a double-capsule setting. Fluids, binary H2O-CO2 mixtures at the P, T, and fO2 conditions investigated, were generated from graphite, oxalic acid anhydrous (H2C2O4) and water. Their dissolved solute loads were analyzed through an improved version of the cryogenic technique, which takes into account the complexities associated with the presence of CO2-bearing fluids. The experimental data show that forsterite + enstatite solubility in H2O-CO2 fluids is higher compared to pure water, both in terms of dissolved silica ( mSiO2 = 1.24 mol/kgH2O versus mSiO2 = 0.22 mol/kgH2O at P = 1 GPa, T = 800 °C) and magnesia ( mMgO = 1.08 mol/kgH2O versus mMgO = 0.28 mol/kgH2O) probably due to the formation of organic C-Mg-Si complexes. Our experimental results show that at low temperature conditions, a graphite-saturated H2O-CO2 fluid interacting with a simplified model mantle composition, characterized by low MgO/SiO2 ratios, would lead to the formation of significant amounts of enstatite if solute concentrations are equal, while at higher temperatures these fluid, characterized by MgO/SiO2 ratios comparable with that of olivine, would be less effective in metasomatizing the surrounding rocks. However, the molality of COH fluids increases with pressure and temperature, and quintuplicates with respect to the carbon-free aqueous fluids. Therefore, the amount of fluid required to metasomatize the mantle decreases in the presence of carbon at high P- T conditions. COH fluids are thus effective carriers of C, Mg and Si in the mantle wedge up to the shallowest

  19. Water and deuterium content of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Francois

    1978-01-01

    The main objective of this research thesis which deals with meteorite study, is to develop an experimental technique to measure the hydrogen isotopic rate in the case of very low quantities of hydrogen, notably in samples in which water content is hundred or thousand times less than in reported experiments, in order to study mechanisms of alteration of chondrites. The author reports an attempt to reconcile obtained results for isotopic rates as well as for water contents with those of the main existing models of chondrite formation. He proposes a detailed description of isotopic exchange mechanisms at low temperature, and shows that this mechanism is not in disagreement with literature published on chondrites

  20. Fusion Bead Procedure for Nuclear Forensics Employing Synthetic Enstatite to Dissolve Uraniferous and Other Challenging Materials Prior to Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2017-06-06

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested, and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The novelty of the procedure is the production of glass beads using 9 parts high purity synthetic enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) as the glass former with 1 part of sample (sample mass ∼1.5 mg). The beads are rapidly prepared (∼10 min overall time) by fusing the blended mixture on an iridium strip resistance heater in an argon-purged chamber. Many elements can be measured in the glass bead, but the rare earth group in particular is a valuable series in nuclear forensic studies and is well-determined using LA-ICP-MS. The REE data obtained from the GRMs, presented as chondrite normalized patterns, are in very good agreement with consensus patterns. The UOCs have comparable patterns to solution ICP-MS methods and published data. The attractions of the current development are its conservation of sample, speed of preparation, and suitability for microbeam analysis, all of which are favorable for nuclear forensics practitioners and geochemists requiring REE patterns from scarce or valuable samples.

  1. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  2. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites Z. Martins (1), O. Botta (2), M. L. Fogel (3), M. A. Sephton (4), D. P. Glavin (2), J. S. Watson (5), J. P. Dworkin (2), A. W. Schwartz (6) and P. Ehrenfreund (1,6). (1) Astrobiology Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands, (2) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Greenbelt, MD, USA, (3) GL, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA, (4) Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London, UK, (5) Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK, (6) Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: z.martins@chem.leidenuniv.nl/Phone:+31715274440 Nucleobases are crucial compounds in terrestrial biochemistry, because they are key components of DNA and RNA. Carbonaceous meteorites have been analyzed for nucleobases by different research groups [1-5]. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed, leading to the controversial about the origin of these nucleobases. In order to establish the origin of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites and to assess the plausibility of their exogenous delivery to the early Earth, we have performed formic acid extraction of samples of the Murchison meteorite [6], followed by an extensive purification procedure, analysis and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results were qualitatively consistent with previous results [3, 4], but showed significant quantitative differences. Compound specific carbon isotope values were obtained, using gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A soil sample collected in the proximity of the Murchison meteorite fall site was subjected to the same extraction, purification and analysis procedure

  3. The Thermal Properties of CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Opeil, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physical properties of asteroid exploration targets are fundamental parameters for developing models, planning observations, mission operations, reducing operational risk, and interpreting mission results. Until we have returned samples, meteorites represent our "ground truth" for the geological material we expect to interact with, sample, and interpret on the surfaces of asteroids. The physical properties of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CI, C2, CM, and CR groups) are of particular interest because of their high resource potential. We have measured the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion of five CM carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, NWA 7309, Jbilet Winselwan) at low temperatures (5-300 K) to mimic the conditions in the asteroid belt. The mineralogy of these meteorites are dominated by abundant hydrous phyllosilicates, but also contain anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene found in chondrules. The thermal expansion measurements for all these CMs indicate a substantial increase in meteorite volume as temperature decreases from 230 - 210 K followed by linear contraction below 210 K. Such transitions were unexpected and are not typical for anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites or ordinary chondrites. Our thermal diffusivity results compare well with previous estimates for similar meteorites, where conductivity was derived from diffusivity measurements and modeled heat capacities; our new values are of a higher precision and cover a wider range of temperatures.

  4. The hydrogen and deuterium concentrations in chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.; Merlivat, L.

    1978-01-01

    Water and isotopic concentration of H 2 O + are reported. It shows a correlation between the water, the deuterium concentrations and the petrologic types of chondrites. The Chainpur meteorite has been divided into several mineralogical fractions and the results are reported. The results of Orgueil are also reported. The correlation shows that as the sulfate content increases, the water and deuterium contents decrease. The terrestrial contamination is discussed and possible deuterium variation models are presented

  5. Thermoluminescence of simulated interstellar matter after gamma-ray irradiation. Forsterite, enstatite and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Koike, C.; Okada, M.; Chihara, H.

    2002-08-01

    Interstellar matter is known to be strongly irradiated by cosmic radiation and several types of cosmic ray particles. Simulated interstellar matter, such as synthesized forsterite (Mg2SiO4), enstatite (MgSiO3) and magnesite (MgCO3), has been irradiated with 60Co gamma-rays in liquid nitrogen, and also irradiated with fast neutrons at 10 K and 70 K by making use of the low-temperature irradiation facility of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR-LTL. Maximum fast neutron dose is 1017nf /cm2). After irradiation, samples are stored in liquid nitrogen for several months to allow the decay of induced radioactivity. We measured the luminescence spectra of the gamma ray irradiated samples during warming to 370 K using a spectrophotometer. For the forsterite and magnesite, the spectra exhibit a rather intense peak at about 645-655 nm and 660 nm respectively, whereas luminescence scarcely appeared in the natural olivine sample. The spectra of forsterite is very similar to the ERE of the Red Rectangle.

  6. REE Partition Coefficients from Synthetic Diogenite-Like Enstatite and the Implications of Petrogenetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, C. S.; McKay, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Determining the petrogenesis of eucrites (basaltic achondrites) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites) and the possible links between the meteorite types was initiated 30 years ago by Mason. Since then, most investigators have worked on this question. A few contrasting theories have emerged, with the important distinction being whether or not there is a direct genetic link between eucrites and diogenites. One theory suggests that diogenites are cumulates resulting from the fractional crystallization of a parent magma with the eucrites crystallizing, from the residual magma after separation from the diogenite cumulates. Another model proposes that diogenites are cumulates formed from partial melts derived from a source region depleted by the prior generation of eucrite melts. It has also been proposed that the diogenites may not be directly linked to the eucrites and that they are cumulates derived from melts that are more orthopyroxene normative than the eucrites. This last theory has recently received more analytical and experimental support. One of the difficulties with petrogenetic modeling is that it requires appropriate partition coefficients for modeling because they are dependent on temperature, pressure, and composition. For this reason, we set out to determine minor- and trace-element partition coefficients for diogenite-like orthopyroxene. We have accomplished this task and now have enstatite/melt partition coefficients for Al, Cr, Ti, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb, and La.

  7. Selective Disparity of Ordinary Chondritic Precursors in Micrometeorite Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Fernandes, D.; Naik, A. K.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.

    2018-01-01

    All known extraterrestrial dust (micrometeoroids) entering the Earth’s atmosphere is anticipated to have a significant contribution from ordinary chondritic precursors, as seen in meteorites, but this is an apparent contradiction that needs to be addressed. Ordinary chondrites represent a minor contribution to the overall meteor influx compared to carbonaceous chondrites, which are largely dominated by CI and/or CM chondrites. However, the near-Earth asteroid population presents a scenario with sufficient scope for generation of dust-sized debris from ordinary chondritic sources. The bulk chemical composition of 3255 micrometeorites (MMs) collected from Antarctica and deep-sea sediments has shown Mg/Si largely dominated by carbonaceous chondrites, and less than 10% having ordinary chondritic precursors. The chemical ablation model is combined with different initial chondritic compositions (CI, CV, L, LL, H), and the results clearly indicate that high-density (≥2.8 g cm‑3) precursors, such as CV and ordinary chondrites in the size range 100–700 μm and zenith angle 0°–70°, ablate at much faster rates and lose their identity even before reaching the Earth’s surface and hence are under-represented in our collections. Moreover, their ability to survive as MMs remains grim for high-velocity micrometeoroids (>16 km s‑1). The elemental ratio for CV and ordinary chondrites are also similar to each other irrespective of the difference in the initial chemical composition. In conclusion, MMs belonging to ordinary chondritic precursors’ concentrations may not be insignificant in thermosphere, as they are found on Earth’s surface.

  8. Preliminary Compositional Comparisons of H-Chondrite Falls to Antarctic H-Chondrite Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.; Krot, A. N.; Rubin, A. E.

    1993-07-01

    In a series of papers [e.g., 1,2], Lipschutz and co-workers compared trace- element RNAA data from Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrites and concluded that the two populations have significantly different concentrations of several trace elements including Co, Se, and Sb. They interpreted their data as indicating that these Antarctic H chondrites form different populations than observed H falls and may have originated in separate parent bodies. Recent work by Sears and co-workers [e.g., 3] has shown that there seem to be distinct populations of Antarctic H chondrites, distinguishable on the bases of induced thermoluminescence (TL) peak temperature, metallographic cooling rate, and cosmic ray exposure age. They showed that a group of Antarctic H chondrites having abnormally high induced TL peak temperatures (>=190 degrees C) also has cosmic ray exposure ages Ma (mostly ~8 Ma) and fast metallographic cooling rates (~100 K/Ma). Another group having induced TL peak temperatures 20 Ma and slower cooling rates (~10-20 K/Ma). We studied 24 H4-6 chondrites from Victoria Land (including 12 previously analyzed by the Lipschutz group) by optical microscopy and electron microprobe. Many of the Antarctic H chondrites studied by Lipschutz and co- workers are unsuitable for proper compositional comparisons with H chondrite falls: Four are very weathered, five are extensively shocked, and two are extensively brecciated. Furthermore, at least five of the samples contain solar-wind gas (and hence are regolith breccias) [4]. These samples were rejected because of possible compositional modification by secondary processes. For our INAA study we chose a suite of relatively unweathered and unbrecciated Antarctic H chondrites (including nine from the Lipschutz set): ALHA 77294 (H5, S3); ALHA 79026 (H5, S3); ALHA 79039 (H5, S3); ALHA 80131 (H5, S3); ALHA 80132 (H5, S4); ALHA 81037 (H6, S3); EETA 79007 (H5, S4); LEW 85320 (H6, S4); LEW 85329 (H6, S3); RKPA 78002 (H5, S2); and RKPA

  9. R Raman Spectroscopy and Petrology of Antarctic CR Chondrites: Comparison with Other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yasutake, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, abundant original Fe,Ni-metal is preserved in chrondules, but the matrix is characterized by fine-grained magnetite with phyllosilicate. This combination of reduced Fe in chrodrules with oxidized Fe and phyllosilicate in the matrix has been attributed to aqueous alteration of matrix at relatively low temperatures.

  10. Do L chondrites come from the Gefion family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.

    2018-05-01

    Ordinary chondrites (H, L, and LL chondrites) are the most common type of meteorites comprising 80 per cent of the meteorites that fall on Earth. The source region of these meteorites in the main asteroid belt has been a basis of considerable debate in the small bodies community. L chondrites have been proposed to come from the Gefion asteroid family, based on dynamical models. We present results from our observational campaign to verify a link between the Gefion asteroid family and L chondrite meteorites. Near-infrared spectra of Gefion family asteroids (1839) Ragazza, (2373) Immo, (2386) Nikonov, (2521) Heidi, and (3860) Plovdiv were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Spectral band parameters including band centres and the band area ratio were measured from each spectrum and used to constrain the composition of these asteroids. Based on our results, we found that some members of the Gefion family have surface composition similar to that of H chondrites, primitive achondrites, and basaltic achondrites. No evidence was found for L chondrites among the Gefion family members in our small sample study. The diversity of compositional types observed in the Gefion asteroid family suggests that the original parent body might be partially differentiated or that the three asteroids with non-ordinary chondrite compositions might be interlopers.

  11. Insulin and Alzheimer disease: type 3 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Jagua Gualdrón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease is a neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system whose incidence will increase in next years. Recent investigations relate alzheimer with insulin signaling defects in neurons. Is alzheimer Disease a type 3 diabetes? In this communication write a brief article about evidences from this alzheimer‘s disease model.

  12. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  13. Type 3 Neovascularization Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Jihene; Miere, Alexandra; Souied, Eric H; Cohen, Salomon Y

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of type 3 neovascular lesion in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) complicated by macular edema. A 78-year-old man with a long follow-up for RP was referred for painless visual acuity decrease in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/125 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left. Fundus examination showed typical RP and macular edema in both eyes. In the right eye, spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a marked cystic macular edema associated with disruption of the Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex overlying a pigmentary epithelium detachment, with a vascular structure which appeared to originate from the deep capillary plexus and to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a high-flow vessel infiltrating the outer retinal layers in the deep capillary plexus segmentation, and a tuft-shaped, bright, high-flow network that seemed to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space in the outer retinal layer segmentation. This presentation was consistent with an early type 3 neovascular lesion in the right eye. Type 3 neovascularization may be considered a possible complication of RP.

  14. Type 3 Neovascularization Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihene Sayadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of type 3 neovascular lesion in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP complicated by macular edema. Case Report: A 78-year-old man with a long follow-up for RP was referred for painless visual acuity decrease in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/125 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left. Fundus examination showed typical RP and macular edema in both eyes. In the right eye, spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a marked cystic macular edema associated with disruption of the Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex overlying a pigmentary epithelium detachment, with a vascular structure which appeared to originate from the deep capillary plexus and to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a high-flow vessel infiltrating the outer retinal layers in the deep capillary plexus segmentation, and a tuft-shaped, bright, high-flow network that seemed to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space in the outer retinal layer segmentation. This presentation was consistent with an early type 3 neovascular lesion in the right eye. Conclusion: Type 3 neovascularization may be considered a possible complication of RP.

  15. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

  16. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  17. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  18. Spinel-Bearing, Al-Rich Chrondrules in the Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite NWA7402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Cato, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Several Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) have been discovered in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite NWA7402. Two of these three ARCs are spinel-bearing. Here we have characterized these unusual chondrules with respect to their mineralogy and bulk compositions. These objects will be targets for future O and Mg isotope analysis. NWA7402 is clearly unequilibrated, with wide ranges of olivine compositions in chondrules (Fo99-Fo70, excluding rims). Chromium-oxide contents in olivine, and Raman organic spectral parameters support the classification of this meteorite as petrologic type 3.1 [1]. NWA7402 is similar to, and could be paired with NWA5717, in that they both possess light and dark lithologies.

  19. Organic thermometry for chondritic parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Yabuta, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Araki, T.; Ade, H.; Dera, P.; Fogel, M.; Militzer, B.; Mysen, B. O.

    2008-07-01

    A unique spectroscopic feature has been identified in a study of twenty-five different samples of meteoritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) spanning multiple chemical classes, groups, and petrologic types, using carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The intensity of this feature, a 1s - σ* exciton, appears to provide a precise measure of parent body metamorphism. The intensity of this exciton is also shown to correlate well with a large negative paramagnetic shift observed through solid state 13C NMR. Experiments reveal that upon heating primitive IOM is transformed into material that is indistinguishable from that in thermally processed chondrites, including the development of the 1s - σ* exciton. A thermo-kinetic expression is derived from the experimental data that allows the intensity of the 1s - σ* exciton to be used to estimated the effective temperature integrated over time. A good correlation is observed between the intensity of the 1s - σ* exciton and previously published microRaman spectral data. These data provide a self-consistent organic derived temperature scale for the purpose of calibrating Raman based thermometric expressions.

  20. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  1. Paleomagnetic evidence for a partially differentiated H chondrite parent planetesimal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Scholl, A.; Getzin, B. L.; Abrahams, J. N. H.; Nimmo, F.

    2016-12-01

    The texture, composition and ages of chondrites have all been used to argue that the parent bodies of these meteorites did not undergo planetary differentiation. Without a core, these planetesimals could not have generated planetary magnetic fields, hence chondrites are predicted to be unmagnetized. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying synchrotron x-ray microscopy to the metallic melt veins in the metamorphosed H chondrite breccia Portales Valley. We find that tetrataenite nanostructures in these veins are uniformly magnetized, suggesting that the H chondrite parent body generated a stable, 10 µT ancient field. We also performed alternating field (AF) demagnetization on bulk silicate-rich portions of Portales Valley, finding that both the large grain size of the metal in these subsamples and the presence of tetrataenite hinder the reliable interpretation of these measurements. Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and the metallographic cooling rate, we propose that this field inferred from x-ray microscopy was generated 100 Myr after solar system formation and lasted >5 Myr. These properties are consistent with a dynamo field generated by core solidification, implying that the H chondrite parent body was partially differentiated. This conclusion is supported by our analyses of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale, which show that H chondrite magnetization is unlikely to be a relic signature of early nebular or solar wind fields (Getzin et al., this meeting; Oran et al., this meeting). We propose that partial differentiation could result form prolonged accretion over millions of years, possibly in two stages. In this scenario, the earliest accreted material melted from the radioactive decay of abundant 26Al, forming a core and rocky achondritic mantle, while the later accreted material was less metamorphosed, forming an undifferentiated crust. We demonstrate that, with the inclusion of an insulating regolith, the thermal evolution of such a body is consistent with the measured

  2. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  3. Ordinary Chondrites Viewed as Reassembled 'Splash Ejecta'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, I. S.

    1995-09-01

    A case has already been made favouring chondrites as re-assembled "splash ejecta" following low velocity collisions between molten planetesimals[1]. Here I briefly review this hypothesis, then develop further arguments in its support. The scenario envisaged may be summarized as follows. Planetesimals grew to radii greater than 30 km in less than 1 Ma after the formation of CAIs, and they were heated rapidly by the decay of 26Al. By 2 Ma each planetesimal had a molten interior insulated by a cool, dusty carapace. Low velocity collisions at this stage released enormous, turbulent, expanding clouds of incandescent spray mixed with dust and solid grains from the carapace. The cloud constituted a rather special, transient nebular environment; as it cooled the melt droplets became chondrules. Much of the cloud's contents re-assembled under gravity onto the surface of the hot, residual planetesimal and the accumulated debris became re-heated and metamorphosed. Collisions recurred over the few million years that relative velocities remained low and planetesimals remained molten. Thus, the cumulative debris contained many recycled and broken chondrules. This scenario is apparently reconcilable with chondrule cooling rates, the preservation of clasts of "planetary" rock in chondrites, the retention of volatiles in chondrules, the preservation of solar chemistry and more than a dozen other features. Is it reasonable to claim that 30 km radius bodies existed by 1 Ma, and were substantially molten by 2 Ma? Cameron[2] argued that CAIs were saved from drifting into the sun by their incorporation, soon after formation, into planetesimals whose mass was sufficient to hold them in orbits, decoupled from the drag of nebular gas. Wetherill's models [3] show that many bodies >100 km radius may have formed on a timescale of 10^5 years. In these terms, the proposed 30 km by 1 Ma is quite conservative. Regarding 26Al heating, the remarkably constant initial ratio of 26Al/27Al (5 x 10

  4. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  5. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture. 104 refs

  6. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1986-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregrates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials

  7. Long-lived magnetism on chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Bates, Helena C.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Russell, Sara S.; Genge, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We present evidence for both early- and late-stage magnetic activity on the CV and L/LL parent bodies respectively from chondrules in Vigarano and Bjurböle. Using micro-CT scans to re-orientate chondrules to their in-situ positions, we present a new micron-scale protocol for the paleomagnetic conglomerate test. The paleomagnetic conglomerate test determines at 95% confidence, whether clasts within a conglomerate were magnetized before or after agglomeration, i.e., for a chondritic meteorite whether the chondrules carry a pre- or post-accretionary remanent magnetization. We found both meteorites passed the conglomerate test, i.e., the chondrules had randomly orientated magnetizations. Vigarano's heterogeneous magnetization is likely of shock origin, due to the 10 to 20 GPa impacts that brecciated its precursor material on the parent body and transported it to re-accrete as the Vigarano breccia. The magnetization was likely acquired during the break-up of the original body, indicating a CV parent body dynamo was active ∼9 Ma after Solar System formation. Bjurböle's magnetization is due to tetrataenite, which transformed from taenite as the parent body cooled to below 320 °C, when an ambient magnetic field imparted a remanence. We argue either the high intrinsic anisotropy of tetrataenite or brecciation on the parent body manifests as a randomly orientated distribution, and a L/LL parent body dynamo must have been active at least 80 to 140 Ma after peak metamorphism. Primitive chondrites did not originate from entirely primitive, never molten and/or differentiated parent bodies. Primitive chondrite parent bodies consisted of a differentiated interior sustaining a long-lived magnetic dynamo, encrusted by a layer of incrementally accreted primitive meteoritic material. The different ages of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies might indicate a general difference between carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies, and/or formation location in the

  8. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10 5 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  9. Were chondrites magnetized by the early solar wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Rona; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cohen, Ofer

    2018-06-01

    Chondritic meteorites have been traditionally thought to be samples of undifferentiated bodies that never experienced large-scale melting. This view has been challenged by the existence of post-accretional, unidirectional natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in CV carbonaceous chondrites. The relatively young inferred NRM age [∼10 million years (My) after solar system formation] and long duration of NRM acquisition (1-106 y) have been interpreted as evidence that the magnetizing field was that of a core dynamo within the CV parent body. This would imply that CV chondrites represent the primitive crust of a partially differentiated body. However, an alternative hypothesis is that the NRM was imparted by the early solar wind. Here we demonstrate that the solar wind scenario is unlikely due to three main factors: 1) the magnitude of the early solar wind magnetic field is estimated to be limits field amplification due to pile-up of the solar wind to less than a factor of 3.5 times that of the instantaneous solar wind field, and 3) the solar wind field likely changed over timescales orders of magnitude shorter than the timescale of NRM acquisition. Using analytical arguments, numerical simulations and astronomical observations of the present-day solar wind and magnetic fields of young stars, we show that the maximum mean field the ancient solar wind could have imparted on an undifferentiated CV parent body is <3.5 nT, which is 3-4 and 3 orders of magnitude weaker than the paleointensities recorded by the CV chondrites Allende and Kaba, respectively. Therefore, the solar wind is highly unlikely to be the source of the NRM in CV chondrites. Nevertheless, future high sensitivity paleomagnetic studies of rapidly-cooled meteorites with high magnetic recording fidelity could potentially trace the evolution of the solar wind field in time.

  10. 27 CFR 555.209 - Construction of type 3 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.209 Section 555.209 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 3 magazines. A type 3 magazine is a “day-box” or other portable magazine. It must be fire-resistant, weather-resistant, and theft-resistant. A type 3 magazine is to be constructed of not less than...

  11. A Case for Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Chromium Isotopic Composition of Almahata Sitta Stone 91A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NC)-like, with minimal mixing attributed to a gap opened in the protoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests there should be large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids, an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-e54Cr isotope systematics. The Almahata Sitta (AhS) meteorite provides a unique opportunity to test the Grand Tack model. The meteorite fell to Earth in October 2008 and has been linked to the asteroid 2008 TC3 which was discovered just prior to the fall of the AhS stones. The AhS meteorite is composed of up to 700 individual pieces with approx.140 of those pieces having some geochemical and/or petrologic studies. Almahata Sitta is an anomalous polymict ureilite with other meteorite components, including enstatite, ordinary, and carbonaceous chondrites with an approximate abundance of 70% ureilites and 30% chondrites. This observation has lead to the suggestion that TC3 2008 was a loosely aggregated rubble pile-like asteroid with the non-ureilite sample clasts within the rubble-pile. Due to the loosely-aggregated nature of AhS, the object disintegrated during atmospheric entry resulting in the weakly held clasts falling predominantly as individual stones in the AhS collection area. However, recent work has identified one sample of AhS, sample 91A, which may represent two different lithologies coexisting within a single stone. The predominate lithology type in 91A appears to be that of a C2 chondrite based on mineralogy but also contains olivine, pyroxene, and albite that have ureilite-like compositions. Previous Cr isotope investigations into AhS stones are sparse and what data is available show nearly uniform isotopic composition similar to that of typical ureilites with negative e54Cr values.

  12. The System Forsterite-Diopside-Enstatite up to 70 kbar and its Significance to the Genesis of Komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Liquidus phase relations in the system forsterite-diopside-enstatite has been made at 70 kbar under anhydrous conditions using a Walker-type multi-anvil high pressure apparatus. Positions of the pseudoeutectic/ invariant, minimum points and amount of solid solutions of appearing phases are summarized in table 1. Comparison of these phase relations with those conducted by previous investigators at lower pressures and temperatures shows that the fosterite-pyroxene liquidus boundary shifts toward forsterite and away from the diopside apex with increasing pressure. Microprobe analyses indicate that the maximum amount of MgSiO3 that can be incorporated in diopside increases with pressure, and at the solidus (70 kbar, 2010°C), it is about 82%. On the basis of EPMA analyses of coexisting liquid and crystalline phases, three-phase triangles have been constructed. It is observed that at 70 kbar, the early partial melt generated from a model peridotite does not precipitate orthopyroxene. If such a melt instead of crystallizing in-situ, ascend to the surface, then the polybaric-polythermal crystallization path should never intersect the liquidus phase field of orthopyroxene, enstatitess may then appear in the solidus as an exsolution product. Our calculation shows that at 31% partial melting of a model mantle, orthopyroxene should appear as a liquidus phase. With further increase in the degree of partial melting (42-60%), proportion of orthopyroxene crystallizing from the melt progressively increases. With reference to the above discussion we propose that the Gorgona komatiites which are primarily orthopyroxene-deficient komatiites, are an outcome of low degree of partial melting, whereas the orthopyroxene-bearing Commondale komatiites of the southern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, are the outcome of a larger degree of partial melting, both generated from melting of an anhydrous mantle.

  13. Beardsley vs. Faith: Physical diversity among H5 chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbik, M.; Lang, B.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructure and some physico-mechanical properties of Beardsley and Faith, both H5 chondrites, were compared. Although the bulk sample porosities are respectively 9.1% and 14.5%, suggesting lower consolidation of Faith, the effective porosities are 5.63% and 1.79% - much higher for Beardsley. The material of Faith, characterized by vugs, vesicles and closed channels - abundant but all sized below 0.01 μm - is of higher strength than that of Beardsley, where joints, fissures, open channels and microcracks are sized from 0.1 to 10 μm. The higher elastic properties of Faith are shown by the velocity of the compressional wave of 6.66 km s -1 against that of 5.12 km s -1 for Beardsley. An example of physical diversity among chondrites to the same chemical-petrologic type is therefore demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Laser Ablation Experiments on the Tamdakht H5 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Stern, Eric

    2017-01-01

    High-powered lasers were used to induce ablation and to form fusion crusts in the lab on Tamdakht H5 chondrites and basalt. These ground tests were undertaken to improve our understanding, and ultimately improve our abilty to model and predict, meteoroid ablation during atmospheric entry. The infrared fiber laser at the LHMEL facilty, operated in the continuous wave (i.e. non-pulsed) mode, provided radiation surface heat flux at levels similar to meteor entry for these tests. Results are presented from the first round of testing on samples of Tamdakht H5 ordinary chondrite which were ex-posed to entry-relevant heating rates between 2 and 10 kWcm2.

  15. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  16. Shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites: impact modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreau, J.; Kohout, Tomáš; Wünnemann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, Special volume (2016), s. 285-285 ISSN 0367-5211. [ Nordic Geological Winter Meeting /32./. 13.01.2016-15.01.2016, Helsinki] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : impact, shock * reflectance spectra * chondrite * meteorite * Chelyabinsk Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Special_Volume_1_2016/BGSF-NGWM2016_Abstract_Volume.pdf

  17. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  18. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  19. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J

    1998-04-17

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  20. Synchrotron Radiation XRD Analysis of Indialite in Y-82094 Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Sawa, N.; Kimura, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Y-82094 is an ungrouped type 3.2 carbonaceous chondrite, with abundant chondrules making 78 vol.% of the rock. Among these chondrules, an unusual porphyritic Al-rich magnesian chondrule is reported that consists of a cordierite-like phase, Al-rich orthopyroxene, cristobalite, and spinel surrounded by an anorthitic mesostasis. The reported chemical formula of the cordierite-like phase is Na(0.19)Mg(1.95)Fe(0.02)Al(3.66)Si(5.19)O18, which is close to stoichiometric cordierite (Mg2Al3[AlSi5O18]). Although cordierite can be present in Al-rich chondrules, it has a high temperature polymorph (indialite) and it is therefore necessary to determine whether it is cordierite or indialite in order to better constrain its formation conditions. In this abstract we report on our synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) study of the cordierite-like phase in Y-82094.

  1. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  2. Redox effects in ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of reflectance spectra to mean ferrous iron content and olivine and pyroxene proportion enhancements in the course of metamorphic oxidation is presently used to examine whether metamorphically-induced ranges in mineralogy, and corresponding spectral parameters, may explain the observed variations in S-asteroid rotational spectra. The predicted spectral variations within any one chondrite class are, however, insufficient to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra, and predicted spectral-range slopes have a sign opposite to the rotational measurements. Metamorphic oxidation is found unable to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra.

  3. Textural variability of ordinary chondrite chondrules: Implications of their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovieva, N. G.; Mitreikina, O. B.; Granovsky, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe examination of the Raguli H3-4, Saratov L3, and Fucbin L5-6 ordinary chondrites and the analysis of preexisted data on other meteorites have shown that the variety of textural types of chondrules depends on the chemical composition of the chondrules. The comparison of bulk-rock chemistries of the chondrules by major components demonstrates that they apparently fall, like basic-ultrabasic rock, into groups of dunitic and pyroxenitic composition. This separation is further validated by the character of zoning in chondrules of the intermediate, peridotitic type. The effect is vividly demonstrated by the 'chondrule-in-chondrule' structure.

  4. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical electron microscope study is presented on carbonaceous material in two chondritic porous aggregates, W7029* A and W7010* A2, from the Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection. The finding of well-ordered carbon-2H (lonsdaleite) in the two aggregates suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may be preserved in these materials. This carbon is a metastable phase resulting from hydrous pyrolysis below 300-350 0 C and may be a precursor to poorly graphitized carbons in primitive extra terrestrial materials. (UK)

  5. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  6. Esophageal contractions in type 3 achalasia esophagus: simultaneous or peristaltic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Patel, Nirali; Ledgerwood-Lee, Melissa; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-05-01

    Absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter are the hallmarks of achalasia esophagus. Based on the pressurization patterns, achalasia has been subdivided into three subtypes. The goal of our study was to evaluate the esophageal contraction pattern and bolus clearance in type 3 achalasia esophagus. High-resolution manometry (HRM) recordings of all patients diagnosed with achalasia esophagus in our center between the years 2011 and 2013 were reviewed. Recordings of 36 patients with type 3 achalasia were analyzed for the characteristics of swallow-induced "simultaneous esophageal contraction." The HRM impedance recordings of 14 additional patients with type 3 achalasia were analyzed for bolus clearance from the impedance recording. Finally, the HRM impedance along with intraluminal ultrasound imaging was conducted in six patients to further characterize the simultaneous esophageal contractions. Among 187 achalasia patients, 30 were type 1, 121 type 2, and 36 type 3. A total of 434 swallows evaluated in type 3 achalasia patients revealed that 95% of the swallow-induced contractions met criteria for simultaneous esophageal contraction, based on the onset of contraction. Interestingly, the peak and termination of the majority of simultaneous esophageal contractions were sequential. The HRM impedance revealed that 94% of the "simultaneous contractions" were associated with complete bolus clearance. Ultrasound image analysis revealed that baseline muscle thickness of patients in type 3 achalasia is larger than normal but the pattern of axial shortening is similar to that in normal subjects. The majority of esophageal contractions in type 3 achalasia are not true simultaneous contractions because the peak and termination of contraction are sequential and they are associated with complete bolus clearance.

  7. Radiographic findings in type 3 b Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.C.; Damaska, B.M.; Tsokos, M.; Kreps, C.; Brady, R.O.; Barton, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the radiographic findings in type 3 b Gaucher disease, a chronic neuronopathic form of the illness with severe systemic manifestations. Between 1980 and 1985 17 consecutive patients were evaluated with radiography of the chest, long bones and spine, CT of the head and chest, abdominal sonography, and MRI of the head, abdomen and spine. Clinical manifestations were severe, and led to death from hepatic, pulmonary or cardiac failure in nine patients. Type 3 b Gaucher disease shares the same spectrum of radiographic findings observed in type 1 disease, but the systemic manifestations are more severe. Pulmonary infiltrates, thoracic lymph node enlargement, vertebral compression fractures and osteonecrosis of the long bones occur much more frequently in patients with type 3 b disease. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. CM and CO chondrites: A common parent body or asteroidal neighbors? Insights from chondrule silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Davidson, Jemma

    2017-10-01

    By investigating the petrology and chemical composition of type II (FeO-rich) chondrules in the Mighei-like carbonaceous (CM) chondrites we constrain their thermal histories and relationship to the Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites. We identified FeO-rich relict grains in type II chondrules by their Fe/Mn ratios; their presence indicates chondrule recycling among type II chondrules. The majority of relict grains in type II chondrules are FeO-poor olivine grains. Consistent with previous studies, chemical similarities between CM and CO chondrite chondrules indicate that they had similar formation conditions and that their parent bodies probably formed in a common region within the protoplanetary disk. However, important differences such as mean chondrule size and the lower abundance of FeO-poor relicts in CM chondrite type II chondrules than in CO chondrites suggest CM and CO chondrules did not form together and they likely originate from distinct parent asteroids. Despite being aqueously altered, many CM chondrites contain pre-accretionary anhydrous minerals (i.e., olivine) that are among the least thermally metamorphosed materials in chondrites according to the Cr2O3 content of their ferroan olivine. The presence of these minimally altered pre-accretionary chondrule silicates suggests that samples to be returned from aqueously altered asteroids by the Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return missions, even highly hydrated, may contain silicates that can provide information about the pre-accretionary histories and conditions of asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, respectively.

  9. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  10. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  11. The Mukundpura meteorite, a new fall of CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.

    2018-02-01

    Mukundpura is a new CM chondrite fell near Jaipur, Rajasthan, India on June 6, 2017 at 5:15 IST. The fall was observed by local villager. According to eyewitness, the meteorite was fragmented into several pieces once the object hit the ground. Based on petrography, mineralogy and bulk composition, Mukundpura is classified as CM2 chondrite. The chondrules are mainly similar to type I (Olivine: Fo99). Olivines are often found associated with pyroxene (Wo10-35En62-87Fs2-7) phenocryst. However, occurrences of forsteritic and fayalitic olivine (Fa58-71) as isolated mineral clast in matrix are not uncommon. Other types of chondrules include porphyritic pyroxene (En86Fs14) and barred olivine (Fa32.7±0.3) clast. Chondrules are commonly rimmed by fine-grained accretionary dust mantles. Phyllosilicates are the most dominant secondary mineral in matrix and largely associated with poorly characterised phases (PCP). FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 of PCP are 2.7 and 0.4 respectively. Other phases in matrix generally include calcite (pure CaCO3), Fe-Ni metal and sulphides. Spinel and perovskite occur occasionally as inclusions. The spherical or elliptical shaped metals (within chondrule or in isolated grains) are low-Ni type (kamacite <7.5 wt%) and resembles the solar Ni/Co ratio. However, Ni content in metal rarely exceeds 8.5 wt% (up to 23 wt%, taenite). Pyrrhotite (Fe ∼62 wt%; S ∼38 wt%) and pentlandite (Fe ∼31-33 wt%, Ni ∼28-32 wt%, S ∼33 wt%)) are the common sulphides occur as isolated grains within the matrix, however, the former is the most dominant. The bulk chemical composition of Mukundpura is largely similar to other CM type chondrite (e.g. Paris CM). Based on petrography, we infer a modest aqueous alteration stage for Mukundpura while the effect of thermal metamorphism was negligible.

  12. The early solar system abundance of 244Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10 9 years ago, the atomic ratio of 244 Pu/ 238 U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of 244 Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs

  13. The early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10/sup 9/ years ago, the atomic ratio of /sup 244/Pu//sup 238/U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith Revealed from the Jbilet Winselwan CM Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Le, Loan; Kring, David; Cato, Michael; Fagan, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    C-class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent. One particularly important example appears to be asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of the Hayabusa 2 mission, although most spectra of Ryugu are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C-class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to ex-plain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites, but has rarely been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites.

  15. The saccadic and neurological deficits in type 3 Gaucher disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Benko

    Full Text Available Our objective was to characterize the saccadic eye movements in patients with type 3 Gaucher disease (chronic neuronopathic in relationship to neurological and neurophysiological abnormalities. For approximately 4 years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 15 patients with Gaucher type 3, ages 8-28 years, by measuring saccadic eye movements using the scleral search coil method. We found that patients with type 3 Gaucher disease had a significantly higher regression slope of duration vs amplitude and peak duration vs amplitude compared to healthy controls for both horizontal and vertical saccades. Saccadic latency was significantly increased for horizontal saccades only. Downward saccades were more affected than upward saccades. Saccade abnormalities increased over time in some patients reflecting the slowly progressive nature of the disease. Phase plane plots showed individually characteristic patterns of abnormal saccade trajectories. Oculo-manual dexterity scores on the Purdue Pegboard test were low in virtually all patients, even in those with normal cognitive function. Vertical saccade peak duration vs amplitude slope significantly correlated with IQ and with the performance on the Purdue Pegboard but not with the brainstem and somatosensory evoked potentials. We conclude that, in patients with Gaucher disease type 3, saccadic eye movements and oculo-manual dexterity are representative neurological functions for longitudinal studies and can probably be used as endpoints for therapeutic clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00001289.

  16. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  17. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Recently Fallen Chondrites Mihonoseki and Tahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, M.; Honda, M.; Yabuki, S.; Takahashi, K.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: The chondrite Mihonoseki, L6, 6.38 kg, fell on December 10, 1992 [1]. The other chondrite, Tahara, fell on March 26, 1991, on the deck of car- carrier ship, M.S. Century-Highway No.1 of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd., anchored at T-3 berth of Toyota Pier, at Toyohashi harbor, in Tahara-Center, Toyota Motor Corp., Tahara-machi, Atsumi-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan. Although the total mass is estimated to be more than 5 kg, only several fragments were recovered by crews. In fact, this was recognized by the event of Mihonoseki. Tahara was classified as H5 [2]. Gamma-Ray Counting: With whole mass of Mihonoseki, nondestructive gamma-ray countings started on December 15, 1992, using a pure Ge detector (ORTEC), 45 mm x 39 mm, horizontal type. Data collections were performed every day in the beginning and later about every week through February 3, 1993. A sample chamber was shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 6-cm-thick iron, and 0.5-cm-thick plastic plates. For Tahara, another set (Canberra), 44 mm x 42 mm, coaxial type, was used. The 420-g fragment was mounted in the sample chamber shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 2-cm-thick iron, 2-cm-thick copper, and 2-cm-thick plastic plates. The counting started in January 1993. The counting efficiencies for gamma rays as a function of energy, ranging between 122 keV (57Co) and 1809 keV (26Al), have been determined using three different standards. A mixed standard solution of nine-species gamma-ray emitters, QCY-44, reference time 12:00 GMT on February 1, 1993, was supplied from Amersham, England. The solution was dropped onto (1) chips of Al-foil, (2) chips of filter paper, or (3) olivine sand. Those standards were mixed thoroughly with mock materials, fine and coarse olivine sand and iron powder, and reagent KCl, standard for 40K, then filled into mock shells of Mihonoseki and Tahara, which were made of hard plastic and aluminum foil with epoxy resin, respectively. For Tahara, mocks with all three types of standards were examined for

  18. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  19. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  20. Comparison of FTIR Spectra of Bulk and Acid Residual Organic Matter in Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Cody, G. D.

    2013-09-01

    We compared infrared spectra of bulk meteorites and IOM. The CH_2/CH_3 ratios show some difference between bulk samples and IOM, but there is no systematic correlation with chondrite groups or petrologic type.

  1. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Cosca, Michael A.; Morgan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340–4380 Ma (or 4.34–4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  2. Chemical and Isotopic Diversity of Organic Particles in Chondrites: Parent Body vs. Nebular Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM), the main organic constituent in chondrites, has been extensively studied after HF/HCl isolation techniques. Bulk isotopic compositions and elemental ratios show variations between chondrite groups, whereas they are quite homogeneous within each class [1]. Recent isotopic measurements by ion probes have revealed that IOM is heterogeneous at the sub-micron scale [2,3]. Does this heterogeneity reflect parent body evolution or reactions in the gas...

  3. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  4. Advantages and Challenges of a Type-3 PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    electronics and power systems, which are focused on in this paper, the PLLs typically employ a proportional-integral controller as the loop filter, resulting in a type-2 control system (a control system of type-N has N poles at the origin in its open-loop transfer function). Recently, some attempts have been...... made to design type-3 PLLs, either by employing a specific second-order controller as the loop filter, or by implementing two parallel tracking paths for the PLL. For this type of PLLs, however, the advantages and limitations are not clear at all, as the results reported in different literature...... are contradictory, and there is no detailed knowledge about their stability and dynamic characteristics. In this paper, different approaches to realize a type-3 PLL are examined first. Then, a detailed study of dynamics and analysis of stability, followed by comprehensive parameters design guidelines for a typical...

  5. Clinical Aspects of Type 3 Long-QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Arthur A M; Moss, Arthur J; Kaufman, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Risk stratification in patients with type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) by clinical and genetic characteristics and effectiveness of ß-blocker therapy have not been studied previously in a large LQT3 population. METHODS: -The study population included 406 LQT3 patients with 51 different......-blocker therapy reduces this risk in females, but efficacy in males could not be conclusively determined due to low number of events....

  6. Behaviour of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Zatsepina, O. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Hong, H. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The possible role of gas hydrates as a potential energy resource was discussed with particular reference to methods for estimating the rate of gas production from hydrate reservoirs under different operating conditions. This paper presented several numerical simulations studies of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs in 1-D and 2-D geometries. Type 3 reservoirs include gas production from hydrate-reservoirs that lie totally within the hydrate stability zone and are sandwiched by impermeable layers on top and bottom. The purpose of this study was to better understand hydrate decomposition by depressurization. The study questioned whether 1-D modeling of type 3 hydrate reservoirs is a reasonable approximation. It also determined whether gas rate increases or decreases with time. The important reservoir characteristics for determining the rate of gas production were identified. Last, the study determined how competition between fluid and heat flow affects hydrate decomposition. This paper also described the relation and interaction between the heat and fluid flow mechanisms in depressurization of type 3 hydrate reservoirs. All results of 1-D and 2-D numerical simulation and analyses were generated using the STARS simulator. It was shown that the rate of gas production depends on the initial pressure/temperature conditions and permeability of the hydrate bearing formation. A high peak rate may be achieved under favourable conditions, but this peak rate is obtained after an initial period where the rate of gas production increases with time. The heat transfer in the direction perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow is significant, requiring 2D modeling. The hydraulic diffusivity is low because of the low permeability of hydrate-bearing formations. This could result in competition between heat and fluid flow, thereby influencing the behaviour of decomposition. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  8. Silurian Micrometeorite Flux: The Demise of the Mid-Ordovician L-Chondrite Reign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Schmitz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's sedimentary record holds information about the micrometeorite flux through time, reflecting the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Around 466 Ma ago in the mid-Ordovician period the L-chondrite parent body breakup (LCPB) took place in the main asteroid belt causing a massive increase, up to two orders of magnitude, in the flux of meteorites to Earth (Schmitz, 2013). What did the meteorite flux look like after the breakup event? And when in time can we see a decrease in the fraction of L-chondritic micrometeorites? We dissolved in acids condensed, marine limestone representing the mid-Ordovician and the late Silurian about 0.5 and 40 Ma, respectively after the LCPB, and searched the residues for spinel grains from equilibrated ordinary chondrites (EC). We used 102 kg from the mid-Ordovician Komstad Limestone Formation, Killeröd quarry in Sweden, and 321 kg from the Silurian Kok Formation, Cellon section in Austria. Elemental analyses of the spinel grains were used to link the grains to different types of meteorites. In the large grain size fraction (63-355 µm) there are 4.5 EC grains/kg of rock in the mid-Ordovician sample and only 0.03 EC grains/kg in the Silurian sample. Because the two formations formed at about the same rate (a few mm per kyr) the results represent strong evidence for a major tailing off in the L-chondritic meteorite contribution by the late Silurian. The EC grains have been divided into the H, L, and LL groups based on the TiO2 content. The results show that the fraction of L chondrites compared to H and LL chondrites had declined significantly by the late Silurian. In the study of Heck et al. (2016) it was shown that ≥99% of the ordinary chondritic micrometeorites were L chondrites right after the LCPB. Our data indicate that the L-chondrite fraction had decreased to 60% by the Silurian, with the H and LL chondrites making up 30% and 10% respectively of the flux.

  9. Modeling And Position Control Of Scara Type 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saygamp305n Ogulmuamp351

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLABSimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.

  10. Enstatite, Mg2Si2O6: A neutron diffraction refinement of the crystal structure and a rigid-body analysis of the thermal vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.; Schomaker, V.; McMullan, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic enstatite, Mg 2 Si 2 O 6 , is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with eight formula units per cell and lattice parameters a = 18.235(3), b = 8.818(1), c = 5.179(1) A at 23 0 C. A least-squares structure refinement based on 1790 neutron intensity data converged with an agreement factor R(F 2 ) = 0.032, yielding Mg-O and Si-O bond lengths with standard deviations of 0.0007 and 0.0008 A, respectively. The variations observed in the Si-O bond lengths within the silicate tetrahedra A and B are caused by the differences in primary coordination of the oxygen atoms and the proximity of the magnesium ions to the silicon atoms. The latter effect is most pronounced for the bridging bonds of tetrahedron. A. The smallest O-Si-O angle is the result of edge-sharing by the Mg(2) octahedron and the A tetrahedron. An analysis of rigid-body thermal vibrations of the two crystallographically independent [SiO 4 ] tetrahedra indicates considerable librational motion, leading to a thermal correction of apparent Si-O bond lengths as large as +0.002 A at room temperature. (orig.)

  11. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  12. The radiation shielding potential of CI and CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel T.

    2017-03-01

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) pose a serious limit on the duration of deep space human missions. A shield composed of a bulk mass of material in which the incident particles deposit their energy is the simplest way to attenuate the radiation. The cost of bringing the sufficient mass from the Earth's surface is prohibitive. The shielding properties of asteroidal material, which is readily available in space, are investigated. Solution of Bethe's equation is implemented for incident protons and the application in composite materials and the significance of various correction terms are discussed; the density correction is implemented. The solution is benchmarked and shows good agreement with the results in literature which implement more correction terms within the energy ranges considered. The shielding properties of CI and CM asteroidal taxonomy groups and major asteroidal minerals are presented in terms of stopping force. The results show that CI and CM chondrites have better stopping properties than Aluminium. Beneficiation is discussed and is shown to have a significant effect on the stopping power.

  13. [Type 3 Gaucher disease, also an adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, A; Chepy, A; Detonellaere, C; Pascal, L; Gallois, P; Tran, T-A-C; Caillaud, C; Hatron, P-Y; Rose, C

    2018-03-30

    Gaucher disease is a genetic lysosomal storage disorder due to a glucocerebrosidase deficiency. Type 3, including neurological impairment, may have a specific phenotype in the context of the D409H mutation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy by imiglucerase was followed by rapid clinical and biological improvement. However, communication difficulties, which were initially attributed to the language barrier, revealed neurological impairment. After complementary assessment, the diagnosis of type 3 Gaucher disease was suspected. Gene analysis of the glucocerebrosidase showed a homozygous D409H mutation. This mutation results in calcified heart valves, corneal opacities, alteration of oculomotricity and hydrocephalus. The mild manifestation at onset and the late neurological involvement in the medical history make the diagnosis more difficult. This particular clinical phenotype deserves to be known in adult medicine departments. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  15. Collisional erosion and the non-chondritic composition of the terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh St C; Palme, Herbert

    2008-11-28

    The compositional variations among the chondrites inform us about cosmochemical fractionation processes during condensation and aggregation of solid matter from the solar nebula. These fractionations include: (i) variable Mg-Si-RLE ratios (RLE: refractory lithophile element), (ii) depletions in elements more volatile than Mg, (iii) a cosmochemical metal-silicate fractionation, and (iv) variations in oxidation state. Moon- to Mars-sized planetary bodies, formed by rapid accretion of chondrite-like planetesimals in local feeding zones within 106 years, may exhibit some of these chemical variations. However, the next stage of planetary accretion is the growth of the terrestrial planets from approximately 102 embryos sourced across wide heliocentric distances, involving energetic collisions, in which material may be lost from a growing planet as well as gained. While this may result in averaging out of the 'chondritic' fractionations, it introduces two non-chondritic chemical fractionation processes: post-nebular volatilization and preferential collisional erosion. In the latter, geochemically enriched crust formed previously is preferentially lost. That post-nebular volatilization was widespread is demonstrated by the non-chondritic Mn/Na ratio in all the small, differentiated, rocky bodies for which we have basaltic samples, including the Moon and Mars. The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) has chondritic Mn/Na, but shows several other compositional features in its pattern of depletion of volatile elements suggestive of non-chondritic fractionation. The whole-Earth Fe/Mg ratio is 2.1+/-0.1, significantly greater than the solar ratio of 1.9+/-0.1, implying net collisional erosion of approximately 10 per cent silicate relative to metal during the Earth's accretion. If this collisional erosion preferentially removed differentiated crust, the assumption of chondritic ratios among all RLEs in the BSE would not be valid, with the BSE depleted in elements according to their

  16. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.

  17. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Improved exposure ages are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 exposure ages were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The exposure age distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.

  18. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite: A transmission electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.; Buseck, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite (CC) is less altered than the CI and CM chondrites and so provides a view of the mineralogy and textures resulting from the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of CCs. Matrix olivine in Lance has been partly altered to fine-grained, Fe-bearing serpentine and poorly crystalline Fe 3+ oxide, a process that required both hydration and oxidation. Serpentine occurs as discrete packets separated from the olivine surfaces by the Fe 3+ oxide. The Fe released during the dissolution of olivine was partly incorporated into the serpentine; the remainder was oxidized to form Fe 3+ oxide. Matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance matrix contain channels along their [100] and [001] directions. The formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. The alteration was pervasive but incomplete, suggesting a limited availability of fluid. A brief study of two other CO chondrites, Kainsaz and Warrenton, shows that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe 3+ oxide between olivine grains. Prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite. The alteration assemblage in Lance is only slightly different from that in Mokoia and essentially the same as that in C3 xenoliths from Murchison. Alteration products in Lance show greater similarities to CI than to CM chondrites

  19. Oral and dental findings of griscelli syndrome type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Marti Akgun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by variable immunodeficiency, partial albinism, abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes, pigmentary dilution of the skin, and shiny silver-gray hair. GS has three types, with the first and second types caused by mutations in two genes being located at band 15q21: RAB27A and MYO5A. The expression of the third form of GS is restricted to the characteristic hypopigmentation of GS, and results from mutation in the gene that encodes melanophilin MLPH. It has also been shown that an identical phenotype can result from the deletion of the MYO5A F-exon. The aim of this case report is the presentation of oral and dental features and SEM images of the hair of a 12-year-old girl with GS type 3. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 164-167

  20. The congenital long QT syndrome Type 3: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3 is the third in frequency compared to the 15 forms known currently of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS. Cardiac events are less frequent in LQT3 when compared with LQT1 and LQT2, but more likely to be lethal; the likelihood of dying during a cardiac event is 20% in families with an LQT3 mutation and 4% with either an LQT1 or an LQT2 mutation. LQT3 is consequence of mutation of gene SCN5A which codes for the Nav1.5 Na+ channel α-subunit and electrocardiographically characterized by a tendency to bradycardia related to age, prolonged QT/QTc interval (mean QTc value 478 ± 52 ms, accentuated QT dispersion consequence of prolonged ST segment, late onset of T wave and frequent prominent U wave because of longer repolarization of the M cell across left ventricular wall.

  1. Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Elsa; Andrini, Olga; Keck, Mathilde; Mansour-Hendili, Lamisse; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Simian, Christophe; Deschenes, Georges; Kwon, Theresa; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Bobrie, Guillaume; Borde, Jean Sébastien; Bourdat-Michel, Guylhène; Decramer, Stéphane; Cailliez, Mathilde; Krug, Pauline; Cozette, Paul; Delbet, Jean Daniel; Dubourg, Laurence; Chaveau, Dominique; Fila, Marc; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Lavocat, Marie-Pierre; Lemoine, Sandrine; Djeddi, Djamal; Llanas, Brigitte; Louillet, Ferielle; Merieau, Elodie; Mileva, Maria; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Mousson, Christiane; Nobili, François; Novo, Robert; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaëlle; Vrillon, Isabelle; Walsh, Stephen B; Teulon, Jacques; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Bartter syndrome type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations of the chloride voltage-gated channel Kb gene ( CLCNKB ), which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. To study phenotype/genotype correlations, we performed genetic analyses by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and retrospectively analyzed medical charts for 115 patients with CLCNKB mutations. Functional analyses were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for eight missense and two nonsense mutations. We detected 60 mutations, including 27 previously unreported mutations. Among patients, 29.5% had a phenotype of ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (polyhydramnios or diagnosis in the first month of life), 44.5% had classic Bartter syndrome (diagnosis during childhood, hypercalciuria, and/or polyuria), and 26.0% had Gitelman-like syndrome (fortuitous discovery of hypokalemia with hypomagnesemia and/or hypocalciuria in childhood or adulthood). Nine of the ten mutations expressed in vitro decreased or abolished chloride conductance. Severe (large deletions, frameshift, nonsense, and essential splicing) and missense mutations resulting in poor residual conductance were associated with younger age at diagnosis. Electrolyte supplements and indomethacin were used frequently to induce catch-up growth, with few adverse effects. After a median follow-up of 8 (range, 1-41) years in 77 patients, chronic renal failure was detected in 19 patients (25%): one required hemodialysis and four underwent renal transplant. In summary, we report a genotype/phenotype correlation for Bartter syndrome type 3: complete loss-of-function mutations associated with younger age at diagnosis, and CKD was observed in all phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

  3. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  4. Do We Already have Samples of CERES H Chondrite Haliites and the CERES-HEBE Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.; Messenger, S.; Steele, A.; Zolensky, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that halite grains in the brecciated H chondrites Zag and Monahans originate from Ceres. Evidence includes mineralogy of the halites consistent with formation on a large, carbonaceous, aqueously active body close to the H chondrite parent body >4 Ga ago. Evidence also includes orbital simularities between 1 Ceres and the purported H chondrite parent body (HPB) 6 Hebe, possibly facilitating a gentle transfer between the bodies. Halite grains in the Monahans and Zag Hchondrites are exogenous to the H chondrite parent body and were transported to the HPB >4 Ga ago. Examination of minerals and carboanceous materials entrained within the halites shows that the halite parent body (HaPB) is consistent with a carbonaceous body [1]. It is probably a large body due to the variety of entrained carbonaceous materials which probably accreted from multiple sources. The halite grains contain intact, HaPB-origin, ancient fluid inclusions indicating that transfer between the HaPB and the HPB was a gentle process resulting in a ?T of 4 Ga ago. Additional dynamical factors need to be investigated. A combination of factors suggests Ceres as the HaPB. It is a carbonaceous body with suggestions of past aqueous activity [9], which is consistent with the mineral species found in H chondrite halites. Ceres is also a large body capable of accreting the range of carbonaceous materials noted [5]. It is relatively near to purported HPB Hebe, which is required to preserve halite fluid inclusions. The above evidence defines a hypothesized scenario featuring ejection of halite grains from Ceres onto Hebe. Halite was then entrained in H-chondrite near-surface breccias and ejected from Hebe for transport to Earth.

  5. Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CBa chondrite Gujba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    -stage impact origin. Here, we report high-precision internal isochrons for four individual chondrules of the Gujba chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrites and evaluate the concordancy of relevant short-lived radionuclide chronometers. All four chondrules define a brief formation interval......-behaved Pb-Pb systematics of all four chondrules, a precise formation age and the concordancy of the Mn-Cr, Hf-W, and I-Xe short-lived radionuclide relative chronometers, we propose that Gujba may serve as a suitable time anchor for these systems....

  6. On radiogenic nature of xenon-X in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of Xe-X from the mineral fraction produced during the differential dissolution of carbonaceous and LL chondrites was investigated using literature data on the age of some meteorites and their fractions and quantities of fission 136 Xe contained in them. A graph of lg fission 136 Xe against the age of meteorites was plotted; the decay constant of a hypothetical superheavy nucleus was calculated using the graph and equaled 1x10 - 7 year - 1 . The calculations served as a forcible argument for the radiogenic nature of xenon with 136 and 134 mass in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

  7. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for /sup 26/Al heating of small planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I D; Hutchison, R

    1989-01-19

    We report the first observation of radiogenic /sup 26/Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of /sup 26/Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of /sup 26/Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, /sup 26/Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets.

  8. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for 26Al heating of small planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first observation of radiogenic 26 Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of 26 Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of 26 Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, 26 Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets. (author)

  9. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  10. Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Implication of Alzheimers Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszek, Jerzy; Trypka, Elzbieta; Tarasov, Vadim V; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The brain of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) showed the evidence of reduced expression of insulin and neuronal insulin receptors, as compared with those of age-matched controls. This event gradually and certainly leads to a breakdown of the entire insulin-signaling pathway, which manifests insulin resistance. This in turn affects brain metabolism and cognitive functions, which are the bestdocumented abnormalities in AD. These observations led Dr. de la Monte and her colleagues to suggest that AD is actually a neuroendocrine disorder that resembles type 2 diabetes mellitus. The truth would be more complex with understanding the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, Aβ derived diffusible ligands, and advanced glycation end products. However, now it known as "brain diabetes" and is called type 3 diabetes mellitus (T3DM). This review provides an overview of "brain diabetes" focusing on the reason why the phenomenon is called T3DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Genotype–phenotype study of familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieni, Elena; Cetica, Valentina; Santoro, Alessandra; Beutel, Karin; Mastrodicasa, Elena; Meeths, Marie; Ciambotti, Benedetta; Brugnolo, Francesca; zur Stadt, Udo; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Griffiths, Gillian M; Henter, Jan-Inge; Janka, Gritta; Aricò, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations of UNC13D are causative for familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3; OMIM 608898). Objective To carry out a genotype–phenotype study of patients with FHL3. Methods A consortium of three countries pooled data on presenting features and mutations from individual patients with biallelic UNC13D mutations in a common database. Results 84 patients with FHL3 (median age 4.1 months) were reported from Florence, Italy (n=54), Hamburg, Germany (n=18), Stockholm, Sweden (n=12). Their ethnic origin was Caucasian (n=57), Turkish (n=10), Asian (n=7), Hispanic (n=4), African (n=3) (not reported (n=3)). Thrombocytopenia was present in 94%, splenomegaly in 96%, fever in 89%. The central nervous system (CNS) was involved in 49/81 (60%) patients versus 36% in patients with FHL2 (p=0.001). A combination of fever, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperferritinaemia was present in 71%. CD107a expression, NK activity and Munc 13-4 protein expression were absent or reduced in all but one of the evaluated patients. 54 different mutations were observed, including 15 new ones: 19 missense, 14 deletions or insertions, 12 nonsense, nine splice errors. None was specific for ethnic groups. Patients with two disruptive mutations were younger than patients with two missense mutations (p<0.001), but older than comparable patients with FHL2 (p=0.001). Conclusion UNC13D mutations are scattered over the gene. Ethnic-specific mutations were not identified. CNS involvement is more common than in FHL2; in patients with FHL3 and disruptive mutations, age at diagnosis is significantly higher than in FHL2. The combination of fever, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperferritinaemia appears to be the most easily and frequently recognised clinical pattern and their association with defective granule release assay may herald FHL3. PMID:21248318

  12. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  13. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo

    Full Text Available The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3 at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107 of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean, while the fourth one (BR-IV was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000 and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002, respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  14. A Raman Study of Carbonates and Organic Contents in Five CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Farley, C.; Cheung, J. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonates comprise the second most abundant class of carbon-bearing phases in carbonaceous chondrites after organic matter (approximately 2 wt.%), followed by other C-bearing phases such as diamond, silicon carbide, and graphite. Therefore, understanding the abundances of carbonates and the associated organic matter provide critical insight into the genesis of major carbonaceous components in chondritic materials. Carbonates in CM chondrites mostly occur as calcite (of varying composition) and dolomite. Properly performed, Raman spectroscopy provides a non-destructive technique for characterizing meteorite mineralogy and organic chemistry. It is sensitive to many carbonaceous phases, allows the differentiation of organic from inorganic materials, and the interpretation of their spatial distribution. Here, with the use of Raman spectroscopy, we determine the structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the matrix and carbonate phases in five CM chondrites: Jbilet Winselwan, Murchison, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, and Wisconsin Range (WIS) 91600, and interpret the relative timing of carbonate precipitation and the extent of the associated alteration events.

  15. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.; David Kilcoyne, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  16. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); David Kilcoyne, A. L., E-mail: ykebukawa@ciw.edu, E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 7R0222, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  17. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  18. Annama H chondrite-Mineralogy, physical properties, cosmic ray exposure, and parent body history

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Meiner, M. M. M.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K.C.; Hopp, J.; Trieloff, M.; Mahajan, R. R.; Naik, S.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Maksimova, A. A.; Chukin, A. V.; Semionkin, V. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Felner, I.; Petrova, E. V.; Brusnitsyna, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Yakovlev, G. A.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Moilanen, J.; Kruglikov, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 8 (2017), s. 1525-1541 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Annama * chondrite * cosmic-ray exposure * radionuclide Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  19. The great 8 MA event and the structure of the H-chondrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The H-chondrites have been the subject of several recent controversies, including the question of whether Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites are or are not the same and whether there or is not evidence for stratigraphic layering in the original parent body. We have identified two distinct groups of H5 chondrites in the Antarctic collection. One group has induced thermoluminescence (TL) peak temperatures less than 190 C and metallographic cooling rates between S to 50 K/Myr, similar to modern falls. It also has a variety of cosmic ray exposure ages, many being greater than 107 years. The other group has TL peak temperatures greater than 190 C, metallographic cooling rates of 100 K/Myr and cosmic ray exposure ages of 8 Ma. The members of this group were generals smaller than those of the greater than 190 C group (including the mode falls) during cosmic ray exposure. Detailed study of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations of these groups indicates that they are not solely the result of pairing of a few unusual meteorites. It is likely that the greater than 190 C group was an important part of the H-chondrite flux about 1 million years ago, but has since decreased in importance relative to the less than 190 C group. In a previous work, we discussed several possible origins for the greater than 190 C group, including multiple H-chondrite parent bodies, unusual parent body structure, and creation during the 8 Ma event. In this paper, we present new data for H4 chondrites in light of these ideas.

  20. Understanding the Organo-Carbonate Associations in Carbonaceous Chondrites with the Use of Micro-Raman Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonates can potentially provide sites for organic materials to accrue and develop into complex macromolecules. This study examines the organics associated with carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites using micron-Raman imaging.

  1. Mineralogical, crystallographic and redox features of the earliest stages of fluid alteration in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Bourdelle, Franck; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2017-07-01

    The CM chondrites represent the largest group of hydrated meteorites and span a wide range of conditions, from less altered (i.e., CM2) down to heavily altered (i.e., CM1). The Paris chondrite is considered the least altered CM and thus enables the earliest stages of aqueous alteration processes to be deciphered. Here, we report results from a nanoscale study of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris-TCIs being the emblematic secondary mineral assemblages of CM chondrites, formed from the alteration of Fe-Ni metal beads (type-I TCIs) and anhydrous silicates (type-II TCIs). We combined high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and electron diffraction tomography to characterize the crystal structure, crystal chemistry and redox state of TCIs. The data obtained are useful to reconstruct the alteration conditions of Paris and to compare them with those of other meteorites. Our results show that tochilinite in Paris is characterized by a high hydroxide layer content (n = 2.1-2.2) regardless of the silicate precursors. When examined alongside other CMs, it appears that the hydroxide layer and iron contents of tochilinites correlate with the degree of alteration experienced by the chondrites. The Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of TCIs are high: 8-15% in tochilinite, 33-60% in cronstedtite and 70-80% in hydroxides. These observations suggest that alteration of CM chondrites took place under oxidizing conditions that could have been induced by significant H2 release during serpentinization. Similar results were recently reported in CR chondrites (Le Guillou et al., 2015), suggesting that the process(es) controlling the redox state of the secondary mineral assemblages were quite similar in the CM and CR parent bodies despite the different alteration conditions. According to our mineralogical and crystallographic survey, the formation of TCIs in Paris occurred at temperatures lower than 100 °C, under neutral, slightly alkaline

  2. Revisiting 26Al-26Mg systematics of plagioclase in H4 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    Zinner and Göpel found clear evidence for the former presence of 26Al in the H4 chondrites Ste. Marguerite and Forest Vale. They assumed that the 26Al-26Mg systematics of these chondrites date "metamorphic cooling of the H4 parent body." Plagioclase in these chondrites can have very high Al/Mg ratios and low Mg concentrations, making these ion probe analyses susceptible to ratio bias, which is inversely proportional to the number of counts of the denominator isotope (Ogliore et al.). Zinner and Göpel used the mean of the ratios to calculate the isotope ratios, which exacerbates this problem. We analyzed the Al/Mg ratios and Mg isotopic compositions of plagioclase grains in thin sections of Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, Beaver Creek, and Sena to evaluate the possible influence of ratio bias on the published initial 26Al/27Al ratios for these meteorites. We calculated the isotope ratios using total counts, a less biased method of calculating isotope ratios. The results from our analyses are consistent with those from Zinner and Göpel, indicating that ratio bias does not significantly affect 26Al-26Mg results for plagioclase in these chondrites. Ste. Marguerite has a clear isochron with an initial 26Al/27Al ratio indicating that it cooled to below 450 °C 5.2 ± 0.2 Myr after CAIs. The isochrons for Forest Vale and Beaver Creek also show clear evidence that 26Al was alive when they cooled, but the initial 26Al/27Al ratios are not well constrained. Sena does not show evidence that 26Al was alive when it cooled to below the Al-Mg closure temperature. Given that metallographic cooling rates for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are atypical (>5000 °C/Myr at 500 °C) compared with most H4s, including Sena, which have cooling rates of 10-50 °C/Myr at 500 °C (Scott et al.), we conclude that the Al-Mg systematics for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are the result of impact excavation of these chondrites and cooling at the surface of the

  3. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites: A new grouplet with high. Delta. sup 17 O and evidence for nebular oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, M.K. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States) Brooklyn Coll., NY (United States)); Prinz, M. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)); Kojima, Hideyasu; Yanai, Keizo (National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)); Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Carlisle Lakes, ALH85151, and Y75302 are similar ungrouped chondrites which have petrologic and bulk compositional similarities to the ordinary chondrites, but are more oxidized; and their oxygen isotopic compositions differ. They represent a new grouplet which the authors call the Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites. They have the highest {Delta}{sup 17}O values (up to 2.91) measured to date. The whole chondrites and most of their chondrules plot on the same mass fractionation line on an oxygen 3-isotope diagram. They are olivine rich (>70 vol%), essentially metal free, and most olivine is FeO rich, equilibrated at Fa{sub 38}. Rare olivine and pyroxene grains in chondrules and fragments are zoned, and these are important in discerning the history of these chondrites. The zoning does not appear to have formed during crystallization from a melt droplet chondrule, but post-dated chondrule formation. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain the zoning: (1) parent-body thermal metamorphism and (2) nebular gas-solid exchange reactions accompanied by condensation of new FeO-rich olivine, utilizing existing olivine surfaces as nucleation sites. The occurrence of steep Fe-Mg compositional gradients of core-to-rim profiles, oscillatory zoning in olivine, fayalitic rims of Fa{sub 45} that exceed instead of approach the equilibrium composition of the matrix (Fa{sub 38}), and olivine-filled veins in zoned pyroxenes are more compatible with the nebular hypothesis. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites may have originally been derived from an ordinary chondrite-like precursor which was later oxidized, prior to its final lithification. However, the oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole chondrites and most of their chondrules suggest that the precursor probably formed in an oxygen isotopically distinct environment.

  4. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Hervé; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of electron irradiation on the hydrogen isotopic composition of organic precursors containing different functional groups. From an initial terrestrial composition, overall D-enrichments and differential intramolecular fractionations comparable with those measured in the Orgueil meteorite were induced. Therefore, ionizing radiation can quantitatively explain the deuteration of organics in some carbonaceous chondrites. For these meteorites, the precursors of the IOM may have had the same isotopic composition as the main water reservoirs of the inner Solar System.

  5. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  6. Mass spectrometric isotope dilution analyses of palladium, silver, cadmium and tellurium in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique was used to measure the elemental abundances of Pd, Ag, Cd and Te in Orgueil (C1), Ivuna (C1), Murray (C2) and Allende (C3) chondrites. The Pd abundance of 554 ppb for the Cl chondrites is almost identical to the recommended value of Anders and Ebihara (1982); that for Cd (712 ppb) is approximately 5% higher, whereas that for Ag (198 ppb) is approximately 10% lower than the recommended values. A smooth distribution for the abundances of the odd-A nuclides between 65 128 Te and 130 Te to lie approximately 30% above the r-process peak at A = 130, whereas the new value fits smoothly into the general trend. (author)

  7. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Nec ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4π cosmic-ray exposure (CRE age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallogenic components.

  8. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4πcosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallo-genic components.

  9. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  10. Nanodiamonds and silicate minerals in ordinary chondrites as determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Bhaskar J.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao; Borah, Rashmi R.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the Raman spectroscopic study of silicate and carbonaceous minerals in three ordinary chondrites with the aim to improve our understanding the impact process including the peak metamorphic pressures present in carbon-bearing ordinary chondites. The characteristic Raman vibrational peaks of olivines, pyroxenes, and plagioclase have been determined on three ordinary chondrites from India, Dergaon (H5), Mahadevpur (H4/5), and Kamargaon (L6). The Raman spectra of these meteorite samples show the presence of nanodiamonds at 1334-1345 cm-1 and 1591-1619 cm-1. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of Raman peaks for Mahadevpur and Dergaon reflect the nature of shock metamorphism in these meteorites. The frequency shift in Raman spectra might be because of shock effects during the formation of the diamond/graphite grains.

  11. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of six chondritic Almahata Sitta fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, M. E. I.; Welten, K. C.; Meier, M. M. M.; Wieler, R.; Barth, M. I. F.; Ward, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Bischoff, A.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Busemann, H.

    2017-11-01

    The Almahata Sitta strewn field is dominated by ureilites, but contains a large fraction of chondritic fragments of various types. We analyzed stable isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in six chondritic Almahata Sitta fragments (EL6 breccia, EL6, EL3-5, CB, LL4/5, R-like). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages of five of the six samples have an average of 19.2 ± 3.3 Ma, close to the average of 19.5 ± 2.5 Ma for four ureilites. The cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in the chondrites indicate a preatmospheric size consistent with Almahata Sitta. This corroborates that Almahata Sitta chondrite samples were part of the same asteroid as the ureilites. However, MS-179 has a lower CRE age of 11.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Further analysis of short-lived radionuclides in fragment MS-179 showed that it fell around the same time, and from an object of similar size as Almahata Sitta, making it almost certain that MS-179 is an Almahata Sitta fragment. Instead, its low CRE age could be due to gas loss, chemical heterogeneity that may have led to an erroneous 21Ne production-rate, or, perhaps most likely, MS-179 could represent the true 4π exposure age of Almahata Sitta (or an upper limit thereof), while all other samples analyzed so far experienced exposure on the parent body of similar lengths. Finally, MS-179 had an extraordinarily high activity of neutron-capture 36Cl, 600 dpm kg-1, the highest activity observed in any meteorite to date, related to a high abundance of the Cl-bearing mineral lawrencite.

  12. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that orga...

  13. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, Fran?ois; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Herv?; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of elec...

  14. Fall, recovery, and characterization of the Novato L6 chondrite breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rubin, Alan E.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sears, Derek W. G.; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Darci; Utas, Jason; Verish, Robert; Friedrich, Jon M.; Wimpenny, Josh; Eppich, Gary R.; Ziegler, Karen; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Albers, Jim; Gural, Peter S.; Grigsby, Bryant; Fries, Marc D.; Matson, Robert; Johnston, Malcolm; Silber, Elizabeth; Brown, Peter; Yamakawa, Akane; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Welten, Kees C.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Busemann, Henner; Clay, Patricia; Caffee, Marc W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillipe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N.; Grady, Monica; Verchovsky, Sasha; Emel'Yanenko, Vacheslav; Naroenkov, Sergey; Clark, David L.; Girten, Beverly; Worden, Peter S.

    2014-08-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 46 km altitude. The final fragmentation from 42 to 22 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin, and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35 ± 5 cm in diameter (mass 80 ± 35 kg) with a cosmic-ray exposure age of 9 ± 1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. A two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last ˜0.1 Ma. Novato probably belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U,Th-He age of 420 ± 220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice, and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, perhaps directly via the 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shock-stage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  15. Fall, Recovery and Characterization of the Novato L6 Chondrite Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus; Rubin, Alan E; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sears, Derek; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Darci; Utas, Jason; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 45 km altitude. The final fragmentation at 33 1 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35+/-5 cm in diameter (mass 80+/-35 kg) with a cosmic ray exposure age of 9+/-1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. However, based on the cosmogenic nuclide inventory, a two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last approx. 0.1 Ma. Novato likely belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U,Th-He age of 460+/-220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, but leave open the possibility that they came to us directly from the 5:2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shock-stage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  16. Fall, Recovery, and Characterization of the Novato L6 Chondrite Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rubin, Alan E.; Yin, Qing Zhu; Sears, Derek W. G.; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Daci; Utas, Jason; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 46 km altitude. The final fragmentation from 42 to 22 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin, and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35+/-5 cm in diameter (mass 80+/-35 kg) with a cosmic-ray exposure age of 9+/-1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. A two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last approx.0.1 Ma. Novato probably belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U, Th-He age of 420+/-220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice, and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, perhaps directly via the 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shockstage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  17. Particle Size Distributions in Chondritic Meteorites: Evidence for Pre-Planetesimal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Cuzzi, J. N.; McCain, K. A.; Cato, M. J.; Christoffersen, P. A.; Fisher, K. R.; Srinivasan, P.; Tait, A. W.; Olson, D. M.; Scargle, J. D.

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium-rich silicate chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are fundamental components of primitive chondritic meteorites. It has been suggested that concentration of these early-formed particles by nebular sorting processes may lead to accretion of planetesimals, the planetary bodies that represent the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In this case, the size distributions of the particles may constrain the accretion process. Here we present new particle size distribution data for Northwest Africa 5717, a primitive ordinary chondrite (ungrouped 3.05) and the well-known carbonaceous chondrite Allende (CV3). Instead of the relatively narrow size distributions obtained in previous studies (Ebel et al., 2016; Friedrich et al., 2015; Paque and Cuzzi, 1997, and references therein), we observed broad size distributions for all particle types in both meteorites. Detailed microscopic image analysis of Allende shows differences in the size distributions of chondrule subtypes, but collectively these subpopulations comprise a composite "chondrule" size distribution that is similar to the broad size distribution found for CAIs. Also, we find accretionary 'dust' rims on only a subset (approximately 15-20 percent) of the chondrules contained in Allende, which indicates that subpopulations of chondrules experienced distinct histories prior to planetary accretion. For the rimmed subset, we find positive correlation between rim thickness and chondrule size. The remarkable similarity between the size distributions of various subgroups of particles, both with and without fine grained rims, implies a common size sorting process. Chondrite classification schemes, astrophysical disk models that predict a narrow chondrule size population and/or a common localized formation event, and conventional particle analysis methods must all be critically reevaluated. We support the idea that distinct "lithologies" in NWA 5717 are nebular aggregates of

  18. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  19. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  20. In Situ Mapping of the Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Mineral Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite organic matter represents a fossil record of reactions that occurred in a range of physically, spatially and temporally distinct environments, from the interstellar medium to asteroid parent bodies. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed view of the nature and diversity of this organic matter, almost nothing is known about its spatial distribution and mineralogical relationships. Such information is nevertheless critical to deciphering its formation processes and evolutionary history.

  1. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  2. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  3. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  4. A dual origin for water in carbonaceous asteroids revealed by CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Remusat, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids represent the principal source of water in the inner Solar System and might correspond to the main contributors for the delivery of water to Earth. Hydrogen isotopes in water-bearing primitive meteorites, for example carbonaceous chondrites, constitute a unique tool for deciphering the sources of water reservoirs at the time of asteroid formation. However, fine-scale isotopic measurements are required to unravel the effects of parent-body processes on the pre-accretion isotopic distributions. Here, we report in situ micrometre-scale analyses of hydrogen isotopes in six CM-type carbonaceous chondrites, revealing a dominant deuterium-poor water component (δD = -350 ± 40‰) mixed with deuterium-rich organic matter. We suggest that this deuterium-poor water corresponds to a ubiquitous water reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk. A deuterium-rich water signature has been preserved in the least altered part of the Paris chondrite (δDParis ≥ -69 ± 163‰) in hydrated phases possibly present in the CM rock before alteration. The presence of the deuterium-enriched water signature in Paris might indicate that transfers of ice from the outer to the inner Solar System were significant within the first million years of the history of the Solar System.

  5. Elemental and isotopic characterization of organic particles in carbonaceous chondrites by NanoSIMS imaging: assessment on the origin, accretion and preservation of organic matter in chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Chondrites accreted primitive components, including organic compounds sampled from the proto-solar nebula. However, the molecular and isotopic fingerprints of organic matter extracted from chondrites are also potentially influenced by complex evolution on the parent bodies. We have performed NanoSIMS in situ characterisation of organic matter in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil (CI), Murchison (CM), Tagish Lake (C2), Renazzo (CR) and Allende (CV) with a spatial resolution of ~200 nm; we could also constrains textural relationships between organic constituents and other phases. Those meteorites have undergone a diverse set of parent body processes. I.e., CI, C2 and CM meteorites have undergone aqueous alteration, and the CV’s are thermally metamorphosed. The CR’s are inferred to be the least altered class of chondrites. Despite these differences in parent body modification, the distributions of organic carbon in these meteorites is similar: in all cases it can be found as micron-size, randomly distributed organic particles that are surrounded by the clay minerals that dominate the matrix material, but are not specifically associated with sulfides, sulfates or oxides. In addition, there is a “diffuse” fraction of organic carbon intimately associated with the clay-rich matrix. We hypothesize that the C particles we identify are hosts of insoluble organic matter that co-accreted with other primitive constituents of these materials, whereas the diffuse C fraction is the soluble component (i.e., soluble in laboratory organic and aqueous solvents). Our analytical technique lacks the spatial resolution required to analyze the diffuse organic matter without contamination by associated clays. But we are able to analyze the compositions of the interiors of relatively large C-rich particles (>500 nm) without such contamination. Some fraction of the C-rich particles in all of the examined meteorites but Allende exhibit a very high enrichment in deuterium

  6. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kouhei; Mikouchi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa 37 ), orthopyroxene (En 70 Wo 1 ), and plagioclase (An 8 Or 2 ). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe 3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe 3+ /ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na 0.40 K 0 . 04 ) (Ca 1.46 Mn 0.02 Fe 0.06 2+ Na 0.46 ) (Al 0.08 Fe 0.43 2+ Fe 0.75 3+ Cr 0.08 Mg 3.60 ) (Si 7.02 Al 0.98 )O 22 (OH) 2 . Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe 3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  7. Early RNA of adenovirus type 3 in permissive and abortive infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Groff, D E; Daniell, E

    1981-01-01

    Early adenovirus type 3 cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNAs from HeLa and BHK-21 cells were detected and mapped on the viral genome by gel blotting and hybridization techniques. The sizes and locations of the 16 adenovirus type 3 RNAs were identical in the two cell types, although relative molarities of the various RNA species differed. Each of the early adenovirus type 3 RNAs was associated with polysomes in both cell types, suggesting that the abortive infection of hamster cells does not result...

  8. Evidence favoring an internally generated dynamo in the H chondrite parent planetesimal from the Forest Vale meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzin, B. L.; Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2016-12-01

    Chondritic meteorites are traditionally assumed to originate from undifferentiated asteroids due to their unmelted texture and composition. This implies that their parent bodies should not have formed a core or generated a dynamo. However, recent measurements of the H chondrite Portales Valley (Bryson et al., this meeting) observed post-accretional remanent magnetization interpreted as a record of a core dynamo, indicating that some chondrite parent bodies were partially differentiated. However, it has been proposed that the H chondrites may have been magnetized instead by a crustal remanent field. If this crustal magnetization was imparted by an early external source, such as nebular fields or even the solar wind, then the magnetization of H chondrites may not require a core dynamo. To test this hypothesis, we measured the magnetic properties of the Forest Vale H4 ordinary chondrite. Forest Vale cooled quickly (10000 K/My) and so would have acquired magnetization that represents the bulk of the H chondrite parent body's crust during the first 10 My of the solar system. Based on alternating field and pressure demagnetization experiments of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization, we conclude that Forest Vale contains no ancient magnetization and, due to its poor intrinsic magnetic recording properties, is unable to acquire a magnetization that is stable against even weak shocks (0.2 GPa). Furthermore, we show that a crust composed of Forest-Vale-like material magnetized by the upper limit field intensities expected for the nebula and solar wind fields (50 μT and 1 μT, respectively) produces an insufficient crustal remanent field (<2.5 μT and <0.045 μT, respectively) to explain the paleointensity recorded by Portales Valley ( 10 μT). Thus, we conclude that the field that magnetization Portales Valley is unlikely to be from a crustal remanence magnetized by early external fields, favoring a partially differentiated asteroid

  9. Magnetic Evidence for a Partially Differentiated Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Body and Possible Implications for Asteroid 21 Lutetia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin; Carporzen, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Shuster, D. L.; Ebel, D. S.; Gattacceca, J.; Binzel, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    The origin of remanent magnetization in the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende has been a longstanding mystery. The possibility of a core dynamo like that known for achondrite parent bodies has been discounted because chondrite parent bodies are assumed to be undifferentiated. Here we report that Allende's magnetization was acquired over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the parent planetesimal in a > 20 microtesla field 8-9 Ma after solar system formation. This field was present too recently and directionally stable for too long to have been the generated by the protoplanetary disk or young Sun. The field intensity is in the range expected for planetesimal core dynamos (Weiss et al. 2010), suggesting that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a partially differentiated body with a convecting metallic core (Elkins-Tanton et al. 2010). This suggests that asteroids with differentiated interiors could be present today but masked under chondritic surfaces. In fact, CV chondrites are spectrally similar to many members of the Eos asteroid family whose spectral diversity has been interpreted as evidence for a partially differentiated parent asteroid (Mothe-Diniz et al. 2008). CV chondrite spectral and polarimetric data also resemble those of asteroid 21 Lutetia (e.g., Belskaya et al. 2010), recently encountered by the Rosetta spacecraft. Ground-based measurements of Lutetia indicate a high density of 2.4-5.1 g cm-3 (Drummond et al. 2010), while radar data seem to rule out a metallic surface composition (Shepard et al. 2008). If Rosetta spacecraft measurements confirm a high density and a CV-like surface composition for Lutetia, then we propose Lutetia may be an example of a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Regardless, the very existence of primitive achondrites, which contain evidence of both relict chondrules and partial melting, are prima facie evidence for the formation of partially differentiated bodies.

  10. Rhenium-osmium systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; MacPherson, G.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites were investigated in order to shed light on the behavior of the Re-Os system in bulk chondrites, and to constrain the timing of chemical fractionation in primitive chondrites. CAIs with relatively unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns (groups I, III, V, VI) define a narrow range of 187Re/188Os (0.3764-0.4443) and 187Os/188Os (0.12599-0.12717), and high but variable Re and Os abundances (3209-41,820 ppb Os). In contrast, CAIs that show depletions in highly refractory elements and strongly fractionated REE patterns (group II) also show a much larger range in 187Re/188Os (0.409-0.535) and 187Os/188Os (0.12695-0.13770), and greater than an order of magnitude lower Re and Os abundances than other groups (e.g., 75.7-680.2 ppb Os). Sixteen bulk CAIs and CAI splits plot within analytical uncertainty of a 4558 Ga reference isochron, as is expected for materials of this antiquity. Eight samples, however, plot off the isochron. Several possible reasons for these deviations are discussed. Data for multiple splits of one CAI indicate that the nonisochronous behavior for at least this CAI is the result of Re-Os reequilibration at approximately 1.6 Ga. Thus, the most likely explanation for the deviations of most of the nonisochronous CAIs is late-stage open-system behavior of Re and Os in the asteroidal environment. The 187Os/188Os-Os systematics of CAIs are consistent with previous models that indicate group II CAIs are mixtures of components that lost the bulk of their highly refractory elements in a previous condensation event and a minor second component that provided refractory elements at chondritic relative proportions. The high Re/Os of group II CAIs relative to other CAIs and chondrite bulk rocks may have been caused by variable mobilization of Re and Os during medium- to low-temperature parent body alteration ??4.5 Ga ago. This model is favored over nebular models, which

  11. Highly 15N-Enriched Chondritic Clasts in the Isheyevo Meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, L; Huss, G R; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-01-14

    The metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CB and CH) have the highest whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment ({delta}{sup 15}N up to +1500{per_thousand}), similar to {delta}{sup 15}N values reported in micron-sized regions (hotspots) of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) of possibly cometary origin and fine-grained matrices of unmetamorphosed chondrites. These {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are commonly attributed to low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in the protosolar molecular cloud or in the outer part of the protoplanetary disk. The nature of the whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment of the metal-rich chondrites is not understood. We report a discovery of a unique type of primitive chondritic clasts in the CH/CB-like meteorite Isheyevo, which provides important constraints on the origin of {sup 15}N anomaly in metal-rich chondrites and nitrogen-isotope fractionation in the Solar System. These clasts contain tiny chondrules and refractory inclusions (5-15 {micro}m in size), and abundant ferromagnesian chondrule fragments (1-50 {micro}m in size) embedded in the partly hydrated, fine-grained matrix material composed of olivines, pyroxenes, poorly-organized aromatic organics, phyllosilicates and other hydrous phases. The mineralogy and oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules and refractory inclusions in the clasts are similar to those in the Isheyevo host, suggesting formation at similar heliocentric distances. In contrast to the previously known extraterrestrial samples, the fine-grained material in the clasts is highly and rather uniformly enriched in {sup 15}N, with bulk {delta}{sup 15}N values ranging between +1000 and +1300{per_thousand}; the {delta}{sup 15}N values in rare hotspots range from +1400 to +4000{per_thousand}. Since fine-grained matrices in the lithic clasts are the only component containing thermally unprocessed (during CAI and chondrule formation or during impact melting) materials that accreted into the metal rich chondrite parent body(ies), the {sup 15}N

  12. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Trace-element analysis of Antarctic H chondrites: Chemical weathering and comparisons with their non-Antarctic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of meteorites have been discovered in Antarctica over the last decade (7000 fragments probably representing over 1200 separate events). They are important for their numbers and for their complement of unique or rare specimens; they also have long terrestrial ages (up to 1,000,000 years) compared to non-Antarctic falls (usually < 200 years). We report compositional data for mobile/volatile trace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Ti, U, and Zn in a suite of Antarctic H chondrites. Our data show that heavily oxidized H chondrites are leached of a portion of their trace elements and, therefore, have been chemically compromised by their stay in Antarctica. The less oxidized specimens seem to have retained their chemical integrity. We suggest possibilities for using chemical data to measure the degree of a chondrite's chemical weathering. We compare our data to that obtained previously for non-Antarctic H chondrites (Linger et al., 1986), by petrologic type (H4, H5, H6, H4-6) and shock-loading (moderately shocked facies a-c, heavily shocked facies d-f). Many statistically significant differences are found between non-Antarctic and Victoria Land, Antarctica H chondrites of each petrologic type and of shock facies d-f

  14. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  15. Implementation of Electrical Simulation Model for IEC Standard Type-3A Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Chandrasekaran; Casadei, Domenico; Tani, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of electrical simulation model for IEC 61400-27-1 standard Type-3A generator. A general overview of the different wind electric generators(WEG) types are given and the main focused on Type-3A WEG standard models, namely a model for a variable speed wind tur...

  16. 76 FR 61371 - All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management... Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams were developed to assist personnel achieve qualifications in... Management Teams were developed to assist personnel achieve qualifications in the All-Hazard ICS positions...

  17. Performance Evaluation of Type-3 PLLs Under Wide Variation in Input Voltage and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravind, C. K.; Rani, B.Indu; Chakkarapani, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of Type-3 PLL under wide variation in input voltage and frequency. Using small signal modeling, the performance of both single loop and dual loop type-3 PLL for variation in input voltage and frequency is studied. The analysis shows that for the same bandwi...... verified by implementing in ALTERA cyclone II FPGA board....

  18. Role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, C.; Barken, Kim Bundvig; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    nosocomial infections. Most clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express two types of fimbrial adhesins, type 1 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae. In this study, we characterized the role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in K. pneumoniae biofilm formation. Results: Isogenic fimbriae mutants of the clinical K. pneumoniae...... of planktonic cells. Type 1 fimbriae did not influence biofilm formation and the expression of type 1 fimbriae was found to be down-regulated in biofilm forming cells. In contrast, expression of type 3 fimbriae was found to strongly promote biofilm formation. Conclusion: By use of well defined isogenic mutants...... we found that type 3 fimbriae, but not type 1 fimbriae, strongly promote biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae C3091. As the vast majority of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express type 3 fimbriae, this fimbrial adhesin may play a significant role in development of catheter associated K. pneumoniae...

  19. Accretion and Preservation of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites as Revealed by NanoSIMS Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive known meteorites. Their parent bodies accreted several discrete components of the early solar system: CAIs, other silicates, oxides, sulfides, ice, organics, and noble gases. Radioactive decay of short live radionucleides quickly heated these parent bodies and drove thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration of their constituents. Despite this post-acretionary modification, at least some components of the organic matter in the carbaceous chondrites retained distinctive isotopic and molecular properties that may relate to their pre-acretionary origins in the protosolar nebula or in the molecular cloud that gave birth to it [1]. These processes that gave rise to early solar-system organic matter and the extent to which it was modified by parent body processes are still a matter of debate [2]. We have acquired NanoSIMS images of matrices of several CI, CM, CR and CV chondrites to document, in- situ, the distribution of organics and their textural and chemical relationships to co-existing inorganic components. Importantly, we performed these analyses on essentially unmodified fragments of matrix material pressed into indium, rather than on extracts, which have been the focus of most previous work on meteoritic organic matter. Specifically, we simultaneously collected H, D, 12C, 18O, 26CN, 28Si and 32S with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Inorganic constituents of the imaged domains were determined by SEM imaging and EDS analysis. We identify two textural classes of organic constituents: diffuse organic matter and organic particles ~ 1 micron in diameter. The particles are common and do not exhibit any textural association with any inorganic matrix constituent. This distribution is consistent with previous observations by fluorescence optical microscopy [3]. These organic particles are likely primarily composed of insoluble organic matter (IOM) that grew prior to accretion as pure organic particules and was preserved in

  20. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.; Binet, L.; Cartigny, P.; Brearley, A. J.; Remusat, L.

    2017-09-01

    Unravelling the origin of organic compounds that were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining the impact of asteroidal hydrothermal alteration on their isotopic signatures, molecular structures, and spatial distribution. Here, we conducted a multi-scale/multi-technique comparative study of the organic matter (OM) from two CM chondrites (that originate from the same parent body or from identical parent bodies that accreted the same mixture of precursors) and underwent a different degree of hydrothermal alteration: Paris (a weakly altered CM chondrite - CM 2.8) and Murchison (a more altered one - CM 2.5). The Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) shows a higher aliphatic/aromatic carbon ratio, a higher radical abundance and a lower oxygen content than the Murchison IOM. Analysis of the OM in situ shows that two texturally distinct populations of organic compounds are present within the Paris matrix: sub-micrometric individual OM particles and diffuse OM finely distributed within phyllosilicates and amorphous silicates. These results indicate that hydrothermal alteration on the CM parent body induced aromatization and oxidation of the IOM, as well as a decrease in radical and nitrogen contents. Some of these observations were also reported by studies of variably altered fragment of Tagish Lake (C2), although the hydrothermal alteration of the OM in Tagish Lake was apparently much more severe. Finally, comparison with data available in the literature suggests that the parent bodies of other chondrite petrologic groups could have accreted a mixture of organic precursors different from that accreted by the parent body of CMs.

  1. Terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the lewis cliff stranding area, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.

    1999-07-01

    We determined terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Lewis Cliff stranding area, East Antarctica, on the basis of the concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.51 Ma), 26Al (t1/2 = 0.705 Ma) and 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma). After an initial 26Al -ray survey of 91 meteorites suggested that many have terrestrial ages larger than 0.1 Ma, we selected 62 meteorites for 10Be and 26Al measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and measured 36Cl in twelve of those. Low terrestrial ages (Ma) were found for about 60% of the meteorites, whereas all others have ages between 0.1 and 0.5 Ma, except for one exceptional age of >2 Ma (Welten et al., 1997). Our major conclusions are: (1) The Lewis Cliff H-chondrites show similar ages as those from the Allan Hills Ice-fields, but the L-chondrites are about a factor of two younger than those from Allan Hills, which indicates that Lewis Cliff is a younger stranding area. (2) The terrestrial age distributions at different parts of the Lewis Cliff stranding area generally agree with simple meteorite concentration models, although differences in weathering rate may also play a role. (3) We confirm that meteorites with natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels >80 krad are associated with low terrestrial ages (Benoit et al., 1992), but conclude that natural TL levels <80 krad can not be used to calculate the terrestrial age of a meteorite. Natural TL levels do seem useful to estimate relative terrestrial ages of large groups of meteorites and to determine differences in surface exposure age of paired meteorite fragments. (4) Of the 62 meteorites measured with AMS, 31 were assigned to eleven different pairing groups, mainly on the basis of their cosmogenic nuclide record. The meteorites are estimated to represent between 42 and 52 distinct falls.

  2. Petrologic evolution of CM chondrites: The difficulty of discriminating between nebular and parent-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, J. F.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-07-01

    We wish to draw attention to a major controversy that has arisen in the area of CM-chondrite petrology. The problem is important because its resolution will have profound implications for ideas concerning nebular dynamics, gas-solid interactions in the nebula, and accretionary processes in the nebula, among other issues. On the one hand, cogent arguments have been presented that 'accretionary dust mantles,' were formed in the solar nebula prior to accretion of the CM parent asteroid(s). On the other hand, no-less-powerful arguments have been advanced that a significant fraction of the CM lithology is secondary, produced by aqueous alteration in the near-surface regions of an asteroid-sized object. Because most, if not all, CM chondrites are breccias, these two views could coexist harmoniously, were it not for the fact that some of the coarse-grained lithologies surrounded by 'accretion dust mantles' are themselves of apparently secondary origin. Such an observation must clearly force a reassessment of one or both of the present schools of thought. Our objective here is to stimulate such a reassessment. Four possible resolutions of this conflict may be postulated. First, perhaps nature found a way of permitting such secondary alteration to take place in the nebula. Second, maybe dust mantles could form in a regolith, rather than a nebular, environment. Third, it is possible that dust mantles around secondary lithologies are different from those around primary lithologies. Finally, perhaps formation of CM chondrites involved a more complex sequence of events than visualized so far, so that some apparently 'primary' processes postdated certain 'secondary' processes.

  3. Amino Acid Chemistry as a Link Between Small Solar System Bodies and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishing chemical links between meteorites and small solar system bodies, such as comets and asteroids, provides a tool for investigating the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system. Carbonaceous meteorites are of particular interest, since they may have seeded the early Earth with a variety of prebiotic organic compounds including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, which are thought to be necessary for the origin of life. Here we report the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analyses of the acid-hydrolyzed hot water extracts from pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna and the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray. We found that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna contained high abundances of beta-alanine and glycine, while only traces of other amino acids like alanine, alpha-amino-n-butryic acid (ABA) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were detected in these meteorites. Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine in Orgueil by gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry clearly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these amino acids. The amino acid composition of Orgueil and Ivuna was strikingly different from the CM chondrites Murchison and Murray. The most notable difference was the high relative abundance of B-alanine in Orgueil and Ivuna compared to Murchison and Murray. Furthermore, AIB, which is one of the most abundant amino acids found in Murchison and Murray, was present in only trace amounts in Orgueil and Ivuna. Our amino acid data strongly suggest that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna came from a different type of parent body than the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray, possibly from an extinct comet. It is generally thought that carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of larger asteroidal bodies delivered via near Earth objects (NEO). Orbital and dynamic studies suggest that both fragments of main belt asteroids

  4. Chondritic Mn/Na ratio and limited post-nebular volatile loss of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Julien; Sossi, Paolo A.; Blanchard, Ingrid; Mahan, Brandon; Badro, James; Moynier, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    The depletion pattern of volatile elements on Earth and other differentiated terrestrial bodies provides a unique insight as to the nature and origin of planetary building blocks. The processes responsible for the depletion of volatile elements range from the early incomplete condensation in the solar nebula to the late de-volatilization induced by heating and impacting during planetary accretion after the dispersion of the H2-rich nebular gas. Furthermore, as many volatile elements are also siderophile (metal-loving), it is often difficult to deconvolve the effect of volatility from core formation. With the notable exception of the Earth, all the differentiated terrestrial bodies for which we have samples have non-chondritic Mn/Na ratios, taken as a signature of post-nebular volatilization. The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is unique in that its Mn/Na ratio is chondritic, which points to a nebular origin for the depletion; unless the Mn/Na in the BSE is not that of the bulk Earth (BE), and has been affected by core formation through the partitioning of Mn in Earth's core. Here we quantify the metal-silicate partitioning behavior of Mn at deep magma ocean pressure and temperature conditions directly applicable to core formation. The experiments show that Mn becomes more siderophile with increasing pressure and temperature. Modeling the partitioning of Mn during core formation by combining our results with previous data at lower P-T conditions, we show that the core likely contains a significant fraction (20 to 35%) of Earth's Mn budget. However, we show that the derived Mn/Na value of the bulk Earth still lies on the volatile-depleted end of a trend defined by chondritic meteorites in a Mn/Na vs Mn/Mg plot, which tend to higher Mn/Na with increasing volatile depletion. This suggests that the material that formed the Earth recorded similar chemical fractionation processes for moderately volatile elements as chondrites in the solar nebula, and experienced limited post

  5. The Glanerbrug Breccia: Evidence for a Separate L/LL-Chondritic Parent Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Poorter, R. P. E.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. On April 7, 1990, a brecciated ordinary chondrite fell through the roof of a house near Glanerbrug in the Netherlands and was shattered to pieces. The total weight of the recovered fragments was about 800 g, the largest piece weighing 135 g. This main fragment clearly shows the inhomogeneous structure of the Glanerbrug: a dark-grey breccia occasionally containing blackish inclusions, separated from a light-grey breccia by a sharp boundary. Chondrules seem to be more common in the light grey parts. On the basis of earlier electron microprobe analyses of olivines and pyroxenes the light-grey portion was classified at the high Fa-Fs end of the L-field and the dark-grey part at the high Fa-Fs end of the LL-field [1]. Since it is not likely that the L and LL chondritic fragments originated on a single parent body, two alternative explanations were suggested: (i) The light-dark structure of the Glanerbrug is a characteristic feature of regolithic breccias, which once resided on or close to the surface of its parent body [2]. This lends some support to the idea that the light portion is an exotic clast in a dark host rock or vice versa; (ii) the two lithologies represent materials of a body having compositions between L and LL tentatively designated as L/LL [3,4]. Therefore additional electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) of silicates and kamacites in combination with neutron-activation analyses (INAA) of a light and a dark fragment and a noble gas analysis of a mixed light-dark fragment were undertaken. RESULTS and DISCUSSION. The light lithology in two thin sections shows olivine compositions in the L range (24.5+-0.3% Fa) and kamacite compositions (13.0+-1.3 mg/g Co) close to the LL range, plotting in the L/LL rather than in the L field on a kamacite-Co vs. olivine-Fa diagram [3,4]. Whereas only one aberrant olivine grain (out of 50) was found in the light portion, the dark portion is less homogeneous: one thin section shows olivine and kamacite

  6. C/N and other Elemental Ratios of Chondritic Porous IDPS and a Fluffy Concordia Micrometeorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Khodja, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Taylor, S.; Engrand, C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) may be cometary in origin [1], as may ultracarbona-ceous (UCAMMs) [2] and 'fluffy' [3] micrometeorites from the Concordia collection. They are all rich in organics, which can rim grains and may have helped glue grains together during accretion [4]. The organics also contain nitrogen the input of which to Earth has potential biological importance. We report C/N ratios, and other properties of CP-IDPs and a Concordia fluffy microme-teorite.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar age and thermal history of the Kirin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; McDougall, I.; Tetley, N.; Harrison, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Kirin meteorite, a large (> 2800 kg) H5 chondrite, fell in Kirin Province, China in 1976. A sample from each of the two largest fragments (K-1. K-2) yield 40 Ar/ 39 Ar total fusion ages of 3.63 +- 0.02 b.y. and 2.78 +- 0.02 b.y. respectively. 40 Ar/ 40 Ar age spectra show typical diffusional argon loss profiles. Maximum apparent ages of 4.36 b.y. (K-1) and approx. 4.0 b.y. (K-2) are interpreted as possible minimum estimates for the age of crystallization of the parent body. (orig./ME)

  8. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.

    2003-01-01

    for the chondrite-forming event. This ¿176 value indicates that Earth's oldest minerals were derived from melts of a mantle source with a time-integrated history of depletion rather than enrichment. The depletion event must have occurred no later than 320 Myr after planetary accretion, consistent with timing......The Lu to Hf decay series has been widely used to understand the nature of Earth's early crust-mantle system. The interpretation, however, of Lu-Hf isotope data requires accurate knowledge of the radioactive decay constant of Lu (¿176), as well as bulk-Earth reference parameters. A recent...

  9. Striking Graphite Bearing Clasts Found in Two Ordinary Chondrite Samples; NWA6169 and NWA8330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Chan, Queenie; Kring, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorites play an integral role in understanding the history of the solar system. Not only can they contain some of the oldest material found in the solar system they also can contain material that is unique. Many lithologies are only found as foreign clasts within distinctly different host meteorites. In this investigation two foreign clasts within the meteorites, NWA6169 and NWA8330 were studied. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the mineralogy and petrography of the clasts within the samples. From there an identification and possible origin were to be inferred. NWA6169 is an unclassified ordinary chondrite that has a presumed petrologic type of L3. NWA8330 is a classified ordinary chondrite that has a petrologic type of LL3. Both meteorites were found to contain clasts that were similar; both modally were comprised of about 5% acicular graphite. Through SEM and Raman Spectroscopy it was found that they contained olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe-Ni sulfides, graphite, and metals. They were found to portray an igneous texture with relationships that suggest concurrent growth. Analytical microprobe results for NWA6169 revealed mineral compositions of Fa31-34, Fs23-83, and Ab7-85. For NWA8330 these were Fa28-32, Fs10-24, and Ab4-83. Only one similar material has been reported, in the L3 chondrite Krymka (Semenenko & Girich, 1995). The clast they described exhibited similar mineralogies including the unusual graphite. Krymka data displayed compositional values of Fa28.5-35.0 and Fs9-25.9. These ranges are fairly similar to that of NWA6169 and NWA8330. These samples may all be melt clasts, probably of impact origin. Two possibilities are (1) impact of a C-type asteroid onto the L chondrite parent asteroid, and (2) a piece of proto-earth ejected from the moon-forming collision event. These possibilities present abundant questions, and can be tested. The measurement of oxygen isotope compositions from the clasts should reveal the original source of the

  10. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite and implications for the CO-CM relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumard, Noël; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-05-01

    High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule Δ17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (Δ17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s poor H2O ice (∼0.3-0.4× the CI dust; Δ17O > 0‰) and at dust enrichments of ∼300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.

  11. The Type 3 copper site is intact but labile in Type 2-depleted laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, P; Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1983-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the Type 1 and Type 3 copper sites in Rhus laccase depleted of Type 2 copper (T2D). Use of the Lowry method for determining protein concentration yielded the value 5620 +/- 570 M-1 cm-1 for the extinction of the 615-nm absorption band...... as intensity perturbations at 280 and 615 nm. Comparison of difference spectra show that this 330-nm band derives from a Type 3 copper-bound peroxide and not from a reoxidized Type 3 site. Dioxygen reoxidation of ascorbate-reduced T2D laccase produced new difference bands at 330 nm (delta epsilon = 770 M-1 cm...

  12. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  13. The LaPaz Icefield 04840 meteorite: Mineralogy, metamorphism, and origin of an amphibole- and biotite-bearing R chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanta, M. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Dyar, M. D.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Rumble, D., III; Essene, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    The R chondrite meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04840 is unique among metamorphosed, non-carbonaceous chondrites in containing abundant OH-bearing silicate minerals: ˜13% ferri-magnesiohornblende and ˜0.4% phlogopite by volume. Other minerals include olivine (Fo 62), orthopyroxene (En 69Fs 30Wo 1), albite (An 8Ab 90Or 2), magnetite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and apatite. Ferromagnesian minerals are rich in Fe 3+, as determined by Mössbauer spectrometry and electron microprobe chemical analyses. Fe 3+/Fe tot values are olivine ⩽5%, amphibole 80%, phlogopite 65%, and magnetite 42%. Mineral compositions are nearly constant across grains and the section, except for a small variability in amphibole compositions reflecting the edenite exchange couple ( ANa + IVAl ↔ A□ + Si). These mineral compositions, the absence of Fe-Ni metal, and the oxygen isotope data support its classification as an R (Rumuruti) chondrite. LAP 04840 is classified as petrologic grade 5, based on the chemical homogeneity of its minerals, and the presence of distinctly marked chondrules and chondrule fragments in a fine-grained crystalline matrix. The mineral assemblage of LAP 04840 allows calculation of physical and chemical conditions at the peak of its metamorphism: T = 670 ± 60 °C from a amphibole-plagioclase thermometer; PO between 250 and 500 bars as constrained by the assemblage phlogopite + orthopyroxene + olivine + feldspar and the absence of diopside; P unconstrained; f at QFM + 0.5 log units; log(f/fO)≈-5.8;log(f/fO)≈-3.3;andlog(f/f)≈-2.6. The hydrogen in LAP 04840 is very heavy, an average δD value of +3660 ± 75‰ in the magnesiohornblende. Only a few known sources of hydrogen have such high δD and are suitable sources for LAP 04840: ordinary chondrite phyllosilicates (as in the Semarkona chondrite), and insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ordinary chondrites and CR chondrites. Hydrogen from the IOM could have been released by oxidation, and then reacted with an anhydrous

  14. Detection of a meteorite 'stream' - Observations of a second meteorite fall from the orbit of the Innisfree chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.

    1987-03-01

    The first observational evidence of multiple meteorite falls from the same orbit is adduced from the February 6, 1980 fall of a meteorite precisely 3 yr after the fall of the Innisfree meteorite. Due consideration of the detection probability for two related objects with the meteorite camera network in western Canada suggests that the Innisfree brecciated LL chondrite was a near-surface fragment from a parent object whose radius was of the order of several tens of meters. A meteorite mass of 1.8 kg is predicted for the new object, whose recovery in the vicinity of Ridgedale, Saskatchewan, is now sought for the sake of comparison with the Innisfree chondrite.

  15. New component of the Mezo-Madaras breccia - a microchondrule- and carbon-bearing L-related chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Levy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Microchondrules with apparent diameters 2-150 microns are found in a black carbon-bearing inclusion in Mazo-Madaras. Some are homogeneous (glassy or microcrystalline); others show two phases (mainly silica and pyroxene-rich glass). The bulk chemical composition of the inclusion is related to the host chondrite, in which silica-pyroxene chondrules are ubiquitous. Small black lumps of the same kind are dispersed in bulk Mezo-madaras. This L-related carbon-bearing material may represent a new specimen of C-rich ordinary chondrite. 13 references

  16. Uranium-lead Isotope Evidence in the Shelyabinsk LL5 Chondrite Meteorite for Ancient and Recent Thermal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Kring, D. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Swindle, T. D.; Beard, S. P.; Swindle, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    The impact histories on chondrite parent bodies can be deduced from thermochronologic analyses of materials and isotope systems with distinct apparent closure temperatures. It is especially critical to better understand the geological histories and physical properties of potenally hazardous near-Earth asteroids. Chelyabinsk is an LL5 chondrite meteorite that was dispersed over a wide area tens of kilometers south of the town of Chelyabinsk, Russia by an explosion at an altitude of 27 km at 3:22 UT on 15 Feb 2013 [1,2]. The explosion resulted in significant damage to surrounding areas and over 1500 injuries along with meteorite fragments being spread over a wide area [1].

  17. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. PMID:28404095

  18. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  19. Incidence, Frequency, and Clinical Characteristics of Type 3 Myocardial Infarction in Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangaard, Nikolaj; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    the Danish Register of Causes of Death, ambulance and hospital patient files. Adjudication of the diagnosis was done by two local experts and one external senior cardiologist. RESULTS: A total of 2766 of the 246.723 adult residents in the region had died. A type 3 myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 18...... individuals, corresponding to an annual incidence of 7.3/100.000 person years. During the same one-year period 488 patients had other types of myocardial infarction implying a 3.6% frequency of type 3 myocardial infarction (18 of 506) among all myocardial infarctions. CONCLUSIONS: Type 3 myocardial infarction...... is a rare observation in clinical practice with an annual incidence below 10/100.000 person years and a frequency of 3-4% among all types of myocardial infarction. If autopsy data are included the number of type 3 myocardial infarctions will increase....

  20. An {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer study of the ordinary chondrite meteorite Lynch 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elewa, Nancy N., E-mail: nancy.elewa@student.unsw.edu.au; Cadogan, J. M. [The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2017-11-15

    The Lynch 001 meteorite was found in the Nullarbor Plain region of Western Australia in 1977. This meteorite is classified as an ordinary chondrite of the petrologic group L5/6 that has undergone ‘minor to moderate’ terrestrial weathering. Here, we characterize the Fe-bearing phases in this chondrite using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy carried out over the temperature range 13 K to room temperature (295 K). The paramagnetic doublets of olivine, pyroxene and a superparamagnetic ferric phase dominate the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum. On the basis of the room temperature quadrupole splitting of the olivine component, we estimate its composition to be Fa {sub 30(5)}. Besides the paramagnetic ferric component, accounting for ∼15 % of the spectral area at room temperature, magnetically ordered ferric phases were also detected. The total relative proportion of the Fe {sup 3+} components allows us to estimate the terrestrial age of Lynch 001 to be 6,500 ± 1,500 yr, consistent with the value of 6,700 ± 1,300 yr determined by {sup 14}C dating.

  1. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation.

  2. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation

  3. Origin of metallic Fe-Ni in Renazzo and related chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min S.; Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the formation of metallic Fe-Ni in Renazzo and related chondrites, Ni and Co zoning profiles in metallic Fe-Ni are determined from different petrographic sites (chondrule interiors, chondrule margins, chondrule rims, and matrix) in Renazzo, Al Rais, and the related chondrite, MacAlpine Hills 87320. Metal from chondrule interiors shows flat Ni and Co concentrations and profiles, moderately large grain-to-grain compositional variations (even with chondrules), and generally high Ni and Co. Nickel concentrations extend above the kamacite stability limit; etching such 'martensite' shows high-Ni domains in some cases, but observed Ni concentrations do not exceed 190 mg/g. Metal from chondrule margins adjacent to matrix shows convex Ni and Co zoning profiles; the highest Ni and Co concentrations are at grain centers, although the mean central Ni and Co concentrations in margin grains are much lower than those from chondrule interiors; the remainder are convex. The low Co and Ni contents at the edge of grains in chondrule margins are interpreted to reflect dilution by Fe produced by FeO reduction.

  4. Thermoluminescence studies of the thermal and radiation histories of chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of chondritic meteorites are investigated to understand the ways in which the stored TL reflects the thermal and radiation histories of these objects. Differences in TL levels measured in recent falls are attributed to small differences in orbital temperatures. In addition, a correlation between TL level and terrestrial age is observed in meteorites of known terrestrial age. The thermoluminescence in chondrites is produced primarily by ionization from galactic cosmic rays with a much smaller contribution from the decay of natural radionuclides (U, Th, K, Rb). The production of most of the TL occurs after the break up of the large parent bodies into meter-size objects which are thus exposed to the ionizing effects of the cosmic rays. Measurements indicate that the low temperature TL represents a dynamic equilibrium between build up from ionizing radiation and thermal draining. The high temperature TL is near saturation. The terrestrial ages currently of greatest interest are those of the recently discovered meteorites in Antarctica. TL measurements were made on 11 of these meteorites and compared with the activities of 14 C, 26 Al, and 36 Cl measured by other workers in terrestrial age studies. A good correlation was found between the TL levels and the activities of cosmogenic radionuclides in these meteorites. Since the TL measurements can be made more rapidly and require much smaller samples (approx. 10 mg) than the radionuclide measurements, TL is most useful as a screening process to select potentially interesting samples for further study by more precise techniques

  5. Non-chondritic iron isotope ratios in planetary mantles as a result of core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shahar, Anat

    2017-02-01

    Information about the materials and conditions involved in planetary formation and differentiation in the early Solar System is recorded in iron isotope ratios. Samples from Earth, the Moon, Mars and the asteroid Vesta reveal significant variations in iron isotope ratios, but the sources of these variations remain uncertain. Here we present experiments that demonstrate that under the conditions of planetary core formation expected for the Moon, Mars and Vesta, iron isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate due to the presence of nickel, and enrich the bodies' mantles in isotopically light iron. However, the effect of nickel diminishes at higher temperatures: under conditions expected for Earth's core formation, we infer little fractionation of iron isotopes. From our experimental results and existing conceptual models of magma ocean crystallization and mantle partial melting, we find that nickel-induced fractionation can explain iron isotope variability found in planetary samples without invoking nebular or accretionary processes. We suggest that near-chondritic iron isotope ratios of basalts from Mars and Vesta, as well as the most primitive lunar basalts, were achieved by melting of isotopically light mantles, whereas the heavy iron isotope ratios of terrestrial ocean floor basalts are the result of melting of near-chondritic Earth mantle.

  6. Prognosis of Open Type 3-B Tibia Fractures By Ilizarov Technique: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janak Rathod, Taral Shah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Open fractures of the tibial shaft are both common and may be fraught with complications. Open fractures of the tibia, with associated vascular injuries, have historically had a very poor outcome. Malunion, delayed union, nonunion, and infection are all seen regularly after open tibia fractures. Objectives: Objective of the study is to explore advantage of primary or early ilizarov surgery in Open type 3- B fracture tibia. Methodology: A follow up study of 10 cases of open type 3-...

  7. Correlations Among Microstructure, Morphology, Chemistry, and Isotopic Systematics of Hibonite in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Liu, M.-C..; Keller, L. P.; Davis, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hibonite is a primary refractory phase occurring in many CAIs, typically with spinel and perovskite. Our microstructural studies of CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites reveal a range of stacking defect densities and correlated non-stoichiometry in hibonite. We also conducted a series of annealing experiments, demonstrating that the Mg-Al substitution stabilized the formation of defect-structured hibonite. Here, we continue a detailed TEM analysis of hibonite-bearing inclusions from CM chondrites that have been well-characterized isotopically. We examine possible correlations of microstructure, morphology, mineralogy, and chemical and isotopic systematics of CM hibonites in order to better understand the formation history of hibonite in the early solar nebula. Methods: Fifteen hibonite-bearing inclusions from the Paris CM chondrite were analyzed using a JEOL 7600F SEM and a JEOL 8530F electron microprobe. In addition to three hibonite-bearing inclusions from the Murchison CM chondrite previously reported, we selected three inclusions from Paris, Pmt1-6, 1-9, and 1-10, representing a range of 26Al/27Al ratios and minor element concentrations for a detailed TEM study. We extracted TEM sections from hibonite grains using a FEI Quanta 3D field emission gun SEM/FIB. The sections were then examined using a JEOL 2500SE field-emission scanning TEM equipped with a Thermo-Noran thin window EDX spectrometer. Results and Discussion: A total of six hibonite-bearing inclusions, including two platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) and four spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs), were studied. There are notable differences in chemical and isotopic compositions between the inclusions (Table 1), indicative of their different formation environment or timing. Our TEM observations show perfectly-ordered, stoichiometric hibonite crystals without stacking defects in two PLACs, 2-7-1 and 2-8-2, and in three SHIBs, Pmt1-6, 1-9, and 1-10. In contrast, SHIB 1-9-5 hibonite grains contain a

  8. Blood group antigen A type 3 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R

    2016-02-01

    Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites: Determination of the pressure-temperature conditions by shock physics mesoscale modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreau, J.; Kohout, Tomáš; Wünnemann, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 11 (2017), s. 2375-2390 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : chondrites * pressure-temperature conditions * astrophysics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  10. Young asteroid mixing revealed in ordinary chondrites: The case of NWA 5764, a polymict LL breccia with L clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattacceca, Jérome; Krzesińska, Agata M.; Marrocchi, Yves; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Lenssen, Rob

    2017-11-01

    Polymict chondritic breccias—rocks composed of fragments originating from different chondritic parent bodies—are of particular interest because they give insights into the mixing of asteroids in the main asteroid belt (occurrence, encounter velocity, transfer time). We describe Northwest Africa (NWA) 5764, a brecciated LL6 chondrite that contains a >16 cm3 L4 clast. The L clast was incorporated in the breccia through a nondestructive, low-velocity impact. Identical cosmic-ray exposure ages of the L clast and the LL host (36.6 ± 5.8 Myr), suggest a short transfer time of the L meteoroid to the LL parent body of 0.1 ± 8.1 Myr, if that meteoroid was no larger than a few meters. NWA 5764 (together with St. Mesmin, Dimmitt, and Glanerbrug) shows that effective mixing is possible between ordinary chondrite parent bodies. In NWA 5764 this mixing occurred after the peak of thermal metamorphism on the LL parent body, i.e., at least several tens of Myr after the formation of the solar system. The U,Th-He ages of the L clast and LL host, identical at about 2.9 Ga, might date the final assembly of the breccia, indicating relatively young mixing in the main asteroid belt as previously evidenced in St. Mesmin.

  11. Organic matter in primitive meteorites: a study of the hydrogen isotopic distribution in CM-type carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, L.; Yurimoto, H.; Remusat, L.; Gonzales, A.; Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Chondrite meteorites are fragments of rocks coming from small bodies of the asteroid belt and constitute witnesses of the volatile-rich reservoirs present in the inner protoplanetary disk. Among these meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites contain the largest quantity of water and organic matter and are one of the most probable candidates for the delivery of water and molecular origin of life to Earth. Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites is intimately mixed with hydrated minerals challenging its in situ characterization and the determination of its H-isotope composition (Le Guillou et al., GCA 131, 2014). Organic matter occurs as soluble components (in water or organic solvents) and an insoluble macromolecule. The insoluble organic matter (IOM) is efficiently isolated after acid leaching of the chondrite minerals. IOM has thus been investigated by a large set of analytical techniques allowing its structural organization, chemical composition and isotopic composition to be determined at several scales (e.g. Derenne and Robert, MAPS 45, 2010). In the soluble counterpart (SOM), targeted studies have shown large ranges of D/H ratios in the different classes of soluble organic compounds (i.e. carboxylic acids, ketones and aldehydes, amino-acids etc.) (Remusat, Planetary Mineralogy 15, 2015 and references therein). This D/H distribution indicates a complex and probably multiple-stage synthesis of this organic compounds occurring at different stages of the disk evolution. Nevertheless, inventories of the known C-bearing species in carbonaceous chondrites (carbonates, SOM and IOM) show that about 40-50 % of the carbon is hidden within the matrix (Alexander et al., MAPS 50, 2015). In this study, we perform in situ hydrogen isotope analyses at the micrometer scale by secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the distribution of organic matter in primitive chondrites without the use of any chemical treatment. Correlated analyses of the D/H and C/H ratios allow us to

  12. Enstatite, Mg/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 6/: A neutron diffraction refinement of the crystal structure and a rigid-body analysis of the thermal vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.; Schomaker, V.; McMullan, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic enstatite, Mg/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 6/, is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with eight formula units per cell and lattice parameters a = 18.235(3), b = 8.818(1), c = 5.179(1) A at 23/sup 0/C. A least-squares structure refinement based on 1790 neutron intensity data converged with an agreement factor R(F/sup 2/) = 0.032, yielding Mg-O and Si-O bond lengths with standard deviations of 0.0007 and 0.0008 A, respectively. The variations observed in the Si-O bond lengths within the silicate tetrahedra A and B are caused by the differences in primary coordination of the oxygen atoms and the proximity of the magnesium ions to the silicon atoms. The latter effect is most pronounced for the bridging bonds of tetrahedron. A. The smallest O-Si-O angle is the result of edge-sharing by the Mg(2) octahedron and the A tetrahedron. An analysis of rigid-body thermal vibrations of the two crystallographically independent (SiO/sub 4/) tetrahedra indicates considerable librational motion, leading to a thermal correction of apparent Si-O bond lengths as large as +0.002 A at room temperature.

  13. Circumstellar and interstellar material in the CO3 chondrite ALHA77307: An isotopic and elemental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Maitrayee; Floss, Christine; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Speck, Angela K.

    2012-09-01

    We have carried out a NanoSIMS C, N and O ion imaging study of the CO3.0 chondrite ALHA77307. The distribution of O-anomalous grains in ALHA77307 is similar to that observed in other primitive meteorites, and is dominated (84%) by 17O-rich Group 1 grains from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of close-to-solar metallicity. Four percent of the grains belong to Group 2, whose 18O depletions suggest cool-bottom processing in low-mass stars during the AGB phase, while 8% are Group 4 grains with likely origins in Type II supernova (SN) ejecta. One ferromagnesian silicate has a very high 17O enrichment; nova explosions have been suggested as sources for such grains, but recent models with updated reaction rates show large discrepancies with the grain data, leaving the origins of these grains uncertain. Most of the grains are silicates (86%) with the remainder consisting of oxides (8%), three silica grains and two 'composite' grains composed of multiple subgrains with different elemental compositions. The elemental compositions of the silicates are similar to those found in other studies, with a predominance of non-stoichiometric compositions and high (up to 44 at.%) Fe concentrations. A comparison of isotopic and elemental compositions for all presolar silicates shows that olivine compositions are overabundant in Group 4 grains compared to grains from Groups 1 and 2. This may reflect injection of presolar material from a nearby supernova into the early solar nebula and incorporation into parent bodies before alteration of compositions through irradiation and sputtering in the interstellar medium, as is likely to have occurred for the Group 1 and 2 grains from more distant AGB stars. The matrix material in ALHA77307 contains abundant carbonaceous hotspots with excesses in 15N. However, unlike CR chondrites, the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ALHA77307 does not have a bulk N isotopic anomaly, consistent with Raman evidence that it has experienced more

  14. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  15. VNIR Reflectance and MIR Emissivity Spectra of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites Under Simulated Asteroid Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, M.; Shirley, K.; Glotch, T. D.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent missions have revealed much about the nature of many Near-Earth asteroids, including the NEAR-Shoemaker target 433 Eros and Hayabusa target 25142 Itokawa. Both asteroids appear to have mineralogy consistent with ordinary chondrite meteorites. Laboratory spectral analysis of well-constrained meteorite samples can be employed as a reference tool to characterize and constrain data from current and future asteroid studies. A sample set of ordinary chondrite meteorites was chosen from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History. Six meteorites, spanning groups H, L, and LL, were prepared at four different size fractions (25-63 μm, 63-90 μm, 90-125 μm, 125-250 μm) in an attempt to mimic regolith known to exist on asteroids such as 433 Eros and 25142 Itokawa. At the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University, spectra of the ordinary chondrite material were measured under simulated asteroid surface conditions ( 10-6 mbar, 150 K chamber temperature, low intensity illumination). The samples were used in two experiments: one measuring visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra at a series of temperatures, and the other measuring mid-infrared (MIR) emissivity spectra. The emissivity measurements require accurate simulation of the thermal environment within asteroid regolith, achieved by inducing a thermal gradient within the sample that results in a surface brightness temperature around 323 K (similar to the surface of 25142 Itokawa). Mid-IR emissivity spectra were collected for each sample at a surface temperature of 323 K, and reflectance spectra were collected in increments of 10 K, over the range 283 K to 373 K. Preliminary VNIR spectra show spreads similar to those seen in Hinrichs and Lucey (2002). Preliminary MIR emissivity spectra suggest that under asteroid surface conditions, the position of the Christiansen feature shifts to shorter wavelengths and emissivity is lower in the Reststrahlen bands when compared to

  16. K-Ca Dating of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Y-74442 and Bhola LL-Chondritic Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Misawa, K.; Okano, O; Shih, C. -Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Krahenberg (LL5) [1], Bhola (LL3-6) [2], Siena (LL5) [3] and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4) [4-6], show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkali and alkaline elements [7]. The alkali-rich fragments in Krahenberg, Bhola and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography, suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials [6]. Recently we reported Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in Y-74442: nine fragments from Y-74442 yield the Rb-Sr age of 4429 plus or minus 54 Ma (2 sigma) for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.01402 Ga(exp -1) [8] with the initial ratio of Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7144 plus or minus 0.0094 (2 sigma) [9]. The Rb-Sr age of the alkali-rich fragments of Y-74442 is younger than the primary Rb-Sr age of 4541 plus or minus 14 Ma for LL-chondrite whole-rock samples [10], implying that they formed after accumulation of LL-chondrite parental bodies, although enrichment may have happened earlier. Marshall and DePaolo [11,12] demonstrated that the K-40 - Ca-40 decay system could be an important chronometer as well as a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [13,14] and more recently Simon et al. [15] determined K-Ca ages of lunar granitic rocks, and showed the application of the K-Ca chronometer for K-rich planetary materials. Since alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias are highly enriched in K, we can expect enhancements of radiogenic Ca-40. Here, we report preliminary results of K-Ca isotopic systematics of alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias, Y-74442 and Bhola.

  17. Expression of the Surface Glycoproteins of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 by Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3, a Novel Attenuated Virus Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Aurelia A.; Miller, Tessa; Mitiku, Misrach; Coelingh, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) is being evaluated as an intranasal vaccine for protection against human PIV3 (hPIV3). In young infants, the bPIV3 vaccine appears to be infectious, attenuated, immunogenic, and genetically stable, which are desirable characteristics for an RNA virus vector. To test the potential of the bPIV3 vaccine strain as a vector, an infectious DNA clone of bPIV3 was assembled and recombinant bPIV3 (r-bPIV3) was rescued. r-bPIV3 displayed a temperature-sensitive...

  18. The cali meteorite fell: A new H/L ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.M.T.; Llorca, J.; Rubin, A.E.; Grossman, J.N.; Sears, D.W.G.; Naranjo, M.; Bretzius, S.; Tapia, M.; Sepulveda, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The fall of the Cali meteorite took place on 6 July 2007 at 16 h 32 ?? 1 min local time (21 h 32 ?? 1 min UTC). A daylight fireball was witnessed by hundreds of people in the Cauca Valley in Colombia from which 10 meteorite samples with a total mass of 478 g were recovered near 3??24.3'N, 76??30.6'W. The fireball trajectory and radiant have been reconstructed with moderate accuracy. From the computed radiant and from considering various plausible velocities, we obtained a range of orbital solutions that suggest that the Cali progenitor meteoroid probably originated in the main asteroid belt. Based on petrography, mineral chemistry, magnetic susceptibility, fhermoluminescence, and bulk chemistry, the Cali meteorite is classified as an H/L4 ordinary chondrite breccia.

  19. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  20. CIRCUMSTELLAR MAGNETITE FROM THE LAP 031117 CO3.0 CHONDRITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zega, Thomas J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Stroud, Rhonda M., E-mail: tzega@lpl.arizona.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6366, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We report the first microstructural confirmation of circumstellar magnetite, identified in a petrographic thin section of the LaPaz Icefield 031117 CO3.0 chondrite. The O-isotopic composition of the grain indicates an origin in a low-mass (∼2.2 M{sub ⊙}), approximately solar metallicity red/asymptotic giant branch (RGB/AGB) star undergoing first dredge-up. The magnetite is a single crystal measuring 750 × 670 nm, is free of defects, and is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We hypothesize that the magnetite formed via oxidation of previously condensed Fe dust within the circumstellar envelope of its progenitor star. Using an empirically derived rate constant for this reaction, we calculate that such oxidation could have occurred over timescales ranging from approximately ∼9000–500,000 years. This timescale is within the lifetime of estimates for dust condensation within RGB/AGB stars.

  1. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  2. Radar-Enabled Recovery of the Sutters Mill Meteorite, a Carbonaceous Chondrite Regolith Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus M.; Fries, Marc D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand's parameter = 2.8 +/- 0.3). Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Attenuation of the Sabin Strain of Poliovirus Type 3

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Stephen; Pilipenko, Evgeny; Sharma, Kamal; Chumakov, Konstantin; Roos, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    Mutations critical for the central nervous system (CNS) attenuation of the Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus (PV) are located within the viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We examined the interaction of the IRESs of PV type 3 (PV3) and Sabin type 3 (Sabin3) with polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and a neural cell-specific homologue, nPTB. PTB and nPTB were found to bind to a site directly adjacent to the attenuating mutation, and binding at this site was less efficient on t...

  4. ILAE type 3 hippocampal sclerosis in patients with anti-GAD-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Robert L; DeNiro, Lauren V; Lasala, Patrick A; Weidenheim, Karen M; Graber, Jerome J; Boro, Alexis

    2015-08-01

    To describe the neuropathologic findings and clinical course of 2 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for medically refractive epilepsy and were later found to have high anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) concentrations. Small case series. Neuropathologic examination of both patients revealed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 3 hippocampal sclerosis. Following surgery, both developed signs and symptoms of stiff person syndrome and later cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory studies demonstrated high concentrations of anti-GAD antibodies in both patients. These cases suggest that ILAE type 3 hippocampal sclerosis may be immunologically related to and may exist as part of a broader anti-GAD-related neurologic syndrome in some instances.

  5. Peculiarities of frequency dependence of type 3 solar radio bursts duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybko, Ya.G.

    1989-01-01

    From the averaged data of type 3 bursts at the fixed frequencies in the range 12.5-25 MHz and out of this limit it is concluded that there exist two branges of the burst duration dependence on the frequency. This splitting allows to distinguish bursts occurring at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the plasma frequency decreasing with height in the solar corona. The type 3b radiation is characterized by a separate diagram of the mean duration versus frequency of the stria-bursts at the fundamental harmonic

  6. Park Forest (L5) and the asteroidal source of shocked L chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Welten, Kees C.; Riebe, My E. I.; Caffee, Marc W.; Gritsevich, Maria; Maden, Colin; Busemann, Henner

    2017-08-01

    The Park Forest (L5) meteorite fell in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois (USA) on March 26, 2003. It is one of the currently 25 meteorites for which photographic documentation of the fireball enabled the reconstruction of the meteoroid orbit. The combination of orbits with pre-atmospheric sizes, cosmic-ray exposure (CRE), and radiogenic gas retention ages ("cosmic histories") is significant because they can be used to constrain the meteoroid's "birth region," and test models of meteoroid delivery. Using He, Ne, Ar, 10Be, and 26Al, as well as a dynamical model, we show that the Park Forest meteoroid had a pre-atmospheric size close to 180 g cm-2, 0-40% porosity, and a pre-atmospheric mass range of 2-6 tons. It has a CRE age of 14 ± 2 Ma, and (U, Th)-He and K-Ar ages of 430 ± 90 and 490 ± 70 Ma, respectively. Of the meteorites with photographic orbits, Park Forest is the second (after Novato) that was shocked during the L chondrite parent body (LCPB) break-up event approximately 470 Ma ago. The suggested association of this event with the formation of the Gefion family of asteroids has recently been challenged and we suggest the Ino family as a potential alternative source for the shocked L chondrites. The location of the LCPB break-up event close to the 5:2 resonance also allows us to put some constraints on the possible orbital migration paths of the Park Forest meteoroid.

  7. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  8. Detection of serpentine in exogenic carbonaceous chondrite material on Vesta from Dawn FC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Cloutis, Edward A.; Schäfer, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Christensen, Ulrich; Sierks, Holger; Thangjam, Guneshwar Singh; Le Corre, Lucille; Mengel, Kurt; Vincent, Jean-Baptist; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Tom; Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo; Hall, Ian; Büttner, Irene

    2014-09-01

    The Dawn mission’s Framing Camera (FC) observed Asteroid (4) Vesta in 2011 and 2012 using seven color filters and one clear filter from different orbits. In the present paper we analyze recalibrated HAMO color cubes (spatial resolution ∼60 m/pixel) with a focus on dark material (DM). We present a definition of highly concentrated DM based on spectral parameters, subsequently map the DM across the Vestan surface, geologically classify DM, study its spectral properties on global and local scales, and finally, compare the FC in-flight color data with laboratory spectra. We have discovered an absorption band centered at 0.72 μm in localities of DM that show the lowest albedo values by using FC data as well as spectral information from Dawn’s imaging spectrometer VIR. Such localities are contained within impact-exposed outcrops on inner crater walls and ejecta material. Comparisons between spectral FC in-flight data, and laboratory spectra of meteorites and mineral mixtures in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 μm, revealed that the absorption band can be attributed to the mineral serpentine, which is typically present in CM chondrites. Dark material in its purest form is rare on Vesta’s surface and is distributed globally in a non-uniform manner. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of an exogenic origin of the DM by the infall of carbonaceous chondritic material, likely of CM type. It further confirms the hypothesis that most of the DM was deposited by the Veneneia impact.

  9. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cell - derived neurons for the study of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Stummann, Tina C.; Madsen, Helena Borland

    2016-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were established from two SCA3 patients. Dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed using an integration-free method...

  11. Type 3 Deiodinase Is Highly Expressed in Infiltrating Neutrophilic Granulocytes in Response to Acute Bacterial Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Boorsma, Jeffrey; Kwakkel, Joan; Wieland, Catharina W.; Renckens, Rosemarijn; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play an important role in the first line of defense against bacteria by infiltrating the infected organ in order to clear the harmful pathogen. Our earlier studies showed that granulocytes express type 3 deiodinase (D3) when activated during

  12. Human parechovirus type 3 infection: Cause of apnea in infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirei, Jun; Aizawa, Yuta; Okazaki, Minoru; Kobayashi, Akira; Onozuka, Junya; Numata, Osamu; Oishi, Tomohiro; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    Four infants born prematurely presented with multiple apnea episodes caused by human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection. All patients required oxygen supplementation, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. HPeV3 infection might be included in the differential diagnosis of apnea in neonates and young infants, especially those born prematurely. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  14. Distribution of non-LEE-encoded type 3 secretion system dependent effectors in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia A. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are important human gastroenteritis agents. The prevalence of six non-LEE genes encoding type 3 translocated effectors was investigated. The nleC, cif and nleB genes were more prevalent in typical than in atypical EPEC, although a higher diversity of genes combinations was observed in atypical EPEC.

  15. Time profile of type 3 bursts in decameter and hectometer range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, T.; Naito, Y.; Ohki, K.

    1973-01-01

    The following new hypothesis is proposed. The decay time of plasma waves is much shorter than the time scale of type 3 bursts especially at low frequencies. Accordingly, the time variation of radio flux at a given frequency merely corresponds to the flux of fast electrons passing through the corresponding plasma layer.

  16. SEROTONIN METABOLISM FOLLOWING PLATINUM-BASED CHEMOTHERAPY COMBINED WITH THE SEROTONIN TYPE-3 ANTAGONIST TROPISETRON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHRODER, CP; VANDERGRAAF, WTA; KEMA, IP; GROENEWEGEN, A; SLEIJFER, DT; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    The administration of platinum-based chemotherapy induces serotonin release from the enterochromaffin cells, causing nausea and vomiting. This study was conducted to evaluate parameters of serotonin metabolism following platinum-based chemotherapy given in combination with the serotonin type-3

  17. Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in vasculature from hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Yang, Dachun; He, Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels are increased in vascular smooth muscle cells and aortic tissue from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. Expression of TRPC3 was analyzed by immunohistochem...

  18. Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...

  19. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  1. The comparison of element composition of Venus, Earth, Mars, and chondrites in the light of the Mendeleev Periodic Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1998-01-01

    The share of free neutral atoms, N 0 , for all elements in Protoplanet nebula has been determined with the account of their abundance and physico-chemical properties. The linear dependence for the ratio of nonvolatile and volatile elements in chondrites and igneous rocks of the Earth on N 0 was obtained. The Mendeleev Periodic Law was used to obtain the proof of the existence of the hypothetical process of element magnetic separation in Protoplanet nebula. To this end the concentration ratios of element-analogous with different N 0 in the matters of Venus, Earth, Mars, and chondrites were compared. The data obtained are sufficient demonstration of the existence of the hypothetical process of element magnetic separation in Protoplanet nebula. With the account of the above said, it was shown that Shergotty and Tunguska meteorites by their relative elemental composition are close to Mars and asteroids, respectively. (author)

  2. Zhamanshin astrobleme provides evidence for carbonaceous chondrite and post-impact exchange between ejecta and Earth's atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magna, T.; Žák, Karel; Pack, A.; Moynier, F.; Mougel, B.; Peters, S.; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, AUG 9 2017 (2017), č. článku 227. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-22351S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : chondrite * moldavites * Zhamanshin astrobleme, Kazakhstan Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UJF-V) OBOR OECD: Geology; Analytical chemistry (UJF-V) Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  3. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  4. Crystallography of Magnetite Plaquettes and their Significance as Asymmetric Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  5. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2013-12-01

    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  6. ILAE type 3 hippocampal sclerosis in patients with anti-GAD–related epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Lauren V.; Lasala, Patrick A.; Weidenheim, Karen M.; Graber, Jerome J.; Boro, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the neuropathologic findings and clinical course of 2 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for medically refractive epilepsy and were later found to have high anti–glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) concentrations. Methods: Small case series. Results: Neuropathologic examination of both patients revealed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 3 hippocampal sclerosis. Following surgery, both developed signs and symptoms of stiff person syndrome and later cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory studies demonstrated high concentrations of anti-GAD antibodies in both patients. Conclusions: These cases suggest that ILAE type 3 hippocampal sclerosis may be immunologically related to and may exist as part of a broader anti-GAD–related neurologic syndrome in some instances. PMID:26161431

  7. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  8. A Breccia of Ureilitic and C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Materials from Almahata Sitta: Implications for the Regolith of Urelitic Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Fioretti, A. M.; Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I.; Young, E.; Jenniskens, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta (AhS) polymict ureilite is the first meteorite to originate from a spectrally classified asteroid (2008 TC3) [1-3], and provides an unprecedented opportunity to correlate properties of meteorites with those of their parent asteroid. AhS is also unique because its fragments comprise a wide variety of meteorite types. Of approximately140 stones studied to-date, 70% are ureilites (carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites) and 30% are various types of chondrites [4,5]. None of these show contacts between ureilitic and chondritic lithologies. It has been inferred that 2008 TC3 was loosely aggregated, so that it disintegrated in the atmosphere and only its most coherent clasts fell as individual stones [1,3,5]. Understanding the structure and composition of this asteroid is critical for missions to sample asteroid surfaces. We are studying [6] the University of Khartoum collection of AhS [3] to test hypotheses for the nature of 2008 TC3. We describe a sample that consists of both ureilitic and chondritic materials.

  9. Structure and isotopic ratios of aliphatic side chains in the insoluble organic matter of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Wang, Yi

    2007-07-01

    We report in this paper the first molecular and isotopic characterization of individual aliphatic side chains from the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite using a novel combined approach of RuO 4 oxidation and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The aliphatic side chains in the IOM of Murchison were first released by oxidizing aromatic structures using RuO 4. Because the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites contains predominantly short (C 1 to C 9) aliphatic substitutions, the resulting low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are highly volatile and water-soluble. The conventional aqueous extraction and derivatization procedures following RuO 4 oxidation are unable to recover MCAs for subsequent analyses. We overcame this problem by employing SPME to directly capture the MCAs from the aqueous solution. We selected a SPME fiber with greater affinity for longer chain monoacids to compensate for the exponential decline of monoacid concentrations with increasing carbon numbers in meteorite IOM, allowing more accurate identification and quantification for the less abundant monoacids. We also determined the carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of individual MCAs derived from Murchinson IOM. Our results reveal significant similarity in both molecular structures and hydrogen isotopic ratios between the IOM aliphatic side chains and water-soluble MCAs in Murchison, suggesting that these compounds had common precursors. Our combined new approach of RuO 4 oxidation-SPME provides a new way to probe the molecular and isotopic characteristics of aliphatic side chains in carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray Exposure Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis

    2016-04-01

    The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray exposure age based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar age of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.

  11. Noble gases, nitrogen, cosmic ray exposure history and mineralogy of Beni M'hira (L6) chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Nejia, Laridhi Ouazaa; Ray, Dwijesh; Naik, Sekhar

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon(Xe) and nitrogen were measured in the Beni M'hira L6 chondrite. The cosmic ray exposure age of Beni M'hira is estimated of 15.6 ± 3.7 (Ma). The radiogenic age, of around 485 ± 64 Ma, derived from 4He, and of around 504 ± 51 Ma from 40Ar, suggests an age resetting indicating the event impact. The heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) concentrations imply that the gas is a mixture of trapped component Q and solar wind. The measured nitrogen abundance of 0.74 ppm and the isotopic signature of δ15N = 14.6‰ are within the range of ordinary chondrites. The homogeneous chemical composition of olivine (Fa:26 ± 0.25) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs:22.4 ± 0.29) suggest that the Beni M'hira meteorite is an equilibrated chondrite. This is further corroborated by strong chondrule-matrix textural integration (lack of chondrules, except a few relict clast). Shock metamorphism generally corresponds to S5 (>45 GPa), however, locally disequilibrium melting (shock-melt veins) suggests, that the peak shock metamorphism was at ∼75 GPa, 950 °C.

  12. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout leads to decreased heart rate possibly via parasympathetic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Jiejie; Li, Liaoliao; Feng, Chenzhuo; Xiong, Lize; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Parasympathetic tone is a dominant neural regulator for basal heart rate. Glutamate transporters (EAAT) via their glutamate uptake functions regulate glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We showed that EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice had a slower heart rate than wild-type mice when they were anesthetized. We design this study to determine whether non-anesthetized EAAT3 knockout mice have a slower heart rate and, if so, what may be the mechanism for this effect. Young a...

  13. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Miagostovich, M.P.; Santos, F.B. dos; Simone, T.S. de; Costa, E.V.; Filippis, A.M.B.; Schatzmayr, H.G.; Nogueira, R.M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3) strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS)-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550) of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since gen...

  14. Bartter syndrome type 3 in an elderly complicated with adrenocorticotropin-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Eri; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ota, Takayuki; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Hiromichi; Wakasaki, Hisao; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Nakao, Taisei; Kaito, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nakanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Akamizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) is a disorder with normotensive hypokalemic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronemia. BS affects infants or early childhood. Patients with BS type 3 harbor mutation in CLCNKB, Cl channel Kb. Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a disorder in childhood, with mutation in SLC12A3. Isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency (IAD) causes secondary adrenal insufficiency. Neither elderly cases, nor cases with IAD were previously reported in BS. A 72-year-old man was admitted with acute adrenal crisis. He had been treated for IAD for 19 years. He had no trouble during perinatal period, delivery, and growth. After the recovery from adrenal crisis, laboratory tests revealed hypokalemia; 3.0 mEq/L (normal: 3.5-4.5), impaired renal function: eGFR; 37.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, normomagnesemia; 2.1 mg/dL (1.7-2.3), hyperreninemia; 59.4 ng/mL/h (0.2-2.7), hyperaldosteronemia; 23.5 ng/dL (3.0-15.9), and normal urinary ratio of calcium/creatinine. In diuretic tests, he showed a fine response to furosemide, and a mild response to thiazide. In genetic tests, no mutation of SLC12A3 was found and homozygous mutation: c.1830 G > A in CLCNKB was shown. Thus he was diagnosed as BS type 3. Current case presented with unusual features as BS type 3, 1) his late and mild clinical manifestation suggested GS rather than BS, 2) laboratory data and diuretics tests did not show typical features as BS, and 3) IAD and chronic renal failure altered electrolyte metabolism. In conclusion, current case implies that BS type 3 should be considered even in elderly cases with normotensive hypokalemia, and highlights importance of endocrinological and genetic examinations.

  15. ClC-K chloride channels: emerging pathophysiology of Bartter syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrini, Olga; Keck, Mathilde; Briones, Rodolfo; Lourdel, Stéphane; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Teulon, Jacques

    2015-06-15

    The mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding the ClC-Kb chloride channel are responsible for Bartter syndrome type 3, one of the four variants of Bartter syndrome in the genetically based nomenclature. All forms of Bartter syndrome are characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and secondary hyperaldosteronism, but Bartter syndrome type 3 has the most heterogeneous presentation, extending from severe to very mild. A relatively large number of CLCNKB mutations have been reported, including gene deletions and nonsense or missense mutations. However, only 20 CLCNKB mutations have been functionally analyzed, due to technical difficulties regarding ClC-Kb functional expression in heterologous systems. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the functional consequences of CLCNKB mutations on ClC-Kb chloride channel activity. It has been observed that 1) all ClC-Kb mutants have an impaired expression at the membrane; and 2) a minority of the mutants combines reduced membrane expression with altered pH-dependent channel gating. Although further investigation is needed to fully characterize disease pathogenesis, Bartter syndrome type 3 probably belongs to the large family of conformational diseases, in which the mutations destabilize channel structure, inducing ClC-Kb retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and accelerated channel degradation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Thermal alteration in carbonaceous chondrites and implications for sublimation in rock comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.; Steckloff, Jordan K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock comets are small solar system bodies in Sun-skirting orbits (perihelion q CO2, etc.). B-class asteroid (3200) Phaethon, considered to be the parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, is the only rock comet currently known to periodically eject dust and form a coma. Thermal fracturing or thermal decomposition of surface materials may be driving Phaethon’s cometary activity (Li & Jewitt, 2013). Phaethon-like asteroids have dynamically unstable orbits, and their perihelia can change rapidly over their ~10 Myr lifetimes (de León et al., 2010), raising the possibility that other asteroids may have been rock comets in the past. Here, we propose using spectroscopic observations of mercury (Hg) as a tracer of an asteroid’s thermal metamorphic history, and therefore as a constraint on its minimum achieved perihelion distance.B-class asteroids such as Phaethon have an initial composition similar to aqueously altered primitive meteorites such as CI- or CM-type meteorites (Clark et al., 2010). Laboratory heating experiments of ~mm sized samples of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites from 300K to 1200K at a rate of 15K/minute show mobilization and volatilization of various labile elements at temperatures that could be reached by Mercury-crossing asteroids. Samples became rapidly depleted in labile elements and, in particular, lost ~75% of their Hg content when heated from ~500-700 K, which corresponds to heliocentric distances of ~0.15-0.3 au, consistent with our thermal models. Mercury has strong emission lines in the UV (~ 185 nm) and thus its presence (or absence) relative to carbonaceous chondrite abundances would indicate if these bodies had perihelia in their dynamical histories inside of 0.15 AU, and therefore may have previously been Phaethon-like rock comets. Future space telescopes or balloon-borne observing platforms equipped with a UV spectrometer could potentially detect the presence or absence of strong ultraviolet mercury lines on rock comets or rock

  17. Hf-W chronology of CR chondrites: Implications for the timescales of chondrule formation and the distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Gerrit; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    Renazzo-type carbonaceous (CR) chondrites are distinct from most other chondrites in having younger chondrule 26Al-26Mg ages, but the significance of these ages and whether they reflect true formation times or spatial variations of the 26Al/27Al ratio within the solar protoplanetary disk are a matter of debate. To address these issues and to determine the timescales of metal-silicate fractionation and chondrule formation in CR chondrites, we applied the short-lived 182Hf-182W chronometer to metal, silicate, and chondrule separates from four CR chondrites. We also obtained Mo isotope data for the same samples to assess potential genetic links among the components of CR chondrites, and between these components and bulk chondrites. All investigated samples plot on a single Hf-W isochron and constrain the time of metal-silicate fractionation in CR chondrites to 3.6 ± 0.6 million years (Ma) after the formation of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). This age is indistinguishable from a ∼3.7 Ma Al-Mg age for CR chondrules, suggesting not only that metal-silicate fractionation and chondrule formation were coeval, but also that these two processes were linked to each other. The good agreement of the Hf-W and Al-Mg ages, combined with concordant Hf-W and Al-Mg ages for angrites and CV chondrules, provides strong evidence for a disk-wide, homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the early solar system. As such, the young Al-Mg ages for CR chondrules do not reflect spatial 26Al/27Al heterogeneities but indicate that CR chondrules formed ∼1-2 Ma later than chondrules from most other chondrite groups. Metal and silicate in CR chondrites exhibit distinct nucleosynthetic Mo and W isotope anomalies, which are caused by the heterogeneous distribution of the same presolar s-process carrier. These data suggest that the major components of CR chondrites are genetically linked and therefore formed from a single reservoir of nebular dust, most likely by localized melting events within the

  18. Deuterium enrichments in chondritic macromolecular material—Implications for the origin and evolution of organics, water and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Newsome, S. D.; Fogel, M. L.; Nittler, L. R.; Busemann, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2010-08-01

    Here we report the elemental and isotopic compositions of the insoluble organic material (IOM) isolated from several previously unanalyzed meteorites, as well as the reanalyses of H isotopic compositions of some previously measured samples ( Alexander et al., 2007). The IOM in ordinary chondrites (OCs) has very large D enrichments that increase with increasing metamorphism and decreasing H/C, the most extreme δD value measured being almost 12,000‰. We propose that such large isotopic fractionations could be produced in the OC parent bodies through the loss of isotopically very light H 2 generated when Fe was oxidized by water at low temperatures (IOM of CV and CO chondrites with similar metamorphic grades and IOM H/C ratios because proportionately less water was consumed during metamorphism, and the remaining water buffered the H isotopic composition of the IOM even a H was being lost from it. Hydrogen would also have been generated during the alteration of CI, CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites. The IOM in these meteorites exhibit a considerable range in isotopic compositions, but all are enriched in D, as well as 15N, relative to terrestrial values. We explore whether these enrichments could also have been produced by the loss of H 2, but conclude that the most isotopically anomalous IOM compositions in meteorites from these groups are probably closest to their primordial values. The less isotopically anomalous IOM has probably been modified by parent body processes. The response of IOM to these processes was complex and varied, presumably reflecting differences in conditions within and between parent bodies. The D enrichments associated with H 2 generation, along with exchange between D-rich IOM and water in the parent bodies, means that it is unlikely that any chondrites retain the primordial H isotopic composition of the water ice that they accreted. The H isotopic compositions of the most water-rich chondrites, the CMs and CIs, are probably the least

  19. The extent of aqueous alteration in C-class asteroids, and the survival of presolar isotopic signatures in chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    Several sample return missions are being planned by different space agencies for in situ sampling of undifferentiated bodies. Such missions wish to bring back to Earth pristine samples from C-class asteroids and comets to obtain clues on solar system formation conditions. A careful selection of targeted areas is required as many C-class asteroids and periodic comets have been subjected to collisional and space weathering processing since their formation. Their surfaces have been reworked by impacts as pointed out by the brecciated nature of many chondrites arrived to Earth, exhibiting different levels of thermal and aqueous alteration. It is not surprising that pristine chondrites can be considered quite rare in meteorite collections because they were naturally sampled in collisions, but several groups of carbonaceous chondrites contain a few members with promising unaltered properties. The CI and CM groups suffered extensive aqueous alteration [1], but for the most part escaped thermal metamorphism (only a few CMs evidence heating temperature over several hundred K). Both chondrite groups are water-rich, containing secondary minerals as consequence of the pervasive alteration of their primary mineral phases [2]. CO, CV, and CR chondrite groups suffered much less severe aqueous alteration, but some CRs are moderately aqueously altered. All five groups are good candidates to find unequilibrated materials between samples unaffected by aqueous alteration or metamorphism. The water was incorporated during accretion, and was released as consequence of shock after impact compaction, and/or by mild radiogenic heating. Primary minerals were transformed by water into secondary ones. Water soaking the bodies participated in chemical homogenization of the different components [1]. Hydrothermal alteration and collisional metamorphism changed the abundances of isotopically distinguishable presolar silicates [3]. Additional instruments in the landers to identify aqueous

  20. The solar nebula redox state as recorded by most reduced chondrules of five primitive chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.C.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1986-01-01

    Mafic minerals in the most reduced chondrules of five primitive meteorites were analyzed with an electron microprobe to determine the lower limit on their FeO contents. The accuracy obtained was +-0.01 weight percent FeO. The thermodynamic relationship between mole fraction FeSiO 3 and pO 2 of the ambient nebular gas at the time of mineral equilibration was established, and was used to infer the local O/H ratio of the nebular gas during chondrule formation. The lowest ferrosilite compositions reflected equilibration at 1500K with a gas 2-18 times more oxidizing than a gas of solar composition. Olivines in low-FeO UOC chondrules are uniformly more FeO-rich than coexisting pyroxenes. This descrepancy suggests that a significant change in the O/H ratio of the nebular gas occurred between the time of olivine and pyroxene crystallization in the region of the nebula where UOCs formed. Mineral compositions in the chondrules of two C2 chondrites studied suggest they formed in a more homogeneous region of the nebula than the UOCs. (author)

  1. High-pressure polymorphs in Yamato-790729 L6 chondrite and their significance for collisional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yukako; Sekine, Toshimori; Kayama, Masahiko; Miyahara, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Shock pressure recorded in Yamato (Y)-790729, classified as L6 type ordinary chondrite, was evaluated based on high-pressure polymorph assemblages and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of maskelynite. The host-rock of Y-790729 consists mainly of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, metallic Fe-Ni, and iron-sulfide with minor amounts of phosphate and chromite. A shock-melt vein was observed in the hostrock. Ringwoodite, majorite, akimotoite, lingunite, tuite, and xieite occurred in and around the shock-melt vein. The shock pressure in the shock-melt vein is about 14-23 GPa based on the phase equilibrium diagrams of high-pressure polymorphs. Some plagioclase portions in the host-rock occurred as maskelynite. Sixteen different CL spectra of maskelynite portions were deconvolved using three assigned emission components (centered at 2.95, 3.26, and 3.88 eV). The intensity of emission component at 2.95 eV was selected as a calibrated barometer to estimate shock pressure, and the results indicate pressures of about 11-19 GPa. The difference in pressure between the shock-melt vein and host-rock might suggest heterogeneous shock conditions. Assuming an average shock pressure of 18 GPa, the impact velocity of the parent-body of Y-790729 is calculated to be 1.90 km s-1. The parent-body would be at least 10 km in size based on the incoherent formation mechanism of ringwoodite in Y-790729.

  2. PROTO-PLANETARY DISK CHEMISTRY RECORDED BY D-RICH ORGANIC RADICALS IN CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, Francois; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ∼4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that organic radicals hold all the deuterium excess (relative to the bulk IOM) in distinct, micrometer-sized, D-rich hotspots. Taken together with previous work, the results indicate that an isotopic exchange reaction took place between pre-existing organic compounds characterized by low D/H ratios and D-rich gaseous molecules, such as H 2 D + or HD 2 + . This exchange reaction most likely took place in the diffuse outer regions of the proto-planetary disk around the young Sun, offering a model that reconciles meteoritic and cometary isotopic compositions of organic molecules.

  3. A Chemical Comparison of STARDUST Organics with Insoluble Organic Matter in Chondritic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, G. D.; Yabuta, H.; Alexander, C. M.; Araki, T.; Kilcoyne, D.

    2006-12-01

    We have analyzed 15 organic rich particles extracted from the aerogel capture device flown on the STARDUST mission spacecraft to comet Wild 2 using C-, N-, and O-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Data were acquired with the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) beam line 5.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. XANES can provide both quantitative molecular functional group information and atomic N/C and O/C data. We use these data to place the organic matter extracted from the Aerogel Capture device in context with a large database of C-, N-, and O-XANES spectra obtained on meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) obtained from type 1, 2, and 3 chondrites. We find that the organic chemistry of the particles extracted from aerogel varies in functional group abundances, but is universally very rich in heteroatoms (N and O). In several cases the organic carbon is closely associated with silica (possibly derived from the aerogel), but at a concentration far in excess of the intrinsic carbon abundance of synthesized (and flown) aerogel. Independently, 29-Si, 13-C, and 1-H solid state NMR was applied to analyze the nature of organic carbon present in the aerogel as byproduct of the synthesis. The intrinsic aerogel carbon is very simple in its functional group chemistry, very low in abundance, and differs completely from that detected in the extracted organic particles.

  4. The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F.; Derenne, S.

    2009-04-01

    During these last 10 years, our group has characterized the various molecular moieties of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from carbonaceous meteorites with the aim of reconstructing its overall molecular structure. Indeed, a precise knowledge of the structure of an organic macromolecule contains irreplaceable information that traces its mechanisms of synthesis and its conditions of formation. Such a modelled structure will be presented. Carbonaceous chondrites contain up to 3 wt % of carbon that is under the form of soluble and insoluble fractions. The IOM, which constitutes more than 75 wt% of the bulk organic matter, was isolated from the bulk rock through successive acid dissolutions. The chemical structure of the isolated IOM has been studied by both (1) destructive and (2) non destructive methods. Methods include thermal and chemical degradations followed by GC/MS, spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance) along with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Although each technique alone cannot provide definite information on the chemical structure of such a complex material, the combination of the results can be used to reconstruct the molecular structure of the IOM. The proposed structure accounts for all these measured parameters. The details of this structure reveal information of the conditions of its formation in space and allow to discuss the mechanisms of organo-synthesis in the cosmochemical context of the formation of the solar system.

  5. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments have been performed on isolated meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) spanning four different carbonaceous chondrite meteorite groups; a CR2 (EET92042), a CI1 (Orgueil), a CM2 (Murchison), and the unique C2 meteorite, Tagish Lake. These solid state NMR experiments reveal considerable variation in bulk organic composition across the different meteorite group's IOM. The fraction of aromatic carbon increases as CR2 meteorite groups. Single pulse (SP) 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments reveal the presence of nanodiamonds with an apparent concentration ranking in the IOM of CR2 IOM of all four meteoritic IOM fractions are highly substituted. Fast spinning SP 1H MAS NMR spectral data combined with other NMR experimental data reveal that the average hydrogen content of sp 3 bonded carbon functional groups is low, requiring a high degree of aliphatic chain branching in each IOM fraction. The variation in chemistry across the meteorite groups is consistent with alteration by low temperature chemical oxidation. It is concluded that such chemistry principally affected the aliphatic moieties whereas the aromatic moieties and nanodiamonds may have been largely unaffected.

  6. Carbonaceous materials in the acid residue from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2006-04-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) dominates the HF/HCl residue of the Orgueil (CI) carbonaceous chondrite meteorite. The IOM is composed primarily of two C-rich particle types. The first has a fluffy texture similar to crumpled tissue paper, and the second type occurs as solid or hollow nanospheres. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of the fluffy material show it is poorly ordered, with small, irregularly shaped regions having fringes with 0.34-0.38 nm spacings and locally 0.21 nm cross-fringes. Nanodiamonds occur in the fluffy material. The rounded C-rich particles are common in the residue and their HRTEM images show neither fringes nor nanodiamonds. Both types of carbonaceous materials have a high aromatic component, as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), with up to 10 at% substitution by S, N, and O. The average compositions of the fluffy material and nanospheres are C100S1.9N3.7O4.9 and C100S2.4N5.0O3.9, respectively. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of the carbonaceous materials may represent material from multiple sources.

  7. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that organic radicals hold all the deuterium excess (relative to the bulk IOM) in distinct, micrometer-sized, D-rich hotspots. Taken together with previous work, the results indicate that an isotopic exchange reaction took place between pre-existing organic compounds characterized by low D/H ratios and D-rich gaseous molecules, such as H2D+ or HD2 +. This exchange reaction most likely took place in the diffuse outer regions of the proto-planetary disk around the young Sun, offering a model that reconciles meteoritic and cometary isotopic compositions of organic molecules.

  8. Identification of a Compound Spinel and Silicate Presolar Grain in a Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among these minimally altered CP IDPs varies widely. "Isotopically primitive" IDPs distinguished by anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions, numerous 15N-rich hotspots, and some C isotopic anomalies have higher average abundances of presolar grains (375 ppm) than IDPs with isotopically normal bulk N (<10 ppm) [5]. Some D and N isotopic anomalies have been linked to carbonaceous matter, though this material is only rarely isotopically anomalous in C [1, 5, 6]. Previous studies of the bulk chemistry and, in some samples, the mineralogy of select anhydrous CP IDPs indicate a link between high C abundance and pyroxene-dominated mineralogy [7]. In this study, we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of samples that were analyzed by [7] to characterize isotopically anomalous materials and to establish possible correlations with C abundance.

  9. Quantitative FT-IR Analysis for Chondritic Meteorites: Search for C_60 in Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunglee Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared absorption spectra of 9 bulk samples and 3 acid residues of meteorites were obtained in the mid-infrared region (4000 ~ 400 cm^(-1. From the known composition of meteorites studied, the possible absorption modes were investigated. Most bands of bulk samples occur in the region below 1200 cm^(-1 and they are due to metallic oxides and silicates. The spectra of each group can be distinguished by its own characteristic bands. Acid residues show very distinct features from their bulk samples, and absorption bands due to organic compounds are not evident in their spectra. Quantitative analyses for two carbonaceous (Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 and one ordinary (Carraweena L3.9 chondrites were performed for the presence of fullerene (C_60 in the meteorites. We calculated the concentration of C_60 in the acid residues by curvefitting the spectra with Gaussian functions. The upper limit of C_60 concentration in these meteorites appears to be less than an order of a few hundred ppm.

  10. Geochemistry of CI chondrites: Major and trace elements, and Cu and Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Moynier, F.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Bayon, G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to check the heterogeneity of the CI chondrites and determine the average composition of this group of meteorites, we analyzed a series of six large chips (weighing between 0.6 and 1.2 g) of Orgueil prepared from five different stones. In addition, one sample from each of Ivuna and Alais was analyzed. Although the sizes of the chips used in this study were “large”, our results show evidence for minor chemical heterogeneity in Orgueil, particularly for alkali elements and U. After removal of one outlier sample, the spread of the results is considerably reduced. For most of the 46 elements analyzed in this study, the average composition calculated for Orgueil is in very good agreement with previous CI estimates. This average, obtained with a “large” mass of samples, is analytically homogeneous and is suitable for normalization purposes. Finally, the Cu and Zn isotopic ratios are homogeneously distributed within the CI parent body with a spread of less than 100 ppm per atomic mass unit (amu).

  11. Diagnostik og behandling af maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kathrine; Christensen, Alexander Sidelmann; Storgaard, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is the most prevalent type of monogenetic diabetes. Treatment guidelines differ from both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. First-line treatment is a long-acting sulphonylurea, which lowers the plasma glucose level effectively, however...... with the risk of hypoglycaemia. When hypoglycaemia is a problem, short-acting sulphonylureas, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors may be used as alternatives. Metformin, glitazones and sodium glucose transporter 2-inhibitors have only limited applicability in MODY3...

  12. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Saito; Kazuhiro Nakamura; Shigeto Itani; Kiyoaki Tsukahara

    2018-01-01

    Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the...

  13. Complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian dengue virus type 3 strain isolated from a fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Pereira Miagostovich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the complete nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of Brazilian dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 from a dengue case with fatal outcome, which occurred during an epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002. This constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian DENV-3 strain since its introduction into the country in 2001. DENV-3 was responsible for the most severe dengue epidemic in the state, based on the highest number of reported cases and on the severity of clinical manifestations and deaths reported.

  14. Mineralogy and Textural Characteristics of Fine-grained Rims in the Yamato 791198 CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Constraints on the Location of Aqueous Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizmadia, Lysa J.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites provide important clues into the nature of physical and chemical processes in the early solar system. A question of key importance concerns the role of water in solar nebular and asteroidal processes. The effects of water on primary mineral assemblages have been widely recognized in chondritic meteorites, especially the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites have undergone extensive aqueous alteration that occurred prior to their arrival on Earth. In the case of the CM chondrites, this alteration has resulted in the partial to complete replacement of the primary nebular phases with secondary alteration phases. Considerable controversy exists as to the exact location where the alteration of the CM chondrites occurred. Several textural lines of evidence have been cited in support of aqueous alteration prior to the accretion of the final parent asteroid. An important line of evidence to support this hypothesis is the dis-equilibrium nature of fine-grained rims and matrix materials. [2] also noted the juxtaposition of micron-sized Fe-Ni metal grains and apparently unaltered chondrule glass against hydrated rim silicates. Conversely, there is a large body of evidence in favor of parent body alteration such as the occurrence of undisturbed Fe-rich aureoles and the systematic redistribution of elemental components over millimeters, e.g., Mg(+2) into the matrix and Fe(+2) into chondrules etc.

  15. Metal-silicate fractionation in the surface dust layers of accreting planetesimals: Implications for the formation of ordinary chondrites and the nature of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoxiong; Akridge, Glen; Sears, Derek W. G.

    Some of the most primitive solar system materials available for study in the laboratory are the ordinary chondrites, the largest meteorite class. The size and distribution of the chondrules (silicate beads) and metal, which leads to the definition of the H, L, and LL classes, suggest sorting before or during aggregation. We suggest that meteorite parent bodies (probably asteroids) had thick dusty surfaces during their early evolution that were easily mobilized by gases evolving from their interiors. Density and size sorting would have occurred in the surface layers as the upward drag forces of the gases (mainly water) acted against the downward force of gravity. The process is analogous to the industrially important process of fluidization and sorting in pyroclastic volcanics. We calculate that gas flow velocities and gas fluxes for the regolith of an asteroid-sized object heated by the impact of accreting objects or by 26Al would have been sufficient for fluidization. It can also explain, quantitatively in some cases, the observed metal-silicate sorting of ordinary chondrites, which has long been ascribed to processes occurring in the primordial solar nebula. Formation of the chondrites in the thick dynamic regolith is consistent with the major properties of chondritic meteorites (i.e., redox state, petrologic type, cooling rate, matrix abundance). These ideas have implications for the nature of asteroid surfaces and the virtual lack of asteroids with ordinary chondrite-like surfaces.

  16. Energy Storage Opportunities and Capabilities in a Type 3 Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Hoke, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Wind power plants and other renewable power plants with power electronic interfaces are capable of delivering frequency response (both governor and/or inertial response) to the grid by a control action; thus, the reduction of available online inertia as conventional power plants are retired can be compensated by designing renewable power plant controls to include frequency response. The source of energy to be delivered as inertial response is determined by the type of generation and control strategy chosen. The cost of energy storage is expected to drop over time, and global research activities on energy storage are very active, funded both by the private industry and governments. Different industry sectors (e.g., transportation, energy) are the major drivers of the recent storage research and development. This work investigates the opportunities and capabilities of deploying energy storage in renewable power plants. In particular, we focus on wind power plants with doubly-fed induction generators, or Type 3 wind turbine generator (WTGs). We find that the total output power of a system with Type 3 WTGs with energy storage can deliver a power boost during inertial response that is up to 45% higher than one without energy storage without affecting the torque limit, thus enabling an effective delivery of ancillary services to the grid.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a highly evolved type 3 vaccine-derived poliovirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Qin, Chong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanzhong; Cui, Zongqiang

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a highly evolved type 3 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) strain designated as WIV14, isolated in 2014 from a 4-year-old child suspected of having an enteroviral infection in China. Complete genome sequence of WIV14 revealed multiple nucleotide substitutions when compared with the attenuated poliovirus (PV) Sabin 3, including the reversion of three major attenuation sites to wild type. From the nucleotide divergence for the P1/capsid region, we estimated that the evolution time of WIV14 was more than 7 years, indicating the possible long time of replication. WIV14 strain seemed to have differences in biological characteristics compared with attenuated PV strains, such as being non-temperature-sensitive and producing large plaques. The current isolation of a highly divergent type 3 VDPV gives an idea of the risk of emergent VDPV strains, and emphasizes the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and herd immunity against PVs in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Hongrong [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zheng, Congyi, E-mail: cctcc202@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: zhup@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process.

  19. Novel contiguous gene deletion in peruvian girl with Trichothiodystrophy type 4 and glutaric aciduria type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Serna-Infantes, Jorge; Pastor, Miguel Chávez; Trubnykova, Milana; Velásquez, Félix Chavesta; Sotomayor, Flor Vásquez; Barriga, Hugo Abarca

    2018-02-05

    Trichothiodystrophy type 4 is a rare autosomal recessive and ectodermal disorder, characterized by dry, brittle, sparse and sulfur-deficient hair and other features like intellectual disability, ichthyotic skin and short stature, caused by a homozygous mutation in MPLKIP gene. Glutaric aciduria type 3 is caused by a homozygous mutation in SUGCT gene with no distinctive phenotype. Both genes are localized on chromosome 7 (7p14). We report an 8-year-old female with short stature, microcephaly, development delay, intellectual disability and hair characterized for dark, short, coarse, sparse and brittle associated to classical trichorrhexis microscopy pattern. Chromosome microarray analysis showed a 125 kb homozygous pathogenic deletion, which includes genes MPLKIP and SUGCT, not described before. This is the first case described in Peru of a novel contiguous gene deletion of Trichothiodystrophy type 4 and Glutaric aciduria type 3 performed by chromosome microarray analysis, highlighting the contribution and importance of molecular technologies on diagnosis of rare genetic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hongrong; Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei; Zheng, Congyi; Zhu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process

  1. Bartter Syndrome Type 3: Phenotype-Genotype Correlation and Favorable Response to Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the phenotype-genotype correlation in different genetic kinds of Bartter syndrome type 3 in children.Methods: Clinical and genetic data of 2 patients with different mutations in Bartter syndrome type 3 was analyzed while the prognosis was compared after a 6-year follow-up or 2-year follow-up, respectively.Results: Bartter syndrome is a kind of autosomal recessive inherited renal disorder. The manifestation and prognosis of Bartter syndrome change with mutation types, and severe mutation were often accompanied with unfavorable prognosis. Comprehensive therapy with ibuprofen, antisterone, captopril, and potassium have remarkable effect, while ibuprofen may improve growth retardation partly.Conclusion: Bartter syndrome should be considered when children have unreasonable continuous electrolyte disturbance, metabolic alkalosis and growth retardation.As a genetic disease, its clinical features depend on the mutation type. It can be ameliorated by electrolyte supplementation, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and potassium-sparing diuretic. Considering the following electrolyte disturbances, infections, growth retardation, kidney failure and even death, Bartter syndrome need lifelong treatment, early diagnosis and treatment is the most important.

  2. Oxygen Isotopes in Chondritic Interplanetary Dust: Parent-Bodies and Nebular Oxygen Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, J; McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L

    2006-01-01

    Planetary objects have preserved various amounts of oxygen issued from isotopically different oxygen reservoirs reflecting their origin and physico-chemical history. An 16 O-rich component is preserved in refractory inclusions (CAIs) whereas meteorites matrices are enriched in an 16 O-poor component. The origin of these components is still unclear. The most recent models are based on isotope selective photodissociation of CO in a 16 O-rich nebula/presolr cloud resulting in a 16 O-poor gas in the outer part of the nebula. However because most meteorite components are thought to be formed in the inner 3AU of the solar nebula, the precise isotopic composition of outer solar system components is yet unknown. In that respect, the oxygen isotopic composition of cometary dust is a key to understand the origin of the solar system. The Stardust mission will bring back to the Earth dust samples from comet Wild2, a short period comet from the Jupiter family. A precise determination of the oxygen isotope composition of Wild2 dust grains is essential to decipher the oxygen reservoirs of the outer solar system. However, Stardust samples may be extremely fragmented upon impact in the collector. In addition, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are likely to contain comet samples. Therefore, they started to investigate the oxygen isotopic composition of a suite of chondritic interplanetary dust particles that includes IDPs of potential cometary origin using a refined procedure to increase the lateral resolution for the analysis of Stardust grains or IDP subcomponents down to ∼ 3 (micro)m. High precision data for 4 IDPs were previously reported, here they have measured 6 additional IDPs

  3. Elemental and isotope behavior of macromolecular organic matter from CM chondrites during hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Y.; Naraoka, H.

    2009-08-01

    A new insight into carbon and hydrogen isotope variations of insoluble organic matter (IOM) is provided from seven CM chondrites, including Murchison and six Antarctic meteorites (Y-791198, Y-793321, A-881280, A-881334, A-881458 and B-7904) as well as Murchison IOM residues after hydrous pyrolysis at 270-330 °C for 72 h. Isotopic compositions of bulk carbon (δ13Cbulk) and hydrogen (δD) of the seven IOMs vary widely, ranging from -15.1 to -7.6‰ and +133 to +986‰, respectively. Intramolecular carboxyl carbon (δ13CCOOH) is more enriched in 13C by 7.5 -11‰ than bulk carbon. After hydrous pyrolysis of Murchison IOM at 330 °C, H/C ratio, δ13Cbulk, δ13CCOOH, and δD values decrease by up to 0.31, 3.5‰, 5.5‰, and 961‰, respectively. The O/C ratio increases from 0.22 to 0.46 at 270 °C and to 0.25 at 300 °C, and decreases to 0.10 at 330 °C. δ13Cbulk- δD cross plot of Murchison IOM and its pyrolysis residues shows an isotopic sequence. Of the six Antarctic IOMs, A-881280, A-881458, Y-791198 and B-7904 lie on or near the isotopic sequence depending on the degree of hydrous and/or thermal alteration, while A-881334 and Y-793321 consist of another distinct isotope group. A δ13Cbulk-δ13CCOOH cross-plot of IOMs, including Murchison pyrolysis residues, has a positive correlation between them, implying that the oxidation process to produce carboxyls is similar among all IOMs. These isotope distributions reflect various degree of alteration on the meteorite parent bodies and/or difference in original isotopic compositions before the parent body processes.

  4. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at ∼420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10 -9 s -1 ) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data

  5. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H. E-mail: pbenoit@comp.uark.edu; Sears, Derek W.G

    2001-02-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at {approx}420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10{sup -9} s{sup -1}) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data.

  6. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  7. Trace elements in primitive meteorites—VII Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2007-02-01

    We report RNAA results for Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Rb, Cs, Se, Ag, Te, Zn, In, Bi, Tl and Cd (in increasing order of metamorphic mobility) in 22 Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC). This brings to 38 the number of UOC for which data for highly volatile elements are known. For elements of lesser mobility (Co to Se, omitting Cs) overall variability in UOC are low, relative standard deviations (one sigma) being no more than a factor of two. For Ag, Te and Zn, relative standard deviations are 2-4×, while for Cs and the four most volatile elements, the variabilities are 8-110×. Elemental abundances do not vary with chemical type (H, L and LL) nor with UOC subtype (3.0-3.9). Contents of all elements reach levels up to, even exceeding, cosmic and all but Cd and the two alkalis, seem unaffected by post-accretionary processes. Contents of highly volatile elements are consistent with the idea that source regions producing contemporary falls and older Antarctic UOC differed in thermal histories. The presence or absence of carbide magnetite assemblages (CMA) generally accords with high or low Cd contents, respectively. This relationship accords with the prior suggestion that CMA formed by alteration of Fe-Ni metal by C-O-H-containing fluids at temperatures indicate that they were subsequently destroyed as metamorphic intensity increased. The high, often supercosmic, Rb and Cs levels in UOC may result from their high solubility in liquid water signalling their redistribution by C-O-H-containing fluid while in the liquid water field. Because of its uniquely high mobility, Cd could have been enriched by the C-O-H fluids and should have been lost from parent regions during later, higher temperature anhydrous metamorphism at temperatures in the 500-600 °C range.

  8. Carbonaceous Chondrite Meteorites: the Chronicle of a Potential Evolutionary Path between Stars and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Shock, Everett

    2017-09-01

    The biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, P and S, have a long cosmic history, whose evolution can still be observed in diverse locales of the known universe, from interstellar clouds of gas and dust, to pre-stellar cores, nebulas, protoplanetary discs, planets and planetesimals. The best analytical window into this cosmochemical evolution as it neared Earth has been provided so far by the small bodies of the Solar System, some of which were not significantly altered by the high gravitational pressures and temperatures that accompanied the formation of larger planets and may carry a pristine record of early nebular chemistry. Asteroids have delivered such records, as their fragments reach the Earth frequently and become available for laboratory analyses. The Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorites (CC) are a group of such fragments with the further distinction of containing abundant organic materials with structures as diverse as kerogen-like macromolecules and simpler compounds with identical counterparts in Earth's biosphere. All have revealed a lineage to cosmochemical synthetic regimes. Several CC show that asteroids underwent aqueous alteration of their minerals or rock metamorphism but may yet yield clues to the reactivity of organic compounds during parent-body processes, on asteroids as well as larger ocean worlds and planets. Whether the exogenous delivery by meteorites held an advantage in Earth's molecular evolution remains an open question as many others regarding the origins of life are. Nonetheless, the natural samples of meteorites allow exploring the physical and chemical processes that might have led to a selected chemical pool amenable to the onset of life. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Examination of Multiple Lithologies Within the Primitive Ordinary Chondrite NWA 5717

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M. J.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa 5717 is a primitive (subtype 3.05) ungrouped ordinary chondrite which contains two apparently distinct lithologies. In large cut meteorite slabs, the darker of these, lithology A, looks to host the second, much lighter in color, lithology B (upper left, Fig. 1). The nature of the boundary between the two is uncertain, ranging from abrupt to gradational and not always following particle boundaries. The distinction between the lithologies, beyond the obvious color differences, has been supported by a discrepancy in oxygen isotopes and an incongruity in the magnesium contents of chondrule olivine. Here, quantitative textural analysis and mineralogical methods have been used to investigate the two apparent lithologies within NWA 5717. Olivine grains contained in a thin section from NWA 7402, thought to be paired to 5717, were also measured to re-examine the distinct compositional range among the light and dark areas. Procedure: Particles from a high-resolution mosaic image of a roughly 13x15cm slice of NWA 5717 were traced in Adobe Photoshop. Due to the large size of the sample, visually representative regions of each lithology were chosen to be analyzed. The resulting layers of digitized particles were imported into ImageJ, which was used to measure their area, along with the axes, the angle from horizontal, and the centroid coordinates of ellipses fitted to each particle following the approach. Resulting 2D pixel areas were converted to spherical diameters employing the unfolding algorithm, which outputs a 3D particle size distribution based on digitized 2D size frequency data. Spatstat was used to create kernel density plots of the centroid coordinates for each region. X-ray compositional maps, microprobe analyses, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was conducted on a thin section of NWA 7402, tentatively paired to NWA 5717.

  10. Effects of secondary alteration on the composition of free and IOM-derived monocarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, José C.; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Wang, Yi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Huang, Yongsong

    2011-05-01

    Monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are important astrobiologically because they are often the most abundant soluble compounds in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and are potential synthetic end products for many biologically important compounds. However, there has been no systematic study on the effect of parent body alteration on molecular and isotopic variability of MCAs. Since MCAs in meteorites are dominated by low molecular weight (C1-C8), highly volatile compounds, their distributions are likely to be particularly sensitive to secondary alteration processes. In contrast, the aliphatic side chains of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in CCs, whose composition has been shown to be closely related to the MCAs, may be far more resistant to secondary alteration. In the present study, we determined the distributions and isotopic ratios of free and IOM-derived MCAs in six carbonaceous chondrites with a range of classifications: Murchison (CM2), EET 87770 (CR2), ALH 83034 (CM1), ALH 83033 (CM2), MET 00430 (CV3) and WIS 91600 (C2). We compare mineralogical and petrological characteristics to the MCAs distributions to better define the processes leading to the synthesis and alteration of meteoritic MCAs. Our results show that aqueous and especially thermal alteration in the parent bodies led to major loss of free MCAs and depletion of straight relative to branched chain compounds. However, the MCAs derived from aliphatic side chains of IOM are well preserved despite of secondary alterations. The molecular and isotopic similarities of IOM-derived MCAs in different chondrite samples indicate very similar synthetic histories for organic matter in different meteorites.

  11. Severe human parechovirus type 3 myocarditis and encephalitis in an adolescent with hypogammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Mardekian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human parechovirus (HPeV belongs to the Picornaviridae family of RNA viruses. HPeV infections can be asymptomatic, lead to mild respiratory and/or gastrointestinal symptoms, or less frequently cause severe diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis. Severe neurological HPeV infections occur most commonly in infants and neonates. There are currently 16 recognized types of HPeV. HPeV type 3 (HPeV3 has been the predominant type associated with severe central nervous system disease in neonates and newborns since its discovery in 1999. Although HPeV-related infections have been reported in adults, symptomatic HPeV3 infections in adolescents and adults are uncommon. A case of severe HPeV3 myocarditis and encephalitis in an adolescent is described.

  12. A storm of type 3 bursts observed by RAE-1 in August 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    Curves of the number of type 3 bursts as a function of time are presented for six fixed frequencies (2.8, 1.65, 1.31, 0.995, 0.700, and 0.54 MHz). The curves peak at approximately 0500 UT August 20, 1968, and are symmetrical on both sides. Sakurai (1971) has shown that this time correlates well with the CMP of the McMath Region 9597. The maximum rate of bursts is approximately 150 per hour at the higher frequency of 2.8 MHz. Over 20,000 bursts were counted during the 15-day period from August 13 to August 27 when the active region was visible to the earth. A least-squares normal curve has been fitted to the observational data and calculations of variance and standard deviation are given.

  13. Fringe periods of color moirés in contact-type 3-D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon; Son, Jung-Young; Chernyshov, Oleksii O

    2016-06-27

    A mathematical formula of calculating the fringe periods of the color moirés appearing at the contact-type 3-D displays is derived. It is typical that the color moirés are chirped and the period of the line pattern in viewing zone forming optics is more than two times of that of the pixel pattern in the display panel. These make impossible to calculate the fringe periods of the color moirés with the conventional beat frequency formula. The derived formula work very well for any combination of two line patterns having either a same line period or different line periods. This is experimentally proved. Furthermore, it is also shown that the fringe period can be expressed in terms of the viewing distance and focal length of the viewing zone forming optics.

  14. The Adenovirus Type 3 Dodecahedron's RGD Loop Comprises an HSPG Binding Site That Influences Integrin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gout

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human type 3 adenovirus dodecahedron (a virus like particle made of twelve penton bases features the ability to enter cells through Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans (HSPGs and integrins interaction and is used as a versatile vector to deliver DNA or proteins. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the pseudoviral particle with Heparan Sulphate (HS oligosaccharide shows an extradensity on the RGD loop. A set of mutants was designed to study the respective roles of the RGD sequence (RGE mutant and of a basic sequence located just downstream. Results showed that the RGE mutant binding to the HS deficient CHO-2241 cells was abolished and unexpectedly, mutation of the basic sequence (KQKR to AQAS dramatically decreased integrin recognition by the viral pseudoparticle. This basic sequence is thus involved in integrin docking, showing a close interplay between HSPGs and integrin receptors.

  15. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Miagostovich

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3 strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550 of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since genotype III - classified by sequencing - and RSS-PCR subtype C are correlated. This genetic subtype has been associated with hemorrhagic dengue epidemics and the information provided here could be useful to implement appropriate prevention and control measures.

  16. Identification of a novel CLRN1 gene mutation in Usher syndrome type 3: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Oshikawa, Chie; Nakayama, Jun; Moteki, Hideaki; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the CLRN1 gene mutation analysis in Japanese patients who were diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) on the basis of clinical findings. Genetic analysis using massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) was conducted to search for 9 causative USH genes in 2 USH3 patients. We identified the novel pathogenic mutation in the CLRN1 gene in 2 patients. The missense mutation was confirmed by functional prediction software and segregation analysis. Both patients were diagnosed as having USH3 caused by the CLRN1 gene mutation. This is the first report of USH3 with a CLRN1 gene mutation in Asian populations. Validating the presence of clinical findings is imperative for properly differentiating among USH subtypes. In addition, mutation screening using MPS enables the identification of causative mutations in USH. The clinical diagnosis of this phenotypically variable disease can then be confirmed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Optimization design of periscope type 3X zoom lens design for a five megapixel cellphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Chao, Yu-Hao; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a periscope type 3X zoom lenses design for a five megapixel cellphone camera. The configuration of optical system uses the right angle prism in front of the zoom lenses to change the optical path rotated by a 90° angle resulting in the zoom lenses length of 6 mm. The zoom lenses can be embedded in mobile phone with a thickness of 6 mm. The zoom lenses have three groups with six elements. The half field of view is varied from 30° to 10.89°, the effective focal length is adjusted from 3.142 mm to 9.426 mm, and the F-number is changed from 2.8 to 5.13.

  18. Low-temperature aqueous alteration on the CR chondrite parent body: Implications from in situ oxygen-isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilly-Rehak, Christine E.; Huss, Gary R.; Nagashima, Kazu; Schrader, Devin L.

    2018-02-01

    The presence of hydrated minerals in chondrites indicates that water played an important role in the geologic evolution of the early Solar System; however, the process of aqueous alteration is still poorly understood. Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites are particularly well-suited for the study of aqueous alteration. Samples range from being nearly anhydrous to fully altered, essentially representing snapshots of the alteration process through time. We studied oxygen isotopes in secondary-minerals from six CR chondrites of varying hydration states to determine how aqueous fluid conditions (including composition and temperature) evolved on the parent body. Secondary minerals analyzed included calcite, dolomite, and magnetite. The O-isotope composition of calcites ranged from δ18O ≈ 9 to 35‰, dolomites from δ18O ≈ 23 to 27‰, and magnetites from δ18O ≈ -18 to 5‰. Calcite in less-altered samples showed more evidence of fluid evolution compared to heavily altered samples, likely reflecting lower water/rock ratios. Most magnetite plotted on a single trend, with the exception of grains from the extensively hydrated chondrite MIL 090292. The MIL 090292 magnetite diverges from this trend, possibly indicating an anomalous origin for the meteorite. If magnetite and calcite formed in equilibrium, then the relative 18O fractionation between them can be used to extract the temperature of co-precipitation. Isotopic fractionation in Al Rais carbonate-magnetite assemblages revealed low precipitation temperatures (∼60 °C). Assuming that the CR parent body experienced closed-system alteration, a similar exercise for parallel calcite and magnetite O-isotope arrays yields "global" alteration temperatures of ∼55 to 88 °C. These secondary mineral arrays indicate that the O-isotopic composition of the altering fluid evolved upon progressive alteration, beginning near the Al Rais water composition of Δ17O ∼ 1‰ and δ18O ∼ 10‰, and becoming increasingly

  19. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  20. An 57Fe Mössbauer study of three Australian L5 ordinary-chondrite meteorites: dating Kinclaven–001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadogan, J. M.; Rebbouh, L.; Mills, J. V. J.; Bland, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three L5-type ordinary chondrite meteorites recovered from the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia were studied by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy: Kinclaven–001, Camel Donga–007 and Gunnadorah–002. The relative amounts of the various Fe-bearing phases including the primary minerals (Olivine, Pyroxene, Troilite and Fe-Ni metal) and the ferric alteration products (Goethite, Maghemite/Magnetite) were obtained to determine the percentage of iron converted to Fe 3 +  by weathering processes. These data allow us to estimate the terrestrial age of Kinclaven–001 at 1,700 ± 1,300 yrs

  1. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  2. Identification of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Proteins That Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M A G; Ribaudo, Michael; Guo, Ju-Tao; Barik, Sailen

    2016-12-15

    A major arm of cellular innate immunity is type I interferon (IFN), represented by IFN-α and IFN-β. Type I IFN transcriptionally induces a large number of cellular genes, collectively known as IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) proteins, which act as antivirals. The IFIT (interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats) family proteins constitute a major subclass of ISG proteins and are characterized by multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). In this study, we have interrogated IFIT proteins for the ability to inhibit the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family and a major cause of respiratory disease in children. We found that IFIT1 significantly inhibited PIV3, whereas IFIT2, IFIT3, and IFIT5 were less effective or not at all. In further screening a set of ISG proteins we discovered that several other such proteins also inhibited PIV3, including IFITM1, IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase), PKR (protein kinase, RNA activated), and viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum associated, interferon inducible)/Cig5. The antiviral effect of IDO, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of tryptophan degradation, could be counteracted by tryptophan. These results advance our knowledge of diverse ISG proteins functioning as antivirals and may provide novel approaches against PIV3. The innate immunity of the host, typified by interferon (IFN), is a major antiviral defense. IFN inhibits virus growth by inducing a large number of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) proteins, several of which have been shown to have specific antiviral functions. Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is major pathogen of children, and no reliable vaccine or specific antiviral against it currently exists. In this article, we report several ISG proteins that strongly inhibit PIV3 growth, the use of which may allow a better antiviral regimen targeting PIV3. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology

  3. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Meister, M; Dugbartey, G J; Zijlstra, M P; Vinet, J; Brunt, E R P; van Leeuwen, F W; Rüb, U; Kampinga, H H; den Dunnen, W F A

    2012-10-01

    A characteristic of polyglutamine diseases is the increased propensity of disease proteins to aggregate, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to the underlying neurodegeneration. Healthy cells contain mechanisms for handling protein damage, the protein quality control, which must be impaired or inefficient to permit proteotoxicity under pathological conditions. We used a quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of the pons of eight patients with the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. We employed the anti-polyglutamine antibody 1C2, antibodies against p62 that is involved in delivering ubiquitinated protein aggregates to autophagosomes, antibodies against the chaperones HSPA1A and DNAJB1 and the proteasomal stress marker UBB⁺¹. The 1C2 antibody stained neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs), diffuse nuclear staining (DNS), granular cytoplasmic staining (GCS) and combinations, with reproducible distribution. P62 always co-localized with 1C2 in NNI. DNS and GCS co-stained with a lower frequency. UBB⁺¹ was present in a subset of neurones with NNI. A subset of UBB⁺¹-containing neurones displayed increased levels of HSPA1A, while DNAJB1 was sequestered into the NNI. Based on our results, we propose a model for the aggregation-associated pathology of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3: GCS and DNS aggregation likely represents early stages of pathology, which progresses towards formation of p62-positive NNI. A fraction of NNI exhibits UBB⁺¹ staining, implying proteasomal overload at a later stage. Subsequently, the stress-inducible HSPA1A is elevated while DNAJB1 is recruited into NNIs. This indicates that the stress response is only induced late when all endogenous protein quality control systems have failed. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  4. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  5. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of chondritic meteorites from the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Valenzuela, M.; Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as dense collection areas. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable locals with semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the dense collection area of San Juan at the Central Depression and Coastal Range of Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in the terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan area of Atacama Desert.

  6. Early Solar System Alkali Fractionation Events Recorded by K-Ca Isotopes in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsunori, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Radiogenic ingrowth of Ca-40 due to decay of K-40 occurred early in the solar system history causing the Ca-40 abundance to vary within different early-former reservoirs. Marshall and DePaolo ] demonstrated that the K-40/Ca-40 decay system could be a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [3,4] determined 40K/40Ca ages of lunar granitic rock fragments and discussed the chemical characteristics of their source materials. Recently, Yokoyama et al. [5] showed the application of the K-40/Ca-40 chronometer for high K/Ca materials in ordinary chondrites (OCs). High-precision calcium isotopic data are needed to constrain mixing processes among early solar system materials and the time of planetesimal formation. To better constrain the solar system calcium isotopic compositions among astromaterials, we have determined the calcium isotopic compositions of OCs and an angrite. We further estimated a source K/Ca ratio for alkali-rich fragments in a chondritic breccia using the estimated solar system initial Ca-40/Ca-44.

  7. Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China

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    Zhu Yuan-Mao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological

  8. In situ characterization of organic matter in two primitive chondrites through correlated microanalytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, A. M.; Nittler, L.; Steele, A.; Herd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Primitive meteorites contain up to 2 wt % C, much of it in the form of insoluble organic matter (IOM). Bulk analyses have revealed the IOM to be marked by large D and 15N enrichments relative to terrestrial values. Isotopic imaging studies have revealed the presence of `hotspots’, sub-μm to μm-sized regions of IOM exhibiting extreme isotope enrichments. An interesting subpopulation of organic grains, ’nanoglobules’, which have hollow, spherical morphologies, is known to account for a portion of these hot spots. Previous work has suggested that nanoglobules can be identified in situ by native UV fluorescence. The isotopic enrichments are believed to point to low-T chemical fractionations either in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer regions of the early Solar System. As part of a larger study investigating the origin and evolution of IOM in the Solar System, a correlated, in situ, microanalytical approach was employed to characterize local isotopic and morphological heterogeneities in IOM in the highly primitive chondrites QUE 99177 (CR3) and Tagish Lake (C-ung). Previous NanoSIMS ion imaging of a QUE 99177 section revealed the spatial and isotopic distribution of C in the matrix with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Manual definition of >3300 C-rich regions in the NanoSIMS images indicates that grains smaller than 1 μm across, which account for 80% of the IOM area, have a size distribution that is similar to estimates of the size distribution of carbonaceous dust in the diffuse ISM, supporting an interstellar origin for the IOM. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is highly sensitive to the degree of disorder in carbonaceous materials, was attempted on the same regions analyzed by NanoSIMS in QUE 99177. Unfortunately, surface damage due to both the prior SIMS analyses and removal of a prior C coat precluded acquisition of useful Raman spectra. Consequently, future correlated work will entail performing Raman analyses on uncoated samples prior to SIMS

  9. Mineral associations and character of isotopically anomalous organic material in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Busemann, Henner; Nittler, Larry R.; Hoppe, Peter; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Young, Andrea F.

    2010-10-01

    We report a coordinated analytical study of matrix material in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite in which the same small (⩽20 μm) fragments were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). SIMS analysis reveals H and N isotopic anomalies (hotspots), ranging from hundreds to thousands of nanometers in size, which are present throughout the fragments. Although the differences in spatial resolution of the SIMS techniques we have used introduce some uncertainty into the exact location of the hotspots, in general, the H and N isotopic anomalies are spatially correlated with C enrichments, suggesting an organic carrier. TEM analysis, enabled by site-specific extraction using a focused-ion-beam scanning-electron microscope, shows that the hotspots contain an amorphous component, Fe-Ni sulfides, serpentine, and mixed-cation carbonates. TEM imaging reveals that the amorphous component occurs in solid and porous forms, EDS indicates that it contains abundant C, and EELS and XANES at the C K edge reveal that it is largely aromatic. This amorphous component is probably macromolecular C, likely the carrier of the isotopic anomalies, and similar to the material extracted from bulk samples as insoluble organic matter. However, given the large sizes of some of the hotspots, the disparity in spatial resolution among the various techniques employed in our study, and the phases with which they are associated, we cannot entirely rule out that some of the isotopic anomalies are carried by inorganic material, e.g., sheet silicates. The isotopic composition of the organic matter points to an initially primitive origin, quite possibly within cold interstellar clouds or the outer reaches of the solar protoplanetary disk. The association of organic material with secondary phases, e.g., serpentine

  10. Crystallography of refractory metal nuggets in carbonaceous chondrites: A transmission Kikuchi diffraction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Luke; Bland, Phil A.; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Forman, Lucy V.; Saxey, David W.; Reddy, Steven M.; Fougerouse, Denis; Rickard, William D. A.; Trimby, Patrick W.; Moody, Steve; Yang, Limei; Liu, Hongwei; Ringer, Simon P.; Saunders, Martin; Piazolo, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) is a relatively new technique that is currently being developed for geological sample analysis. This technique utilises the transmission capabilities of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to rapidly and accurately map the crystallographic and geochemical features of an electron transparent sample. TKD uses a similar methodology to traditional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), but is capable of achieving a much higher spatial resolution (5-10 nm) (Trimby, 2012; Trimby et al., 2014). Here we apply TKD to refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) which are micrometre to sub-micrometre metal alloys composed of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) found in primitive carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. TKD allows us to analyse RMNs in situ, enabling the characterisation of nanometre-scale variations in chemistry and crystallography, whilst preserving their spatial and crystallographic context. This provides a complete representation of each RMN, permitting detailed interpretation of their formation history. We present TKD analysis of five transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae containing RMNs coupled with EBSD and TEM analyses. These analyses revealed textures and relationships not previously observed in RMNs. These textures indicate some RMNs experienced annealing, forming twins. Some RMNs also acted as nucleation centres, and formed immiscible metal-silicate fluids. In fact, each RMN analysed in this study had different crystallographic textures. These RMNs also had heterogeneous compositions, even between RMNs contained within the same inclusion, host phase and even separated by only a few nanometres. Some RMNs are also affected by secondary processes at low temperature causing exsolution of molybdenite. However, most RMNs had crystallographic textures indicating that the RMN formed prior to their host inclusion. TKD analyses reveal most RMNs have been affected by processing in the protoplanetary disk. Despite this

  11. Speech recognition and communication outcomes with cochlear implantation in Usher syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietola, Laura; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Abdel-Rahman, Akram; Västinsalo, Hanna; Isosomppi, Juha; Löppönen, Heikki; Kentala, Erna; Johansson, Reijo; Valtonen, Hannu; Vasama, Juha-Pekka; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Jero, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome Type 3 (USH3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable type and degree of progressive sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Cochlear implants are widely used among these patients. To evaluate the results and benefits of cochlear implantation in patients with USH3. A nationwide multicenter retrospective review. During the years 1995-2005, in 5 Finnish university hospitals, 19 patients with USH3 received a cochlear implant. Saliva samples were collected to verify the USH3 genotype. Patients answered to 3 questionnaires: Glasgow Benefit Inventory, Glasgow Health Status Inventory, and a self-made questionnaire. Audiological data were collected from patient records. All the patients with USH3 in the study were homozygous for the Finnish major mutation (p.Y176X). Either they had severe sensorineural hearing loss or they were profoundly deaf. The mean preoperative hearing level (pure-tone average, 0.5-4 kHz) was 110 ± 8 dB hearing loss (HL) and the mean aided hearing level was 58 ± 11 dB HL. The postoperative hearing level (34 ± 9 dB HL) and word recognition scores were significantly better than before surgery. According to the Glasgow Benefit Inventory scores and Glasgow Health Status Inventory data related to hearing, the cochlear implantation was beneficial to patients with USH3. Cochlear implantation is beneficial to patients with USH3, and patients learn to use the implant without assistance.

  12. Osteogenesis imperfecta type 3 in South Africa: Causative mutations in FKBP10

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    Alvera Vorster

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. A relatively high frequency of autosomal recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta (OI type 3 (OI-3 is present in the indigenous black southern African population. Affected persons may be severely handicapped as a result of frequent fractures, progressive deformity of the tubular bones and spinal malalignment. Objective. To delineate the molecular basis for the condition. Methods. Molecular investigations were performed on 91 affected persons from seven diverse ethnolinguistic groups in this population. Results. Following polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct cycle sequencing, FKBP10 mutations were identified in 45.1% (41/91 OI-3-affected persons. The homozygous FKBP10 c.831dupC frameshift mutation was confirmed in 35 affected individuals in the study cohort. Haplotype analysis suggests that this mutation is identical among these OI-3-affected persons by descent, thereby confirming that they had a common ancestor. Compound heterozygosity of this founder mutation was observed, in combination with three different deleterious FKBP10 mutations, in six additional persons in the cohort. Four of these individuals had the c.831delC mutation. Conclusion. The burden of the disorder, both in frequency and severity, warrants the establishment of a dedicated service for molecular diagnostic confirmation and genetic management of persons and families with OI in southern Africa.

  13. Delineation of the Exact Transcription Termination Signal for Type 3 Polymerase III

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    Zongliang Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1. Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal. The T4 signal acts as minimal terminator, but full termination efficiency is reached only with a T-stretch of ≥6. The termination site within the T-stretch is quite heterogeneous, and consequently small RNAs have a variable U-tail of 1–6 nucleotides. We further report that such variable U-tails can have a significant negative effect on the functionality of the crRNA effector of the CRISPR-AsCpf1 system. We next improved these crRNAs by insertion of the HDV ribozyme to avoid U-tails. This study provides detailed design guidelines for small RNA expression cassettes based on Pol III.

  14. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Itani, Shigeto; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2018-01-01

    In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  15. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

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    Yu Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID, hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs. We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. Conclusions. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  16. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  18. Mutations in a novel gene with transmembrane domains underlie Usher syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, T; Hämäläinen, R; Yuan, B; Johnson, C; Tegelberg, S; Gasparini, P; Zelante, L; Pirvola, U; Pakarinen, L; Lehesjoki, A E; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M

    2001-10-01

    Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive hearing loss, severe retinal degeneration, and variably present vestibular dysfunction, assigned to 3q21-q25. Here, we report on the positional cloning of the USH3 gene. By haplotype and linkage-disequilibrium analyses in Finnish carriers of a putative founder mutation, the critical region was narrowed to 250 kb, of which we sequenced, assembled, and annotated 207 kb. Two novel genes-NOPAR and UCRP-and one previously identified gene-H963-were excluded as USH3, on the basis of mutational analysis. USH3, the candidate gene that we identified, encodes a 120-amino-acid protein. Fifty-two Finnish patients were homozygous for a termination mutation, Y100X; patients in two Finnish families were compound heterozygous for Y100X and for a missense mutation, M44K, whereas patients in an Italian family were homozygous for a 3-bp deletion leading to an amino acid deletion and substitution. USH3 has two predicted transmembrane domains, and it shows no homology to known genes. As revealed by northern blotting and reverse-transcriptase PCR, it is expressed in many tissues, including the retina.

  19. Lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, alopecia areata and vitiligo – A multiple autoimmune syndrome type 3 case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Laurentiu Tatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient has defined as multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS. Abnormalities of T cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity have been described previously in the literature. Aims of work were to investigate the 22 years old patient with lupus erythematosus for three years and autoimune thyroiditis for one year, regardind other possible autoimmune conditions and to establish a treatment to control the diseases. The clinical exam revealed some circular hairless patches on the beard appeared about three months ago and white depigmented disseminated areas started one month ago and the laboratory investigations were performed. The modified laboratory findings were total IgE 530 UI/mL, Anti-SSA (anti-RO antibodies> 200 IU/mL, SSB negative, Antinuclear antibodies (ANA positive and fine speckled, Lupus anticoagulant testing positive, Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies 951 UI/ml, TSH 4,7 µUI/mL. The diagnosis of multiple autoimmune syndrome(MAS type 3 including Lupus erythematosus, autoimune Thyroiditis, Alopecia Areata and Vitiligo was established. Endocrine autoimmunities are associated with autoantibodies that react to specific antigens, whereas patients with collagen diseases synthesize immunoglobulins that recognize nonorgan-specific cellular targets, such as nucleoproteins and nucleic acids. Cellular autoimmunity is important in the pathogenesis MAS. The existence of one autoimmune disorder helps lead to the discovery of other autoimmune conditions.

  20. First report of human parechovirus type 3 infection in a pregnant woman

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    Makiko Shinomoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3 can cause serious conditions in neonates, such as sepsis and encephalitis, but data for adults are lacking. The case of a pregnant woman with HPeV3 infection is reported herein. A 28-year-old woman at 36 weeks of pregnancy was admitted because of myalgia and muscle weakness. Her grip strength was 6.0 kg for her right hand and 2.5 kg for her left hand. The patient’s symptoms, probably due to fasciitis and not myositis, improved gradually with conservative treatment, however labor pains with genital bleeding developed unexpectedly 3 days after admission. An obstetric consultation was obtained and a cesarean section was performed, with no complications. A real-time PCR assay for the detection of viral genomic ribonucleic acid against HPeV showed positive results for pharyngeal swabs, feces, and blood, and negative results for the placenta, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. The HPeV3 was genotyped by sequencing of the VP1 region. The woman made a full recovery and was discharged with her infant in a stable condition.

  1. A New Mutation Causing Progressive Familiar Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 3 in Association with Autoimmune Hepatitis

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    Hugo M Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some patients exhibit features of both autoimmune hepatitis (AIH and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. Similarly, patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3 may share histological features with PSC. Case report: We report the case of a 22-year-old man who, since he was 5 years of age, has presented with pruritus, an approximately ninefold elevation of aminotransferases, and γ-glutamyl transferase levels ~10 times the upper limit. Initially he was diagnosed with an overlap syndrome of small duct PSC plus AIH. However, fluctuations in liver enzymes were observed over the following years. Analysis of the ABCB4 gene indicated the diagnosis of PFIC3, revealing a mutation not previously reported. Conclusion: With this case report we aim to describe a new mutation, raise awareness of this rare pathology and highlight the importance of genetic testing of the ABCB4 gene in patients with autoimmune liver disease (mainly small duct PSC with incomplete response to immunosuppressive treatment.

  2. Genome characterization of a porcine circovirus type 3 in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Liu, X; Zhang, P; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Zhang, L; Liang, P; Song, C

    2018-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a novel circovirus that was associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and multisystemic inflammation. Recently, a PCV3 strain was identified from pyretic and pneumonic piglets in Guangdong province, China. This virus strain was sequenced and designated PCV3-China/GD2016. The complete genome of PCV3-China/GD2016 is 2,000 bp in length and shared 99.1% and 99.1% nucleotide identities with PCV3/29160 and PCV3/2164, respectively. [Corrections added after initial online publication on 13 March 2017: The numbers '98.5%' and '97.4%' has been changed to '99.1%' and '99.1%' in the previous sentence.] Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that PCV3-China/GD2016 clustered with the emerging PCV3 and separated with other virus in genus Circovirus. The results of this study suggest that PCV3 has existed within the pigs of China. It is urgent to investigate the pathogenicity and epidemiology of this novel circovirus China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Ion microprobe analyses of oxygen three-isotope ratios of chondrules from the Sayh al Uhaymir 290 CH chondrite using a multiple-hole disk

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Gowda, R.N.; Kita, N.T.; Valley, J.W.; Naga, K.

    Author version: Meteorit. Planet. Sci., vol.46(6); 2011; 857-874 Ion microprobe analyses of oxygen three isotope ratios of chondrules from the Sayh al Uhaymir 290 CH chondrite using a multiple-hole disk Daisuke Nakashima 1,2,* , Takayuki Ushikubo...

  4. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  5. High frequency of mutation G377S in Brazilian type 3 Gaucher disease patients

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    R. Rozenberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most prevalent lysosome storage disorder, presents an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It is a paradigm for therapeutic intervention in medical genetics due to the existence of effective enzyme replacement therapy. We report here the analysis of GD in 262 unrelated Brazilian patients, carried out in order to establish the frequency of the most common mutations and to provide prognostic information based on genotype-phenotype correlations. Among 247 type 1 GD patients, mutation N370S was detected in 47% of all the alleles, but N370S/N370S homozygosity was found in only 10% of the patients, a much lower frequency than expected, suggesting that most individuals presenting this genotype may not receive medical attention. Recombinant alleles were detected at a high frequency: 44% of the chromosomes bearing mutation L444P had other mutations derived from the pseudogene sequence, present in 25% of patients. Three neuronopathic type 2 patients were homozygous for L444P, all presenting additional mutations (E326K or recombinant alleles that probably lead to the more severe phenotypes. Six children, classified as type 1 GD patients, had a L444P/L444P genotype, showing that neuronopathic symptoms may only manifest later in life. This would indicate the need for a higher treatment dose during enzyme replacement therapy. Finally, mutation G377S was present in 4 homozygous type 1 patients and also in compound heterozygosity in 5 (42% type 3 patients. These findings indicate that G377S cannot be unambiguously classified as mild and suggest an allele-dose effect for this mutation.

  6. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Li, Z; Li, Z J; Cheng, K; Du, Y; Fu, H; Khuri, F R

    2015-05-07

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 1A, p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle-promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism that controls the dynamic status of p21 through its interaction with Cdk5 and Abl enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1). Cables1 has a proposed role as a tumor suppressor. We found that upregulation of Cables1 protein was correlated with increased half-life of p21 protein, which was attributed to Cables1/p21 complex formation and supported by their co-localization in the nucleus. Mechanistically, Cables1 interferes with the proteasome (Prosome, Macropain) subunit alpha type 3 (PSMA3) binding to p21 and protects p21 from PSMA3-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of p21 partially reverses the ability of Cables1 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. In further support of a potential pathophysiological role of Cables1, the expression level of Cables1 is tightly associated with p21 in both cancer cell lines and human lung cancer patient tumor samples. Together, these results suggest Cables1 as a novel p21 regulator through maintaining p21 stability and support the model that the tumor-suppressive function of Cables1 occurs at least in part through enhancing the tumor-suppressive activity of p21.

  7. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor in Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit Aquaporin 5 Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ha; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Perez, Geidys; Park, Yun-jong; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Kawai, Toshihisa; Cha, Seunghee

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS. PMID:23382834

  8. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  9. Association of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-3 protein with clathrin

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    Gahl William A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS is a disorder of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and prolonged bleeding. These clinical findings reflect defects in the formation of melanosomes in melanocytes and dense bodies in platelets. HPS type-3 (HPS-3 results from mutations in the HPS3 gene, which encodes a 1004 amino acid protein of unknown function that contains a predicted clathrin-binding motif (LLDFE at residues 172–176. Results Clathrin was co-immunoprecipitated by HPS3 antibodies from normal but not HPS3 null melanocytes. Normal melanocytes expressing a GFP-HPS3 fusion protein demonstrated partial co-localization of GFP-HPS3 with clathrin following a 20°C temperature block. GFP-HPS3 in which the predicted clathrin-binding domain of HPS3 was mutated (GFP-HPS3-delCBD did not co-localize with clathrin under the same conditions. Immunoelectron microscopy of normal melanocytes expressing GFP-HPS3 showed co-localization of GFP-HPS3 with clathrin, predominantly on small vesicles in the perinuclear region. In contrast, GFP-HPS3-delCBD did not co-localize with clathrin and exhibited a largely cytoplasmic distribution. Conclusion HPS3 associates with clathrin, predominantly on small clathrin-containing vesicles in the perinuclear region. This association most likely occurs directly via a functional clathrin-binding domain in HPS3. These results suggest a role for HPS3 and its protein complex, BLOC-2, in vesicle formation and trafficking.

  10. A critical role of glutamate transporter type 3 in the learning and memory of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Park, Sang-Hon; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-10-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory are associated with trafficking of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) to the plasma membrane. To assess whether this trafficking is an intrinsic component of the biochemical responses underlying learning and memory, 7- to 9-week old male EAAT3 knockout mice and CD-1 wild-type mice were subjected to fear conditioning. Their hippocampal CA1 regions, amygdalae and entorhinal cortices were harvested before, or 30 min or 3 h after the fear conditioning stimulation. We found that EAAT3 knockout mice had worse contextual and tone-related learning and memory than did the wild-type mice. The expression of EAAT3, glutamate receptor (GluR)1 and GluR2 in the plasma membrane and of phospho-GluR1 (at Ser 831) and phospho-CaMKII in the hippocampus of the wild-type mice was increased at 30 min after the fear conditioning stimulation. Similar biochemical changes occurred in the amygdala. Fear conditioning also increased the expression of c-Fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the CA1 regions and of Arc in the entorhinal cortices of the wild-type mice. These biochemical responses were attenuated in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that EAAT3 plays a critical role in learning and memory. Our results also provide initial evidence that EAAT3 may have receptor-like functions to participate in the biochemical reactions underlying learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Composite Phymatoderma from Neogene deep-marine deposits in Japan: Implications for Phanerozoic benthic interactions between burrows and the trace-makers of Chondrites and Phycosiphon

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    Kentaro Izumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among composite trace fossils, one of the most common structures throughout the Phanerozoic are structures (e.g., dwelling trace, feeding trace reworked by Chondrites and/or Phycosiphon. However, differences in the nature of the reworking behaviors of these two ichnogenera remain unknown. Thus, in this study, composite Phymatoderma specimens from the Neogene deep-marine Shiramazu Formation in Japan, particularly those reworked by Chondrites and Phycosiphon, were analyzed to reveal the specific conditions that might control the activities of these trace-makers. Phymatoderma reworked by Phycosiphon is significantly larger than non-reworked Phymatoderma, whereas Phymatoderma reworked by Chondrites shows no significant difference in burrow diameter compared with non-reworked Phymatoderma. The recognized size selectivity (i.e., preference for larger burrows by the Phycosiphon trace-maker can be explained by considering the different feeding strategies of these two ichnogenera; namely deposit-feeding Phycosiphon-makers, which must have processed a significant mass of sediment to obtain sufficient organic matter, whereas chemosymbiotic Chondrites-producers did not require a lot of sediment to obtain nutrients. In order to test these interpretations, a dataset of Phanerozoic trace fossils reworked by Chondrites/Phycosiphon were compiled. Consequently, the Phycosiphon-producers’ preference toward relatively larger burrows was recognized, quantitatively supporting the results of this study. The compilation also indicates that the burrow size might have become one of the important limiting factors for the Phycosiphon-producers that tried to rework the sediments within previous subsurface burrows, at least for 80 million years.

  12. High abundances of presolar grains and 15N-rich organic matter in CO3.0 chondrite Dominion Range 08006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Davidson, Jemma; Riebe, My E. I.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    NanoSIMS C-, N-, and O-isotopic mapping of matrix in CO3.0 chondrite Dominion Range (DOM) 08006 revealed it to have in its matrix the highest abundance of presolar O-rich grains (257 +76/-96 ppm, 2σ) of any meteorite. It also has a matrix abundance of presolar SiC of 35 (+25/-17, 2σ) ppm, similar to that seen across primitive chondrite classes. This provides additional support to bulk isotopic and petrologic evidence that DOM 08006 is the most primitive known CO meteorite. Transmission electron microscopy of five presolar silicate grains revealed one to have a composite mineralogy similar to larger amoeboid olivine aggregates and consistent with equilibrium condensation, two non-stoichiometric amorphous grains, and two olivine grains, though one is identified as such solely based on its composition. We also found insoluble organic matter (IOM) to be present primarily as sub-micron inclusions with ranges of C- and N-isotopic anomalies similar to those seen in primitive CR chondrites and interplanetary dust particles. In contrast to other primitive extraterrestrial materials, H isotopic imaging showed normal and homogeneous D/H. Most likely, DOM 08006 and other CO chondrites accreted a similar complement of primitive and isotopically anomalous organic matter to that found in other chondrite classes and IDPs, but the very limited amount of thermal metamorphism experienced by DOM 08006 has caused loss of D-rich organic moieties, while not substantially affecting either the molecular carriers of C and N anomalies or most inorganic phases in the meteorite. One C-rich grain that was highly depleted in 13C and 15N was identified; we propose it originated in the Sun's parental molecular cloud.

  13. Contribution of early impact events to metal-silicate separation, thermal annealing, and volatile redistribution: Evidence in the Pułtusk H chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesińska, Agata M.

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray tomographic reconstructions and petrologic studies reveal voluminous accumulations of metal in Pułtusk H chondrite. At the contact of these accumulations, the chondritic rock is enriched in troilite. The rock contains plagioclase-rich bands, with textures suggesting crystallization from melt. Unusually large phosphates are associated with the plagioclase and consist of assemblages of merrillite, and fluorapatite and chlorapatite. The metal accumulations were formed by impact melting, rapid segregation of metal-sulfide melt and the incorporation of this melt into the fractured crater basement. The impact most likely occurred in the early evolution of the H chondrite parent body, when post-impact heat overlapped with radiogenic heat. This enabled slow cooling and separation of the metallic melt into metal-rich and sulfide-rich fractions. This led to recrystallization of chondritic rock in contact with the metal accumulations and the crystallization of shock melts. Phosphorus was liberated from the metal and subsumed by the silicate shock melt, owing to oxidative conditions upon slow cooling. The melt was also a host for volatiles. Upon further cooling, phosphorus reacted with silicates leading to the formation of merrillite, while volatiles partitioned into the residual halogen-rich, dry fluid. In the late stages, the fluid altered merrillite to patchy Cl/F-apatite. The above sequence of alterations demonstrates that impact during the early evolution of chondritic parent bodies might have contributed to local metal segregation and silicate melting. In addition, postshock conditions supported secondary processes: compositional/textural equilibration, redistribution of volatiles, and fluid alterations.

  14. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayeb M E; Al-Bar, Hussein M S; Azhar, Esam I; Kao, Moujahed; Alshoeb, Haj O; Bamoosa, Alabd R

    2013-03-14

    Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. From 15-17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen

  15. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al

  16. Oculomotor and Vestibular Findings in Gaucher Disease Type 3 and Their Correlation with Neurological Findings

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    Tatiana Bremova-Ertl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesTo evaluate the function of the oculomotor and vestibular systems and to correlate these findings with the clinical status of patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3. The goal of this cross-sectional and longitudinal study was to find oculomotor biomarkers for future clinical trials.MethodsTwenty-six patients with GD3 were assessed for eligibility and 21 were able to perform at least one task. Horizontal and vertical reflexive saccades, smooth pursuit, gaze-holding, optokinetic nystagmus, and horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR were examined by video-oculography/video-head impulse test and compared concurrently with 33 healthy controls. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, the modified Severity Scoring Tool (mSST, and Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT were administered to assess overall neurological function. Eleven patients were also re-assessed after 1 year.ResultsNine out of 17 patients exhibited gaze-holding deficits. One patient had upbeat nystagmus. Three patients presented with bilateral abducens palsy in combination with central oculomotor disorders, suggesting a bilateral involvement of the abducens nucleus. Horizontal angular VOR gain was reduced in all patients (0.66 ± 0.37 compared with controls (1.1 ± 0.11, p < 0.001. Most strongly correlated with clinical rating scales were peak velocity of downward saccades (SARA: ρ = −0.752, p < 0.0005; mSST: ρ = −0.611, p = 0.003; GPT: ρ = −0.649, p = 0.005 and duration of vertical saccades (SARA: ρ = 0.806, p < 0.001; mSST: ρ = 0.700, p < 0.0005; GPT: ρ = 0.558, p = 0.02 together with the VOR gain (SARA: ρ = −0.63, p = 0.016; mSST: ρ = −0.725, p = 0.003; GPT: ρ = −0.666, p = 0.004. Vertical smooth pursuit gain decreased significantly at follow-up.InterpretationThis study shows neuronal degeneration of the brainstem and cerebellum with combined involvement of

  17. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) among patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlendak-Sauer, Katarzyna; Jakubik, Daniel; Kunicki, Michał; Skórska, Jolanta; Smolarczyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 - (APS-3), is defined as the coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with other non-ovarian autoimmune diseases without primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally the definition of APS-3 also includes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) coexistence with autoimmune thyroiditis. The main goal of that study is to assess the prevalence of APS-3 defined as coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with POI in population of 46 XX karyotype women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The second goal is to investigate hormonal profile and insulin sensitivity in women with POI and subgroups of women with APS-3 - POI/APS-3(+) and without APS 3 - POI/APS-3(-). Anthropometric measurements, coexistence of autoimmune diseases, androgens, fasting glucose and insulin, glucose and insulin at 60' and 120' of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were determine in 98 patients aged between 18 and 39 with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in 33 POI/APS-3(+), 65 POI/APS-3(-), and 75 healthy controls. Continuous data were summarized by the mean±standard deviation (SD), and categorical data by number (percentages). Data were checked for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, the comparison between groups were performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskall-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationships between parameters. Statistical significance was defined as p values APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) showed significantly lower serum androgens in comparison to controls. Additionally women with POI/APS-3(+) showed hyperinsulinemia after 1h of OGTT; No significant differences in serum fasting glucose, insulin and during 2h OGTT between groups were observed. The prevalence of APS-3 is 33.7% in patients with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency. Women with POI, POI/APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) feature lower testosterone, androstendione

  18. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Wood, J.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1984-01-01

    The two textural varieties of olivine-rich Allende inclusions consist primarily of a porous, fine-grained mafic constituent that differs from the opaque meteorite matrix of CV3 chondrites by being relatively depleted in sulfides, metal grains, and carbonaceous material. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Allende inclusion matrix; clinopyroxene, nepheline, sodalite, and Ti-Al-pyroxene occur in lesser amounts. Olivine in unrimmed olivine aggregates is ferrous and has a narrow compositional range. Olivine in rimmed olivine aggregates is, on average, more magnesian, with a wider compositional range. Olivine grains in the granular rims of Type 1B inclusions are zoned, with magnesian cores and ferrous rinds. Ferrous olivines in both varieties of inclusions commonly contain significant amounts of Al 2 O 3 , CaO and TiO 2 , refractory elements that probably occur in submicroscopic inclusions of Ca, Al, Ti-rich glass. Defocussed beam analyses of Allende matrix materials are discussed. (author)

  19. Early solar system. Early accretion of water in the inner solar system from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; McCubbin, Francis M; Monteleone, Brian D

    2014-10-31

    Determining the origin of water and the timing of its accretion within the inner solar system is important for understanding the dynamics of planet formation. The timing of water accretion to the inner solar system also has implications for how and when life emerged on Earth. We report in situ measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of the mineral apatite in eucrite meteorites, whose parent body is the main-belt asteroid 4 Vesta. These measurements sample one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system and show that Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as that of carbonaceous chondrites. Taking into account the old ages of eucrite meteorites and their similarity to Earth's isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, we demonstrate that these volatiles could have been added early to Earth, rather than gained during a late accretion event. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Magnesium and 54Cr isotope compositions of carbonaceous chondrite chondrules – Insights into early disk processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    .2 ± 0.4) × 10−5. The CV chondrules display significant μ54Cr variability, defining a range of compositions that is comparable to that observed for inner Solar System primitive and differentiated meteorites. In contrast, CR chondrites are characterized by a narrower range of μ54Cr values restricted to compositions...... establishes that these objects formed from a thermally unprocessed and 26Al-poor source reservoir distinct from most inner Solar System asteroids and planetary bodies, possibly located beyond the orbits of the gas giants. In contrast, a large fraction of the CV chondrules plot on the inner Solar System...... correlation line, indicating that these objects predominantly formed from thermally-processed, 26Al-bearing precursor material akin to that of inner Solar System solids, asteroids and planets....

  1. Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Almahata Sitta Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q.-Z.; Sanborn, M. E.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show that solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NCC)-like, with minimal mixing between them attributed to a gap opened in the propoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests that there should be a particular time in the disk history when this gap is breached and ensuring a subsequent large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids (inner solar system and outer solar system materials), an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-(epsilon)54Cr isotope systematics.

  2. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  3. Molecular and compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yongsong; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Fogel, Marilyn; Cody, George

    2005-07-01

    We have conducted the first systematic analyses of molecular distribution and δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from different carbonaceous chondrite groups, using flash pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific D/H analysis. IOM samples from six meteorites of different classifications, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 (CR2), Orgueil (CI1), Allan Hills (ALH) 83100 (CM1/2), Murchison (CM2), ALH 85013 (CM2), and Tagish Lake (C2) were isolated and studied. Except for the pyrolysate of Tagish Lake IOM, pyrolysates of all five meteorite IOM samples were dominated by an extensive series of aromatic (C 1 to C 7 alkyl-substituted benzenes, C 0 to C 2 alkyl-substituted naphthalenes), with aliphatic (straight chain and branched C 10 to C 15 alkanes) hydrocarbons and several S- and O- containing compounds (C 1 to C 2 alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, benzaldehyde) being also present. The strong similarity in the pyrolysates of different carbonaceous chondrites suggests certain common characteristics in the formation mechanisms of IOM from different meteorites. The Tagish Lake IOM sample is unique in that its pyrolysate lacks most of the alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons detected in other meteorite IOM samples, suggesting distinctively different formation processes. Both bulk δD values of meteorite IOMs and weighted-average δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates show a decreasing trend: CR2 > CI1 > CM2 > C2 (Tagish Lake), with the EET 92042 (CR2) IOM having the highest δD values (˜2000‰ higher than other samples). We attribute the high D contents in the IOM to primitive interstellar organic sources.

  4. Correlated Amino Acid and Mineralogical Analyses of Milligram and Submilligram Samples of Carbonaceous Chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks 94101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in the eight carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances, structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of amino acids differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. These results suggest parent-body conditions (thermal or aqueous alteration), mineralogy, and the preservation of amino acids are linked. Previously, elucidating specific relationships between amino acids and mineralogy was not possible because the samples analyzed for amino acids were much larger than the scale at which petrologic heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences corresponding to sub-mg samples); for example, Pizzarello and coworkers measured amino acid abundances and performed X-ray diffraction (XRD) on several samples of the Murchison meteorite, but these analyses were performed on bulk samples that were 500 mg or larger. Advances in the sensitivity of amino acid measurements by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/TOF-MS), and application of techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for mineralogical characterizations have now enabled coordinated analyses on the scale at which mineral heterogeneity is observed. In this work, we have analyzed samples of the Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. We are investigating the link(s) between parent body processes, mineralogical context, and amino acid compositions in meteorites on bulk samples (approx. 20mg) and mineral separates (< or = 3mg) from several of spatial locations within our allocated samples. Preliminary results of these analyses are presented here.

  5. The Stubenberg meteorite—An LL6 chondrite fragmental breccia recovered soon after precise prediction of the strewn field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Addi; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bauer, Kerstin; Burkhardt, Christoph; Busemann, Henner; Ebert, Samuel; Gonsior, Michael; Hakenmüller, Janina; Haloda, Jakub; Harries, Dennis; Heinlein, Dieter; Hiesinger, Harald; Hochleitner, Rupert; Hoffmann, Viktor; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Laubenstein, Matthias; Maden, Colin; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Morlok, Andreas; Pack, Andreas; Ruf, Alexander; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; SchöNbäChler, Maria; Steele, Robert C. J.; Spurný, Pavel; Wimmer, Karl

    2017-08-01

    On March 6, 2016 at 21:36:51 UT, extended areas of Upper Austria, Bavaria (Germany) and the southwestern part of the Czech Republic were illuminated by a very bright bolide. This bolide was recorded by instruments in the Czech part of the European Fireball Network and it enabled complex and precise description of this event including prediction of the impact area. So far six meteorites totaling 1473 g have been found in the predicted area. The first pieces were recovered on March 12, 2016 on a field close to the village of Stubenberg (Bavaria). Stubenberg is a weakly shocked (S3) fragmental breccia consisting of abundant highly recrystallized rock fragments embedded in a clastic matrix. The texture, the large grain size of plagioclase, and the homogeneous compositions of olivine (Fa31.4) and pyroxene (Fs25.4) clearly indicate that Stubenberg is an LL6 chondrite breccia. This is consistent with the data on O, Ti, and Cr isotopes. Stubenberg does not contain solar wind-implanted noble gases. Data on the bulk chemistry, IR spectroscopy, cosmogenic nuclides, and organic components also indicate similarities to other metamorphosed LL chondrites. Noble gas studies reveal that the meteorite has a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of 36 ± 3 Ma and that most of the cosmogenic gases were produced in a meteoroid with a radius of at least 35 cm. This is larger than the size of the meteoroid which entered the Earth's atmosphere, which is constrained to <20 cm from short-lived radionuclide data. In combination, this might suggest a complex exposure history for Stubenberg.

  6. NUCLEOSYNTHETIC TUNGSTEN ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN ACID LEACHATES OF THE MURCHISON CHONDRITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HAFNIUM-TUNGSTEN CHRONOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, Christoph; Wieler, Rainer [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Clausiusstrasse 25, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kleine, Thorsten [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: burkhardt@erdw.ethz.ch [Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Progressive dissolution of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite with acids of increasing strengths reveals large internal W isotope variations that reflect a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the components of primitive chondrites. At least two distinct carriers of nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies must be present, which were produced in different nucleosynthetic environments. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates follows a linear trend that is consistent with a mixing line between terrestrial W and a presumed s-process-enriched component. The composition of the s-enriched component agrees reasonably well with that predicted by the stellar model of s-process nucleosynthesis. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates provides a means for correcting the measured {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) for nucleosynthetic anomalies using the isotopic variations in {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W. This new correction procedure is different from that used previously, and results in a downward shift of the initial {epsilon}{sup 182}W of CAI to -3.51 {+-} 0.10 (where {epsilon}{sup 182}W is the variation in 0.01% of the {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W ratio relative to Earth's mantle). This revision leads to Hf-W model ages of core formation in iron meteorite parent bodies that are {approx}2 Myr younger than previously calculated. The revised Hf-W model ages are consistent with CAI being the oldest solids formed in the solar system, and indicate that core formation in some planetesimals occurred within {approx}2 Myr of the beginning of the solar system.

  7. 87Rb-87Sr chronology of H chondrites: constraint and speculations on the early evolution of their parent body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, J.-F.; Allegre, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    A precise 87 Rb- 87 Sr whole-rock isochron for H chrondrites and an internal isochron for Tieschitz (H3) have been determined. The age and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio of the whole rocks are 4.25 +- 0.05 b.y. and 0.69876 +- 0.00040 (lambda( 87 Rb) = 1.42 X 10 -11 yr -1 ). For Tieschitz, whereas handipicked separates plot on a well-defined line, heavy liquid separates scatter in the 87 Rb/ 86 Sr vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr diagram. Leaching experiments by heavy liquids indicate that they might have a sizeable effect on Tieschitz minerals. The age and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio as determined by handpicked separates are 4.53 +- 0.06 b.y. and 0.69880 +- 0.00020, indistinguishable from the whole-rock isochron. These results are interpreted as 'primitive isochrons' dating the condensation of chondrites from the solar nebula. The best value of this event is given by joining both isochrons together at 4.518 +- 0.026 b.y. and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.69881 +- 0.00016. The near identity of this initial ratio with the one of Allende white inclusions argues in favor of a sharp isochronism of condensation from a 87 Sr/ 86 Sr homogeneous nebula. Data from Guarena and Richardton are interpreted as secondary internal isochrons, 100 m.y. after the condensation of the whole rocks. The data are then used to constrain a thermal evolution model of the H chondrite parent body. This body might have a 150-175 km radius, and might have been heated by 26 Al. An 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of 4-6 X 10 -6 is enough for heating such a body. Further tests for this model are proposed. (Auth.)

  8. Gitelman or Bartter type 3 syndrome? A case of distal convoluted tubulopathy caused by CLCNKB gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, António José; Castro, Alexandra

    2013-01-22

    A 32-year-old woman with no significant medical history was sent to our consultation due to hypokalaemia (syndrome (GS) came negative. CLCNKB gene mutation analysis present in both GS and Bartter (BS) type 3 syndromes was positive. The patient is now being treated with potassium and magnesium oral supplements, ramipril and spironolactone with stable near-normal potassium and magnesium levels. This article presents the case of a patient with hypokalaemia caused by CLCNKB gene mutation hard to categorise as GS or BS type 3.

  9. The Role of Fe,Ni Metal and Fe,Ni Sulfide Nanoparticles in Catalytic Organic Synthesis in the Early Solar System: Evidence From Carbonaceous Chondrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of both soluble and insoluble organic compounds. These compounds formed in a variety of different astrophysical environments including the interstellar medium, the solar nebula and on asteroidal parent bodies. The solid or insoluble organic material (IOM) in carbonaceous chondrites is likely the complex end product of synthesis and processing in all of these environments. Although the bulk chemistry and structure of IOM in carbonaceous chondrites is well understood, important questions remain as to the exact spatial occurrence and distribution of organic material within carbonaceous chondrites. Such information may provide important insights into the possible mechanisms of formation of organic material at the grain scale. We have examined the matrices of three CM carbonaceous chondrites, Y791198, Murchison and ALH81002 using a range of different TEM techniques. Mineralogically, the matrices of these meteorites consist of phyllosilicates and/or amorphous materials associated with sulfides, oxides and carbides. Using energy filtered TEM several distinct occurrences of organic material have been identified, notably associations with nanoparticles of sulfide and carbide. Sulfides have grain sizes that are commonly <100 nm with thin layers of poorly graphitized C (<1 nm) on their surfaces. This carbonaceous layer often contains nitrogen suggesting that it is organic in character. In addition, nanoparticles of Fe,Ni carbides that occur either singly or in clusters are often embedded in carbonaceous material that is also N-bearing. These carbides have experienced partial oxidation to magnetite around their rims. The ubiquitous spatial association between sulfide and carbide nanoparticles and carbonaceous material indicates a genetic relation between these phases. This association can be most readily explained by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalysis reactions involving catalytic hydrogenation

  10. Increased migration of monocytes in essential hypertension is associated with increased transient receptor potential channel canonical type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ni, Yinxing; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performe...

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies...... and for the worry of being diagnosed with a cancer susceptibility syndrome....

  12. Generation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line SCA3.A11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Borland, Helena; Hasholt, Lis Frydenreich

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG-repeat expanding mutation in ATXN3. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a SCA3 patient by electroporation of dermal fibroblasts with episomal plasmids encoding L-MYC, LIN28...

  13. Generation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line SCA3.B11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Borland, Helena; Hasholt, Lis Frydenreich

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of the CAG-repeat in ATXN3. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from SCA3 patient dermal fibroblasts by electroporation with episomal plasmids encoding L...

  14. CRP-Cyclic AMP Regulates the Expression of Type 3 Fimbriae via Cyclic di-GMP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect. MrkA production was markedly increased by cyaA or crp deletion, but slightly decreased by cpdA deletion. In addition, the mRNA levels of mrkABCDF genes and the activity of PmrkA were increased in Δcrp strain, as well as the mRNA levels of mrkHIJ genes that encode cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP-related regulatory proteins that influence type 3 fimbriae expression. Moreover, the activities of PmrkHI and PmrkJ were decreased in ΔlacZΔcrp strain. These results indicate that CRP-cAMP down-regulates mrkABCDF and mrkHIJ at the transcriptional level. Further deletion of mrkH or mrkI in Δcrp strain diminished the production of MrkA, indicating that MrkH and MrkI are required for the CRP regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression. Furthermore, the high activity of PmrkHI in the ΔlacZΔcrp strain was diminished in ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkHI, but increased in the ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkJ strain. Deletion of crp increased the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration and reduced the phosphodiesterase activity. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of multiple genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism were altered in Δcrp strain. These indicate that CRP regulates type 3 fimbriae expression indirectly via the c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, we found evidence of a coordinated regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression by the CRP

  15. Comparison of the Oxidation State of Fe in Comet 81P/Wild 2 and Chondritic-Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ogliore, R. C.; Butterworth, A. L.; Fakra, S. C.; Gainsforth, Z.; Marcus, M. A.; Westphal, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP- IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alteration have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured th...

  16. Compound-Specific Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios for Amino Acids in CM and CR Chondrites and their use in Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (oD, 013C, and olSN) of organic compounds can revcal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may indicate the most likely of these pathways. We have applied gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H stable isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites: CM1I2 Allan Hills (ALH) 83100, CM2 Murchison, CM2 Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, CM2 Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101, CRZ Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, CRZ Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. We compare the isotopic compositions of amino acids in these meteorites with predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways. We observe trends of decreasing ODC and increasing oD with increasing carbon number in the aH, (l-NH2 amino acids that correspond to predictions made for formation via Streckercyanohydrin synthesis. We also observe light ODC signatures for -alanine, which may indicate either formation via Michael addition or via a pathway that forms primarily small, straight-chain, amine-terminal amino acids (n-ro-amino acids). Higher deuterium enrichments are observed in amethyl amino acids, indicating formation of these amino acids or their precursors in cold interstellar or nebular environments. Finally, individual amino acids are more enriched in deuterium in CR chondrites than CM chondrites, reflecting different parent-body chemistry.

  17. Determination of elemental content in the Rumanova, Uhrovec, Vel'ke Borove, Kosice and Chelyabinsk chondrites by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaizer, J.; Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Porubčan, V.; Povinec, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2017), s. 2085-2096 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ordinary chondrite * INAA * elemental composition * distriburion patterns * rare earth elements Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  18. Modification of REE distribution of ordinary chondrites from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) hot deserts: Insights into the chemical weathering of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Rochette, Pierre; Valenzuela, Millarca; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Mirnejad, Hassan; Sutter, Brad; Hutzler, Aurore; Aboulahris, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) during hot desert weathering of meteorites is investigated. Ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) deserts show different variations in REE composition during this process. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveal that hot desert OCs tend to show elevated light REE concentrations, relative to OC falls. Chondrites from Atacama are by far the most enriched in REEs and this enrichment is not necessarily related to their degree of weathering. Positive Ce anomaly of fresh chondrites from Atacama and the successive formation of a negative Ce anomaly with the addition of trivalent REEs are similar to the process reported from Antarctic eucrites. In addition to REEs, Sr and Ba also show different concentrations when comparing OCs from different hot deserts. The stability of Atacama surfaces and the associated old terrestrial ages of meteorites from this region give the samples the necessary time to interact with the terrestrial environment and to be chemically modified. Higher REE contents and LREE-enriched composition are evidence of contamination by terrestrial soil. Despite their low degrees of weathering, special care must be taken into account while working on the REE composition of Atacama meteorites for cosmochemistry applications. In contrast, chondrites from the Lut desert show lower degrees of REE modification, despite significant weathering signed by Sr content. This is explained by the relatively rapid weathering rate of the meteorites occurring in the Lut desert, which hampers the penetration of terrestrial material by forming voluminous Fe oxide/oxyhydroxides shortly after the meteorite fall.

  19. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  20. ACCRETION AND PRESERVATION OF D-RICH ORGANIC PARTICLES IN CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES: EVIDENCE FOR IMPORTANT TRANSPORT IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have acquired NanoSIMS images of the matrices of CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites to study, in situ, the organic matter trapped during the formation of their parent bodies. D/H ratio images reveal the occurrence of D-rich hot spots, constituting isolated organic particles. Not all the organic particles are D-rich hot spots, indicating that at least two kinds of organic particles have been accreted in the parent bodies. Ratio profiles through D-rich hot spots indicate that no significant self-diffusion of deuterium occurs between the D-rich organic matter and the depleted hydrous minerals that are surrounding them. This is not the result of a physical shielding by any constituent of the chondrites. Ab initio calculations indicate that it cannot be explained by isotopic equilibrium. Then it appears that the organic matter that is extremely enriched in D does not exchange with the hydrous minerals, or this exchange is so slow that it is not significant over the 4.5 billion year history on the parent body. If we consider that the D-rich hot spots are the result of an exposure to intense irradiation, then it appears that carbonaceous chondrites accreted organic particles that have been brought to different regions of the solar nebula. This is likely the result of important radial and vertical transport in the early solar system.

  1. Type 3 fimbriae and biofilm formation are regulated by the transcriptional regulators MrkHI in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah G; Murphy, Caitlin N; Sippy, Jean; Johnson, Tylor J; Clegg, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which frequently causes hospital-acquired urinary and respiratory tract infections. K. pneumoniae may establish these infections in vivo following adherence, using the type 3 fimbriae, to indwelling devices coated with extracellular matrix components. Using a colony immunoblot screen, we identified transposon insertion mutants which were deficient for type 3 fimbrial surface production. One of these mutants possessed a transposon insertion within a gene, designated mrkI, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator. A site-directed mutant of this gene was constructed and shown to be deficient for fimbrial surface expression under aerobic conditions. MrkI mutants have a significantly decreased ability to form biofilms on both abiotic and extracellular matrix-coated surfaces. This gene was found to be cotranscribed with a gene predicted to encode a PilZ domain-containing protein, designated MrkH. This protein was found to bind cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and regulate type 3 fimbrial expression.

  2. Type 3 Fimbriae and Biofilm Formation Are Regulated by the Transcriptional Regulators MrkHI in Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Murphy, Caitlin N.; Sippy, Jean; Johnson, Tylor J.; Clegg, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which frequently causes hospital-acquired urinary and respiratory tract infections. K. pneumoniae may establish these infections in vivo following adherence, using the type 3 fimbriae, to indwelling devices coated with extracellular matrix components. Using a colony immunoblot screen, we identified transposon insertion mutants which were deficient for type 3 fimbrial surface production. One of these mutants possessed a transposon insertion within a gene, designated mrkI, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator. A site-directed mutant of this gene was constructed and shown to be deficient for fimbrial surface expression under aerobic conditions. MrkI mutants have a significantly decreased ability to form biofilms on both abiotic and extracellular matrix-coated surfaces. This gene was found to be cotranscribed with a gene predicted to encode a PilZ domain-containing protein, designated MrkH. This protein was found to bind cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and regulate type 3 fimbrial expression. PMID:21571997

  3. Mercury's Protoplanetary Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2004-01-01

    Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Recently, by expressing ratios relative to Fe, I discovered a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical t...

  4. Zhamanshin astrobleme provides evidence for carbonaceous chondrite and post-impact exchange between ejecta and Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Žák, Karel; Pack, Andreas; Moynier, Frédéric; Mougel, Bérengère; Peters, Stefan; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2017-08-09

    Chemical fingerprints of impacts are usually compromised by extreme conditions in the impact plume, and the contribution of projectile matter to impactites does not often exceed a fraction of per cent. Here we use chromium and oxygen isotopes to identify the impactor and impact-plume processes for Zhamanshin astrobleme, Kazakhstan. ε 54 Cr values up to 1.54 in irghizites, part of the fallback ejecta, represent the 54 Cr-rich extremity of the Solar System range and suggest a CI-like chondrite impactor. Δ 17 O values as low as -0.22‰ in irghizites, however, are incompatible with a CI-like impactor. We suggest that the observed 17 O depletion in irghizites relative to the terrestrial range is caused by partial isotope exchange with atmospheric oxygen (Δ 17 O = -0.47‰) following material ejection. In contrast, combined Δ 17 O-ε 54 Cr data for central European tektites (distal ejecta) fall into the terrestrial range and neither impactor fingerprint nor oxygen isotope exchange with the atmosphere are indicated.Identifying the original impactor from craters remains challenging. Here, the authors use chromium and oxygen isotopes to indicate that the Zhamanshin astrobleme impactor was a carbonaceous chrondrite by demonstrating that depleted 17O values are due to exchange with atmospheric oxygen.

  5. Platinum group element enrichments and possible chondritic Ru:Ir across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, western New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, D J; Conaway, C A; Katz, D J; Goodfellow, W D; Gregoire, D C

    1997-08-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is recognized as the culmination of a global mass extinction in the Late Devonian. In western New York State the boundary is a distinct horizon within a pyritic black shale bed of the upper Hanover Shale defined by the first occurrence of Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian conodonts. The boundary is characterized by a minor disconformity marked by a lag concentration of conodonts. Iridium at the boundary is 0.11-0.24 ng/g, two to five times background levels of <0.05 ng/g; other Ir enrichments of 0.38 ng/g and 0.49 ng/g occur within 50 cm of the conodont-constrained boundary. Numerous Ir enrichments in the boundary interval suggest extraterrestrial accretion and platinum group element (PGE) concentration at disconformities, or mobilization and concentration in organic-rich/pyritic-rich laminations from cosmic or terrestrial sources. PGE ratios of Pt/Pd and Ku/Ir at the boundary horizon approximate chondritic ratios and are suggestive of an unaltered extraterrestrial source. These values do not conclusively establish a single extraterrestrial impact as the ultimate cause of the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, especially given the presence of similar Ir enrichments elsewhere in the section and the absence at the boundary of microtektites and shocked mineral grains.

  6. The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, H.; Williams, L.; Cody, G.; Pizzarello, S.

    2005-01-01

    The larger portion of the organic carbon in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) is present as a complex and heterogeneous macromolecular material that is insoluble in acids and most solvents (IOM). So far, it has been analyzed only as a whole by microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy (IR, NMR, EPR), which have offered and overview of its chemical nature, bonding, and functional group composition. Chemical or pyrolytic decomposition has also been used in combination with GC-MS to identify individual compounds released by these processes. Their value in the recognition of the original IOM structure resides in the ability to properly interpret the decomposition pathways for any given process. We report here a preliminary study of IOM from the Murray meteorite that combines both the analytical approaches described above, under conditions that would realistically model the IOM hydrothermal exposure in the meteorite parent body. The aim is to document the possible release of water and solvent soluble organics, determine possible changes in NMR spectral features, and ascertain, by extension, the effect of this loss on the frame of the IOM residue. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Insights into chondrule formation process and shock-thermal history of the Dergaon chondrite (H4-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dergaon fall represents a shock-melted H4-5 (S5 ordinary chondrite which includes at least ten textural varieties of chondrules and belongs to the high chondrule-matrix ratio type. Our study reveals that the chondrules are of diverse mineralogy with variable olivine-pyroxene ratios (Type II, igneous melt textures developed under variable cooling rates and formed through melt fractionations from two different melt reservoirs. Based on the experimental analogues, mineralogical associations and phase compositions, it is suggested that the Dergaon chondrules reflect two contrasting environments: a hot, dust-enriched and highly oxidized nebular environment through melting, without significant evaporation, and an arrested reducing environment concomitant with major evaporation loss of alkali and highly volatile trace elements. Coexistence of chlorapatite and merrillite suggests formation of the Dergaon matrix in an acidic accretionary environment. Textural integration and chemical homogenization occurred at ∼1 atmospheric pressure and a mean temperature of 765 °C mark the radiogenic thermal event. Equilibrated shock features (olivine mosaicism, diaplectic plagioclase, polycrystalline troilite due to an impact-induced thermal event reflect a shock pressure >45 GPa and temperature of 600 °C. By contrast, the local disequilibrium shock features (silicate melt veins comprising of olivine crystallites, troilite melt veins and metal droplets correspond to a shock pressure up to 75 GPa and temperature >950 °C.

  8. Mass spectrometrical study of rare gas compositions and neutron capture effects in Yamato-74191 (L 3) Chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, N.; Nagao, K.

    1980-01-01

    The unequilibrated hypersthene chondrite Yamato-74191 was studied mass spectrometrically for rare gases released at various temperatures. Cosmogenic gases dominate in He and Ne. The meteorite contains large amounts of trapped Ar, Kr and Xe, and radiogenic 40 Ar and 129 Xe. Cosmic-ray irradiation and K-Ar ages were determined. In addition to spallogenic components of Kr and Xe, isotopic excesses of 8 sup(O)Kr, 82 Kr, 128 Xe and 126 Xe relative to AVCC-Kr and -Xe were found. The ratio of 80 Kr-excess to 82 Kr-excess is 2.66 after correction for spallogenic Kr. A correlation between 128 Xe/ 132 Xe and 129 Xe/ 132 Xe was found. The 129 Xe/ 132 Xe ratio for trapped Xe in Yamato-74191 was determined as 1.12 +- 0.29 with the correlation plot. The excesses found in Yamato-74191 are best explained by epithermal neutron capture on Br and I, and by the 127 I(n,2nβ) 126 Xe reaction. Using neutron-produced 80 Kr, the neutron slowing-down density was estimated to be 0.14 +- 0.03 cm -3 sec -1 . A minimum mass and a preatmospheric radius was estimated to be 470 kg and 32 cm, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  10. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  11. Formation of chondrules in a moderately high dust enriched disk: Evidence from oxygen isotopes of chondrules from the Kaba CV3 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas T.; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen three-isotope analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry of chondrule olivine and pyroxene in combination with electron microprobe analysis were carried out to investigate 24 FeO-poor (type I) and 2 FeO-rich (type II) chondrules from the Kaba (CV) chondrite. The Mg#'s of olivine and pyroxene in individual chondrules are uniform, which confirms that Kaba is one of the least thermally metamorphosed CV3 chondrites. The majority of chondrules in Kaba contain olivine and pyroxene that show indistinguishable Δ17O values (= δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) within analytical uncertainties, as revealed by multiple spot analyses of individual chondrules. One third of chondrules contain olivine relict grains that are either 16O-rich or 16O-poor relative to other indistinguishable olivine and/or pyroxene analyses in the same chondrules. Excluding those isotopically recognized relicts, the mean oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O, δ17O, and Δ17O) of individual chondrules are calculated, which are interpreted to represent those of the final chondrule melt. Most of these isotope ratios plot on or slightly below the primitive chondrule mineral (PCM) line on the oxygen three-isotope diagram, except for the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule that plots above the PCM and on the terrestrial fractionation line. The Δ17O values of type I chondrules range from ∼-8‰ to ∼-4‰; the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule yields ∼0‰, the olivine-rich type II chondrule ∼-2‰. In contrast to the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, the Yamato 81020 CO3, and the Allende CV3 chondrite, type I chondrules in Kaba only possess Δ17O values below -3‰ and a pronounced bimodal distribution of Δ17O values, as evident for those other chondrites, was not observed for Kaba. Investigation of the Mg#-Δ17O relationship revealed that Δ17O values tend to increase with decreasing Mg#'s, similar to those observed for CR chondrites though data from Kaba cluster at the high Mg# (>98) and the low Δ17O

  12. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    To better constrain their origin, we have performed systematic studies of the siderophile element distribution in metal from Enstatite achondrites and iron-rich meteorites linked to Enstatite achondrites. Humayun (2010) reported 20 siderophile elements in the metal of Horse Creek, Mt. Egerton and Tucson, three iron meteorites known for their high Si content in their metal. The Horse Creek and Mt. Egerton irons have elemental patterns identical to metallic solids derived from partially molten enstatite chondrites. Tucson has an unusual siderophile element pattern that is reminiscent of IVA irons, except for the most volatile siderophiles with condensation temperatures below that of Cu (Sb, Ge, Sn) which are more depleted. The origin of Tucson metal is likely linked to an impact involving a reduced chondritic body that provided the silicates, and IVA iron. In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010) reported siderophile element abundances in metal and sulfides from aubrites, chondritic inclusions in aubrites, and other enstatite achondrites (including a separate section of Mt. Egerton). They found that aubrite metal was linked to metal in enstatite chondrites by low degree partial melting forming sulfur-rich metallic liquids. A restite origin of aubrites is not consistent with these metal compositions. The link between the metal compositions and cumulate silicates is not simple. The metal must have been incorporated from enstatite chondritic material that was assimilated by the aubrite magma. A manuscript is in preparation (van Acken et al., 2010). In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010, submitted) reported new precise Os isotope ratios and highly siderophile element abundances in Enstatite chondrites, Enstatite achondrites, Rumurutite chondrites to explore the range of nucleosynthetic variation in s-process Os. They observed nucleosynthetic anomalies, deficiencies of s-process Os, in most primitive enstatite chondrites, but showed the Rumurutite chondrites have

  13. A 12.3-kb Duplication Within the VWF Gene in Pigs Affected by Von Willebrand Disease Type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Lehner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand Disease (VWD type 3 is a serious and sometimes fatal hereditary bleeding disorder. In pigs, the disease has been known for decades, and affected animals are used as models for the human disease. Due to the recessive mode of inheritance of VWD type 3, severe bleeding is typically seen in homozygous individuals. We sequenced the complete porcine VWF (Von Willebrand Factor complementary DNA (cDNA and detected a tandem duplication of exons 17 and 18, causing a frameshift and a premature termination codon (p.Val814LeufsTer3 in the affected pig. Subsequent next generation sequencing on genomic DNA proved the existence of a 12.3-kb tandem duplication associated with VWD. This duplication putatively originates from porcine Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs located within VWF introns 16 and 18 with high identity. The premature termination truncates the VWF open reading frame by a large part, resulting in an almost entire loss of the mature peptide. It is therefore supposed to account for the severe VWD type 3. Our results further indicate the presence of strong, nonsense-mediated decay in VWF messenger RNA (mRNA containing the duplication, which was supported by the almost complete absence of the complete VWF protein in immunohistochemistry analysis of the VWD-affected pig. In the past, differentiation of wild-type and heterozygous pigs in this VWD colony had to rely on clinical examinations and additional laboratory methods. The present study provides the basis to distinguish both genotypes by performing a rapid and simple genetic analysis.

  14. Successful nonsurgical endodontic outcome of a severely affected permanent maxillary canine with dens invaginatus Oehlers type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Ribera, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenic complexities of dens invaginatus (DI) Oehlers type 3 in maxillary canines offer significant endodontic challenges. A case report is provided of a 14-year-old female patient who presented with an anomalous-looking permanent maxillary canine associated with a sinus tract. Pulp testing revealed a normal response on the distal aspect of the tooth, whereas the mesial segment tested nonresponsive. A radiolucent lesion was seen on the mesiolateral radicular area adjacent to the severely distended pulp chamber. A gutta-percha point inserted into the sinus tract traced to this same region. The diagnosis was normal pulp coincident with DI Oehlers type 3 with pulp necrosis and chronic apical abscess. Despite a concerted effort to limit the root canal therapy to only the necrotic canal, its proximity to the normal canal obviated this possibility, entailing endodontic treatment of the entire root canal system. The necrotic pulp space was subjected to sustained irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and then completed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A bolus of gutta-percha was used to create an apical barrier, and then the remainder of the enlarged pulp space was obturated with injectable thermoplasticized gutta-percha. At a 4.5-year recall, there was no clinical and radiographic evidence of infection. Endodontic success was accomplished with meticulous efforts of disinfection. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha can offer utility for obturation of anatomically complicated pulp spaces. The use of the dental operating microscope is an invaluable aid for discernment of the intricacies of teeth affected with DI type 3 variant and can enhance clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Type I interferon is critical for the homeostasis and functional maturation of type 3 γδ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Rasmus; Kadekar, Darshana Dattatraya; Rizk, John

    2017-01-01

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) is highly expressed during viral infection and many autoimmune pathologies such as SLE and psoriasis. In addition, IFN-I is important to maintain the homeostasis of a number of different immune populations. Our aim was to identify whether IFN-I regulates type 3 γδ T (γδT3) cells...... behavior. Such γδT3 anergy is characterized by failure to induce skin inflammation and unresponsiveness to cytokine stimuli. Moreover, IFNAR deficient mice display deregulated γδT3homeostasis due to a neonatal maturation defect. In conclusion, our data show that tonic type I IFN signaling during neonatal...

  16. Identification of carbohydrate-binding domains in the attachment proteins of type 1 and type 3 reoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, J D; Duong, J L; Wright, B W; Dermody, T S

    2000-09-01

    The reovirus attachment protein, sigma1, is responsible for strain-specific patterns of viral tropism in the murine central nervous system and receptor binding on cultured cells. The sigma1 protein consists of a fibrous tail domain proximal to the virion surface and a virion-distal globular head domain. To better understand mechanisms of reovirus attachment to cells, we conducted studies to identify the region of sigma1 that binds cell surface carbohydrate. Chimeric and truncated sigma1 proteins derived from prototype reovirus strains type 1 Lang (T1L) and type 3 Dearing (T3D) were expressed in insect cells by using a baculovirus vector. Assessment of expressed protein susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, binding to anti-sigma1 antibodies, and oligomerization indicates that the chimeric and truncated sigma1 proteins are properly folded. To assess carbohydrate binding, recombinant sigma1 proteins were tested for the capacity to agglutinate mammalian erythrocytes and to bind sialic acid presented on glycophorin, the cell surface molecule bound by type 3 reovirus on human erythrocytes. Using a panel of two wild-type and ten chimeric and truncated sigma1 proteins, the sialic acid-binding domain of type 3 sigma1 was mapped to a region of sequence proposed to form the more amino terminal of two predicted beta-sheet structures in the tail. This unit corresponds to morphologic region T(iii) observed in computer-processed electron micrographs of sigma1 protein purified from virions. In contrast, the homologous region of T1L sigma1 sequence was not implicated in carbohydrate binding; rather, sequences in the distal portion of the tail known as the neck were required. Results of these studies demonstrate that a functional receptor-binding domain, which uses sialic acid as its ligand, is contained within morphologic region T(iii) of the type 3 sigma1 tail. Furthermore, our findings indicate that T1L and T3D sigma1 proteins contain different arrangements of receptor

  17. Phenotypic correction of von Willebrand disease type 3 blood-derived endothelial cells with lentiviral vectors expressing von Willebrand factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Simon F.; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Chuah, Marinee K.; Pareyn, Inge; Gillijns, Veerle; Hebbel, Robert P.; Collen, Désiré; Deckmyn, Hans; VandenDriessche, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder, caused by quantitative (type 1 and 3) or qualitative (type 2) defects in von Willebrand factor (VWF). Gene therapy is an appealing strategy for treatment of VWD because it is caused by a single gene defect and because VWF is secreted into the circulation, obviating the need for targeting specific organs or tissues. However, development of gene therapy for VWD has been hampered by the considerable length of the VWF cDNA (8.4 kb [kilobase]) and the inherent complexity of the VWF protein that requires extensive posttranslational processing. In this study, a gene-based approach for VWD was developed using lentiviral transduction of blood-outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) to express functional VWF. A lentiviral vector encoding complete human VWF was used to transduce BOECs isolated from type 3 VWD dogs resulting in high-transduction efficiencies (95.6% ± 2.2%). Transduced VWD BOECs efficiently expressed functional vector-encoded VWF (4.6 ± 0.4 U/24 hour per 106 cells), with normal binding to GPIbα and collagen and synthesis of a broad range of multimers resulting in phenotypic correction of these cells. These results indicate for the first time that gene therapy of type 3 VWD is feasible and that BOECs are attractive target cells for this purpose. PMID:16478886

  18. Erythema elevatum et diutinum in a young man coexisting with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tupikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erythema elevatum et diutinum (EED is classified as a variant of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Erythema elevatum et diutinum may coexist with several systemic disorders including hematologic and rheumatologic diseases as well as type 1 diabetes, thyroid diseases and other endocrinopathies. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS are rarely diagnosed conditions characterized by the coexistence of at least two autoimmune endocrinopathies and non-endocrine autoimmunopathies. Objective. Presentation of a patient with EED coexisting with APS type 3. Case report. A 23-year-old male patient was admitted to our department due to nodular lesions lasting for 5 months, located on the extremities, which were diagnosed clinically and confirmed histopathologically as EED. In spite of skin lesions the patient suffered from diabetes mellitus type 1, hyperthyroidism, celiac disease, myopathy and idiopathic urticaria – abnormalities characteristic for APS type 3. Substantial clinical improvement was observed after systemic administration of dapsone and, due to upper respiratory tract infection, a few weeks of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions . We present this case due to the rarity of EED, especially coexisting with APS, and the good effect of therapy with dapsone and oral antibiotics.

  19. Fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients of single crystal p-type 3C-SiC for arbitrary crystallographic orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Afzaal; Dao, Dzung Viet; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2016-08-01

    Piezo-Hall effect in a single crystal p-type 3C-SiC, grown by LPCVD process, has been characterized for various crystallographic orientations. The quantified values of the piezo-Hall effect in heavily doped p-type 3C-SiC(100) and 3C-SiC(111) for different crystallographic orientations were used to obtain the fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients, P 12 = ( 5.3 ± 0.4 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 , P 11 = ( - 2.6 ± 0.6 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 , and P 44 = ( 11.42 ± 0.6 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 . Unlike the piezoresistive effect, the piezo-Hall effect for (100) and (111) planes is found to be independent of the angle of rotation of the device within the crystal plane. The values of fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients obtained in this study can be used to predict the piezo-Hall coefficients in any crystal orientation which is very important for designing of 3C-SiC Hall sensors to minimize the piezo-Hall effect for stable magnetic field sensitivity.

  20. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Annabelle; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p 14 C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

  1. Spectral reflectance "deconstruction" of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and implications for spectroscopic investigations of dark asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Pietrasz, Valerie B.; Kiddell, Cain; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Vernazza, Pierre; Burbine, Thomas H.; DeMeo, Francesca; Tait, Kimberly T.; Bell, James F.; Mann, Paul; Applin, Daniel M.; Reddy, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are important materials for understanding the early evolution of the solar system and delivery of volatiles and organic material to the early Earth. Presumed CC-like asteroids are also the targets of two current sample return missions: OSIRIS-REx to asteroid Bennu and Hayabusa-2 to asteroid Ryugu, and the Dawn orbital mission at asteroid Ceres. To improve our ability to identify and characterize CM2 CC-type parent bodies, we have examined how factors such as particle size, particle packing, and viewing geometry affect reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 CC. The derived relationships have implications for disc-resolved examinations of dark asteroids and sampleability. It has been found that reflectance spectra of slabs are more blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths as measured by the 1.8/0.6 μm reflectance ratio), and generally darker, than powdered sample spectra. Decreasing the maximum grain size of a powdered sample results in progressively brighter and more red-sloped spectra. Decreasing the average grain size of a powdered sample results in a decrease in diagnostic absorption band depths, and redder and brighter spectra. Decreasing porosity of powders and variations in surface texture result in spectral changes that may be different as a function of viewing geometry. Increasing thickness of loose dust on a denser powdered substrate leads to a decrease in absorption band depths. Changes in viewing geometry lead to different changes in spectral metrics depending on whether the spectra are acquired in backscatter or forward-scatter geometries. In backscattered geometry, increasing phase angle leads to an initial increase and then decrease in spectral slope, and a general decrease in visible region reflectance and absorption band depths, and frequent decreases in absorption band minima positions. In forward scattering geometry, increasing phase angle leads to small non-systematic changes in spectral slope

  2. Natural Type 3/Type 2 Intertypic Vaccine-Related Poliovirus Recombinants with the First Crossover Sites within the VP1 Capsid Coding Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008.......Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008....

  3. Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (tiny solid

  4. Melt solidification and late-stage evaporation in the evolution of a FUN inclusion from the Vigarano C3V chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Sylvester, Paul J.; Macpherson, Glenn J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on a detailed petrologic, chemical, and isotopic study of the so-called FUN inclusion (1623-5) from the Vigarano C3V chondrite. It is shown that the precursor material from which the Vigarano 1623-5 has formed contained some nuclear isotopic anomalies; this precursor was composed of melted and crystallized spinel, olivine, fassaite, and melilite. The results on the petrologic and isotopic properties of 1623-5 indicate unambiguously the action of volatilization in the evolution of this inclusion.

  5. Infection of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats

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    Indrawati Sendow

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was conducted to obtain the prevalence of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 reactor as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats in abatoir at Jakarta and some small holder farms in Indonesia. Serological test using serum neutralization from 724 goat sera and 109 sheep sera indicated that only 1% of goats were serologically reactors and none of sheep sera had antibodies against PI-3 virus. Isolation of the virus from 56 bronchus and trachea swab and 345 lungs indicated that only one sampel from lung showed cythopathic effect (CPE in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell lines identification of the virus using serum neutralization test indicated that the virus neutralized reference PI-3 antisera. The isolate came from one lung (7% of 24 that showed histopathologically pneumonia intertitialis that usually caused by viral infection.

  6. Synthesis of a dansyl-labeled inhibitor of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 for optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is a therapeutic target in the management of androgen-sensitive diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. In this Letter, we designed and synthesized the first fluorescent inhibitor of this enzyme by combining a fluorogenic dansyl moiety to the chemical structure of a known inhibitor of 17β-HSD3. The synthesized compound 3 is a potent fluorogenic compound (λex=348 nm and λ em=498 nm). It crosses the cell membrane, keeps its fluorescent properties and is distributed inside the LNCaP cells overexpressing 17β-HSD3, where it inhibits the transformation of 4-androstene-3,17-dione into the androgen testosterone (IC50=262 nM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft Type 3 and Severe Laryngotracheomalacia; Delayed Surgical Repair, a Treatment Challenge with an Excellent Outcome

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    Ahmad Khaleghnejad

    Full Text Available Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts (LTEC are rare malformations which involve the upper respiratory and digestive tract. Surgical repair should be undertaken promptly to maintain a secure airway and prevent serious pulmonary aspiration. This paper reports the first case of LTEC type 3 with severe laryngotracheomalacia that was brought to Mofid children's hospital in late infancy with a poor health status. Delayed defect correction was our team strategy for the patient when she had achieved good weight gain. At the age of 22 months in collaboration with the pediatric surgical and otolaryngologist team, the repair of the laryngeal cleft was done with lateral open approach method. She was discharged with tracheostomy and gastrostomy. In the next six months follow up after the surgery tracheostomy decannulation and gastrostomy tube removal were done and the infant is now in regular follow-up. Keywords: Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts, Laryngotracheomalacia, Surgical repair

  8. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  9. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  10. Effect of NaCrSi2O6 component on Lindsley's pyroxene thermometer: An evaluation based on strongly metamorphosed LL chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Y.; Urata, K.; Shibata, Y.; Kuwahara, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Lindsley's thermometry, a revised sequence of calculation of components is proposed for clinopyroxene, in which kosmochlor component is added. Temperatures obtained for the components calculated by the revised method are about 50 °C lower than those obtained for the components calculated by the Lindsley's original method and agree well with temperatures obtained from orthopyroxenes. Ca-partitioning between clino- and orthopyroxenes is then thought to be equilibrated in types 5 to 7 ordinary chondrites. The temperatures for Tuxtuac (LL5), Dhurmsala (LL6), NWA 2092 (LL6/7), and Dho 011 (LL7) are 767-793°, 818-835°, 872-892°, and 917-936°C, respectively, suggesting that chondrites of higher petrographic types show higher equilibrium temperatures of pyroxenes. The regression equations which relate temperature and Wo and Fs contents in the temperature-contoured pyroxene quadrilateral of 1 atm of Lindsley (1983) are also determined by the least squares method. It is possible to reproduce temperatures with an error less than 20 °C (2SE) using the regression equations.

  11. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert, Chile, by Mössbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction

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    Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Avillez, Roberto R.; Valenzuela, Millarca; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Scorzelli, Rosa B.

    2013-03-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as DCA. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable localities with semiarid, arid, and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the DCA of San Juan and Pampa de Mejillones, located, respectively, in the Central Depression and the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification, and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan and the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was complemented by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results allow a clear differentiation of the rate of weathering in meteorite samples collected from the San Juan versus the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert.

  12. Studying Antarctic Ordinary Chondrite (OC) and Miller Range (MIL) Nakhlite Meteorites to Assess Carbonate Formation on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael Ellis

    Carbonates are found in meteorites collected from Antarctica. The stable isotope composition of these carbonates records their formation environment on either Earth or Mars. The first research objective of this dissertation is to characterize the delta18O and delta 13C values of terrestrial carbonates formed on Ordinary Chondrites (OCs) collected in regions near known martian meteorites. The second objective is to characterize the delta18O and delta13C values of martian carbonates from Nakhlites collected from the Miller Range (MIL). The third objective is to assess environmental changes on Mars since the Noachian period. The OCs selected had no pre-terrestrial carbonates so any carbonates detected are presumed terrestrial in origin. The study methodology is stepped extraction of CO2 created from phosphoric acid reaction with meteorite carbonate. Stable isotope results show that two distinct terrestrial carbonate species (Ca-rich and Fe/Mg-rich) formed in Antarctica on OCs from a thin-film of meltwater containing dissolved CO2. Carbon isotope data suggests the terrestrial carbonates formed in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 delta 13C = -7.5‰ at >15°C. The wide variation in delta 18O suggests the carbonates did not form in equilibrium with meteoric water alone, but possibly formed from an exchange of oxygen isotopes in both water and dissolved CO2. Antarctica provides a model for carbonate formation in a low water/rock ratio, near 0°C environment like modern Mars. Nakhlite parent basalt formed on Mars 1.3 billion years ago and the meteorites were ejected by a single impact approximately 11 million years ago. They traveled thru space before eventually falling to the Earth surface 10,000-40,000 years ago. Nakhlite samples for this research were all collected from the Miller Range (MIL) in Antarctica. The Nakhlite stable isotope results show two carbonate species (Ca-rich and Fe/Mg-rich) with a range of delta18O values that are similar to the terrestrial OC

  13. I-Xe dating of aqueous alteration in the CI chondrite Orgueil: I. Magnetite and ferromagnetic separates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Krot, A. N.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    The I-Xe system was studied in a ferromagnetic sample separated from the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite with a hand-held magnet and in two magnetite samples, one chemically separated before and the other one after neutron irradiation. This work was done in order to investigate the effects of chemical separation by LiCl and NaOH on the I-Xe system in magnetite. Our test demonstrated that the chemical separation of magnetite before irradiation using either LiCl or NaOH, or both, does not contaminate the sample with iodine and thus cannot lead to erroneous I-Xe ages due to introduction of uncorrelated 128∗Xe. The I-Xe ages of two Orgueil magnetite samples are mutually consistent within experimental uncertainties and, when normalized to an absolute time scale with the reevaluated Shallowater aubrite standard, place the onset of aqueous alteration on the CI parent body at 4564.3 ± 0.3 Ma, 2.9 ± 0.3 Ma after formation of the CV Ca-AI-rich inclusions (CAIs). The I-Xe age of the ferromagnetic Orgueil separate is 3.4 Ma younger, corresponding to a closure of the I-Xe system at 4560.9 ± 0.2 Ma. These and previously published I-Xe data for Orgueil (Hohenberg et al., 2000) indicate that aqueous alteration on the CI parent body lasted for at least 5 Ma. Although the two magnetite samples gave indistinguishable I-Xe ages, their temperature release profiles differed. One of the two Orgueil magnetites released less radiogenic Xe than the other, 80% of it corresponding to the low-temperature peak of the release profile, compared to only 6% in case of the second Orgueil magnetite sample. This could be due to the difference in iodine trapping efficiencies for magnetite grains of different morphologies. Alternatively, the magnetite grains with the lower radiogenic Xe concentrations may have formed at a later stage of alteration when iodine in an aqueous solution was depleted.

  14. Timing of Formation of a Wassonite-bearing Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, A. W.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rubin, A. E.; Choi, B.-G.; Messenger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Wassonite, ideally stoichiometric TiS, is a titanium monosulfide recently discovered in the Yamato 691 EH3 enstatite chondrite. Wassonite grains were located within the mesostasis of a single barred olivine chondrule. Such chondrules likely formed in the solar nebula by melting of fine grained precursor dust. The reduced nature of enstatite chondrites, and the wassonite-bearing chondrule in particular, may suggest precursor materials included Ti-bearing troilite, metallic Fe-Ni, and possibly graphite. Under the reducing conditions present in enstatite chondrites S can partition more readily into silicate melt, leading to raised Ti content of the residual Fe-FeS melt. By the time sulfide crystallized from the melt, the Ti concentration was high enough to form small grains of pure TiS - wassonite. As a mineral not previously observed in nature wassonite and its host chondrule may provide additional constraints on physical and chemical conditions in the solar nebula at a specific time and location relevant to planetary formation. Enstatite chondrites and Earth share similar isotopic compositions of Cr, Ni, Ti, O and N. Understanding the formation conditions of enstatite chondrite chondrules may therefore have wider relevance for terrestrial planet accretion and other early inner solar system processes. Here we present preliminary results of an investigation of the Al-Mg systematics of the only known wassonite-bearing chondrule. The goal of this study is to determine whether this chondrule's formation was contemporaneous with other enstatite chondrite chondrules and to establish its place in the broader timeline of solar system events.

  15. Evolutionary and network analysis of virus sequences from infants infected with an Australian recombinant strain of human parechovirus type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, Soren; Nelson, Tiffanie M; Hodge, Jason; Druce, Julian

    2017-06-20

    We present the near complete virus genome sequences with phylogenetic and network analyses of potential transmission networks of a total of 18 Australian cases of human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection in infants in the period from 2012-2015. Overall the results support our previous finding that the Australian outbreak strain/lineage is a result of a major recombination event that took place between March 2012 and November 2013 followed by further virus evolution and possibly recombination. While the nonstructural coding region of unknown provenance appears to evolve significantly both at the nucleotide and amino acid level, the capsid encoding region derived from the Yamagata 2011 lineage of HPeV3 appears to be very stable, particularly at the amino acid level. The phylogenetic and network analyses performed support a temporal evolution from the first Australian recombinant virus sequence from November 2013 to March/April 2014, onto the 2015 outbreak. The 2015 outbreak samples fall into two separate clusters with a possible common ancestor between March/April 2014 and September 2015, with each cluster further evolving in the period from September to November/December 2015.

  16. Population genetics and new insight into range of CAG repeats of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 in the Han Chinese population.

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    Shi-Rui Gan

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also called Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, is one of the most common SCAs worldwide and caused by a CAG repeat expansion located in ATXN3 gene. Based on the CAG repeat numbers, alleles of ATXN3 can be divided into normal alleles (ANs, intermediate alleles (AIs and expanded alleles (AEs. It was controversial whether the frequency of large normal alleles (large ANs is related to the prevalence of SCA3 or not. And there were huge chaos in the comprehension of the specific numbers of the range of CAG repeats which is fundamental for genetic analysis of SCA3. To illustrate these issues, we made a novel CAG repeat ladder to detect CAG repeats of ATXN3 in 1003 unrelated Chinese normal individuals and studied haplotypes defined by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs closed to ATXN3. We found that the number of CAG repeats ranged from 13 to 49, among them, 14 was the most common number. Positive skew, the highest frequency of large ANs and 4 AIs which had never been reported before were found. Also, AEs and large ANs shared the same haplotypes defined by the SNPs. Based on these data and other related studies, we presumed that de novo mutations of ATXN3 emerging from large ANs are at least one survival mechanisms of mutational ATXN3 and we can redefine the range of CAG repeats as: ANs≤44, 45 ≤AIs ≤49 and AEs≥50.

  17. Peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-γ deficiency in a Canadian kindred with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3

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    Cao Henian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan type 3 (FPLD3, Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] 604367 results from heterozygous mutations in PPARG encoding peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Both dominant-negative and haploinsufficiency mechanisms have been suggested for this condition. Methods We present a Canadian FPLD3 kindred with an affected mother who had loss of fat on arms and legs, but no increase in facial, neck, suprascapular or abdominal fat. She had profound insulin resistance, diabetes, severe hypertriglyceridemia and relapsing pancreatitis, while her pre-pubescent daughter had normal fat distribution but elevated plasma triglycerides and C-peptide and depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results The mother and daughter were each heterozygous for PPARG nonsense mutation Y355X, whose protein product in vitro was transcriptionally inactive with no dominant-negative activity against the wild-type receptor. In addition the mutant protein appeared to be markedly unstable. Conclusion Taken together with previous studies of human PPARG mutations, these findings suggest that PPAR-γ deficiency due either to haploinsufficiency or to substantial activity loss due to dominant negative interference of the normal allele product's function can each contribute to the FPLD3 phenotype.

  18. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a Chinese family with autosomal recessive Meckel-Gruber syndrome type 3 (MKS3.

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    Yanping Lu

    Full Text Available Meckel-Gruber syndrome type 3 is an autosomal recessive genetic defect caused by mutations in TMEM67 gene. In our previous study, we have identified a homozygous TMEM67 mutation in a Chinese family exhibiting clinical characteristics of MKS3, which provided a ground for further PGD procedure. Here we report the development and the first clinical application of the PGD for this MKS3 family. Molecular analysis protocol for clinical PGD procedure was established using 50 single cells in pre-clinical set-up. After whole genomic amplification by multiple displacement amplification with the DNA from single cells, three techniques were applied simultaneously to increase the accuracy and reliability of genetic diagnosis in single blastomere, including real-time PCR with Taq Man-MGB probe, haplotype analysis with polymorphic STR markers and Sanger sequencing. In the clinical PGD cycle, nine embryos at cleavage-stage were biopsied and subjected to genetic diagnosis. Two embryos diagnosed as free of TMEM67 mutation were transferred and one achieving normal pregnancy. Non-invasive prenatal assessment of trisomy 13, 18 and 21 by multiplex DNA sequencing at 18 weeks' gestation excluded the aneuploidy of the analyzed chromosomes. A healthy boy was delivered by cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. DNA sequencing from his cord blood confirmed the result of genetic analysis in the PGD cycle. The protocol developed in this study was proved to be rapid and safe for the detection of monogenic mutations in clinical PGD cycle.

  19. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome type 3 with polymicrogyria: a clinical presentation of Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Throughput Sequencing of MicroRNAs in Adenovirus Type 3 Infected Human Laryngeal Epithelial Cells

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    Yuhua Qi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus infection can cause various illnesses depending on the infecting serotype, such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness, but the infection mechanism is still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNA have been reported to play essential roles in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and pathogenesis of human diseases including viral infections. We analyzed the miRNA expression profiles from adenovirus type 3 (AD3 infected Human laryngeal epithelial (Hep2 cells using a SOLiD deep sequencing. 492 precursor miRNAs were identified in the AD3 infected Hep2 cells, and 540 precursor miRNAs were identified in the control. A total of 44 miRNAs demonstrated high expression and 36 miRNAs showed lower expression in the AD3 infected cells than control. The biogenesis of miRNAs has been analyzed, and some of the SOLiD results were confirmed by Quantitative PCR analysis. The present studies may provide a useful clue for the biological function research into AD3 infection.

  1. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  2. A rare combination of type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) or multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Coco, Graziella; Burra, Patrizia

    2014-06-01

    Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison's disease; this is a frequent combination. We report the case of a 55 years old female patient with APS-3, with seven clinical or latent autoimmune manifestations. At 49 years of age she was admitted at the General Hospital for leukopenia, weight loss, tremors, anxiety and diarrhea. The personal history revealed ulcerative colitis and, during the last year, episodes of fever with migrant arthralgia and cutaneous lesions. The patient was evaluated for thyroid function and imaging, mielobiopsy, glycaemic control, gastrointestinal and rheumatologic disorders with specific biochemical tests, imaging and endoscopic procedures. We concluded that the patient was affected by APS-3, characterized by the association of Graves' disease, autoimmune leukopenia, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), autoimmune gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Sjögren's and anti-phospholipid syndromes. The patient started low doses of corticosteroid drugs for leukopenia, underwent (131)I therapy for hyperthyroidism and later started substitutive thyroid therapy with l-thyroxine, insulin therapy for LADA, mesalazine for ulcerative colitis and artificial tears for Sjögren's syndrome. In this article we report a complex case of APS-3, characterized by the association of seven different autoimmune diseases, which required a complex therapeutic strategy.

  3. SNOW COVER OF THE CENTRAL ANTARCTICA (VOSTOK STATION AS AN IDEAL NATURAL TABLET FOR COSMIC DUST COLLECTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF MICROMETEORITES OF CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE TYPE

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    E. S. Bulat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010/11 season nearby the Vostok station the 56th Russian Antarctic Expedition has collected surface snow in a big amount from a 3 m deep pit using 15 220 L vol. containers (about 70 kg snow each. Snow melting and processing by ultra-centrifugation was performed in a clean (class 10 000 and 100 laboratory. Total dust concentrations were not exceeded 37.4 mkg per liter with particle dispersal mode around 2.5 mkm. To analyze the elemental composition of fine dust particles aimed to reveal Antarctic micrometeorites (AMM two electron microscopy devices equipped with different micro-beams were implemented. As a preliminary result, three particles (of 107 analyzed featured by Mg content clearly dominated over Al along with Si and Fe as major elements (a feature of carbonaceous chondrites were observed. By this the Vostok AMM CS11 collection was established. The occurrence of given particles was averaged 2.8% – the factual value obtained for the first time for chondritic type AMM at Vostok which should be considered as the lowest estimate for all other families of AMM. Given the reference profile of total dust content in East Antarctic snow during Holocene (18 mkg/kg the MM deposition in Antarctica was quantified for the first time – 14 tons per day for carbonaceous chondrites for the Vostok AMM CS11 collection and up to 245 tons per day for all MM types for the Concordia AMM DC02 collection. The results obtained allowed to prove that snow cover (ice sheet in total of Central East Antarctica is the best spot (most clean of other natural locations and always below 0 ºC for collecting native MM deposited on the Earth during the last million years and could be useful in deciphering the origin and evolution of solid matter in our Solar System and its effects on Earth-bound biogeochemical and geophysical processes including the life origin. The farther analyses of the Vostok AMMs are in a progress.

  4. Nucleotide variation in Sabin type 3 poliovirus from an Albanian infant with agammaglobulinemia and vaccine associated poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiadelli, Thomas; Savasta, Salvatore; Battistone, Andrea; Kota, Majlinda; Passera, Carolina; Fiore, Stefano; Bino, Silvia; Amato, Concetta; Lozza, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Fiore, Lucia

    2016-06-10

    Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and immunodeficient long-term polio excretors constitute a significant public health burden and are a major concern for the WHO global polio eradication endgame. Poliovirus type 3 characterized as Sabin-like was isolated from a 5-month-old Albanian child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and VAPP after oral polio vaccine administration. Diagnostic workup and treatment were performed in Italy. Poliovirus replicated in the gut for 7 months. The 5' non coding region (NCR), VP1, VP3 capsid proteins and the 3D polymerase genomic regions of sequential isolates were sequenced. Increasing accumulation of nucleotide mutations in the VP1 region was detected over time, reaching 1.0 % of genome variation with respect to the Sabin reference strain, which is the threshold that defines a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). We identified mutations in the 5'NCR and VP3 regions that are associated with reversion to neurovirulence. Despite this, all isolates were characterized as Sabin-like. Several amino acid mutations were identified in the VP1 region, probably involved in growth adaptation and viral persistence in the human gut. Intertypic recombination with Sabin type 2 polio in the 3D polymerase region, possibly associated with increased virus transmissibility, was found in all isolates. Gamma-globulin replacement therapy led to viral clearance and neurological improvement, preventing the occurrence of persistent immunodeficiency-related VDPV. This is the first case of VAPP in an immunodeficient child detected in Albania through the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance system and the first investigated case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis in Italy since the introduction of an all-Salk schedule in 2002. We discuss over the biological and clinical implications in the context of the Global Polio Eradication Program and emphasize on the importance of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance.

  5. Functional Defects in Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Classical Monocytes in a Patient with Hyper-IgE Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuna; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-10-01

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a very rare primary immune deficiency characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent bacterial infections, chronic dermatitis, and connective tissue abnormalities. Autosomal dominant (AD) HIES involves a mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that leads to an impaired T H 17 response. STAT3 signaling is also involved in the function of RORγt + type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and RORγt + T H 17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), granulocytes, and monocytes in a patient with HIES. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a patient with HIES and three age-matched healthy controls were obtained for the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune cells. The frequencies of ILCs in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than in the controls. Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-17A produced by ILC3s in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than the controls. Compared with the controls, classical monocytes (CD14 + CD16 low ), which have a high antimicrobial capability, were also lower in the patient with HIES, while non-classical monocytes (CD14 low CD16 + ) as well as intermediate monocytes (CD14 + CD16 intermediate ) were higher. Taken together, these results indicate that the impaired immune defense against pathogenic microbes in the patient with HIES might be partially explained by functional defects in ILC3s and inflammatory monocytes.

  6. Double-blind crossover trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, T; Mattern, R; Berger, K; Szymanski, S; Klotz, P; Kraus, P H; Przuntek, H; Schöls, L

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD). Placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial in 22 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3/MJD. Study phases of 6 months were separated by a washout period of 4 weeks. Dosages were a combination of trimethoprim, 160 mg, and sulfamethoxazole, 800 mg, twice daily for 2 weeks, followed by a combination of trimethoprim, 80 mg, and sulfamethoxazole, 400 mg, twice daily for 5.5 months. Outpatient department of the Neurological Clinic, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany. Ataxia ranking scale, self-assessment score, static posturography, and results of motor performance testing. Effects on the visual system were studied using the achromatic Vision Contrast Test System and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test for color discrimination. Physical and mental health were documented using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Subgroup analyses assessed the influence of age, sex, age at onset, duration of the disease, phenotype, and CAG repeat length on test performance. Twenty of 22 patients completed the study. Dropouts were due to a rash (placebo phase) and an attempted suicide in a family conflict. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy had no significant effect in SCA3/MJD patients in the short-term analysis (2 weeks) or in the long-term interval (6 months). In contrast to previous reports that studied smaller groups of patients, treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not improve the diverse and complex movement disorders caused by SCA3/MJD. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole had no effect on the visual system and cannot be recommended as a continuous treatment for SCA3/MJD patients.

  7. An Amino Acid of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Nucleoprotein Is Critical for Template Function and Cytoplasmic Inclusion Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Chen, Longyun; Zhang, Guangyuan; Yan, Qin; Yang, Xiaodan; Ding, Binbin; Tang, Qiaopeng; Sun, Shengjun; Hu, Zhulong

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) interaction of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses is essential for viral replication; this includes N0-P (N0, free of RNA) interaction and the interaction of N-RNA with P. The precise site(s) within N that mediates the N-P interaction and the detailed regulating mechanism, however, are less clear. Using a human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) minigenome assay, we found that an N mutant (NL478A) did not support reporter gene expression. Using in vivo and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, we found that NL478A maintains the ability to form NL478A0-P, to self-assemble, and to form NL478A-RNA but that NL478A-RNA does not interact with P. Using an immunofluorescence assay, we found that N-P interaction provides the minimal requirement for the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which contain viral RNA, N, P, and polymerase in HPIV3-infected cells. NL478A was unable to form inclusion bodies when coexpressed with P, but the presence of N rescued the ability of NL478A to form inclusion bodies and the transcriptional function of NL478A, thereby suggesting that hetero-oligomers formed by N and NL478A are functional and competent to form inclusion bodies. Furthermore, we found that NL478A is also defective in virus growth. To our knowledge, we are the first to use a paramyxovirus to identify a precise amino acid within N that is critical for N-RNA and P interaction but not for N0-P interaction for the formation of inclusion bodies, which appear to be bona fide sites of RNA synthesis. PMID:24027324

  8. Characteristics of 26 patients with type 3 Gaucher disease: A descriptive analysis from the Gaucher Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Göker-Alpan, Özlem; Kishnani, Priya S; Zimran, Ari; Renault, Lydie; Panahloo, Zoya; Deegan, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The Gaucher Outcome Survey (GOS) is an international disease-specific registry established in 2010 for patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), regardless of GD type or treatment status. Historically, there has been a limited understanding of type 3 GD (GD3) and its natural history in patients irrespective of their treatment status. Here, we describe the disease characteristics of patients with GD3 enrolled in GOS. As of October 2015, 1002 patients had been enrolled, 26 of whom were reported as GD3. The majority of patients with GD3 were from the US (13; 50.0%), seven (26.9%) were from the UK, three (11.5%) from Israel, and three (11.5%) from Brazil. No patients were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Median age of symptom onset was 1.4 (interquartile range: 0.5-2.0) years. The most common GBA1 mutation genotype was L444P/L444P, occurring in 16 (69.6%) of 23 patients who had genotyping information available. Nine patients reported a family history of GD (any type). Of 21 patients with treatment status information, 20 (95.2%) had received GD-specific treatment at any time, primarily imiglucerase (14 patients) and/or velaglucerase alfa (13 patients). Hemoglobin concentrations and platelet counts at GOS entry were within normal ranges for most patients, and there were no reports of severe hepatomegaly or of splenomegaly in non-splenectomized patients, most likely indicative of the effects of treatment received prior to GOS entry. This analysis provides information on the characteristics of patients with GD3 that could be used as the baseline for longitudinal follow-up of these patients.

  9. Characteristics of 26 patients with type 3 Gaucher disease: A descriptive analysis from the Gaucher Outcome Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vanessa D. Schwartz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gaucher Outcome Survey (GOS is an international disease-specific registry established in 2010 for patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD, regardless of GD type or treatment status. Historically, there has been a limited understanding of type 3 GD (GD3 and its natural history in patients irrespective of their treatment status. Here, we describe the disease characteristics of patients with GD3 enrolled in GOS. As of October 2015, 1002 patients had been enrolled, 26 of whom were reported as GD3. The majority of patients with GD3 were from the US (13; 50.0%, seven (26.9% were from the UK, three (11.5% from Israel, and three (11.5% from Brazil. No patients were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Median age of symptom onset was 1.4 (interquartile range: 0.5–2.0 years. The most common GBA1 mutation genotype was L444P/L444P, occurring in 16 (69.6% of 23 patients who had genotyping information available. Nine patients reported a family history of GD (any type. Of 21 patients with treatment status information, 20 (95.2% had received GD-specific treatment at any time, primarily imiglucerase (14 patients and/or velaglucerase alfa (13 patients. Hemoglobin concentrations and platelet counts at GOS entry were within normal ranges for most patients, and there were no reports of severe hepatomegaly or of splenomegaly in non-splenectomized patients, most likely indicative of the effects of treatment received prior to GOS entry. This analysis provides information on the characteristics of patients with GD3 that could be used as the baseline for longitudinal follow-up of these patients.

  10. Disruption of predicted dengue virus type 3 major outbreak cycle coincided with switching of the dominant circulating virus genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim-Kee; Zulkifle, Nurul-Izzani; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; Sulaiman, Syuhaida; Yaacob, Che Norainon; Azizan, Noor Syahida; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Mahfodz, Nur Hidayana; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2017-10-01

    Dengue is hyperendemic in most of Southeast Asia. In this region, all four dengue virus serotypes are persistently present. Major dengue outbreak cycle occurs in a cyclical pattern involving the different dengue virus serotypes. In Malaysia, since the 1980s, the major outbreak cycles have involved dengue virus type 3 (DENV3), dengue virus type 1 (DENV1) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV2), occurring in that order (DENV3/DENV1/DENV2). Only limited information on the DENV3 cycles, however, have been described. In the current study, we examined the major outbreak cycle involving DENV3 using data from 1985 to 2016. We examined the genetic diversity of DENV3 isolates obtained during the period when DENV3 was the dominant serotype and during the inter-dominant transmission period. Results obtained suggest that the typical DENV3/DENV1/DENV2 cyclical outbreak cycle in Malaysia has recently been disrupted. The last recorded major outbreak cycle involving DENV3 occurred in 2002, and the expected major outbreak cycle involving DENV3 in 2006-2012 did not materialize. DENV genome analyses revealed that DENV3 genotype II (DENV3/II) was the predominant DENV3 genotype (67%-100%) recovered between 1987 and 2002. DENV3 genotype I (DENV3/I) emerged in 2002 followed by the introduction of DENV3 genotype III (DENV3/III) in 2008. These newly emerged DENV3 genotypes replaced DENV3/II, but there was no major upsurge of DENV3 cases that accompanied the emergence of these viruses. DENV3 remained in the background of DENV1 and DENV2 until now. Virus genome sequence analysis suggested that intrinsic differences within the different dengue virus genotypes could have influenced the transmission efficiency of DENV3. Further studies and continuous monitoring of the virus are needed for better understanding of the DENV transmission dynamics in hyperendemic regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mössbauer parameters of ordinary chondrites influenced by the fit accuracy of the troilite component: an example of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimova, A. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (Hungary); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of the fit accuracy of the troilite component in the Mössbauer spectra of ordinary chondrites on the parameters obtained for other spectral components was evaluated using the Mössbauer spectrum of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with light lithology as a typical example. It was shown that with respect to the application of a usual sextet component where quadrupole interaction is taken into account in the first-order perturbation limit, substantial improvement of the spectrum fit can be achieved either by using the full Hamiltonian description of the troilite component or by its formal approximation with the superposition of three symmetric doublet components. Parameter values obtained for the main spectral components related to olivine and pyroxene were not sensitive to the fit of troilite component while parameters of the minor spectral components depended on the way of troilite component fitting.

  12. Room temperature 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert (Chile): constraining the weathering processes on desert meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, M.; Abdu, Y.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Duttine, M.; Morata, D.; Munayco, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the weathering products of 21 meteorites found in the Atacama Desert (Chile) using room temperature 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). The meteorites are weathered ordinary chondrites (OCs) with unknown terrestrial ages and include the three chemical groups (H, L, and LL). We obtained the percentage of all the Fe-bearing phases for the primary minerals: olivine, pyroxene, troilite and Fe-Ni metal, and for the ferric alteration products (composed of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ component and the magnetically ordered Fe 3+ components) which gives the percentage of oxidation of the samples. From the Moessbauer absorption areas of these oxides, the terrestrial oxidation of the Atacama OC was found in the range from ∼5% to ∼60%. The amount of silicates as well as the opaques decreases at a constant rate with increasing oxidation level.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous-chondrite Inclusions in the Kapoeta Meteorite: Discovery of Nanodiamonds with New Spectral Features and Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Yassir A.; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Varela, Maria E.

    2018-03-01

    We report the finding of nanodiamonds, coexisting with amorphous carbon, in carbonaceous-chondrite (CC) material from the Kapoeta achondritic meteorite by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. In the C–H stretching region (3100–2600 cm‑1), the FTIR spectrum of the Kapoeta CC material (KBr pellet) shows bands attributable to aliphatic CH2 and CH3 groups, and is very similar to IR spectra of organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites and the diffuse interstellar medium. Nanodiamonds, as evidenced by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were found in a dark region (∼400 μm in size) in the KBr pellet. Micro-FTIR spectra collected from this region are dramatically different from the KBr-pellet spectrum, and their C–H stretching region is dominated by a strong and broad absorption band centered at ∼2886 cm‑1 (3.47 μm), very similar to that observed in IR absorption spectra of hydrocarbon dust in dense interstellar clouds. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy also indicates the presence of an aldehyde and a nitrile, and both of the molecules are ubiquitous in dense interstellar clouds. In addition, IR peaks in the 1500–800 cm‑1 region are also observed, which may be attributed to different levels of nitrogen aggregation in diamonds. This is the first evidence for the presence of the 3.47 μm interstellar IR band in meteorites. Our results further support the assignment of this band to tertiary CH groups on the surfaces of nanodiamonds. The presence of the above interstellar bands and the absence of shock features in the Kapoeta nanodiamonds, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy, suggest formation by a nebular-condensation process similar to chemical-vapor deposition.

  14. Part 1: aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model is found to be applicable only to highly insulating Al-26-rich planetesimals. An alternative model is presented

  15. Chemical and oxygen isotopic properties of ordinary chondrites (H5, L6) from Oman: Signs of isotopic equilibrium during thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Nasir, Sobhi J.; Jabeen, Iffat; Al Rawas, Ahmed; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2017-10-01

    Mean bulk chemical data of recently found H5 and L6 ordinary chondrites from the deserts of Oman generally reflect isochemical features which are consistent with the progressive thermal metamorphism of a common, unequilibrated starting material. Relative differences in abundances range from 0.5-10% in REE (Eu = 14%), 6-13% in siderophile elements (Co = 48%), and >10% in lithophile elements (exceptions are Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, U = >30%) between H5 and L6 groups. These differences may have accounted for variable temperature conditions during metamorphism on their parent bodies. The CI/Mg-normalized mean abundances of refractory lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Sm, Yb, Lu, V) show no resolvable differences between H5 and L6 suggesting that both groups have experienced the same fractionation. The REE diagram shows subtle enrichment in LREE with a flat HREE pattern. Furthermore, overall mean REE abundances are 0.6 × CI with enriched La abundance ( 0.9 × CI) in both groups. Precise oxygen isotope compositions demonstrate the attainment of isotopic equilibrium by progressive thermal metamorphism following a mass-dependent isotope fractionation trend. Both groups show a slope-1/2 line on a three-isotope plot with subtle negative deviation in Δ17O associated with δ18O enrichment relative to δ17O. These deviations are interpreted as the result of liberation of water from phyllosilicates and evaporation of a fraction of the water during thermal metamorphism. The resultant isotope fractionations caused by the water loss are analogous to those occurring between silicate melt and gas phase during CAI and chondrule formation in chondrites and are controlled by cooling rates and exchange efficiency.

  16. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompilio, L. M. [Syracuse University; DePaoli, D. W. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and

  17. Human CD40 ligand-expressing type 3 innate lymphoid cells induce IL-10-producing immature transitional regulatory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, Zsolt I; Kovács, Nóra; van de Veen, Willem; Kirsch, Anna Isabella; Fahrner, Heinz Benedikt; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rebane, Ana; Stanic, Barbara; Palomares, Oscar; Rückert, Beate; Menz, Günter; Akdis, Mübeccel; Losonczy, György; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-09-20

    Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are involved in maintenance of mucosal homeostasis; however, their role in immunoregulation has been unknown. Immature transitional regulatory B (itBreg) cells are innate-like B cells with immunosuppressive properties, and the in vivo mechanisms by which they are induced have not been fully clarified. We aimed to investigate the ILC3-B-cell interaction that probably takes place in human tonsils. ILC3s were isolated from peripheral blood and palatine tonsils, expanded, and cocultured with naive B cells. Tonsillar ILC3s and regulatory B cells were visualized with immunofluorescence histology. ILC3 frequencies were measured in tonsil tissue of allergic and nonallergic patients and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic patients and healthy control subjects. A mutually beneficial relationship was revealed between ILC3s and B cells: ILC3s induced IL-15 production in B cells through B cell-activating factor receptor, whereas IL-15, a potent growth factor for ILC3s, induced CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression on circulating and tonsillar ILC3s. IL-15-activated CD40L + ILC3s helped B-cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation of IL-10-secreting, PD-L1-expressing functional itBreg cells in a CD40L- and B cell-activating factor receptor-dependent manner. ILC3s and regulatory B cells were in close connection with each other in palatine tonsils. ILC3 frequency was reduced in tonsil tissue of allergic patients and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic patients. Human CD40L + ILC3s provide innate B-cell help and are involved in an innate immunoregulatory mechanism through induction of itBreg cell differentiation, which takes place in palatine tonsils in vivo. This mechanism, which can contribute to maintenance of immune tolerance, becomes insufficient in allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenlokke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements...... of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded...... on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed...

  19. Natural type 3/type 2 intertypic vaccine-related poliovirus recombinants with the first crossover sites within the VP1 capsid coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei; Liu, Guiyan; Bai, Ruyin; Wang, Dongyan; Chen, Li; Zhu, Hui; An, Hongqiu; Kew, Olen; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-12-21

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a) into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.

  20. Natural type 3/type 2 intertypic vaccine-related poliovirus recombinants with the first crossover sites within the VP1 capsid coding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. CONCLUSIONS: 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.

  1. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-08

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  2. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Agee, Carl B.

    2017-05-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 103 contains 2582 meteorites including 10 falls (Ardón, Demsa, Jinju, Križevci, Kuresoi, Novato, Tinajdad, Tirhert, Vicência, Wolcott), with 2174 ordinary chondrites, 130 HED achondrites, 113 carbonaceous chondrites, 41 ureilites, 27 lunar meteorites, 24 enstatite chondrites, 21 iron meteorites, 15 primitive achondrites, 11 mesosiderites, 10 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 5 ungrouped achondrites, 2 enstatite achondrites, 1 relict meteorite, 1 pallasite, and 1 angrite, and with 1511 from Antarctica, 588 from Africa, 361 from Asia, 86 from South America, 28 from North America, and 6 from Europe. Note: 1 meteorite from Russia was counted as European. The complete contents of this bulletin (244 pages) are available on line. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at meteor/">http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  3. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the conjugative plasmid pOLA52, enhance biofilm formation and transfer frequencies in Enterobacteriaceae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Bahl, Martin Iain; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2008-01-01

    pathogenic, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Kluyvera sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes, pOLA52 facilitated increased biofilm formation. pOLA52 is believed to represent the first example of a conjugative plasmid encoding type 3 fimbriae...

  4. The principal neuronal gD-type 3-O-sulfotransferases and their products in central and peripheral nervous system tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Roger; Yabe, Tomio; HajMohammadi, Sassan; Rhodes, John; McNeely, Melissa; Liu, Jian; Lamperti, Edward D.; Toselli, Paul A.; Lech, Miroslaw; Spear, Patricia G.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Shworak, Nicholas W.

    2007-01-01

    Within the nervous system, heparan sulfate (HS) of the cell surface and extracellular matrix influences developmental, physiologic and pathologic processes. HS is a functionally diverse polysaccharide that employs motifs of sulfate groups to selectively bind and modulate various effector proteins. Specific HS activities are modulated by 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues, which are generated by a family of seven 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Most isoforms we herein designate as gD-type 3-OSTs because they generate HSgD+, 3-O-sulfated motifs that bind the gD envelope protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and thereby mediate viral cellular entry. Certain gD-type isoforms are anticipated to modulate neurobiologic events, because a Drosophila gD-type 3-OST is essential for a conserved neurogenic signaling pathway regulated by Notch. Information about 3-OST isoforms expressed in the nervous system of mammals is incomplete. Here, we identify the 3-OST isoforms having properties compatible with their participation in neurobiologic events. We show that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are principal isoforms of brain. We find these are gD-type enzymes, as they produce products similar to a prototypical gD-type isoform, and they can modify HS to generate receptors for HSV-1 entry into cells. Therefore, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 catalyze modifications similar or identical to those made by the Drosophila gD-type 3-OST that has a role in regulating Notch signaling. We also find that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the predominant isoforms expressed in neurons of the trigeminal ganglion, and 3-OST-2/4-type 3-O-sulfated residues occur in this ganglion and in select brain regions. Thus, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the major neural gD-type 3-OSTs, and so are prime candidates for participating in HS-dependent neurobiologic events. PMID:17482450

  5. A D- and N-15-Rich Micrometer-Sized Aggregate of Organic Matter in a Xenolithic Clast from the Zag Ordinary Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Ito, Motoo; Zolensky, Michael E.; Rahman, Zia; Suga, Hiroki; Nakato, Aiko; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Fries, Marc; Takeichi, Yasuo; Takahashi, Yoshio; hide

    2018-01-01

    The nature and origin of extraterrestrial organic matter are still under debate despite the significant progress in the analyses and experimental approaches in this field over the last five decades. Xenolithic clasts are often found in a wide variety of meteorite groups, some of which contain exotic organic matter (OM). The Zag meteorite is a thermally-metamorphosed H ordinary chondrite. It contains a primitive xenolithic clast that has been proposed to have originated from Ceres, which was accreted to the Zag host asteroid after metamorphism. The cm-sized clast contains abundant large carbon-rich (mostly organic) grains or aggregates up to 20 microns. Such large OM grains are unique among astromaterials with respect to the size. Here we report organic and isotope analyses of a large (approx.10 microns) aggregate of solid OM in the Zag clast. The X-ray micro-spectroscopic technique revealed that the OM has sp2 bonded carbon with no other functional groups nor graphitic feature (1s-sigma exciton), and thus it is distinguished from most of the OM in carbonaceous meteorites. The apparent absence of functional groups in the OM suggests that it is composed of hydrocarbon networks with less heteroatoms, and therefore the OM aggregate is similar to hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC). The OM aggregate has high D/H and 15N/14N ratios, suggesting that it originated in a very cold environment such as the interstellar medium or outer region of the solar nebula, while the OM is embedded in carbonate-bearing matrix resulting from aqueous activities. Thus the high D/H ratio must have survived the extensive late-stage aqueous processing. It is not in the case for OM in carbonaceous chondrites of which the D/H ratio was reduced by the alteration via the D-H exchange of water. It indicates that both the OM precursors and the water had high D/H ratios, similar to the water in Enceladus. Our results support the idea that the clast originated from Ceres, or at least, a

  6. Mixing and Transport of Dust in the Early Solar Nebula as Inferred from Titanium Isotope Variations among Chondrules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Simone; Burkhardt, Christoph; Budde, Gerrit; Metzler, Knut; Kleine, Thorsten, E-mail: burkhardt@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Planetologie, University of Münster, Wilhelm Klemm-Straße 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany)

    2017-05-20

    Chondrules formed by the melting of dust aggregates in the solar protoplanetary disk and as such provide unique insights into how solid material was transported and mixed within the disk. Here, we show that chondrules from enstatite and ordinary chondrites show only small {sup 50}Ti variations and scatter closely around the {sup 50}Ti composition of their host chondrites. By contrast, chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites have highly variable {sup 50}Ti compositions, which, relative to the terrestrial standard, range from the small {sup 50}Ti deficits measured for enstatite and ordinary chondrite chondrules to the large {sup 50}Ti excesses known from Ca–Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These {sup 50}Ti variations can be attributed to the addition of isotopically heterogeneous CAI-like material to enstatite and ordinary chondrite-like chondrule precursors. The new Ti isotopic data demonstrate that isotopic variations among carbonaceous chondrite chondrules do not require formation over a wide range of orbital distances, but can instead be fully accounted for by the incorporation of isotopically anomalous “nuggets” into chondrule precursors. As such, these data obviate the need for disk-wide transport of chondrules prior to chondrite parent body accretion and are consistent with formation of chondrules from a given chondrite group in localized regions of the disk. Finally, the ubiquitous presence of {sup 50}Ti-enriched material in carbonaceous chondrites and the lack of this material in the non-carbonaceous chondrites support the idea that these two meteorite groups derive from areas of the disk that remained isolated from each other, probably through the formation of Jupiter.

  7. Presolar silicates in the matrix and fine-grained rims around chondrules in primitive CO3.0 chondrites: Evidence for pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the rims in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Zega, Thomas J.; Croat, Thomas K.; Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Carpenter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the origin of fine-grained rims around chondrules (FGRs), we compared presolar grain abundances, elemental compositions and mineralogies in fine-grained interstitial matrix material and individual FGRs in the primitive CO3.0 chondrites Allan Hills A77307, LaPaz Icefield 031117 and Dominion Range 08006. The observation of similar overall O-anomalous (∼155 ppm) and C-anomalous grain abundances (∼40 ppm) in all three CO3.0 chondrites suggests that they all accreted from a nebular reservoir with similar presolar grain abundances. The presence of presolar silicate grains in FGRs combined with the observation of similar estimated porosity between interstitial matrix regions and FGRs in LAP 031117 and ALHA77307, as well as the identification of a composite FGR (a small rimmed chondrule within a larger chondrule rim) in ALHA77307, all provide evidence for a formation of FGRs by accretion of dust grains onto freely-floating chondrules in the solar nebula before their aggregation into their parent body asteroids. Our study also shows systematically lower abundances of presolar silicate grains in the FGRs than in the matrix regions of CO3 chondrites, while the abundances of SiC grains are the same in all areas, within errors. This trend differs from CR2 chondrites in which the presolar silicate abundances are higher in the FGRs than in the matrix, but similar to each other within 2σ errors. This observation combined with the identification of localized (micrometer-scaled) aqueous alteration in a FGR of LAP 031117 suggests that the lower abundance of presolar silicates in FGRs reflects pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the fine-grained material in the FGRs. This pre-accretionary alteration could be due to either hydration and heating of freely floating rimmed chondrules in icy regions of the solar nebula or melted water ice associated with 26Al-related heating inside precursor planetesimals, followed by aggregation of FGRs into the CO chondrite parent-body.

  8. An experimental study of chondrule formation from chondritic precursors via evaporation and condensation in Knudsen cell: Shock heating model of dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imae, Naoya; Isobe, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Chondrules, igneous objects of ∼1 mm in diameter, formed in the earliest solar system via a transient heating event, are divided into two types: main (type I, FeO-poor) and minor (type II, FeO-rich). Using various chondritic materials for different redox conditions and grain sizes, chondrule reproduction experiments were carried out at IW-2 to IW-3.8, with cooling rates mainly ∼100°C/h, with peak temperatures mainly at 1450 °C, and mainly at 100 Pa in a Knudsen cell providing near chemical equilibrium between the charge and the surrounding gas at the peak temperatures. Vapor pressures in the capsule were controlled using solid buffers. After and during the significant evaporation of the iron component from the metallic iron-poor starting materials in near equilibrium, crystallization occurred. This resulted in the formation of a product similar to the type I chondrules. Dusty olivine grains occurred in charges that had precursor type II chondrules containing coarse ferroan olivine, but such grains are not common in type I chondrules. Therefore fine-grained ferroan matrices rather than type II chondrules are main precursor for type I chondrules. The type I chondrules would have evolved via evaporation and condensation in the similar conditions to the present experimental system. Residual gas, which escaped in experiments, could have condensed to form matrices, leading to complementary compositions. Clusters of matrices and primordial chondrules could have been recycled to form main-generation chondrules originated from the shock heating.

  9. Comparison of the oxidation state of Fe in comet 81P/Wild 2 and chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogliore, Ryan C.; Butterworth, Anna L.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Gainsforth, Zack; Marcus, Matthew A.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2010-07-16

    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alterations have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured the Fe oxidation state of 15 CP-IDPs and 194 Stardust fragments using a synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe. We analyzed {approx}300 ng of Wild 2 material - three orders of magnitude more material than other analyses comparing Wild 2 and CP-IDPs. The Fe oxidation state of these two samples of material are > 2{sigma} different: the CP-IDPs are more oxidized than the Wild 2 grains. We conclude that comet Wild 2 contains material that formed at a lower oxygen fugacity than the parent-body, or parent bodies, of CP-IDPs. If all Jupiter-family comets are similar, they do not appear to be consistent with the origin of CP-IDPs. However, comets that formed from a different mix of nebular material and are more oxidized than Wild 2 could be the source of CP-IDPs.

  10. COL1A2 gene analysis in a Czech osteogenesis imperfecta patient: a candidate novel mutation in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrušková L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucie Hrušková,1 Ivo Mařík,2,3 Stella Mazurová,1 Pavel Martásek,1 Ivan Mazura1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Ambulant Centre for Defects of Locomotor Apparatus 1.1.c., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Medical Studies, West Bohemia University, Pilsen, Czech RepublicAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone fragility disease with a heterogenic genetic origin. Most cases result from mutations of either the COL1A1 gene or the COL1A2 gene. We identified a novel COL1A2 gene mutation in a Czech patient, born to unaffected parents, who was diagnosed according to clinical and anthropometric findings and radiographic features as having type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta, which is a severe form of this disease. The identified Gly814Trp mutation was predicted by a number of complementary bioinformatic programs to result in functional alteration of the protein. This case report provides both evidence of a novel COL1A2 mutation resulting in type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta and a genotype:phenotype correlation in this affected individual. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta type 3, collagen, alpha-2 (I chain, substitution, sequencing 

  11. Dengue virus type 3 isolation from Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective field study conducted from July 2000 to June 2001, adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were caught from the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Virus isolation in Ae. albopictus clone C6/36 cell line and a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected only dengue virus type 3 in three pools of Ae. aegypti, despite the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 serotypes in that area. No viruses were detected in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. This virological surveillance consists in a sentinel system alerting for dengue outbreaks.

  12. Reconstruction of the Exposure Histories of 20 Allan Hills Ordinary Chondrites on the Basis of Cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, Noble Gases, and Cosmic Ray Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, U.; Knauer, M.; Michel, R.; Loeken, Th.; Schultz, L.; Dittrich-Hannen, B.; Suter, M.; Kubik, P. W.; Metzler, K.; Romstedt, J.

    1995-09-01

    Twenty ordinary chondrites from the 1988/89 meteorite search (ALH 88004, 88008, 88010, 88011, 88013, 88016 to 88021, 88026 to 88031, 88033, 88039, 88042) [1,2] were investigated for 10Be and 26Al, and for He, Ne and Ar by accelerator and rare gas mass spectrometry, respectively. Cosmic ray tracks were measured in samples of ALH 88019. Using theoretical production rates calculated by a physical model [3] the experimental data are interpreted with respect to the reconstruction of the preatmospheric exposure conditions and exposure histories of the meteoroids. Ordinary chondrites are particularly well suited to exemplify the capabilities of an interpretation of many cosmogenic nuclides measured in one sample. Model calculations of GCR production rates were performed for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, 21Ne, 22Ne and 38Ar as reported elsewhere [4,5]. For all meteorites, except for ALH 88019, the cosmogenic nuclide data can be explained by simple one stage exposure histories between 3 Ma and 44 Ma in meteoroids with radii between 5 cm and 85 cm. Exposure ages were derived from cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar on the basis of the theoretical production rates as function of3He/21Ne and 22Ne/21Ne as well as on the empirical ones proposed by Eugster [6]. The average ratios of exposure ages determined from theoretical production rates to those calculated according to Eugster [6] were 1.08+/-0.11, 1.11+/-0.25 and 1.12+/-0.17 in case of 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar, respectively. Repeated measurements of 10Be and 26Al in ALH 88019 resulted in 10.4+/-1.3 dpm/kg and 5.6+/-0.5 dpm/kg, respectively. But, the cosmogenic rare gas concentrations point to a (single stage) exposure age of 39 Ma in a meteoroid. This is in accordance with a measured cosmic ray track density in olivine of 2.8 * 10^6 cm^-2. The samples are from depths betwen 3 cm and 8 cm. Based on the track data we obtain a minimum meteoroid radius of 8 cm. The low 10Be and 26Al cannot be explained by a one stage exposure history and a long

  13. Deletion of the Thyroid Hormone-Activating Type 2 Deiodinase Rescues Cone Photoreceptor Degeneration but Not Deafness in Mice Lacking Type 3 Deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily; Liu, Hong; St Germain, Donald L; Hernandez, Arturo; Forrest, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 deiodinase amplifies and type 3 deiodinase depletes levels of the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine. Given the opposing activities of these enzymes, we tested the hypothesis that they counteract each other's developmental functions by investigating whether deletion of type 2 deiodinase (encoded by Dio2) modifies sensory phenotypes in type 3 deiodinase-deficient (Dio3-/-) mice. Dio3-/- mice display degeneration of retinal cones, the photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision. In Dio2-/- mice, cone function was largely normal but deletion of Dio2 in Dio3-/- mice markedly recovered cone numbers and electroretinogram responses, suggesting counterbalancing roles for both enzymes in cone survival. Both Dio3-/- and Dio2-/- strains exhibit deafness with cochlear abnormalities. In Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, deafness was exacerbated rather than alleviated, suggesting unevenly balanced actions by these enzymes during auditory development. Dio3-/- mice also exhibit an atrophic thyroid gland, low thyroxine, and high triiodothyronine levels, but this phenotype was ameliorated in Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, indicating counterbalancing roles for the enzymes in determining the thyroid hormone status. The results suggest that the composite action of these two enzymes is a critical determinant in visual and auditory development and in setting the systemic thyroid hormone status.

  14. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  15. Fetal lung interstitial tumor: the first Japanese case report and a comparison with fetal lung tissue and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mariko; Tanaka, Mio; Gomi, Kiyoshi; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Dehner, Louis P; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2013-10-01

    Fetal lung interstitial tumor, a newly recognized lung lesion in infants, was first reported in 2010. Here, we report the first Japanese case of fetal lung interstitial tumor which was originally diagnosed as atypical congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. A 7-day-old girl was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress and a left lung mass and she subsequently underwent left lower lobectomy. The specimen showed a 5 cm solid mass with a fibrous capsule. Histological examination revealed immature airspaces and interstitium, containing bronchioles and cartilage. The epithelial and interstitial cells contained abundant glycogen granules. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin in the epithelial and interstitial cells. β-catenin gene mutations and trisomy 8 were not detected, so a neoplastic origin could not be confirmed. The histological findings were partly consistent with normal fetal lung at the canalicular stage, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. In this report, we compare the above conditions and discuss the pathogenesis of fetal lung interstitial tumor. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Martian Chemical and Isotopic Reference Standards in Earth-based Laboratories — An Invitation for Geochemical, Astrobiological, and Engineering Dialog on Considering a Weathered Chondrite for Mars Sample Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Tait, A. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Schröder, C.; Bland, P.

    2017-12-01

    Exogenic rocks (meteorites) found on Mars 1) have unweathered counterparts on Earth; 2) weather differently than indigenous rocks; and 3) may be ideal habitats for putative microorganisms and subsequent biosignature preservation. These attributes show the potential of meteorites for addressing hypothesis-driven science. They raise the question of whether chondritic meteorites, of sufficient weathering intensity, might be considered as candidates for sample return in a potential future mission. Pursuant to this discussion are the following questions. A) Is there anything to be learned from the laboratory study of a martian chondrite that cannot be learned from indigenous materials; and if so, B) is the science value high enough to justify recovery? If both A and B answer affirmatively, then C) what are the engineering constraints for sample collection for Mars 2020 and potential follow-on missions; and finally D) what is the likelihood of finding a favorable sample? Observations relevant to these questions include: i) Since 2005, 24 candidate and confirmed meteorites have been identified on Mars at three rover landing sites, demonstrating their ubiquity and setting expectations for future finds. All have been heavily altered by a variety of physical and chemical processes. While the majority of these are irons (not suitable for recovery), several are weathered stony meteorites. ii) Exogenic reference materials provide the only chemical/isotope standards on Mars, permitting quantification of alteration rates if residence ages can be attained; and possibly enabling the removal of Late Amazonian weathering overprints from other returned samples. iii) Recent studies have established the habitability of chondritic meteorites with terrestrial microorganisms, recommending their consideration when exploring astrobiological questions. High reactivity, organic content, and permeability show stony meteorites to be more attractive for colonization and subsequent biosignature

  17. MrkH, a novel c-di-GMP-dependent transcriptional activator, controls Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation by regulating type 3 fimbriae expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Wilksch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly amongst hospitalized individuals. The principle mechanism for pathogenesis in hospital environments involves the formation of biofilms, primarily on implanted medical devices. In this study, we constructed a transposon mutant library in a clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae AJ218, to identify the genes and pathways implicated in biofilm formation. Three mutants severely defective in biofilm formation contained insertions within the mrkABCDF genes encoding the main structural subunit and assembly machinery for type 3 fimbriae. Two other mutants carried insertions within the yfiN and mrkJ genes, which encode GGDEF domain- and EAL domain-containing c-di-GMP turnover enzymes, respectively. The remaining two isolates contained insertions that inactivated the mrkH and mrkI genes, which encode for novel proteins with a c-di-GMP-binding PilZ domain and a LuxR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively. Biochemical and functional assays indicated that the effects of these factors on biofilm formation accompany concomitant changes in type 3 fimbriae expression. We mapped the transcriptional start site of mrkA, demonstrated that MrkH directly activates transcription of the mrkA promoter and showed that MrkH binds strongly to the mrkA regulatory region only in the presence of c-di-GMP. Furthermore, a point mutation in the putative c-di-GMP-binding domain of MrkH completely abolished its function as a transcriptional activator. In vivo analysis of the yfiN and mrkJ genes strongly indicated their c-di-GMP-specific function as diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase, respectively. In addition, in vitro assays showed that purified MrkJ protein has strong c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that c-di-GMP can function as an effector to stimulate the activity of a transcriptional activator, and explain how type 3 fimbriae

  18. 46,XY disorder of sex development due to 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 deficiency: a plea for timely genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbly, Chelsey; Caluseriu, Oana; Metcalfe, Peter; Jetha, Mary M; Rosolowsky, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3) deficiency is a rare cause of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to impaired conversion of androstenedione to testosterone. Traditionally, the diagnosis was determined by βHCG-stimulated ratios of testosterone:androstenedione stimulation (1500 IU IM for 2 days) suggested 17βHSD3 deficiency although androstenedione was only minimally stimulated (4.5 nmol/L to 5.4 nmol/L). Expedient genetic testing for the HSD17B3 gene provided the unequivocal diagnosis. We advocate for urgent genetic testing in rare causes of DSD as indeterminate hormone results can delay diagnosis and prolong intervention.

  19. Assay of the β-glucosidase activity with natural labelled and artificial substrates in leukocytes from homozygotes and heterozygotes with the Norrbottnian type (Type 3) of Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svennerholm, L.; Haakansson, G.; Dreborg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Leukocytes were isolated from 14 patients (7 males and 7 females) with Gaucher disease of the Norrbottnian type (Type 3), 32 obligate heterozygotes (16 males and 16 females) for this disease and 20 controls (10 males and 10 females). After collection, the cells were transported in dry ice to the laboratory, where they were assayed. The assays were repeated after the cells had been stored for 12 months. β-Glucosidase activity was assayed with D-[glucose-U- 14 C]glucosylceramide at pH 5.8 with Cutscum-Na-cholate as a detergent and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucoside at pH 4.1 with Triton-Na-taurocholate as a detergent. The activities of two marker enzymes, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were assayed in aliquots of the same leukocyte samples. (Auth.)

  20. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  1. Mutations in type 3 reovirus that determine binding to sialic acid are contained in the fibrous tail domain of viral attachment protein sigma1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, J D; Gunn, V L; Wetzel, J D; Baer, G S; Dermody, T S

    1997-03-01

    The reovirus attachment protein, sigma1, determines numerous aspects of reovirus-induced disease, including viral virulence, pathways of spread, and tropism for certain types of cells in the central nervous system. The sigma1 protein projects from the virion surface and consists of two distinct morphologic domains, a virion-distal globular domain known as the head and an elongated fibrous domain, termed the tail, which is anchored into the virion capsid. To better understand structure-function relationships of sigma1 protein, we conducted experiments to identify sequences in sigma1 important for viral binding to sialic acid, a component of the receptor for type 3 reovirus. Three serotype 3 reovirus strains incapable of binding sialylated receptors were adapted to growth in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells, in which sialic acid is essential for reovirus infectivity. MEL-adapted (MA) mutant viruses isolated by serial passage in MEL cells acquired the capacity to bind sialic acid-containing receptors and demonstrated a dependence on sialic acid for infection of MEL cells. Analysis of reassortant viruses isolated from crosses of an MA mutant virus and a reovirus strain that does not bind sialic acid indicated that the sigma1 protein is solely responsible for efficient growth of MA mutant viruses in MEL cells. The deduced sigma1 amino acid sequences of the MA mutant viruses revealed that each strain contains a substitution within a short region of sequence in the sigma1 tail predicted to form beta-sheet. These studies identify specific sequences that determine the capacity of reovirus to bind sialylated receptors and suggest a location for a sialic acid-binding domain. Furthermore, the results support a model in which type 3 sigma1 protein contains discrete receptor binding domains, one in the head and another in the tail that binds sialic acid.

  2. Comment on "Hydrothermal preparation of analogous matrix minerals of CM carbonaceous chondrites from metal alloy particles" by Y. Peng and Y. Jing [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 408 (2014) 252-262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Peng and Jing (2014) recently reported the results of hydrothermal experiments designed to produce synthetic tochilinite/cronstedtite assemblages analogous to those found in the matrix of CM chondrites (Tomeoka and Buseck, 1982, 1983a, 1983b, 1985; Mackinnon and Zolensky, 1984; Zolensky and Mackinnon, 1986; Rubin et al., 2007; Bourot-Denise et al., 2010; Hewins et al., 2014; Marrocchi et al., 2014). The assemblage was obtained from an alloyed metal particle mixture of Fe, Mg, Al, Si, Cr and Ni under basic, reducing and S2--rich conditions. The hydrothermal syntheses were conducted in Teflon-lined stainless-steel autoclaves at temperature of 106-160 °C for short-duration runs and at 153 °C for long-duration runs. The phases in the assemblage were characterized by XRD and TEM, but only the analytical results of long-duration runs were reported in the article and in the Appendix as supplementary material. The phases identified were: cronstedtite and tochilinite (both present in all run products), tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, polyhedral serpentine, a chrysotile-like phase, nanotube-like structures, and lizardite-like and brucite-like phases. Based on their experimental results, the authors put forward a hypothesis to explain the formation of matrix minerals in CM chondrites proposing that the precursors may be nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles of metal alloys that were altered at low temperatures by interaction with S-rich water under reducing and dynamic pressurized conditions.

  3. "Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

    2013-10-01

    The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 μg g-1 (median 2500 μg g-1) as compared to 187-14140 μg g-1 in soils (median 1148 μg g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

  4. Effects of ketamine on glucose uptake by glucose transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes: The role of protein kinase C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, Shigemasa, E-mail: tomioka@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Kaneko, Miyuki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Satomura, Kazuhito [First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Mikyu, Tomiko; Nakajo, Nobuyoshi [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2009-10-09

    We investigated the effects of ketamine on the type 3 facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT3), which plays a major role in glucose transport across the plasma membrane of neurons. Human-cloned GLUT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of GLUT3 mRNA. GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake was examined by measuring oocyte radioactivity following incubation with 2-deoxy-D-[1,2-{sup 3}H]glucose. While ketamine and S(+)-ketamine significantly increased GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake, this effect was biphasic such that higher concentrations of ketamine inhibited glucose uptake. Ketamine (10 {mu}M) significantly increased V{sub max} but not K{sub m} of GLUT3 for 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Although staurosporine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) increased glucose uptake, no additive or synergistic interactions were observed between staurosporine and racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine. Treatment with ketamine or S(+)-ketamine partially prevented GLUT3 inhibition by the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myrisate-13-acetate. Our results indicate that ketamine increases GLUT3 activity at clinically relevant doses through a mechanism involving PKC inhibition.

  5. Promoter Variation and Expression Levels of Inflammatory Genes IL1A, IL1B, IL6 and TNF in Blood of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Mafalda; Bettencourt, Conceição; Ramos, Amanda; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Vasconcelos, João; Kay, Teresa; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Lima, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Age at onset in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3/MJD) is incompletely explained by the size of the CAG tract at the ATXN3 gene, implying the existence of genetic modifiers. A role of inflammation in SCA3 has been postulated, involving altered cytokines levels; promoter variants leading to alterations in cytokines expression could influence onset. Using blood from 86 SCA3 patients and 106 controls, this work aimed to analyse promoter variation of four cytokines (IL1A, IL1B, IL6 and TNF) and to investigate the association between variants detected and their transcript levels, evaluated by quantitative PCR. Moreover, the effect of APOE isoforms, known to modulate cytokines, was investigated. Correlations between cytokine variants and onset were tested; the cumulative modifier effects of cytokines and APOE were analysed. Patients carrying the IL6*C allele had a significant earlier onset (4 years in average) than patients carrying the G allele, in agreement with lower mRNA levels produced by IL6*C carriers. The presence of APOE*ɛ2 allele seems to anticipate onset in average 10 years in patients carrying the IL6*C allele; a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm this result. These results highlight the pertinence of conducting further research on the role of cytokines as SCA3 modulators, pointing to the presence of shared mechanisms involving IL6 and APOE.

  6. Rare natural type 3/type 2 intertypic capsid recombinant vaccine-related poliovirus isolated from a case of acute flaccid paralysis in Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassemiro, Klécia M S M; Burlandy, Fernanda M; da Silva, Edson E

    2016-07-01

    A natural type 3/type 2 intertypic capsid recombinant vaccine-related poliovirus was isolated from an acute flaccid paralytic case in Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed the uncommon location of the crossover site in the VP1 coding region (nucleotides 3251-3258 of Sabin 3 genome). The Sabin 2 donor sequence replaced the last 118 nt of VP1, resulting in the substitution of the complete antigenic site IIIa by PV2-specific amino acids. The low overall number of nucleotide substitutions in P1 region indicated that the predicted replication time of the isolate was about 8-9 weeks. Two of the principal determinants of attenuation in Sabin 3 genomes were mutated (U472C and C2493U), but the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the isolate was preserved. Our results support the theory that there exists a PV3/PV2 recombination hotspot site in the tail region of the VP1 capsid protein and that the recombination may occur soon after oral poliovirus vaccine administration.

  7. Epidemic myalgia and myositis associated with human parechovirus type 3 infections occur not only in adults but also in children: findings in Yamagata, Japan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, K; Yamakawa, T; Kurokawa, K; Chikaoka, S; Shimizu, Y; Itagaki, T; Katsushima, F; Katsushima, Y; Ito, S; Aoki, Y; Matoba, Y; Tanaka, S; Yahagi, K

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription-PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.

  8. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Methods Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Results Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Conclusion Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis. PMID:22938382

  9. Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) segregating with a heterozygous deletion in the paired box domain of PAX3: a simple variant or a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, M; Bodurtha, J N; Nance, W E; Pandya, A

    2001-10-01

    Klein-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (WS-III; MIM 148820) is characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal abnormalities in association with clinical features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS-I). Since the description of the first patient in 1947 (D. Klein, Arch Klaus Stift Vererb Forsch 1947: 22: 336-342), a few cases have been reported. Only occasional families have demonstrated autosomal-dominant inheritance of WS-III. In a previous report, a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene has been described in a family with dominant segregation of WS-III. In this report, we present a second family (mother and son) with typical clinical findings of WS-III segregating with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene. Although homozygosity or compound heterozygosity has also been documented in patients with severe limb involvement, a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation for limb abnormalities associated with heterozygous PAX3 mutations has not previously been apparent. Heterozygous mutations could either reflect a unique dominant-negative effect or possibly the contribution of other unlinked genetic modifiers in determining the phenotype.

  10. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Slim, Rima; Mansour, Ahmad; Nauck, Markus; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Decker, Christian; Dafinger, Claudia; Ebermann, Inga; Bergmann, Carsten; Bolz, Hanno Jörn

    2012-09-02

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.

  11. Effects of ketamine on glucose uptake by glucose transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes: The role of protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Shigemasa; Kaneko, Miyuki; Satomura, Kazuhito; Mikyu, Tomiko; Nakajo, Nobuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ketamine on the type 3 facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT3), which plays a major role in glucose transport across the plasma membrane of neurons. Human-cloned GLUT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of GLUT3 mRNA. GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake was examined by measuring oocyte radioactivity following incubation with 2-deoxy-D-[1,2- 3 H]glucose. While ketamine and S(+)-ketamine significantly increased GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake, this effect was biphasic such that higher concentrations of ketamine inhibited glucose uptake. Ketamine (10 μM) significantly increased V max but not K m of GLUT3 for 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Although staurosporine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) increased glucose uptake, no additive or synergistic interactions were observed between staurosporine and racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine. Treatment with ketamine or S(+)-ketamine partially prevented GLUT3 inhibition by the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myrisate-13-acetate. Our results indicate that ketamine increases GLUT3 activity at clinically relevant doses through a mechanism involving PKC inhibition.

  12. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  13. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberger Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3. Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Methods Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Results Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Conclusion Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract. After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.

  14. The cytotoxic type 3 secretion system 1 of Vibrio rewires host gene expression to subvert cell death and activate cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-05-16

    Bacterial effectors potently manipulate host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus ( V. para ) delivers effectors into host cells through two type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate nonapoptotic cell death. To understand how the concerted action of T3SS1 effectors globally affects host cell signaling, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1 + ) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1 - ). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1 + and T3SS1 - V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 rewired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors targeted host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, V. para T3SS1 also precipitated a host transcriptional response that initially activated cell survival and repressed cell death networks. The increased expression of several key prosurvival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 depended on a host signaling pathway that is silenced posttranslationally later in infection. Together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between the roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Long-term hematological, visceral, and growth outcomes in children with Gaucher disease type 3 treated with imiglucerase in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshlawy, Amal; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Vellodi, Ashok; Belmatoug, Nadia; Grabowski, Gregory A; Kolodny, Edwin H; Batista, Julie L; Cox, Gerald F; Mistry, Pramod K

    In Gaucher disease (GD), deficiency of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase results in a broad phenotypic spectrum that is classified into three types based on the absence (type 1 [GD1]) or presence and severity of primary central nervous system involvement (type 2 [GD2], the fulminant neuronopathic form, and type 3 [GD3], the milder chronic neuronopathic form). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with imiglucerase ameliorates and prevents hematological and visceral manifestations in GD1, but data in GD3 are limited to small, single-center series. The effects of imiglucerase ERT on hematological, visceral and growth outcomes (note: ERT is not expected to directly impact neurologic outcomes) were evaluated during the first 5years of treatment in 253 children and adolescents (Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry. The vast majority of GBA mutations in this diverse global population consisted of only 2 mutations: L444P (77%) and D409H (7%). At baseline, GD3 patients exhibited early onset of severe hematological and visceral disease and growth failure. During the first year of imiglucerase treatment, hemoglobin levels and platelet counts increased and liver and spleen volumes decreased, leading to marked decreases in the number of patients with moderate or severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. These improvements were maintained through Year 5. There was also acceleration in linear growth as evidenced by increasing height Z-scores. Despite devastating disease at baseline, the probability of surviving for at least 5years after starting imiglucerase was 92%. In this large, multinational cohort of pediatric GD3 patients, imiglucerase ERT provided a life-saving and life-prolonging benefit for patients with GD3, suggesting that, with proper treatment, many such severely affected patients can lead productive lives and contribute to society. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro

  17. Analysis of microRNAs Expression Profiles in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells Infected With Caprine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3 is a newly emerging pathogenic respiratory agent infecting both young and adult goats, and it was identified in eastern China in 2013. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs have been reported to be important modulators of the intricate virus-host interactions. In order to elucidate the role of miRNAs in madin-darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells during CPIV3 infection. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze small RNA libraries in CPIV3-infected and mock-infected MDBK cells. The results showed that a total of 249 known and 152 novel candidate miRNAs were differentially expressed in MDBK cells after CPIV3 infection, and 22,981 and 22,572 target genes were predicted, respectively. In addition, RT-qPCR assay was used to further confirm the expression patterns of 13 of these differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation analysis showed these up- and downregulated target genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, focal adhesion, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and apoptosis, et al. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the comparative expression of miRNAs in MDBK cells after CPIV3 infection. Our finding provides information concerning miRNAs expression profile in response to CPIV3 infection, and offers clues for identifying potential candidates for antiviral therapies against CPIV3.

  18. The cone-dominant retina and the inner ear of zebrafish express the ortholog of CLRN1, the causative gene of human Usher syndrome type 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer B; Västinsalo, Hanna; Wegner, Jeremy; Clément, Aurélie; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Westerfield, Monte

    2013-12-01

    Clarin-1 (CLRN1) is the causative gene in Usher syndrome type 3A, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive vision and hearing loss. CLRN1 encodes Clarin-1, a glycoprotein with homology to the tetraspanin family of proteins. Previous cell culture studies suggest that Clarin-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and interacts with the cytoskeleton. Mouse models demonstrate a role for the protein in mechanosensory hair bundle integrity, but the function of Clarin-1 in hearing remains unclear. Even less is known of its role in vision, because the Clrn1 knockout mouse does not exhibit a retinal phenotype and expression studies in murine retinas have provided conflicting results. Here, we describe cloning and expression analysis of the zebrafish clrn1 gene, and report protein localization of Clarin-1 in auditory and visual cells from embryonic through adult stages. We detect clrn1 transcripts as early as 24h post-fertilization, and expression is maintained through adulthood. In situ hybridization experiments show clrn1 transcripts enriched in mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells of the inner ear and lateral line organ, photoreceptors, and cells of the inner retina. In mechanosensory hair cells, Clarin-1 is polarized to the apical cell body and the synapses. In the retina, Clarin-1 localizes to lateral cell contacts between photoreceptors and is associated with the outer limiting membrane and subapical processes emanating from Müller glial cells. We also find Clarin-1 protein in the outer plexiform, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the retina. Given the importance of Clarin-1 function in the human retina, it is imperative to find an animal model with a comparable requirement. Our data provide a foundation for exploring the role of Clarin-1 in retinal cell function and survival in a diurnal, cone-dominant species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Suggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in

  20. Re-emergence of dengue virus type 3 in Canton, China, 2009-2010, associated with multiple introductions through different geographical routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Liang

    Full Text Available Endemic dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 infections have not been reported in Canton, China, since 1980. In March 2009, DENV-3 was isolated for the second time, occurring about 30 years after the previous circulation. In August, 3 other cases emerged. One much larger outbreak occurred again in 2010. To address the origin and particularly to determine whether the outbreaks were caused by the same viral genotype, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, spread and genetic microevolution of DENV-3 involved.Three imported cases (index-1,2,3 separately traveled back from Vietnam, India and Tanzania, resulted in 1, 3 and 60 secondary autochthonous cases, respectively. In autochthonous cases, 64.6% positive in IgM anti-DENV and 18.6% in IgG from a total of 48 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 7 DENV-3 isolates. With 99.8%, 99.7%, and 100% envelope gene nucleotidic identity, 09/GZ/1081 from index-1 and endemic strain (09/GZ/1483 belonged to genotype V; 09/GZ/10616 from index-2 and endemic strains (09/GZ/11144 and 09/GZ/11194 belonged to genotype III Clade-A; and 10/GZ/4898 from index-3 and all four 2010 endemic DENV-3 strains belonged to genotype III Clade-B, respectively.Both epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 2010 outbreak of dengue was not a reemergence of the 2009 strain. Introductions of different genotypes following more than one route were important contributory factors for the 2009-2010 dengue epidemics/outbreaks in Canton. These findings underscore the importance of early detection and case management of imported case in preventing large-scale dengue epidemics among indigenous peoples of Canton.

  1. Decreased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and hyperactivity in a type 3 deiodinase-deficient mouse showing brain thyrotoxicosis and peripheral hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohn, J Patrizia; Martinez, M Elena; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-12-01

    Hypo- and hyperthyroid states, as well as functional abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been associated with psychiatric conditions like anxiety and depression. However, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood since it is difficult to ascertain the thyroid status of the brain in humans. Data from animal models indicate that the brain exhibits efficient homeostatic mechanisms that maintain local levels of the active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) within a narrow range. To better understand the consequences of peripheral and central thyroid status for mood-related behaviors, we used a mouse model of type 3 deiodinase (DIO3) deficiency (Dio3 -/- mouse). This enzyme inactivates thyroid hormone and is highly expressed in the adult central nervous system. Adult Dio3 -/- mice exhibit elevated levels of T3-dependent gene expression in the brain, despite peripheral hypothyroidism as indicated by low circulating levels of thyroxine and T3. Dio3 -/- mice of both sexes exhibit hyperactivity and significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior, as measured by longer time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and in the light area of the light/dark box. During the tail suspension, they stayed immobile for a significantly shorter time than their wild-type littermates, suggesting decreased depression-like behavior. These results indicate that increased thyroid hormone in the brain, not necessarily in peripheral tissues, correlates with hyperactivity and with decreases in anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Our results also underscore the importance of DIO3 as a determinant of behavior by locally regulating the brain levels of thyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Human 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural clues of 5α-DHT reverse binding and enzyme down-regulation decreasing MCF7 cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Thériault, Jean-François; Zhu, Dao-Wei; Shang, Peng; Labrie, Fernand; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-04-15

    Human 3α-HSD3 (3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3) plays an essential role in the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5α-DHT (5α-dihydrotestosterone). The present study attempts to obtain the important structure of 3α-HSD3 in complex with 5α-DHT and to investigate the role of 3α-HSD3 in breast cancer cells. We report the crystal structure of human 3α-HSD3·NADP(+)·A-dione (5α-androstane-3,17-dione)/epi-ADT (epiandrosterone) complex, which was obtained by co-crystallization with 5α-DHT in the presence of NADP(+) Although 5α-DHT was introduced during the crystallization, oxidoreduction of 5α-DHT occurred. The locations of A-dione and epi-ADT were identified in the steroid-binding sites of two 3α-HSD3 molecules per crystal asymmetric unit. An overlay showed that A-dione and epi-ADT were oriented upside-down and flipped relative to each other, providing structural clues for 5α-DHT reverse binding in the enzyme with the generation of different products. Moreover, we report the crystal structure of the 3α-HSD3·NADP(+)·4-dione (4-androstene-3,17-dione) complex. When a specific siRNA (100 nM) was used to suppress 3α-HSD3 expression without interfering with 3α-HSD4, which shares a highly homologous active site, the 5α-DHT concentration increased, whereas MCF7 cell growth was suppressed. The present study provides structural clues for 5α-DHT reverse binding within 3α-HSD3, and demonstrates for the first time that down-regulation of 3α-HSD3 decreases MCF7 breast cancer cell growth. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Worldwide increased prevalence of human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections is well correlated with heterogeneous hypervariable regions (HVRs) of hexon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ezazul; Banik, Urmila; Monwar, Tahmina; Anthony, Leela; Adhikary, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs. HAdV-3 has recently become the major agent of acute respiratory infection worldwide, being responsible for 15% to 87% of all adenoviral respiratory infections. However, despite the increased prevalence of HAdV-3 as respiratory pathogen, the diversity of hexon proteins in circulating strains remains unexplored. This study was designed to explore the variation in HVRs of hexon among globally distributed strains of HAdV-3 as well as to discover possible relationship among them, thus possibly shedding light on the cause for the increased prevalence of HAdV-3. In this study, for the first time we analysed the hexon proteins of all 248 available strains of HAdV-3 from the NCBI database and compared them with those of the HAdV-3 prototype (GB stain). We found that the HVRs of HAdV-3 strains circulating worldwide were highly heterogeneous and have been mutating continuously since -their original isolation. Based on their immense heterogeneity, the strains can be categorized into 25 hexon variants (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-25), 4 of which (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-4) comprises 80% of the strains. This heterogeneity may explain why HAdV-3 has become the most prevalent HAdVs type worldwide. The heterogeneity of hexon proteins also shows that the development of a vaccine against HAdV-3 might be challenging. The data on hexon variants provided here may be useful for

  5. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a patient with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3 carrying a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Griscelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous non-synonymous (p.S142F mutation in HNF1A leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY type 3, which is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to the defect of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a patient with HNF1A p.S142F mutation. Cells from this patient, which were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the HNF1A p.S142F mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, individuals with SCA3 may develop loss of sensation and weakness in the limbs (peripheral neuropathy), muscle cramps, muscle twitches (fasciculations), and swallowing difficulties. Individuals with SCA3 may have problems with memory, planning, and problem solving. Signs and symptoms of ...

  7. Stable chromium isotopic composition of meteorites and metal-silicate experiments: Implications for fractionation during core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, P.; Williams, H. M.; Parkinson, I. J.; Wood, B. J.; Halliday, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present new mass independent and mass dependent Cr isotope compositions for meteorites measured by double spike thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Small differences in both mass independent 53Cr and 54Cr relative to the Bulk Silicate Earth are reported and are very similar to previously published values. Carbonaceous chondrites are characterised by an excess in 54Cr compared to ordinary and enstatite chondrites which make mass independent Cr isotopes a useful tool for distinguishing between meteoritic groups. Mass dependent stable Cr isotope compositions for the same samples are also reported. Carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites are identical within uncertainty with average δ53 Cr values of - 0.118 ± 0.040 ‰ and - 0.143 ± 0.074 ‰ respectively. The heaviest isotope compositions are recorded by an enstatite chondrite and a CO carbonaceous chondrite, both of which have relatively reduced chemical compositions implying some stable Cr isotope fractionation related to redox processes in the circumstellar disk. The average δ53 Cr values for chondrites are within error of the estimate for the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) also determined by double spiking. The lack of isotopic difference between chondritic material and the BSE provides evidence that Cr isotopes were not fractionated during core formation on Earth. A series of high-pressure experiments was also carried out to investigate stable Cr isotope fractionation between metal and silicate and no demonstrable fractionation was observed, consistent with our meteorites data. Mass dependent Cr isotope data for achondrites suggest that Cr isotopes are fractionated during magmatic differentiation and therefore further work is required to constrain the Cr isotopic compositions of the mantles of Vesta and Mars.

  8. Asteroid 2008 TC3 Breakup and Meteorite Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of meteorites from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 in the Nubian Desert of Sudan on October 7, 2008, marked the first time meteorites were collected from an asteroid observed in space by astronomical techniques before impacting. Search teams from the University of Khartoum traced the location of the strewn field and collected about 660 meteorites in four expeditions to the fall region, all of which have known fall coordinates. Upon further study, the Almahata Sitta meteorites proved to be a mixed bag of mostly ureilites (course grained, fine grained, and sulfide-metal assemblages), enstatite chondrites (EL3-6, EH3, EH5, breccias) and ordinary chondrites (H5-6, L4-5). One bencubbinite-like carbonaceous chondrite was identified, as well as one unique Rumuruti-like chondrite and an Enstatite achondrite. New analysis: The analysed meteorites so far suggest a high 30-40 percent fraction of non-ureilites among the recovered samples, but that high fraction does not appear to be in agreement with the meteorites in the University of Khartoum (UoK) collection. Ureilites dominate the meteorites that were recovered by the Sudanese teams. To better understand the fraction of recovered materials that fell to Earth, a program has been initiated to type the meteorites in the UoK collection in defined search areas. At this meeting, we will present some preliminary results from that investigation.

  9. Re-investigation of the crystal structure of enstatite under high-pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic single crystal of pure orthoenstatite (MgSiO3, space group Pbca) has been investigated at high pressure for structural determinations by in situ single-crystal X‑ray diffraction using a diamond-anvil cell. Ten complete intensity data collections were performed up to 9.36 GPa. This study...... with different compositions. The structural evolution determined in this work confirms the high-pressure evolution found previously for other orthopyroxenes and removes some ambiguities originating from the less accurate published data on the MgSiO3 structure at high pressure. The structural compression...

  10. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Insights from Forsterite and Enstatite Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.

  11. Primary Type3 (Non-ABC, Non-GCB Subtype of Extranodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Thyroid Bearing No MYD88 Mutation by Padlock Probe Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Nishi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary extranodal malignant lymphoma of the thyroid is a rare entity composed of mostly neoplastic transformation of germinal center-like B cells (GCB or memory B cells. Other B-cell-type malignancies arising primarily in the thyroid have rarely been described. Immunohistochemical examination of autopsied primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid in an 83-year-old Japanese female revealed the presence of a non-GCB subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL without the typical codon 206 or 265 missense mutation of MYD88. The lack of the highly oncogenic MYD88 gene mutation, frequently observed in DLBCL of the activated B-cell (ABC subtype, and the detection of an extremely aggressive yet local clinical phenotype demonstrated that the present case was an exceptional entity of the type3 (non-GCB and non-ABC subtype.

  12. Characterization of WbiQ: An α1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → WbiQ is an α1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127. → WbiQ demonstrates strict substrate specificity for the Gal-β1,3-GalNAc acceptor. → WbiQ was used to synthesize milligram scale of the H-type 3 blood group antigen. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an α1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-α1,2-Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  13. Nitrogen isotope fractionations in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in the Miller-Urey reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Chan Kung; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M.H.; Clayton, R.N.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen isotope fractionations have been measured in Fischer-Tropsch and Miller-Urey reactions in order to determine whether these processes can account for the large 15 N/ 14 N ratios found in organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites. Polymeric material formed in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction was enriched in 15 N by only 3 promille relative to the starting material (NH 3 ). The 15 N enrichment in polymers from the Miller-Urey reaction was 10-12 promille. Both of these fractionations are small compared to the 80-90 promille differences observed between enstatite chondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. These large differences are apparently due to temporal or spatial variations in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar nebula, rather than to fractionation during the production of organic compounds. (orig.)

  14. Mapping Organic Materials in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Misra, A.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    We present two new techniques that, together, constitute a quick first order method to characterize the insoluble organic matter (IOM), shedding light on the heterogeneity of the IOM both in its composition and its distribution in meteorites.