WorldWideScience

Sample records for type site stage

  1. Impact of cancer, type, site, stage and treatment on the nutritional status of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzeti, F.

    1982-01-01

    This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C 3 and C 4 components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters

  2. The number of metastatic sites for stage IIIA endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid cell type, is a strong negative prognostic factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, Jan J.; Naudin ten Cate, Lambert; Lybeert, Marnix L.M.; van der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Scholten, A.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van der Palen, J.; Slot, Annerie; Stenfert Kroese, Marika C.; Schutter, Eltjo M.; Siesling, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the number of sites with tumour involvement on outcome for patients with stage IIIA endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma. Patients and methods: 141 patients stage IIIA were included. A central histopathological review was performed. Patients

  3. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: STAGING (Staging Site Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for staging sites along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent locations of possible staging areas...

  5. Two stage-type railgun accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a two stage-type railgun accelerator capable of spiking a flying body (ice pellet) formed by solidifying a gaseous hydrogen isotope as a fuel to a thermonuclear reactor at a higher speed into a central portion of plasmas. Namely, the two stage-type railgun accelerator accelerates the flying body spiked from a initial stage accelerator to a portion between rails by Lorentz force generated when electric current is supplied to the two rails by way of a plasma armature. In this case, two sets of solenoids are disposed for compressing the plasma armature in the longitudinal direction of the rails. The first and the second sets of solenoid coils are previously supplied with electric current. After passing of the flying body, the armature formed into plasmas by a gas laser disposed at the back of the flying body is compressed in the longitudinal direction of the rails by a magnetic force of the first and the second sets of solenoid coils to increase the plasma density. A current density is also increased simultaneously. Then, the first solenoid coil current is turned OFF to accelerate the flying body in two stages by the compressed plasma armature. (I.S.)

  6. Augment-type two stage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    When a flying body accelerated by a gas gun at a first stage enters into an augment rail passing through an introduction tube, an ignition capacitor for initial plasmas is turned ON to apply a voltage between the augment rails. Subsequently, the accelerating gas present behind the flying body is formed into plasmas by a laser, to flow electric current from one of the inner augment rails → plasma armature → the other of the inner augment rails, and additionally accelerate the flying body by Lorentz force formed in this case. Since the plasmas are maintained in a state of higher density than the plasmas obtained by using all of the augment rails, the ignition capacitor for initial plasmas in switched to a power source. As a result, it is possible to flow the maximum current before the plasmas expand, and a large accelerating force and a high magnetic flux density are attained, to improve acceleration performance of the flying body. (N.H.)

  7. Manipulating the mandibular distraction site at different stages of consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shang; Scadeng, Miriam; Yamashita, Dennis Duke; Pollack, Harvey; Faridi, Omar; Tran, Binh; Shuler, Charles; Yen, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to define optimal timing and conditions for correcting an open bite side effect by manipulating the distraction site with orthodontic springs after mandibular distraction. At 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 weeks postdistraction, interarch springs were attached for 2 weeks to close distraction-produced open bites in 45 rabbits. Distractors were removed in half of the animals receiving spring treatment. Segment position was recorded by weekly direct measurements and radiographs. Tissue samples were collected at the end of spring application for microcomputerized tomography analysis and measurements of lateral symmetry. Orthodontic springs closed the open bite with or without distractors in place immediately after distraction and partially corrected the bite at later stages of bone consolidation. Distractor removal produced more rapid bite closure but also introduced lateral buckling of the distraction site during early consolidation. The lateral buckling was not observed if springs were applied after 2 weeks of consolidation. The amount of bite correction with orthodontic springs correlated with mineralization of the distraction site. During the consolidation period, a distraction site can be callus manipulated with orthodontic springs to correct an open bite. The amount of correction depended on when springs were placed and whether distractors were removed at the time of spring application.

  8. The role of estuarine type in characterizing early stage fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assemblages of early stage fishes (larval and early juvenile stages) were investigated and compared in seven permanently open and five intermittently open estuarine systems on the warm temperate Eastern Cape coast of South Africa. Estuarine type, by virtue of mouth state and prevailing physico chemical conditions, ...

  9. Four stages of a scientific discipline; four types of scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Alexander M

    2009-05-01

    In this article I propose the classification of the evolutionary stages that a scientific discipline evolves through and the type of scientists that are the most productive at each stage. I believe that each scientific discipline evolves sequentially through four stages. Scientists at stage one introduce new objects and phenomena as subject matter for a new scientific discipline. To do this they have to introduce a new language adequately describing the subject matter. At stage two, scientists develop a toolbox of methods and techniques for the new discipline. Owing to this advancement in methodology, the spectrum of objects and phenomena that fall into the realm of the new science are further understood at this stage. Most of the specific knowledge is generated at the third stage, at which the highest number of original research publications is generated. The majority of third-stage investigation is based on the initial application of new research methods to objects and/or phenomena. The purpose of the fourth stage is to maintain and pass on scientific knowledge generated during the first three stages. Groundbreaking new discoveries are not made at this stage. However, new ways to present scientific information are generated, and crucial revisions are often made of the role of the discipline within the constantly evolving scientific environment. The very nature of each stage determines the optimal psychological type and modus operandi of the scientist operating within it. Thus, it is not only the talent and devotion of scientists that determines whether they are capable of contributing substantially but, rather, whether they have the 'right type' of talent for the chosen scientific discipline at that time. Understanding the four different evolutionary stages of a scientific discipline might be instrumental for many scientists in optimizing their career path, in addition to being useful in assembling scientific teams, precluding conflicts and maximizing

  10. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new ap...

  11. The theatrical stage as accident site in professional dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Koch, Franziska; Davenport, Jacqueline; Fischer, Axel; Groneberg, David A

    2014-03-01

    Reducing work-related health hazards at the different theatre workplaces is one aspect of preventive options in professional dance. This also applies to hazards on the highly variable theatrical stage areas. However, detailed information on these stages and their risks is not available. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in the stage area. The basis for the evaluation was accident reports, from the German National Statutory Insurance, of work-related traumatic injuries occurring on stage in professional dancers (n=790: 407 males, 383 females) over a 17-year period (1995-2011). Most (79.4%) of the accidents on stage occurred during an ongoing performance (frequency: 10.1/100 performances), with only 19.7% occurring during rehearsals on stage (p<0.001). Due to the sustained injury, 30.2% of the dancers sustained a time-loss injury. Most (57.7%) of the injured dancers were older than 25 years. Of the accidents, 59.3% were initiated by a definably extrinsic cause, with 40.7% caused by intrinsic factors (p<0.001). Injuries were most commonly caused by the "partner" (21.7%) or "floor" (21.0%). The lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (63.6%) (p<0.001). Stage performances seem to carry an increased injury risk compared to rehearsals. The "risk" of on-stage work is spread across various factors that seem to be stage-specific. There is a need for further qualitative and quantitative research to be able to classify the stage as workplace more precisely.

  12. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  13. Decreased sleep stage transition pattern complexity in narcolepsy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the complexity of the nocturnal sleep stage sequence in central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH), with the hypothesis that narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) might exhibit distinctive sleep stage sequence organization and complexity. Seventy-nine NT1 patients, 22 narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), 22 idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and 52 patients with subjective hypersomnolence (sHS) were recruited and their nocturnal sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored. Group between-stage transition probability matrices were obtained and compared. Patients with NT1 differed significantly from all the other patient groups, the latter, in turn, were not different between each other. The individual probability of the R-to-N2 transition was found to be the parameter showing the difference of highest significance between the groups (lowest in NT1) and classified patients with or without NT1 with an accuracy of 78.9% (sensitivity 78.5% and specificity 79.2%), by applying a cut-off value of 0.15. The main result of this study is that the structure of the sleep stage transition pattern of hypocretin-deficient NT1 patients is significantly different from that of other forms of CDH and sHS, with normal hypocretin levels. The lower probability of R-to-N2 transition occurrence in NT1 appears to be a reliable polysomnographic feature with potential application at the individual level, for supportive diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  15. Siting and early-stage project management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Li Guojin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, difficulties and challenges facing in siting of nuclear power plant after Fukushima nuclear accident is introduced. The key points for siting are analyzed. The site characteristics related to nuclear safety and the evaluated methods are discussed. From project management perspective, main procedures and key points for the early-stage of a nuclear power project are described. (authors)

  16. Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T-stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengen Yi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The majority of our patients with HCC were characterized as Subtype IV in Bismuth typing and Stage T3 in modified T-stage. Both Bismuth typing and modified T-stage showed prognostic value in HCC. Compared with Bismuth typing, modified T-stage is a better indicator of the resectability of HCC.

  17. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  18. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  19. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan; Rosen, L ars

    2007-09-01

    percentiles increase significantly as the scale of observation increases from 1 m to 5 m. Best estimates of the 0.1 percentile of thermal conductivity are: Domain RFM029: 2.30 W/(m*K) for the 1 m scale and 2.87 W/(m*K) for the 5 m scale. omain RFM045: 2.25 W/(m*K) for the 1 m scale and 2.33 W/(m*K) for the 5 m scale. The discretisation error of amphibolite is believed to be the largest uncertainty for the 1 m scale for domain RFM029. This error results in conservative estimates (believed to be too low) of the lower percentiles. For other cases, the uncertainties associated with the spatial structure of TRCs (lithology) and the spatial statistical thermal models of each TRC are believed to be the most important ones. Low-conductive rocks, mainly amphibolite and the tonalitic varieties of granodiorite to tonalite are decisive for the lower tail of the thermal conductivity distribution of a domain. The shape of the tail is therefore mainly determined by how these rock types are modelled. One of the most important uncertainties for the result for domain RFM045 is how amphibolite was modelled. Based on relatively limited data, the typical lengths of amphibolite rock bodies are modelled as being significantly longer than in domain RFM029. This may have resulted in a too heavy lower tail of the distribution of thermal conductivity for domain RFM045. In conclusion, the resulting thermal models are judged to represent the modelled rock domains, but may overemphasise the importance of the low-conductive amphibolite

  20. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Rosen, L ars [Sweco Viak AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    percentiles increase significantly as the scale of observation increases from 1 m to 5 m. Best estimates of the 0.1 percentile of thermal conductivity are: Domain RFM029: 2.30 W/(m*K) for the 1 m scale and 2.87 W/(m*K) for the 5 m scale. omain RFM045: 2.25 W/(m*K) for the 1 m scale and 2.33 W/(m*K) for the 5 m scale. The discretisation error of amphibolite is believed to be the largest uncertainty for the 1 m scale for domain RFM029. This error results in conservative estimates (believed to be too low) of the lower percentiles. For other cases, the uncertainties associated with the spatial structure of TRCs (lithology) and the spatial statistical thermal models of each TRC are believed to be the most important ones. Low-conductive rocks, mainly amphibolite and the tonalitic varieties of granodiorite to tonalite are decisive for the lower tail of the thermal conductivity distribution of a domain. The shape of the tail is therefore mainly determined by how these rock types are modelled. One of the most important uncertainties for the result for domain RFM045 is how amphibolite was modelled. Based on relatively limited data, the typical lengths of amphibolite rock bodies are modelled as being significantly longer than in domain RFM029. This may have resulted in a too heavy lower tail of the distribution of thermal conductivity for domain RFM045. In conclusion, the resulting thermal models are judged to represent the modelled rock domains, but may overemphasise the importance of the low-conductive amphibolite.

  1. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a...

  2. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Technical safety factors: Suggestions for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the six sites for repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland which have been proposed in Stage 1 of the program concerning nuclear waste repositories. Three of these sites are proposed for both highly radioactive wastes as well as for low and medium-active wastes, the other three for low and medium-active wastes only. The evaluation of the sites is discussed. The sites are to be further evaluated in Stage 2 of the program. The work to be done in the further stages involved in the selection of the final site (or sites) is described. Along with definition of the regions where deep repositories could possibly be built, suggestions for the placing of the facilities required on the surface are discussed. Geological requirements on the repositories and safety-relevant characteristics of the various site options are discussed. The results of the assessments made are presented in tabular form. Maps and geological cross-sections of all the suggested areas are included

  3. NPP Siting in Western Part of Java Island Indonesia: Regional Analysis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastratenaya, A.S.; Yuliastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Considering that Banten and West Java Provinces are dense regions of industry, therefore they require a large amount of electricity. Nuclear power plant is one option to be considered to anticipate the future electricity demand. To support the program, it is needed to look for some potential locations through NPP siting. The siting should meet the requirement of safety, safety aspects of the natural external events, human induced external events, public and environmental safety. Site selection is performed in several stages, where each stage has specific assessment criteria. Siting is commenced with pre-survey activity to obtain several interest areas, the activity covers a wide area but the used data is very limited and only apply general criteria. The following activities after pre survey are site survey consisting of (1) regional analysis, (2) site screening, and (3) comparison and ranking stages. The objective of regional analysis is to obtain potential sites in the study area of 150 km radius from each interest area by using both general and specific criteria. The potential sites then screened to obtain selected candidate sites by using more detailed secondary data as well as survey activities such as geophysical investigation, a few of drilling, etc., within the radius of 50 km from each potential site. All the selected candidate sites are then compared and ranked to obtain preferred candidate site. Site evaluation is the next step to evaluate all site-specific parameter to obtain design basis parameters and as the basis for preparing site permit document. This paper presents the methodology and result of regional analysis stage. The objective of the activity is to obtain potential sites in the north coast of West Java and Banten Provinces by considering fourteen study aspects which could be categorize into safety related aspects, non-safety related aspect and public education. However, this paper only considers the safety

  4. Isolated port site recurrence of node-negative clinical stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Deshmukh

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: This is the first case report describing an isolated port site recurrence in a patient who underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma with negative margins and negative lymph nodes. The mechanism underlying this isolated recurrence remains unknown.

  5. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  6. Health insurance and stage at diagnosis of laryngeal cancer: does insurance type predict stage at diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amy Y; Schrag, Nicole M; Halpern, Michael; Stewart, Andrew; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2007-08-01

    To examine whether patients with no insurance or Medicaid are more likely to present with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from the National Cancer Database, 1996-2003. Hospital-based practice. Patients with known insurance status diagnosed as having invasive laryngeal cancer at Commission on Cancer facilities (N = 61 131) were included. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models analyzed the likelihood of presenting at a more advanced stage. Overall stage of laryngeal cancer (early vs advanced) and tumor size (T stage) at diagnosis. Patients with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer at diagnosis were more likely to be uninsured (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.15) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.21-2.61) compared with those with private insurance. Similarly, patients were most likely to present with the largest tumors (T4 disease) if they were uninsured (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.60-3.28) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 3.56-4.34). Patients who were black, between ages 18 and 56 years, and who resided in zip codes with low proportions of high school graduates or low median household incomes were also more likely to be diagnosed as having advanced disease and/or larger tumors. Individuals lacking insurance or having Medicaid are at greatest risk for presenting with advanced laryngeal cancer. Results for the Medicaid group may be influenced by the postdiagnosis enrollment of uninsured patients. It is important to consider the impact of insurance coverage on stage at diagnosis and associated morbidity, mortality, quality of life, and costs.

  7. The Type 3 copper site is intact but labile in Type 2-depleted laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, P; Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1983-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the Type 1 and Type 3 copper sites in Rhus laccase depleted of Type 2 copper (T2D). Use of the Lowry method for determining protein concentration yielded the value 5620 +/- 570 M-1 cm-1 for the extinction of the 615-nm absorption band of t...

  8. Types of ectomycorrhizae and mycobioindication of forest site pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraigher, H.; Batic, F.; Agerer, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1996-12-31

    Types of ectomycorrhizae on Norway spruce were determined in soil cores from two differently polluted forest research plots from the emission zone of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP), Slovenia. 17 types of ectomycorrhizae were determined on 28443 root tips in soil cores from the polluted plot (Zavodnje). On the less polluted plot (Mislinja) 24 different types were determined on 38502 root tips in equal volume and number, of soil cores. In the discussion of mycobioindication of forest site pollution the authors employed a supposedly pollution sensitive (Hydnum rufescens), and supposedly unsensitive (Paxillus involutus) fungal species in ectomycorrhizae. However, further screening of comparable forest sites differently influenced by pollution is needed to confirm the choice of species.

  9. Stochastic atmospheric assistance and the use of emergency staging sites by migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Leyrer, Jutta; van Loon, Emiel; Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Meunier, Francis; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-05-22

    Numerous animals move vast distances through media with stochastic dynamic properties. Avian migrants must cope with variable wind speeds and directions en route, which potentially jeopardize fine-tuned migration routes and itineraries. We show how unpredictable winds affect flight times and the use of an intermediate staging site by red knots (Calidris canutus canutus) migrating from west Africa to the central north Siberian breeding areas via the German Wadden Sea. A dynamic migration model incorporating wind conditions during flight shows that flight durations between Mauritania and the Wadden Sea vary between 2 and 8 days. The number of birds counted at the only known intermediate staging site on the French Atlantic coast was strongly positively correlated with simulated flight times. In addition, particularly light-weight birds occurred at this location. These independent results support the idea that stochastic wind conditions are the main driver of the use of this intermediate stopover site as an emergency staging area. Because of the ubiquity of stochastically varying media, we expect such emergency habitats to exist in many other migratory systems, both airborne and oceanic. Our model provides a tool to quantify the effect of winds and currents en route.

  10. Sorption of trace cesium on 21 Hanford Site sediment types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routson, R.C.; Barney, G.S.; Smith, R.M.; Delegard, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    Sorption of trace cesium (Cs) was measured on 21 Hanford Site sediment types. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to develop empirical-statistical equations predicting 137 Cs sorption as a function of the equilibrium concentrations of macroions Na + , K + , and Ca +2 in solution over the concentration ranges of 3.0 to 0.001M, 0.2 to 0.002M, and 0.2 to 0.002M, respectively. These equations are required to estimate trace Cs transport from Hanford ground disposal sites. Average Cs sorption equations for the 21 sediments will be presented and discussed

  11. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2007-07-01

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  12. The Type 3 copper site is intact but labile in Type 2-depleted laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, P; Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1983-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the Type 1 and Type 3 copper sites in Rhus laccase depleted of Type 2 copper (T2D). Use of the Lowry method for determining protein concentration yielded the value 5620 +/- 570 M-1 cm-1 for the extinction of the 615-nm absorption band...... as intensity perturbations at 280 and 615 nm. Comparison of difference spectra show that this 330-nm band derives from a Type 3 copper-bound peroxide and not from a reoxidized Type 3 site. Dioxygen reoxidation of ascorbate-reduced T2D laccase produced new difference bands at 330 nm (delta epsilon = 770 M-1 cm...... signal near 3,400 G were observed, originating from the Type 3 sites of separate T2D laccase molecules. Reoxidation by ferricyanide or by dioxygen as mediated by iron hexacyanide did not produce these changes. Thus the magnetism of the reoxidized Type 3 site in T2D laccase can be perturbed...

  13. Fuse Selection for the Two-Stage Explosive Type Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlev, I. O.; Surkov, M. A.; Tarasov, E. V.; Uvarov, N. F.

    2017-04-01

    In the two-level explosive switch destruction of a delay happens in the form of electric explosion. Criteria of similarity of electric explosion in transformer oil are defined. The challenge of protecting the power electrical equipment from short circuit currents is still urgent, especially with the growth of unit capacity. Is required to reduce the tripping time as much as possible, and limit the amplitude of the fault current, that is very important for saving of working capacity of life-support systems. This is particularly important when operating in remote stand-alone power supply systems with a high share of renewable energy, working through the inverter transducers, as well as inverter-type diesel generators. The explosive breakers copes well with these requirements. High-speed flow of transformer oil and high pressure provides formation rate of a contact gap of 20 - 100 m/s. In these conditions there is as a rapid increase in voltage on the discontinuity, and recovery of electric strength (Ures) after current interruption.

  14. Review of data types for the SKB site investigation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard

    2002-11-01

    SKB is currently undertaking a detailed site investigation programme (SIP) to characterise the geology and surface ecosystems in areas around potential sites for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report reviews site specific and generic data types needed to characterise biosphere processes relevant to the evaluation of long-term radiological safety in the context of assessments of future impacts arising from the deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Focus is on the types of data that make up the different elements of radiological assessment models and how the data used relate to site-specific characteristics. The relevance of the SIP to the development of assessment models for long-term assessment is addressed, including the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. Reference to SKB's programme is made in order to determine how well the current programme will meet the needs of assessment models that will be developed and used in the assessment of long-term safety. The review also provides SSI with a basis for the planning of further SSI R and D work. The process, by which site-specific information is converted into a form suitable for use in numerical assessment models, can be quite complex. An overview of assessment model concepts is provided and the links between these and real-word site information considered. Focusing on the needs of assessment models, the review provides a summary of the main types of analyses and site-specific models that are needed for safety evaluations. Review of the SIP indicates that information from the programme feeds into a set of detailed site description models. However there is a gap between the descriptive components and the detailed model descriptions needed to configure numerical assessment models. Details of system evolution are not clearly dealt with in the programme. The SIP focuses on a detailed description of the site the present day. However, radiological impacts are not expected to

  15. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC). Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years ...

  16. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN) model

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to provide

  18. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed

  19. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  20. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  1. Savannah River Site Eastern Transportation Hub: A Concept For a DOE Eastern Packaging, Staging and Maintenance Center - 13143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Jeffery L.; Adams, Karen; Maxted, Maxcine; Ruff Jr, Clarence; Albenesius, Andrew; Bowers, Mark D.; Fountain, Geoffrey; Hughes, Michael; Gordon, Sydney; O'Connor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to de-inventory sites and consolidate hazardous materials for processing and disposal. The DOE administers a wide range of certified shipping packages for the transport of hazardous materials to include Special Nuclear Material (SNM), radioactive materials, sealed sources and radioactive wastes. A critical element to successful and safe transportation of these materials is the availability of certified shipping packages. There are over seven thousand certified packagings (i.e., Type B/Type AF) utilized within the DOE for current missions. The synergistic effects of consolidated maintenance, refurbishment, testing, certification, and costing of these services would allow for efficient management of the packagings inventory and to support anticipated future in-commerce shipping needs. The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives and ships radioactive materials (including SNM) and waste on a regular basis for critical missions such as consolidated storage, stabilization, purification, or disposition using H-Canyon and HB-Line. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has the technical capability and equipment for all aspects of packaging management. SRS has the only active material processing facility in the DOE complex and is one of the sites of choice for nuclear material consolidation. SRS is a logical location to perform maintenance and periodic testing of the DOE fleet of certified packagings. This initiative envisions a DOE Eastern Packaging Staging and Maintenance Center (PSMC) at the SRS and a western hub at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), an active DOE Regional Disposal Site. The PSMC's would be the first place DOE would go to meet their radioactive packaging needs and the primary locations projects would go to disposition excess packaging for beneficial reuse. These two hubs would provide the centralized management of a packaging fleet rather than the current approach to design, procure, maintain and dispose

  2. Port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgical staging of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the published and unpublished data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    Port-site metastases, also called trocar-site metastasis, have been described after laparoscopic surgery for non-gynecological and gynecological cancers. The aim of this review was to obtain evidence for port-site metastases after laparoscopic surgical staging of endometrial cancer. A systematic search of published and unpublished cases of port-site metastases after laparoscopic staging of endometrial cancer was conducted. All the authors responsible for correspondence were contacted to obtain any missing data. The patients' characteristics and oncologic, surgical, and safety data were recorded and analyzed. Twelve cases of port-site metastases were identified and examined. In 4 cases they were "isolated," that is, recurrence without association with peritoneal carcinomatosis, whereas in 8 cases they were "nonisolated." The port-site metastases did not occur as a result of trocar site localization or dimension. No univocal strategy to prevent port-site metastases was adopted. Among patients with nonisolated port-site metastases, an aggressive histologic condition and a high grade were found in 3 of 6 patients and in 3 of 5 patients, respectively. Among patients with isolated port-site metastases, an early-stage endometrioid adenocarcinoma G2 endometrial cancer and a stage IIB G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma were described in 3 of 4 patients and in only 1 case, respectively. All the patients with nonisolated port-site metastases died of disease. Similarly, among patients with isolated port-site metastases, only 1 was alive and free of disease after 10 months from recurrence diagnosis. Port-site metastases of endometrial cancer are an entity rarely reported but probably the expression of an aggressive disease. The available data do not allow us to draw conclusions or suggestions for their prevention and the treatment. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The postoperative survival in pulmonary carcinomas depending on the histological type and stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, O; Andrion, A; Mancuso, M; De Simone, M; Ribotta, M

    The prognostic significance of age, sex, location of the tumor in the various lobes, size, histological type, node metastases, local extent and stage has been studied in a series of 742 surgically resected lung carcinomas. The histological type was a very important prognostic factor: the highest survival was observed in epidermoid carcinomas, followed by adenocarcinomas, anaplastic large cell carcinomas, and anaplastic small cell carcinomas. The stage, as well, except for the adenocarcinoma, bore heavily on the prognosis; however, in small stage I tumours, the postoperative survival was independent from the histological type. The presence of lymph node metastases resulted in an extremely poor survival, except for the epidermoid carcinoma. The size of the tumours, excluding adenocarcinomas, was an important prognostic factor provided lymph node metastases were absent. No significant differences in survival according to the location in different lobes could be ascertained.

  4. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M; O'Neill, Matthew T; Tarun, Alice S; Camargo, Nelly; Phuong, Thuan M; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2009-03-01

    Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of FabB/F, a critical enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, did not affect parasite blood stage replication, mosquito stage development and initial infection in the liver. This was confirmed by knockout of FabZ, another critical FAS II enzyme. However, FAS II-deficient Plasmodium yoelii liver stages failed to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites, the invasive stage that first initiates blood stage infection. Furthermore, deletion of FabI in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum did not show a reduction in asexual blood stage replication in vitro. Malaria parasites therefore depend on the intrinsic FAS II pathway only at one specific life cycle transition point, from liver to blood.

  5. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  6. Relative Influence of Prior Life Stages and Habitat Variables on Dragonfly (Odonata: Gomphidae Densities among Lake Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysa Remsburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera, recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1 whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2 what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities.

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  9. DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTION TYPE SITE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T. Zadorozhna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the model of site of research institution of NAPS of Ukraine (TSRI is presented. Goals and objectives оf the TSRI model are defined. Web 2.0 theoretical base for site development is considered, as well as described information environment, TSRI internet and intranet models. There are substantiated the site structure, design and site layout for research institution of NAPS of Ukraine. The example of the website of the Institute of Information Technologies and Learning Tools of the NAPS of Ukraine based on the TSRI model is showen. The technological aspects of the TSRI model are considered. There is given the scheme of internet-intranet environment to support scientific publications on pedagogical and psychological sciences. This paper is intended to web designers, researchers and administrative staff of research institutions.

  10. Stage report n. 1 by the pluralistic expertise group on the Limousin uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the expertise group operation between June and December 2006 and a synthesis of the performed work during this period. This work dealt with releases and transfers in the environment from ancient uranium mining sites (Bellezane residues storage site, Ritord river catchment basin), impacts on the environment and on health, and reflections about the legal framework for the concerned materials and sites, and about the long-term monitoring of the sites and of their environment

  11. Model of the nonhydrodynamic stage of a plasma focus (z pinch sausage-type instability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zueva, N.M.; Imshennik, V.S.; Lokutsievskii, O.V.; Mikhailova, M.S.

    A nonhydrodynamic two-dimensional plasma model convenient for describing a later stage of development of a plasma focus (sausage-type instability) is given. In this model, ions are described by the Vlasov collisionless equation, and electrons are treated in the MHD approximation. More accurately, for electrons, use is made of generalized Ohm's law and the entropy equation, and the condition of quasi-neutrality of the plasma is also adopted

  12. TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan D; Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Trojanowski, John Q; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP ) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects. We tested the hypotheses that TDP-43 with Alzheimer's disease pathology is a common mixed pathology; is related to increased likelihood of expressing clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia; and that TDP-43 pathologic stage is an important determinant of clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia. Data came from 946 older adults with ( n = 398) and without dementia ( n = 548) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study. TDP-43 proteinopathy (cytoplasmic inclusions) was present in 496 (52%) subjects, and the pattern of deposition was classified as stage 0 (none; 48%), stage 1 (amygdala; 18%), stage 2 (extension to hippocampus/entorhinal; 21%), or stage 3 (extension to neocortex; 14%). TDP-43 pathology combined with a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was a common mixed pathology (37% of all participants), and the proportion of subjects with clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia formerly labelled 'pure pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease' was halved when TDP-43 was considered. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, TDP-43 pathology was associated with clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 2.05) independent of pathological Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% confidence interval = 3.08, 6.01) or other pathologies (infarcts, arteriolosclerosis, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis). Mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies were

  13. TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer’s disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects. We tested the hypotheses that TDP-43 with Alzheimer’s disease pathology is a common mixed pathology; is related to increased likelihood of expressing clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia; and that TDP-43 pathologic stage is an important determinant of clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Data came from 946 older adults with (n = 398) and without dementia (n = 548) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study. TDP-43 proteinopathy (cytoplasmic inclusions) was present in 496 (52%) subjects, and the pattern of deposition was classified as stage 0 (none; 48%), stage 1 (amygdala; 18%), stage 2 (extension to hippocampus/entorhinal; 21%), or stage 3 (extension to neocortex; 14%). TDP-43 pathology combined with a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was a common mixed pathology (37% of all participants), and the proportion of subjects with clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia formerly labelled ‘pure pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease’ was halved when TDP-43 was considered. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, TDP-43 pathology was associated with clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 2.05) independent of pathological Alzheimer’s disease (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% confidence interval = 3.08, 6.01) or other pathologies (infarcts, arteriolosclerosis, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis). Mixed Alzheimer’s disease and

  14. Stage report n 3 by the pluralistic expertise group on the Limousin uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a description of expertise group operation (organisation, local, national and international relationship), this document reports the activities of its working groups (releases and transfers, impact on the population and on the environment and ecological and health control, legal framework of uranium mining sites, monitoring and management of these sites). Apart from these statements and data, other contributions are proposed about water processing in rehabilitated mining sites, hydraulic and hydro-chemical assessment of a site, assessment of residue storage roofing efficiency, assessment of dose impact, lessons learned from public reports, long-term site evolution, measurements and results

  15. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  16. The study on a gas-coupled two-stage stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Zhu, X. S.; Pan, C. Z.; Guo, J.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) driven by a linear dual-opposed compressor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Both of the stages adopted coaxial structure for compactness. The effect of a cold double-inlet at the second stage on the cooling performance was investigated. The test results show that the cold double-inlet will help to achieve a lower cooling temperature, but it is not conducive to achieving a higher cooling capacity. At present, without the cold double-inlet, the second stage has achieved a no-load temperature of 11.28 K and a cooling capacity of 620 mW/20 K with an input electric power of 450 W. With the cold double-inlet, the no-load temperature is lowered to 9.4 K, but the cooling capacity is reduced to 400 mW/20 K. The structure of the developed cryocooler and the influences of charge pressure, operating frequency and hot end temperature will also be introduced in this paper.

  17. Errors analysis of problem solving using the Newman stage after applying cooperative learning of TTW type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rr Chusnul, C.; Mardiyana, S., Dewi Retno

    2017-12-01

    Problem solving is the basis of mathematics learning. Problem solving teaches us to clarify an issue coherently in order to avoid misunderstanding information. Sometimes there may be mistakes in problem solving due to misunderstanding the issue, choosing a wrong concept or misapplied concept. The problem-solving test was carried out after students were given treatment on learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. The purpose of this study was to elucidate student problem regarding to problem solving errors after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. Newman stages were used to identify problem solving errors in this study. The new research used a descriptive method to find out problem solving errors in students. The subject in this study were students of Vocational Senior High School (SMK) in 10th grade. Test and interview was conducted for data collection. Thus, the results of this study suggested problem solving errors in students after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type for Newman stages.

  18. Survival and growth response of white spruce stock types to site preparation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Elizabeth Cole; Michael Newton

    2011-01-01

    To identify suitable methods for reforestation, we evaluated the interacting effects of past disturbance, stock types, and site preparation treatments on white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedling survival and growth across a range of sites in Alaska. Replicated experiments were established in five regions. At each site, two complete...

  19. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  20. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  1. Applying the Stages of Change model to Type 2 diabetes care in Trinidad: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partapsingh, V A; Maharaj, R G; Rawlins, J M

    2011-10-11

    To improve glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetics using patient-physician consultations guided by the Stages of Change (SOC) model. A randomised trial was conducted. After ensuring concealment of allocation, Type 2 diabetics were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or the control. The intervention consisted of identifying each patient's Stage of Change for managing their diabetes by diet, exercise and medications, and applying personalised, stage-specific care during the patient-physician consultations based on the SOC model. Patients in the control group received routine care. The variables of interest were effect on glycaemic control (measured by the difference in HbA1c levels) and patients' readiness to change (measured by identifying patients' SOC for managing their diabetes by diet, exercise and medications). Participants were primarily over age 50, male and Indo-Trinidadian. Most had received only a primary school education and over 65% had a monthly income of $320 USD/month or less. Sixty-one Type 2 diabetics participated in each arm. Three patients were lost to follow-up in the intervention arm. After 48 weeks, there was an overall increase in HbA1c of 0.52% (SE 0.17) and 1.09% (SE 0.18) for both the intervention and control groups respectively. There was a relative reduction in HbA1c of 0.57% (95% CI 0.07, 1.07) with the intervention group compared to the control (p = 0.025). For exercise and diet there was an overall tendency for participants in the intervention arm to move to a more favourable SOC, but little change was noted with regards medication use. The result suggests a tendency to a worsening of glycaemic control in this population despite adopting more favourable SOC for diet and exercise. We hypothesized that harsh social conditions prevailing at the time of the study overrode the clinical intervention.

  2. Stage report by the pluralistic expertise group on the Limousin uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the expertise group operation during 2007 and a synthesis of the performed work. This work dealt with releases and transfers in the environment from ancient uranium mining sites (analysis of environmental data on waters and sediments, analysis of air radiologic data), impacts on the environment and on population, and assessments and reflections about the legal framework for the concerned materials, and the long-term monitoring of the sites and of their environment

  3. MMP-12 catalytic domain recognizes and cleaves at multiple sites in human skin collagen type I and type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddese, Samuel; Jung, Michael C; Ihling, Christian

    2010-01-01

    . The catalytic domain of MMP-12 binds to the triple helix and cleaves the typical sites -Gly(775)-Leu(776)- in alpha-2 type I collagen and -Gly(775)-Ile(776)- in alpha-1 type I and type III collagens and at multiple other sites in both collagen types. Moreover, it was observed that the region around...... metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required to initiate further degradation by other enzymes. Several MMPs are known to degrade collagens, but the action of MMP-12 has not yet been studied in detail. In this work, the potential of MMP-12 in recognizing sites in human skin collagen types I and III has been investigated...... on the collagenolysis process. Taken together, the results of the present work confirm that the catalytic domain of MMP-12 alone binds and degrades collagens I and III....

  4. Correlation of CliniCal data, anatomiCal site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-01

    Jun 1, 2008 ... and stage of disease. Design: retrospective observational study. ... Design: this was a retrospective review of medical records, analysing the ... nodal basins. Dukes 'D: Metastatic disease. Statistical analysis: the data were analysed using the computer statistical program sPss (version 11.5 for Windows, sPss ...

  5. Correlation of CliniCal data, anatomiCal site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-01

    Jun 1, 2008 ... Objective: to evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta national Hospital (KnH), nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), ...

  6. Sequence Variations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Are Associated with Different Stages of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Frank; Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Douglas, Nigel; Troop, Maxine; Greenough, Thomas C.; Weber, Jonathan; Carl, Silke; Sullivan, John L.; Daniels, Rod S.

    1999-01-01

    nef alleles derived from a large number of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were analyzed to investigate the frequency of disrupted nef genes and to elucidate whether specific amino acid substitutions in Nef are associated with different stages of disease. We confirm that deletions or gross abnormalities in nef are rarely present. However, a comparison of Nef consensus sequences derived from 41 long-term nonprogressors and from 50 individuals with progressive HIV-1 infection revealed that specific variations are associated with different stages of infection. Five amino acid variations in Nef (T15, N51, H102, L170, and E182) were more frequently observed among nonprogressors, while nine features (an additional N-terminal PxxP motif, A15, R39, T51, T157, C163, N169, Q170, and M182) were more frequently found in progressors. Strong correlations between the frequency of these variations in Nef and both the CD4+-cell count and the viral load were observed. Moreover, analysis of sequential samples obtained from two progressors revealed that several variations in Nef, which were more commonly observed in patients with low CD4+-T-cell counts, were detected only during or after progression to immunodeficiency. Our results indicate that sequence variations in Nef are associated with different stages of HIV-1 infection and suggest a link between nef gene function and the immune status of the infected individual. PMID:10364298

  7. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  8. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  9. Characteristics of Guadua culms according to site and stage of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Maya Echeverry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From two natural bamboo stands dominated by the bamboo species guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth located in sites with different ecological conditions, culms were assessed in order to elucidate possible changes in physical- mechanical properties and lignin content as well. Test pieces were collected from the two sites and were obtained from guadua culms with ages between 1 and 5 years. Among sites the values obtained of physical-mechanical properties and lignin content tend to increase with culms age; however, these changes were not always significantly different (p>0.05. Those culms from the warmer and drier site located at lower altitude showed on average values significantly (p<0.05 higher of the variables assessed. Considering the results obtained, culm maturity is an important factor influencing both physical-mechanical properties and lignin content, however ecological conditions determine larger differences in these variables to be considered for selecting bamboo culms when specific attributes are required by the market.

  10. Effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 copper site of nitrite Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Wijma, Hein J.; MacPherson, Iain

    2007-01-01

    Copper-containing nitrite reductase harbors a type-1 and a type-2 Cu site. The former acts as the electron acceptor site of the enzyme, and the latter is the site of catalytic action. The effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 site was explored by studying...

  11. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  12. Updated strategy and test of new concepts for groundwater flow modelling in Forsmark in preparation of site descriptive modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Johansson, Per-Olof; Leven, Jakob; Hartley, Lee; Holton, David; McCarthy, Rachel; Roberts, David

    2007-01-01

    As part of the preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling (SDM version 1.2) for the Initial Site Investigation (ISI) stage at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar, a methodology was developed for constructing hydrogeological models of the crystalline bedrock. The methodology achieved reasonable success given the restricted amounts and types of data available at the time. Notwithstanding, several issues of concern have surfaced following the reviews of the preliminary site descriptions of the three sites. Possible solutions to parts of the problems have been discussed internally for a longer time and an integrated view and strategy forward has been formulated. The 'new strategy' is not a complete shift in methodology, however, but a refocusing on and clarification of the key aspects that the hydrogeological SDM needs to accomplish. In broad terms the basic principle of the 'new strategy' suggested is to develop an overall conceptual model that first establishes the major flowing deformation zones, and then gradually approaches determination of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock outside these zones in the potential repository volume. On each scale, the focus of the description should be on features/structures of significance on that scale. Clearly, a detailed (although statistical) description of the repository and canister deposition hole scale is the end goal, but this approach (which also is more the traditional approach in hydrogeology) is judged to provide a much better motivated overall geometrical description. Furthermore, the 'new strategy' puts more emphasis on field testing (e.g. interference tests) and data analyses and less on numerical simulation and calibration. That is, before extensive (and costly) simulations and model calibrations are made it needs to be clearly understood what could be the potential gains of carrying them out. This report presents the conceptual model development for Forsmark in preparation of the site descriptive modelling in stage 2

  13. Updated strategy and test of new concepts for groundwater flow modelling in Forsmark in preparation of site descriptive modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB (Sweden); Leven, Jakob [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Hartley, Lee; Holton, David; McCarthy, Rachel; Roberts, David [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    As part of the preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling (SDM version 1.2) for the Initial Site Investigation (ISI) stage at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar, a methodology was developed for constructing hydrogeological models of the crystalline bedrock. The methodology achieved reasonable success given the restricted amounts and types of data available at the time. Notwithstanding, several issues of concern have surfaced following the reviews of the preliminary site descriptions of the three sites. Possible solutions to parts of the problems have been discussed internally for a longer time and an integrated view and strategy forward has been formulated. The 'new strategy' is not a complete shift in methodology, however, but a refocusing on and clarification of the key aspects that the hydrogeological SDM needs to accomplish. In broad terms the basic principle of the 'new strategy' suggested is to develop an overall conceptual model that first establishes the major flowing deformation zones, and then gradually approaches determination of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock outside these zones in the potential repository volume. On each scale, the focus of the description should be on features/structures of significance on that scale. Clearly, a detailed (although statistical) description of the repository and canister deposition hole scale is the end goal, but this approach (which also is more the traditional approach in hydrogeology) is judged to provide a much better motivated overall geometrical description. Furthermore, the 'new strategy' puts more emphasis on field testing (e.g. interference tests) and data analyses and less on numerical simulation and calibration. That is, before extensive (and costly) simulations and model calibrations are made it needs to be clearly understood what could be the potential gains of carrying them out. This report presents the conceptual model development for Forsmark in preparation of the site

  14. Quality of life after organ transplantation in type 1 diabetics with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Patel, Bhavesh M; Markatos, Angelo; Nghiem, Dai D; Marcus, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) should be an important consideration while choosing therapeutic options for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) including dialysis, cadaver (CKT) or living kidney transplant (LKT) or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant. QOL was assessed in four groups of patients with history of type 1 DM and ESRD: recipients of SPK (n = 43), CKT (n = 43), LKT (n = 11) and wait listed (WL) patients (n = 23). Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL), Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Quality of Well-Being (QWB) questionnaires were utilized. A subset of SPK (n = 19) and CKT (n = 12) recipients underwent longitudinal QOL evaluation. On DQOL questionnaire, SPK group had better satisfaction subscore compared with CKT (1.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.6, p diabetics with ESRD following transplantation when compared with remaining on WL. SPK transplantation had significant positive effect on diabetes-related QOL which was sustained longitudinally but it was difficult to show an overall improvement in general QOL.

  15. Outcome of total knee arthroplasty combined patelloplasty for end-stage type A hemophilic arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Weng, Xi-sheng; Lin, Jin; Qian, Wen-wei; Wei, Wang; Sheng, Lin; Zhai, Ji-liang; Bian, Yan-yan; Qiu, Gui-xing

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcome of total knee arthroplasty for end-stage hemophilic arthropathy, based on effectiveness of operation, the specificity of surgical technique, the complications of TKA operation and the strategy of handling of patella. Nineteen patients (25 knees) with type A hemophilic arthropathy were treated with TKA from June 2003 to February 2010. Average patella thickness was 16.3±0.4mm and all patellas were treated by patelloplasty. The patient followed up data was recorded, which included the information of hospital for special surgery knee score(HSS), range of motion(ROM), post-operative complication, and anterior knee pain. The patients were followed for an average post-operative period of 41months (10 to 78months). The mean preoperative HSS score was 51 (31 to 64). Post-operative HSS score was 91 (75 to 110) when followed-up. ROM was modified to 82 degree (60 to 105), compared with 55 degree (5 to 110) preoperatively. Thirteen patients with flexion contracture were corrected from 19 degree (0 to 45) to 2.7 degree (0 to 10). Four patients complained mild but endurable anterior knee pain. The study concludes that TKA is an effective treatment for end-stage hemophilic arthropathy of knee joint, providing good clinical outcome and improving quality of life. Patella of hemophiliac is relatively thin and osteoporotic. Patelloplasty is useful technique for handling of patella during TKA procedure for hemophiliac, with improved knee function, low and acceptable anterior knee pain rate, low reoperation rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of type IV plaster considering variation in the mold/model position during setting stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of the position of the mold during the setting stage of type IV stone plaster Durone (Dentsply Ind. Com., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the following properties: surface hardness and roughness. Methods: For the roughness test, two groups (n=6 in the form of pellets were prepared. In the first group, the surface of the base of the device was turned down during the plaster setting stage (N, in the second group this position was inverted, which has been described as an act of capsize it (E. For analysis, a roughness meter with reading precision of 0.01 μm was used. With regard to the hardness analysis, two groups with conical-shaped samples were obtained. The plasters were left to set under the same conditions of the mold/model position described for the previous experiment. Hardness measurement was performed in a durometer with a spherical penetrating tip for Rockwell readout. Three measurements were performed for each test specimen in both tests. Results: The hardness (N - 39.8, standard deviation = 3.3, E - 30.8, standard deviation = 5.6 and roughness data (N - 0.67, standard deviation = 0.17, E - 0.74, standard deviation = 0.13 submitted to the Student’s-t test (5% showed no statistically significant differences for the roughness test (0.489, but showed statistically significant differences for the hardness test (0.014. Conclusion: The variation in the mold/model position influenced the final characteristics of the specimens in terms of hardness, since those obtained with the capsize technique showed lower surface hardness, whereas for roughness these differences were not statistically significant.

  17. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  18. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) of the Western Canadian Arctic Population feed intensively for 2-4 weeks on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska at the beginning of their autumn migration. Petroleum leasing proposed for the Alaskan portion of the staging area on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) could affect staging habitats and their use by geese. Therefore we studied availability, distribution, and use by snow geese of tall and russett cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium and E. russeolum, respectively) feeding habitats on the ANWR. We studied selection of feeding habitats at 3 spatial scales (feeding sites [0.06 m2], feeding patches [ca. 100 m2], and feeding areas [>1 ha]) during 1990-93. We used logistic regression analysis to discriminate differences in soil moisture and vegetation between 1,548 feeding sites where snow geese exploited individual cotton-grass plants and 1,143 unexploited sites at 61 feeding patches in 1990. Feeding likelihood increased with greater soil moisture and decreased where nonforage species were present. We tested the logistic regression model in 1991 by releasing human-imprinted snow geese into 4 10 × 20-m enclosed plots where plant communities had been mapped, habitats sampled, and feeding probabilities calculated. Geese selected more feeding sites per square meter in areas of predicted high quality feeding habitat (feeding probability ≥ 0.6) than in medium (feeding probability = 0.3-0.59) or poor (feeding probability logistic regression model to estimate availability of high quality feeding sites on 192 80 × 90-m plots that were randomly located on 24 study areas. A mean of 1.6% of the area sampled in each plot was classified as high quality feeding habitat at 23 of the study areas. Relative availability of high quality sites was highest in troughs, thermokarst pits, and water tracks because saturated soils in those microreliefs were dominated by cotton-grass. Relative

  19. Dissecting the active site of the collagenolytic cathepsin L3 protease of the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Corvo

    Full Text Available A family of secreted cathepsin L proteases with differential activities is essential for host colonization and survival in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica. While the blood feeding adult secretes predominantly FheCL1, an enzyme with a strong preference for Leu at the S2 pocket of the active site, the infective stage produces FheCL3, a unique enzyme with collagenolytic activity that favours Pro at P2.Using a novel unbiased multiplex substrate profiling and mass spectrometry methodology (MSP-MS, we compared the preferences of FheCL1 and FheCL3 along the complete active site cleft and confirm that while the S2 imposes the greatest influence on substrate selectivity, preferences can be indicated on other active site subsites. Notably, we discovered that the activity of FheCL1 and FheCL3 enzymes is very different, sharing only 50% of the cleavage sites, supporting the idea of functional specialization. We generated variants of FheCL1 and FheCL3 with S2 and S3 residues by mutagenesis and evaluated their substrate specificity using positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL. Besides the rare P2 Pro preference, FheCL3 showed a distinctive specificity at the S3 pocket, accommodating preferentially the small Gly residue. Both P2 Pro and P3 Gly preferences were strongly reduced when Trp67 of FheCL3 was replaced by Leu, rendering the enzyme incapable of digesting collagen. In contrast, the inverse Leu67Trp substitution in FheCL1 only slightly reduced its Leu preference and improved Pro acceptance in P2, but greatly increased accommodation of Gly at S3.These data reveal the significance of S2 and S3 interactions in substrate binding emphasizing the role for residue 67 in modulating both sites, providing a plausible explanation for the FheCL3 collagenolytic activity essential to host invasion. The unique specificity of FheCL3 could be exploited in the design of specific inhibitors selectively directed to specific infective stage

  20. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle

  1. [Impact of primary tumor site on the prognosis in different stage colorectal cancer patients after radical resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, A D; Zhou, X L; Feng, L; Wang, J Y; Wang, G Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect to the prognosis of tumor site on the patients of colorectal cancer after curative resection with different stage. Methods: Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 2 097 colorectal carcinoma cases undergoing resection at Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2008 to March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 421 patients in left-sided colorectal cancer (LCC) group (including carcinoma in cecum, ascending colon , hepatic flexure, and transvers colon) , 386 in right-sided colorectal cancer (RCC) group (including carcinoma in splenic flexure, descending colon and sigmoid colon) and 1 290 in rectal cancer (RECC) group. Clinicopathologic features in patients with different tumor location were compared. 5-year overall survival rate were compared among the 3 groups. Patients were stratified by different stage to analyze the effect of tumor location on the prognosis. χ(2)test and Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test were used to compare the clinicopathological features among the 3 groups, Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test were used to analyze prognosis, respectively. Results: No significant differences were identified between the three groups in age, family history, N stage and intestinal obstruction. Significant difference were found in gender among LCC, RCC and RECC group (male were 62.5% vs . 54.9% vs .56.3%, χ(2)=6.040, P =0.049) . Compared with LCC group and RCC group, RECC group had more well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma patients (89.7% vs . 86.0% vs. 82.4%, χ(2)=10.712 and 17.385, P =0.013 and 0.001) , more stage Ⅰ patients (17.1% vs . 6.9% vs. 6.5%, χ(2)=37.459 and 37.208, P =0.000 and 0.000) , and less likely to be stage T4 (44.7% vs . 76.7% vs .78.5%, χ(2)=128.015 and 133.704, P =0.000 and 0.000), metastasis (2.6% vs . 5.7% vs . 3.6%, χ(2)=1 417.167 and 1 424.217, P =0.000 and 0.000) and intestinal obstruction (11.3% vs . 21.1% vs . 24.4%, χ(2)=25.846 and 41.141, P =0.000 and 0

  2. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciammella, Patrizia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Botto, Barbara [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Gavarotti, Paolo [Hematology, University of Torino and Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Hematology Unit, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Vitolo, Umberto [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Iotti, Cinzia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  3. Multipartite Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of settings and outcomes per site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a single general representation incorporating in a unique manner all Bell-type inequalities for a multipartite correlation scenario with an arbitrary number of settings and any spectral type of outcomes at each site. Specifying this general representation for correlation functions, we prove that the form of any correlation Bell-type inequality does not depend on spectral types of outcomes, in particular, on their numbers at different sites, and is determined only by extremal values of outcomes at each site. We also specify the general form of bounds in Bell-type inequalities on joint probabilities. Our approach to the derivation of Bell-type inequalities is universal, concise and can be applied to a multipartite correlation experiment with outcomes of any spectral type, discrete or continuous. We, in particular, prove that, for an N-partite quantum state, possibly, infinite dimensional, admitting the N{2 x ... x 2}-setting LHV description, the Mermin-Klyshko inequality holds for any two bounded quantum observables per site, not necessarily dichotomic

  4. The Concept, Design and Performance of a Novel Rotary Kiln Type Air-Staged Biomass Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tar formation is the main bottleneck for biomass gasification technology. A novel rotary kiln type biomass gasification process was proposed. The concept design was based on air staging and process separation. This concept was demonstrated on a pilot scale rotary kiln reactor under ambient pressure and autothermic conditions. The pilot scale gasifier was divided into three different reaction regions, which were oxidative degradation, partial oxidation and char gasification. A series of tests was conducted to investigate the effect of key parameters. The results indicate that under optimum operating conditions, a fuel gas with high heat value of about 5500 kJ/Nm3 and gas production rate of 2.32 Nm3/kg could be produced. Tar concentration in the fuel gas could be reduced to 108 mg/Nm3 (at the gasifier outlet and 38 mg/Nm3 (after gas conditioning. The cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion rate reached 75% and 78%, respectively. The performance of this gasification system shows considerable potential for implementation in distributed electricity and heat supply projects.

  5. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  6. Nest site selection influences mortality and stress responses in developmental stages of Megachile apicalis Spinola (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranitz, John M; Barthell, John F; Thorp, Robbin W; Overall, Lisa M; Griffith, Justin L

    2009-04-01

    We examined stress responses and survival in developmental stages of the invasive solitary bee Megachile apicalis Spinola during two nesting seasons in the Central Valley of California to consider whether abiotic stress tolerance of its offspring contributes to this species' successful colonization of the western United States. In 2001 and 2003, artificial nesting cavities were affixed to vertical plywood boards oriented to maximize nest cavity temperature and humidity differences: one side faced south (exposed to direct sun) and the other one faced north (shaded). After several weeks of nesting activity, we measured heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations in adults and offspring on 1 d in both years and offspring survival and mortality sources in 2003. In 2001, M. apicalis showed higher HSP70 concentrations in exposed nests than in shaded nests during all developmental stages, adults and their offspring. In 2003, overall survivorship was not significantly different between treatments because exposed nests experienced high offspring mortality caused by heat stress, whereas shaded nests suffered similarly high offspring mortality because of parasitoids. In both years of our study, females preferred shaded nests over exposed nests. M. apicalis successfully reproduces in grasslands of the Central Valley of California where offspring survive hot, dry nest sites and parasitoids in sufficient numbers to inoculate new grassland habitats, unpopulated by tolerance-limited native solitary bees, with incipient populations of this bee, M. apicalis.

  7. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  8. Association of Exercise Stages of Change with Glycemic Control in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sundar; Clyburn, Ernest B.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the distribution of diabetic patients' stages of change to follow an exercise regimen, examining whether later stages of change were associated with better glycemic control. Data on participants from a primary care clinic (who were predominantly black, female, and indigent) indicated that over half of were in pre-contemplation,…

  9. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  10. The Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes : Associations With Treatment Stage and Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Paul J H L; Bazelier, Marloes T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341589802; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; de Vries, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303546670; De Bruin, Marie L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270270906

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of colorectal cancer associated with type 2 diabetes, as compared with a nondiabetic reference population, and to study additional associations between treatment stage and duration of obesity and colorectal cancer risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an

  11. L1CAM in Early-Stage Type I Endometrial Cancer: Results of a Large Multicenter Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeimet, A.G.; Reimer, D.; Huszar, M.; Winterhoff, B.; Puistola, U.; Azim, S.A.; Muller-Holzner, E.; Ben-Arie, A.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Petru, E.; Jahn, S.; Geels, Y.P.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Amant, F.; Polterauer, S.; Lappi-Blanco, E.; Bulten, J.; Meuter, A.; Tanouye, S.; Oppelt, P.; Stroh-Weigert, M.; Reinthaller, A.; Mariani, A.; Hackl, W.; Netzer, M.; Schirmer, U.; Vergote, I.; Altevogt, P.; Marth, C.; Fogel, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the excellent prognosis of Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to

  12. Increased type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) expression contributes to oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giet, Markus; Toelle, Markus; Pratico, Domenico; Lufft, Volkmar; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Hoerl, Matthias P.; Zidek, Walter; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients exhibit increased in vivo oxidative stress conceivably contributing to cardiovascular mortality. The type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) has proatherogenic activity. We explored the hypothesis that sPLA(2) contributes to oxidative stress generation

  13. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  14. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L...

  15. Analysis of patient satisfaction and donor-site morbidity after different types of breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benditte-Klepetko, H. C.; Lutgendorff, F.; Kästenbauer, T.; Deutinger, M.; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast reconstruction has been shown to improve quality of life. However, factors involved in long-term patient satisfaction are largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate patient satisfaction and donor-site morbidity in five types of breast reconstruction. A prospectively collected database of all

  16. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of proteins...... experimentally investigated with regard to glycosylation status. From O-GLYCBASE a total of 86 mammalian proteins experimentally investigated for in vivo O-GalNAc sites were extracted. Mammalian protein homolog comparisons showed that a glycosylated serine or threonine is less likely to be precisely conserved...... than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...

  17. Development of a Flat Type Six-Axis Stage Based on Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and investigates a six-DOF (degrees of freedom piezoelectric based stage for positioning error compensation. The relationship between the displacement of the piezoelectric actuators and the stage can be computed according to the geometric relationships of the actuators installed. In this study, a feedforward compensator based on the hysteresis model has been designed for compensation and a PI controller was used for positioning. The combination of a feedforward compensator and PI controller gives the stage good positioning and tracking performance. Stage position information is feedback from a six-DOF optical measurement system comprised of three modular two-dimensional measurement devices. Each module employs a quadrant photodiode (QPD, a laser diode, and a lens. The measurement signal is acquired and processed using an FPGA based processor for real time control. The linear and angular positioning resolution is 0.02 μm and 0.1 arcsec, respectively. When the stage is controlled in a closed loop, the positioning errors are in the range of ±0.1 μm and ±0.5 arcsec. The stage is controlled to track a sinusoidal wave with an amplitude of 2.5 μm and a frequency of 5 Hz; tracking errors were within ±0.1 μm and ±0.2 arcsec.

  18. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Aragón

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world’s most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to control the invasion. Seed arrival, germination, seedling recruitment and survival, and sapling growth were studied in edges, gaps and forest interior. Seed arrival was also assessed under perches and in open fields. Germination was studied in forest and grass-land patches. L. lucidum seedling survival and sapling growth were compared with the most abundant native species survival and growth. Seed arrival was strongly seasonal with a peak in mid-August. Seed rain did not differ significantly among habitat types, however there was a tendency for edges to receive more seeds when only dispersed seeds were considered. Perches strongly enhanced seed arrival; more than 40 times the number of seeds were dispersed beneath citrus plants (i.e. perches than found in paired open areas. In the forest, seeds in gaps and edges had higher germination rates, but there was no difference in seedling survival. Fruits under closed canopy exhibited the lowest germination. Germination and survival were low in open areas. Neither seedling recruitment nor sapling growth differed between gaps and forest interior. L. lucidum saplings grew significantly more than saplings of the most common native species, and also showed higher seedling survival. L. lucidum is a prolific fruit producer, is capable of germinating and surviving in a broad range of forest environments, it is relatively shade tolerant and has higher survival and faster growth rate in comprison to the most common native species. All these characteristics highlight its potency as a successful invader, and point to few

  19. Combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with improved survival at early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Hamdullah; Çiftçi, Rumeysa; Vatansever, Dogan; Topuz, Samet; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Yaşa, Cenk; Çali, Halime; Yavuz, Ekrem; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydiner, Adnan; Salihoglu, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities and identify risk factors associated with recurrence and survival rates in women diagnosed with early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma. In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with early stage (stages I-II) carcinosarcoma and type II endometrial cancer were reviewed. All women underwent comprehensive surgical staging. Postoperative treatment options of chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), observation (OBS) and chemotherapy-radiotherapy (CT-RT) combination were compared in terms of recurrence and survival outcome. In CT-RT treatment arm, recurrence rate was found as 12.5% and this result is significantly lower than the other treatment approaches (P = 0.01 CT alone: 33.3%, RT alone: 26.7%, OBS: 62.5%). Three-year disease free survival(DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were statistically higher for the group of women treated with combination of CT-RT (92-95%) compared to the women treated with RT alone (65-72%), treated with CT alone (67-74%) and women who received no adjuvant therapy (38-45%). The multivariate analysis revealed that carcinosarcoma histology was associated with shortened DFS and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). On the other hand, being at stage Ia (P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and receiving adjuvant treatment of CT-RT combination (P = 0.005, P = 0.002) appeared to lead to increased DFS and OS rates. We identified that a combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is superior compared to other postoperative adjuvant treatment approaches concerning PFS, OS and recurrence rates in stages I-II of type II endometrial cancers and uterine carcinosarcoma. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Safety and efficacy of liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Owing to renal clearance, several antidiabetic agents cannot be used in patients with ESRD. The present protocol describes an investigator-initiated trial aiming to test safety and efficacy of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide......-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and dialysis-dependent ESRD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and ESRD will be compared with 20 matched patients with type 2 diabetes and normal kidney function in a randomised, parallel, placebo-controlled (1...

  1. Detection of possible restriction sites for type II restriction enzymes in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagniuc, P; Cimponeriu, D; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, C; Mihai, Andrada; Stavarachi, Monica; Mihai, T; Gavrilă, L

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a step forward in the knowledge of the mechanism operating in complex polygenic disorders such as diabetes and obesity, this paper proposes a new algorithm (PRSD -possible restriction site detection) and its implementation in Applied Genetics software. This software can be used for in silico detection of potential (hidden) recognition sites for endonucleases and for nucleotide repeats identification. The recognition sites for endonucleases may result from hidden sequences through deletion or insertion of a specific number of nucleotides. Tests were conducted on DNA sequences downloaded from NCBI servers using specific recognition sites for common type II restriction enzymes introduced in the software database (n = 126). Each possible recognition site indicated by the PRSD algorithm implemented in Applied Genetics was checked and confirmed by NEBcutter V2.0 and Webcutter 2.0 software. In the sequence NG_008724.1 (which includes 63632 nucleotides) we found a high number of potential restriction sites for ECO R1 that may be produced by deletion (n = 43 sites) or insertion (n = 591 sites) of one nucleotide. The second module of Applied Genetics has been designed to find simple repeats sizes with a real future in understanding the role of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the pathogenesis of the complex metabolic disorders. We have tested the presence of simple repetitive sequences in five DNA sequence. The software indicated exact position of each repeats detected in the tested sequences. Future development of Applied Genetics can provide an alternative for powerful tools used to search for restriction sites or repetitive sequences or to improve genotyping methods.

  2. Site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon, E-mail: kimsg@ccs.msstate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Center for Computational Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Kim, Sungho [Center for Computational Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Liyanage, Laalitha S. I. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Moitra, Amitava [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Computational Materials Science, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector-III, Block-JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India)

    2015-06-28

    We use first-principles total-energy calculations based on density functional theory to study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.5 and x = 1.0. We find that the non-magnetic Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially replace Fe{sup 3+} ions at two of the majority spin sites, 2a and 12k, eliminating their positive contribution to the total magnetization causing the saturation magnetization M{sub s} to be reduced as Al concentration x is increased. Our formation probability analysis further provides the explanation for increased magnetic anisotropy field when the fraction of Al is increased. Although Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially occupy the 2a sites at a low temperature, the occupation probability of the 12k site increases with the rise of the temperature. At a typical annealing temperature (>700 °C) Al{sup 3+} ions are much more likely to occupy the 12k site than the 2a site. Although this causes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy K{sub 1} to be reduced slightly, the reduction in M{sub s} is much more significant. Their combined effect causes the anisotropy field H{sub a} to increase as the fraction of Al is increased, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  3. Single Stage Reconstruction of Type IIA Defect of the Ear Lobule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technique using a doubled‑over skin flap allows a one stage reconstruction of the ear lobule. It is technically simple and may be performed under local anesthesia. The aesthetic results are generally well acceptable and there is a good color match between the neolobule and the surrounding skin. Key words: Ear lobule, ...

  4. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  5. Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Phytase activity in grain is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism, and in food and feed. Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases (PAPhy). Mature wheat grain is dominated by TaPAPhy_a which, in the present work, has been characterized by extensive peptide...... sites the glycan consisted of a single GlcNAc residue. The mature protein is ca. 500 residues in size and appears to be truncated at the N- and C-termini....

  6. Invertebrate succession on open coast coal post mining sites in response to the type of restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Hromádková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with development of invertebrates on sites after brown coal mining in response to the type of restoration. When the soil properties are improved, it is then necessary to mitigate negative threats such as landslides and erosion or low pH. The following is an overlap of fertile soil. Soil characteristics can be locally modified by diversifying of plantations of fast and slow growing wood species. After a succession of plants and the subsequent increase in litter layer, the dev...

  7. Identification of sites required for repression of a silent mating type locus in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J B; Hicks, J B; Broach, J R

    1984-10-05

    There are three loci in the yeast Saccharomyces, each containing one of two possible genetic elements that can determine cell type. At one of these loci, MAT, this information is expressed to establish the mating type of the cell. At the other two loci, HML and HMR, this same information is phenotypically and transcriptionally silent, even though a large amount of identical sequence flanks MAT, HML and HMR coding regions. Transcriptional repression of HML and HMR requires the trans active gene products of four loci, designated variously as MAR or SIR, that are unlinked to each other or to MAT, HML or HMR. We have examined the phenotypic expression of a cloned, plasmid-borne copy of HML and of various deletion and insertion derivatives of this plasmid following their reintroduction into Mar+/Sir+ yeast strains. From these data, we have identified two sites flanking the locus, both of which are required for MAR/SIR repression of the locus. In addition, we demonstrate that each of these sites promotes autonomous replication in yeast. Abraham et al. (1984) have presented evidence demonstrating that a similar regulatory structure exists at the other silent locus, HMR. From an analysis of the sequences of these four regulatory sites, we have identified several specific sequences that may be involved in mediating repression of these loci and in promoting replication in yeast. These results are discussed in the context of potential models for the mechanism of regulation of the silent mating type loci.

  8. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  9. The Relationship Between Coping Strategies and Type D Personality in Non Late Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Jhu Wu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that different factors were associated with the three types of coping strategies. We recommend that patients be screened for type D personality, so that those with higher levels of distress when managing their symptoms can be helped to have a positive coping process. Health care providers should also proactively take care of younger patients with mal-adaptation.

  10. Maximum-likelihood model averaging to profile clustering of site types across discrete linear sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Liraglutide in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and End-Stage Renal Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate parameters related to safety and efficacy of liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with type 2 diabetes and ESRD and 23 control subjects with type 2 diabetes...... and normal kidney function were randomly allocated to 12 weeks of double-blinded liraglutide (titrated to a maximum dose of 1.8 mg) or placebo treatment (1:1) injected subcutaneously once daily as add on to ongoing antidiabetic treatment. Dose-corrected plasma trough liraglutide concentration was evaluated...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma liraglutide concentrations increased during treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and ESRD, who experienced more gastrointestinal side effects. Reduced treatment doses and prolonged titration period may be advisable....

  12. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  13. Modern technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Aleksandrovna Krupinova; Sergei Andreevich Martinov; Alexandra Mikhaylovna Glazunova; Evgeny Vladimirovich Tarasov

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the clinical case of a patient with early development of terminal complications of type 1 diabetes with chronic decompensated carbohydrate metabolism. For 1 year, the patient was treated with hemodialysis and she subsequently underwent successful kidney transplantation.

  14. Type I error probabilities based on design-stage strategies with applications to noninferiority trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, Mark

    2005-01-01

    When testing the equality of means from two different populations, a t-test or large sample normal test tend to be performed. For these tests, when the sample size or design for the second sample is dependent on the results of the first sample, the type I error probability is altered for each specific possibility in the null hypothesis. We will examine the impact on the type I error probabilities for two confidence interval procedures and procedures using test statistics when the design for the second sample or experiment is dependent on the results from the first sample or experiment (or series of experiments). Ways for controlling a desired maximum type I error probability or a desired type I error rate will be discussed. Results are applied to the setting of noninferiority comparisons in active controlled trials where the use of a placebo is unethical.

  15. Relationship between types of urban forest and PM2.5 capture at three growth stages of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thithanhthao; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Zhenming; Liu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) causes direct harm to human health. Finding forms of urban forest systems that with the ability to reduce the amount of particulate matter in air effectively is the aim of this study. Five commonly cultivated kinds of urban forest types were studied in Beijing city at three stages of leaf growth. Results show that the urban forest system is capable of storing and capturing dust from the air. The types of shrubs and broadleaf trees that have the ability to capture PM2.5 from the air are most effective when leaves have fully developed. In the leafless season, the conifer and mixed tree types are the most effective in removing dust from the air. For all kinds of forest types and stages of leaf growth, the PM2.5 concentration is highest in the morning but lower in the afternoon and evening. Grassland cannot control particles suspended in the air, but can reduce dust pollution caused by dust from the ground blown by the wind back into the air. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Active site of tripeptidyl peptidase II from human erythrocytes is of the subtilisin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkinson, B.; Wernstedt, C.; Hellman, U.; Zetterqvist, Oe.

    1987-01-01

    The present report presents evidence that the amino acid sequence around the serine of the active site of human tripeptidyl peptidase II is of the subtilisin type. The enzyme from human erythrocytes was covalently labeled at its active site with [ 3 H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and the protein was subsequently reduced, alkylated, and digested with trypsin. The labeled tryptic peptides were purified by gel filtration and repeated reversed-phase HPLC, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined. Residue 9 contained the radioactive label and was, therefore, considered to be the active serine residue. The primary structure of the part of the active site (residues 1-10) containing this residue was concluded to be Xaa-Thr-Gln-Leu-Met-Asx-Gly-Thr-Ser-Met. This amino acid sequence is homologous to the sequence surrounding the active serine of the microbial peptidases subtilisin and thermitase. These data demonstrate that human tripeptidyl peptidase II represents a potentially distinct class of human peptidases and raise the question of an evolutionary relationship between the active site of a mammalian peptidase and that of the subtilisin family of serine peptidases

  17. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  18. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xuechun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp., meadow fescue (F. pratensis and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP PCR-based molecular markers.

  19. Rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, S.H.; Burcher, E.

    1985-11-01

    The specific binding of the /sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter labeled tachykinins substance K (BHSK), eledoisin (BHE), and substance P (BHSP) was examined in crude membrane suspensions and by autoradiography in rat submaxillary gland. All three ligands at 0.1 nM concentrations exhibited binding that was inhibited by tachykinins in a potency rank order of substance P greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than eledoisin greater than kassinin greater than neuromedin K with slope factors essentially equal to unity. All tachykinins were 5 to 10 times more potent in inhibiting BHSK and BHE binding compared to BHSP binding. Autoradiographic visualization of BHSK and BHSP binding sites in the gland revealed extensive labeling of mucous and serous acini. The intensity of labeling was much less for BHSK than for BHSP. The results indicate that the rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites.

  20. A Rare Type of Enkolpion Cross from the Selitrennoye Fortified Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigaryov Evgeniy M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A fragment of the bronze-cast enkolpion cross discovered in 2011 in the territory of the Golden Horde Selitrennoye fortified site is made public. The item is the right-hand medallion of the four-fold enkolpion cross with a rectangular crypt and cross-shaped medallions at the ends of the branches. The right-hand branch medallion contains a schematic half-length image of the virgin and an illegible monogram. Similar images are known from findings made in various regions of Russia. Crosses of the type were common in the 13th–15th centuries. The enkolpion cross from the Selitrennoye fortified site most likely refers to the 14th century; it probably belonged to a representative of the Russian community of the city.

  1. Antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease according to risk group and disease stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, C. A.; de Jager, M. H.; Debouck, C.; Epstein, L. G.; de Wolf, F.; Wolfs, T. F.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    Three groups with different routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission (homosexual men, hemophiliacs, and children) were studied for serum antibodies to a recombinant form of the HIV-1 protease using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. At 1 year after seroconversion, defined as the

  2. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D.; Polak, Bettine C. P.; Ringens, Peter J.; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and

  3. Modern technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Aleksandrovna Krupinova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical case of a patient with early development of terminal complications of type 1 diabetes with chronic decompensated carbohydrate metabolism. For 1 year, the patient was treated with hemodialysis and she subsequently underwent successful kidney transplantation.

  4. Sleep-stage transitions during polysomnographic recordings as diagnostic features of type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Carrillo, Oscar; Leary, Eileen B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Type 1 narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep fragmentation, and cataplexy. Short rapid eye movement (REM) latency (≤15 min) during nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) or during naps of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) defines a sleep...

  5. The vapor-phase multi-stage CMD test for characterizing contaminant mass discharge associated with VOC sources in the vadose zone: Application to three sites in different lifecycle stages of SVE operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M L; Mainhagu, J; Morrison, C; Carroll, K C

    2015-08-01

    Vapor-phase multi-stage contaminant mass discharge (CMD) tests were conducted at three field sites to measure mass discharge associated with contaminant sources located in the vadose zone. The three sites represent the three primary stages of the soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations lifecycle-pre/initial-SVE, mid-lifecycle, and near-closure. A CMD of 32g/d was obtained for a site at which soil vapor SVE has been in operation for approximately 6years, and for which mass removal is currently in the asymptotic stage. The contaminant removal behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggests that there is unlikely to be a significant mass of non-vapor-phase contaminant (e.g., DNAPL, sorbed phase) remaining in the advective domains, and that most remaining mass is likely located in poorly accessible domains. Given the conditions for this site, this remaining mass is hypothesized to be associated with the low-permeability (and higher water saturation) region in the vicinity of the saturated zone and capillary fringe. A CMD of 25g/d was obtained for a site wherein SVE has been in operation for several years but concentrations and mass-removal rates are still relatively high. A CMD of 270g/d was obtained for a site for which there were no prior SVE operations. The behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggest that non-vapor-phase contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL) may be present in the advective domains. Hence, the asymptotic conditions observed for this site most likely derive from a combination of rate-limited mass transfer from DNAPL (and sorbed) phases present in the advective domain as well as mass residing in lower-permeability ("non-advective") regions. The CMD values obtained from the tests were used in conjunction with a recently developed vapor-discharge tool to evaluate the impact of the measured CMDs on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  7. Cell-type specificity of ChIP-predicted transcription factor binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håndstad Tony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Context-dependent transcription factor (TF binding is one reason for differences in gene expression patterns between different cellular states. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identifies genome-wide TF binding sites for one particular context—the cells used in the experiment. But can such ChIP-seq data predict TF binding in other cellular contexts and is it possible to distinguish context-dependent from ubiquitous TF binding? Results We compared ChIP-seq data on TF binding for multiple TFs in two different cell types and found that on average only a third of ChIP-seq peak regions are common to both cell types. Expectedly, common peaks occur more frequently in certain genomic contexts, such as CpG-rich promoters, whereas chromatin differences characterize cell-type specific TF binding. We also find, however, that genotype differences between the cell types can explain differences in binding. Moreover, ChIP-seq signal intensity and peak clustering are the strongest predictors of common peaks. Compared with strong peaks located in regions containing peaks for multiple transcription factors, weak and isolated peaks are less common between the cell types and are less associated with data that indicate regulatory activity. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that experimental noise is prevalent among weak peaks, whereas strong and clustered peaks represent high-confidence binding events that often occur in other cellular contexts. Nevertheless, 30-40% of the strongest and most clustered peaks show context-dependent regulation. We show that by combining signal intensity with additional data—ranging from context independent information such as binding site conservation and position weight matrix scores to context dependent chromatin structure—we can predict whether a ChIP-seq peak is likely to be present in other cellular contexts.

  8. A high lymph node yield in colon cancer is associated with age, tumour stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjær, Ole

    2016-01-01

    by curative resection of stage I-III colon cancer in the period 2003-2011. The association between a LNY ≥ 12 and age, sex, body mass index, open vs. laparoscopic surgery, acute vs. elective surgery, pT stage, tumour sub-site and year of diagnosis was analysed. RESULTS: A total of 13,766 patients were...... eligible for the analysis. In total, 71.4 % of the patients had a LNY ≥ 12. In multivariate analysis, age, pT stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery were independently associated with the probability of a LNY ≥ 12. Odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: age ... of a LNY ≥ 12: OR 1.480 (CI 1.445-1.516) for each increasing year in the study period. CONCLUSION: A LNY ≥ 12 is significantly associated with age, pT stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery. A significant increase in the LNY over the period of the study was observed, probably reflecting the effect...

  9. Two-stage multishape segmentation of brain structures using image intensity, tissue type, and location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a fast, robust, nonparametric, entropy-based, coupled, multishape approach to segment subcortical brain structures from magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The proposed method uses three types of information: Image intensity, tissue types, and locations of structures. The image intensity information is captured by estimating the probability density function (pdf) of the image intensities in each structure. The tissue type information is captured by applying an unsupervised tissue segmentation method to the image and estimating a probability mass function (pmf) for the tissue type of each structure. The location information is captured by estimating pdf of the location of each structure from the training datasets. The resulting pmf's and pdf's are used to define an entropy function whose minimum corresponds to a desirable segmentation of the structures. The authors propose a three-step optimization strategy for the segmentation method. In the first step, a powerful automatic initialization method is developed based on tissue type and location information of the structures. In the second step, a quasi-Newton method is used to optimize the parameters of the energy function. To speed up the iterations, derivatives of the energy function with respect to its parameters are analytically derived and used in the optimization process. In the last step, the limitations related to the prior shape model are removed and a level-set method is applied for the fine tuning of the segmentation results. The proposed method is applied to two different datasets and the results are compared to those of previous methods in literature. Experimental results are presented for lateral ventricles, caudate, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, and amygdala. The results illustrate superior performance of the proposed segmentation method compared to other methods in literature. The execution time of the algorithm is a few minutes, suitable for a variety of applications.

  10. Intensified Multifactorial Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Reduces End Stage Renal Disease and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Jens Oellgaard (jchq@steno.dk)1 2 3; Peter Gæde1 2, Peter Rossing3 4 7, Hans-Henrik Parving5 6, Oluf Pedersen5 7 1) University of Southern Denmark; 2) Slagelse Hospital; 3) Steno Diabetes Center; 4) University of Aarhus; 5) University of Copenhagen; 6) Rigshospitalet; 7) Novo Nordisk Foundation...... with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria and the influence of an intensified, multifactorial treatment regimen. Methods: 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria assigned to conventional or intensified multifactorial intervention targeting multiple risk factors in a prospective, open...... Center for Basic Metabolic research. Background: Despite declining rates of late diabetic complications in other organ systems, renal complication rates do not decline to the same extent according to epidemiological studies. The objective was to describe renal outcomes over 21.2 years in patients...

  11. A manufacturing quality assessment model based-on two stages interval type-2 fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Helmi Shintya Dewi, Intan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an assessment models for manufacturing quality using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2-FL). The proposed model is developed based on one of building block in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), which is benefit of SCM, and focuses more on quality. The proposed model can be used to predict the quality level of production chain in a company. The quality of production will affect to the quality of product. Practically, quality of production is unique for every type of production system. Hence, experts opinion will play major role in developing the assessment model. The model will become more complicated when the data contains ambiguity and uncertainty. In this study, IT2-FL is used to model the ambiguity and uncertainty. A case study taken from a company in Yogyakarta shows that the proposed manufacturing quality assessment model can work well in determining the quality level of production.

  12. An efficient method for multiple site-directed mutagenesis using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Kun; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-05-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) methods are very important in modern molecular biology, biochemistry, and protein engineering. Here, we present a novel SDM method that can be used for multiple mutation generation using type IIs restriction enzymes. This approach is faster and more convenient than the overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method due to its having fewer reaction steps and being cheaper than, but as convenient as, enzymatic assembly. We illustrate the usefulness of our method by introducing three mutations into the bacterial Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (bStCas9) gene, converting the humanized S. thermophilus Cas9 (hStCas9) gene into nuclease dead or H847A nickase mutants and generating sunnyTALEN mutagenesis from a wild-type TALEN backbone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of entry site for acute type A aortic dissection by initial enhanced CT-scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, Takenori; Narumiya, Chihiro; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagata, Yoshihisa [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection presents a surgical emergency because conservative therapy is not effective in the majority of instances. Enhanced CT-scan of the chest is commonly available and is considered to be an optimal diagnostic method for this disease. The operative strategy is to resect the primary tear to close the entry site of the aortic dissection and replace it with a tubular Dacron graft. Therefore, the existence of the entry site is important in determining the operative procedure. Based on the numerical value of the enhanced CT-scan inspection, the present study seeks to preoperatively identify the location of the presumed entry site in aortic dissection. From May 1996 to June 1999, 21 consecutive patients (Marfan's syndrome excluded) with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical treatment. Nineteen patients were preoperatively examined by enhanced CT-scan: 11 men and 8 women, with a mean age of 61 years. CT-scan slices used for early diagnosis were of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, and thoracoabdominal aorta. The largest diameters of the whole and true lumen were measured from cross-sectional aortic images with a personal computer, and the areas of the whole and true lumen were obtained by the manual tracing method. The true ratio was calculated for the largest diameter and area of the whole lumen. The nineteen patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the entry site based on the operating views. Seven patients with the entry site in the ascending aorta were classified as group A, and twelve patients with the entry site further in the aortic arch and descending aorta were classified as group B. Comparisons were performed by non-parametric analysis. Moreover, a discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the classification between the two groups. The ratio of the largest diameter of the true lumen in group A at the level of the ascending and descending aorta was significantly greater than

  14. Determination of entry site for acute type A aortic dissection by initial enhanced CT-scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, Takenori; Narumiya, Chihiro; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagata, Yoshihisa

    2002-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection presents a surgical emergency because conservative therapy is not effective in the majority of instances. Enhanced CT-scan of the chest is commonly available and is considered to be an optimal diagnostic method for this disease. The operative strategy is to resect the primary tear to close the entry site of the aortic dissection and replace it with a tubular Dacron graft. Therefore, the existence of the entry site is important in determining the operative procedure. Based on the numerical value of the enhanced CT-scan inspection, the present study seeks to preoperatively identify the location of the presumed entry site in aortic dissection. From May 1996 to June 1999, 21 consecutive patients (Marfan's syndrome excluded) with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical treatment. Nineteen patients were preoperatively examined by enhanced CT-scan: 11 men and 8 women, with a mean age of 61 years. CT-scan slices used for early diagnosis were of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, and thoracoabdominal aorta. The largest diameters of the whole and true lumen were measured from cross-sectional aortic images with a personal computer, and the areas of the whole and true lumen were obtained by the manual tracing method. The true ratio was calculated for the largest diameter and area of the whole lumen. The nineteen patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the entry site based on the operating views. Seven patients with the entry site in the ascending aorta were classified as group A, and twelve patients with the entry site further in the aortic arch and descending aorta were classified as group B. Comparisons were performed by non-parametric analysis. Moreover, a discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the classification between the two groups. The ratio of the largest diameter of the true lumen in group A at the level of the ascending and descending aorta was significantly greater than that

  15. Efficacy of type I thyroplasty after endoscopic cordectomy for early-stage glottic cancer: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Caitlin; Reder, Lindsay

    2018-03-01

    As phonomicrosurgical techniques have evolved, endoscopic cordectomy (EC) has been used more commonly for early-stage glottic cancer. Patients undergoing more extensive surgery often experience significant postoperative dysphonia for which there is no standard treatment. Surgical options include injection laryngoplasty and thyroplasty. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the efficacy of thyroplasty after EC. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies of adults undergoing thyroplasty for dysphonia after EC for glottic cancer. Primary outcomes included voice, as measured subjectively by the voice handicap index (VHI) and objectively by aerodynamics-specifically maximum phonation time (MPT). Secondary outcomes included additional acoustic and aerodynamic measurements, variations in the technical aspects of thyroplasty, and a description of adverse events. Seven articles met inclusion criteria. Each study allowed 6 to 12 months after EC before performing thyroplasty. General anesthesia frequently was used rather than monitored anesthesia care . Implants varied between centers and were chosen based on surgeon preference. Of the three studies including statistical analysis, one reported improvement in VHI and grade. The second reported improvement in VHI; grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain; jitter; shimmer; noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR); and MPT. The third reported improvements in jitter, shimmer, NHR, fundamental frequency, MPT, and sound pressure level. The most frequent adverse events were hematoma, infection, and implant extrusion. Optimizing voice after EC remains a clinical challenge. Our review suggests that thyroplasty is one potentially beneficial option in appropriately selected patients. More controlled studies are needed to assess efficacy of thyroplasty in this context. Laryngoscope, 128:690-696, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Penile alterations at early stage of type 1 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Tao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes affects the erectile function significantly. However, the penile alterations in the early stage of diabetes in experimental animal models have not been well studied. We examined the changes of the penis and its main erectile components in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics and age-matched controls. Three or nine weeks after diabetes induction, the penis was removed for immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in midshaft penile tissues. The cross-sectional areas of the whole midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were quantified. The smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa and nNOS in the dorsal nerves were quantified. Results The weight, but not the length, of the penis was lower in diabetics. The cross-sectional areas of the total midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were lower in diabetic rats compared with controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. The cross-sectional area of smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa as percentage of the overall area of the corpora cavernosa was lower in diabetic rats than in controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Percentage change of nNOS in dorsal nerves was similar at 3 weeks, and has a decreased trend at 9 weeks in diabetic rats compared with controls. Conclusions Diabetes causes temporal alterations in the penis, and the significant changes in STZ rat model begin 3-9 weeks after induction. Further studies on the reversibility of the observed changes are warranted.

  17. Revolution of Chinese architectural design at the new-type urbanization stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Witnessing more than three decades of sustained and rapid economic growth, China has become a nation that enjoys the fastest rate of urbanization; the largest quantities of civil construction; the most obvious urban development to be “newer”, “bigger” and “higher”; and the most prosperous architectural design market worldwide. In terms of the construction industry, housing construction totals 31.3 billion square meters, occupying more than 70% of the floor area of the existing stock houses. It is safe to say that the construction industry significantly boosts GDP growth, expands the number of jobs, and improves the living conditions of the masses. Related to this is the need to end the architectural guidelines of the planned economy era economizing on food and clothing and instead step into a new historic stage allowing bold pursuit of architectural aesthetics and individuality. A group of architects who have social ideals, adhere faithfully to professional standards and pledge to pursue architectural innovation are active in China. Instead of simply converting the overwhelming opportunities brought to carry economic benefits, they dare to embrace the challenges imposed on enhancing architectural connotation and create a batch of high-level work that lives up to expectations of the era, marking the achievement of reform and rapid urbanization in China. Yet, as time goes on, the promotion of national development concepts, ideas of social consumption and the masses’ cultural level establishes new requirements for the architectural design industry, architects and architectural design works. An appeal is thus made against Chinese architects for a summary, reflection and proactive anticipation to respond to the new requirements of the era.

  18. Hand fractures: A study of their site and type in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Arumugam; Basu, Avi K.; Vaidhyanath, Ramachandran; Finlay, David

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the study was to document the site and type of fractures of the hand in children up to 16 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiographs of 280 children who were found to have a fracture in Accident and Emergency over a one-year period were reviewed. A total of 293 fractures of the hand and 3 distal interphalangeal joint dislocations without fracture were identified. There were 293 fractures as some children had more than one fracture. RESULTS: Distal tuft fractures were commonest in the 0 to 4-year age-group; fractures of distal phalanx (both transverse and tuft) in the 5 to 8-year age-group; transverse fractures of the proximal phalanx of little finger in the 9 to 12-year age-group and transverse fractures of neck of the fifth metacarpal in the 13 to 16-year age-groups. CONCLUSION: Hand fractures are more common in older children, with a male preponderance in most groups except in the 0-4 age-group. The site of injury is different in the various corresponding age-groups, reflecting the differing mechanisms of injury. The management of hand fractures rely on a correct diagnosis and a knowledge of their common site in each age-group should aid diagnosis. Rajesh, A. et al. (2001)

  19. Clinical and metabolic evaluation of one-stage, full-mouth, ultrasonic debridement as a therapeutic approach for uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Pera, Claudia; Ueda, Paulo; Casarin, Renato Correa Viana; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic potential of one-stage, full-mouth, ultrasonic debridement (FMUD) as a treatment for type 2 diabetic patients with generalized severe chronic periodontitis. Sixteen patients diagnosed with generalized severe chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus were allocated to the diabetic group; another 15 subjects with periodontitis but without metabolic disorders were placed in the nondiabetic group. Both groups were treated using the FMUD protocol, a unique 45-minute session of ultrasonic debridement of all sites presenting periodontal disease. Patients were analyzed for the following parameters: plaque and bleeding indices, gingival recession, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. Further, diabetic subjects were assessed using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) tests. Patients were evaluated at 3 and 6 months for all parameters. ANOVA and the Tukey test were used for data analysis (P periodontal health after treatment. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the parameters assessed (P > .05). Diabetic subjects treated with FMUD had a clinical response similar to that of nondiabetic subjects at all pocket depths. No adverse effects or medical disturbances were observed in either group during treatment. FPG and HbA1c levels remained unaltered after treatment. Within the limitations of this study, FMUD promoted clinical improvements in patients with type 2 uncontrolled diabetes and generalized severe chronic periodontitis.

  20. Determinants of the relative reduction potentials of type-1 copper sites in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Webb, Simon P; Ivanic, Joseph; Jensen, Jan H

    2004-06-30

    The relative Cu(2+)/Cu(+) reduction potentials of six type-1 copper sites (cucumber stellacyanin, P. aeruginosa azurin, poplar plastocyanin, C. cinereus laccase, T. ferrooxidans rusticyanin, and human ceruloplasmin), which lie in a reduction potential range from 260 mV to over 1000 mV, have been studied by quantum mechanical calculations. The range and relative orderings of the reduction potentials are reproduced very well compared to experimental values. The study suggests that the main structural determinants of the relative reduction potentials of the blue copper sites are located within 6 A of the Cu atoms. Further analysis suggests that the reduction potential differences of type-1 copper sites are caused by axial ligand interactions, hydrogen bonding to the S(Cys), and protein constraint on the inner sphere ligand orientations. The low reduction potential of cucumber stellacyanin is due mainly to a glutamine ligand at the axial position, rather than a methionine or a hydrophobic residue as in the other proteins. A stronger interaction with a backbone carbonyl group is a prime contributor to the lower reduction potential of P. aeruginosa azurin as compared to poplar plastocyanin, whereas the reverse is true for C. cinereus laccase and T. ferrooxidans rusticyanin. The lack of an axial methonine ligand also contributes significantly to the increased reduction potentials of C. cinereus laccase and human ceruloplasmin. However, in the case of C. cinereus laccase, this increase is attenuated by the presence of only one amide NH hydrogen bond to the S(Cys) rather than two in the other proteins. In human ceruloplasmin the reduction potential is further increased by the structural distortion of the equatorial ligand orientation.

  1. Peripheral nerve pathology at fixed stage in spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Azusa; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Tanaka, Mio; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Goto, Tomohide

    2018-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is characterized by severe respiratory failure due to diaphragmatic paralysis and distal muscular weakness in early infancy. After an initial decline in respiratory state and motor function until 1-2years of age, residual capabilities reach a plateau. We report the peripheral neuropathological findings of a patient with SMARD1 at 1year and 1month of age, when his muscle strength and respiratory symptoms had deteriorated and then stabilized for several months. Peripheral nerve biopsy revealed severely progressed axonal degeneration. This finding suggests the rapid progression of peripheral axonal neuropathy in SMARD1 that leads to its characteristic clinical course of respiratory failure and paralysis in the early infantile period. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytic Bayesian solution of the two-stage poisson-type problem in probabilistic risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohner, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The basic purpose of probabilistic risk analysis is to make inferences about the probabilities of various postulated events, with an account of all relevant information such as prior knowledge and operating experience with the specific system under study, as well as experience with other similar systems. Estimation of the failure rate of a Poisson-type system leads to an especially simple Bayesian solution in closed form if the prior probabilty implied by the invariance properties of the problem is properly taken into account. This basic simplicity persists if a more realistic prior, representing order of magnitude knowledge of the rate parameter, is employed instead. Moreover, the more realistic prior allows direct incorporation of experience gained from other similar systems, without need to postulate a statistical model for an underlying ensemble. The analytic formalism is applied to actual nuclear reactor data

  3. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D; Polak, Bettine C P; Ringens, Peter J; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C

    2016-05-26

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and without DRP and non-diabetic controls. We further assessed the acute effects of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal microvascular bloodflow in eight patients with diabetes. Thirty-three T1DM patients with proliferative DRP, previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation (pDRP), 11 T1DM patients with untreated non-proliferative retinopathy (npDRP) and 32 T1DM patients without DRP (nDRP) were compared with 44 non-diabetic gender-matched controls. Using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (HRF, Heidelberg) blood flow in the retinal microvasculature was measured temporal and nasal of the optic disc and averaged into one flow value per eye. The right eye was used as a default for further analyses. Eight patients with novel proliferative retinopathy (4 T1DM and 4 with type 2 diabetes) were measured before and several months after photocoagulation. Between-group differences in retinal blood flow were assessed using ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni). Retinal blood flow was higher in the treated pDRP compared with the nDRP group and controls (all P Bonferroni retinopathy, blood flow did not significantly change before and after panretinal photocoagulation (P > 0.05). Using regression analysis, no variables were found as predictors of retinal blood flow. In comparison with controls and nDRP patients, retinal blood flow significantly increased in the pDRP group, which previously underwent photocoagulation treatment, but not in the npDRP patients. These changes may be a consequence of a failing vascular autoregulation in advanced diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Relation between clinical findings and progression of cerebral cortical pathology in MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: proposed staging of cerebral cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mari

    2014-06-15

    In our pathologic observation of the cerebral cortex including the neocortex, hippocampus, and limbic cortex in 43 Japanese patients with MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the earliest pathologic finding was spongiform change and next was gliosis. Subsequently, neuropil rarefaction appeared, followed by neuron loss. On the basis of these observations, we propose the following cortical pathologic staging: Stage I, spongiform change; Stage II, hypertrophic astrocytosis; Stage III, neuropil rarefaction; Stage IV, neuron loss; Stage V, status spongiosus; and Stage VI, large cavity formation. We also suggest a more simple staging classification: Stages I and II, mild; Stages III and IV, moderate; and Stages V and VI, severe involvement. Based on statistical analysis of the cases, strong correlation coefficients were obtained between the neocortical and limbic pathologic stage and both total disease duration and brain weight. We estimated that the first observation times of cortical hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging, myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes on the electroencephalogram approximately correspond to the early phase of Stage II of the neocortex. The time to reach the akinetic mutism state approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage II of the neocortex. Therefore, we think that approximate clinical manifestations at death, total disease duration, and brain weight can be estimated according to the pathologic stage of the neocortex or limbic cortex. Panencephalopathic-type pathology appeared approximately 12 months after disease onset, and this time approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage III of the neocortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Post-appendectomy surgical site infection: overall rate and type according to open/laparoscopic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Prieto-Puga Arjona, Tatiana; García-Albiach, Beatriz; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence and profile of surgical site infection (SSI) after laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) appendicectomy. Observational and analytical study was conducted on patients older than 14years-old with suspected acute appendicitis operated on within a 4-year period (2007-2010) at a third level hospital (n=868). They were divided in two groups according to the type of appendicectomy (LA, study group, 135; OA, control group, 733). The primary endpoint was a surgical site infection (SSI), and to determine the overall rate and types (incisional/organ-space). The risk of SSI was stratified by: i)National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) index (low risk: 0E, 0 and 1; high risk: 2 and 3); ii)status on presentation (low risk: normal or phlegmonous; high risk: gangrenous or perforated). The statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS. The main result and stratified analysis was determined with χ(2), and the risk parameters using OR and Mantel-Haenszel OR with 95%CI, accepting statistical significance with P<.05. Age, gender, ASA index and incidence of advanced cases were similar in both groups. The overall SSI rate was 13.4% (more than a half of them detected during follow-up after discharge). Type of SSI: OA, 13% (superficial 9%, deep 2%, organ-space 2%); AL, 14% (superficial 5%, deep 1%, organ-space 8%) (overall: not significant; distribution: P<.000). Stratified analysis showed that there is an association between incisional SSI/OA and organ-space SSI/LA, and is particularly stronger in those patients with high risk of postoperative SSI (high risk NNIS or gangrenous-perforated presentation). OA and LA are associated with a higher rate of incisional and organ-space SSI respectively. This is particularly evident in patients with high risk of SSI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Neuroretinal alterations in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, P; Toto, L; Aloia, R; Ciciarelli, V; Borrelli, E; Vitacolonna, E; Di Nicola, M; Di Antonio, L; Mastropasqua, R

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo study neuroretinal alterations in patients affected by type 2 diabetes with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and without any sign of diabetic macular edema.Patients and methodsIn total, 150 type 2 diabetic patients with no (131 eyes) or mild NPDR (19 eyes) and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. All underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including Spectral-Domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were calculated after automated segmentation of SD-OCT scans.ResultsMean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.0±0.0 LogMAR in all the groups. Mean GC-IPL thickness was 80.6±8.1 μm in diabetic patients and 85.3±9.9 μm in healthy controls, respectively (P=0.001). Moreover, evaluating the two different diabetic groups, GC-IPL thickness was 80.7±8.1 μm and 79.7±8.8 μm in no-DR and mild-NPDR group (P=0.001 and P=0.022 compared with healthy controls, respectively). Average RNFL thickness was 86.1±10.1 μm in diabetes patients and 91.2±7.3 μm in controls, respectively (P=0.003). RNFL thickness was 86.4±10.2 μm in no-DR group and 84.1±9.4 μm in mild-NPDR group (P=0.007 and P=0.017 compared with healthy controls, respectively).ConclusionWe demonstrated a significantly reduced GC-IPL and RNFL thickness values in both no-DR and mild-NPDR groups compared with healthy controls. These data confirmed neuroretinal alterations are early in diabetes, preceding microvascular damages.

  8. Site selective doping of Zn for the p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakata, Sho [Faculty of Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tokyo University of Science, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Selective doping of a Zn impurity at the group III site in a Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film was performed by the doping of Zn at the first stage of the three-stage method. The p-type CIGS:Zn film was obtained, which is in contrast to the n-type CIGS:Zn film obtained by the Zn impurity doping at the second and third-stages. Based on excitation intensity dependence of photoluminescence (PL) at low-temperature, the change in the acceptor level was observed. The enhancement of carrier concentration as a result of Zn-doping in the p-type CIGS:Zn film was observed. The CIGS:Zn solar cells exhibited η of 14.5% and V{sub oc} of 0.658 V, which are higher than that of the corresponding solar cells using the undoped CIGS films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Dosimetric and clinical comparison between MammoSite and interstitial HDR brachytherapy in treatment of early stage breast cancer after conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Xia; Lin, R.; Chu, C.; Issa, C.; Tripuraneni, P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study dosimetric evaluation, side effects in early and late stage, and cosmetic outcome between MammoSite and interstitial using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in early stage breast cancer patient after conserving surgery. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2004, 10 breast cancer cases were treated with HDR 192 Ir APBI after Lumpectomy surgery, 6 cases with interstitial brachytherapy, 4 cases with MammoSite. Sources were placed during the operation in all patients, distance from cavity to skin > 5-7 mm in interstitial brachytherapy group, one case is 6.5 mm, 3 cases > 10 mm in MammoSite group. Treatment Target area is 20 mm away from cavity in interstitial brachytherapy group with DHI 0.77, 10 mm away from Balloon margin in MammoSite with DHI 0.73. Results: Follow up 12-24 months while median follow-up was 18 months for the whole group (100%). During the treatment, grade III acute reactions were not seen in both group, grade I or II were seen including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection. More late toxicity reaction including skin fibrosis, breast tenderness and fat necrosis were observed in interstitial brachytherapy group than that of MammoSite group. Cosmetic outcome evaluation were excellent in 12 months 100% (patient) and 83% (doctor) in interstitial brachytherapy, 100% in MammoSite group, respectively, none recurrence. Conclusions: Interstitial brachytherapy shows more uniformity in dose distribution as well as larger treatment volume, while MammoSite tends to be stable in repeatability and easy in use. Both groups show excellent cosmetic results, with same acute and late reactions. (authors)

  10. Quality improvement for integrated management of patients with type 2 diabetes (PRIHTA project stage 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Agostino; Mauri, Alessandra; Spinella, Nello

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to show how a different collaborative relationship with family doctors and increasingly specialized diabetologists could lead to a 50% reduction in recurrent appointments due to procedural errors and a 50% reduction in the average waiting times for a specialist medical visit. A qualitative and quantitative definition of the problem was made using the Lean Six Sigma method: (Define); process indicators were observed that might interfere with the objectives of this study (Measure); descriptive statistics were used to confirm the validity and significance of the results (Analyze); and finally strategies were established to intervene on these variables (Improve). Four groups of action led to optimization of the objectives: (1) establishing clinical protocols for primary care physicians for treating hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia; (2) increasing the autonomy of nursing care staff; (3) reorganizing the appointments booking office; and (4) making diabetes clinics more specialized. Thanks to this project, primary care physicians have rediscovered their role and defined their diagnostic-therapeutic function under a shared scientific protocol. The model presented in this study provides scope for reflection on the role of the diabetologist, proposing an "alternative" that concerns only the care of patients with metabolic decompensation.

  11. Human Disturbance and Stage-Specific Habitat Requirements Influence Snowy Plover Site Occupancy during the Breeding Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    risk to eggs, young, and adults (Ricklefs 1969; Martin and Roper 1988; Powell et al. 2002; Nguyen et al. 2003). In seasonal and heterogeneous ...extinction (transition from an occupied site to an unoccupied site) have the potential to pinpoint spatial and temporal variations in the landscape ...disturbance. Biodiversity Conserv. 15:2217–2230. Lamonte, K. M., N. J. Douglass, J. G. Himes, and G. E. Wallace. 2006. Status and distribution of the Snowy

  12. Patients' Characteristics, Histopathological Findings, and Tumor Stage in Different Types of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Mohammad Farahmand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is currently the most fatal of skin cancers accounting for 50000 deaths annually. Five distinct melanomas are described histopathologically: superficial spreading, lentigo maligna, nodular, acral lentiginous and mucosal melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with various types of malignant melanoma and evaluate histopathological findings. In this retrospective study, we obtained our data from the records of 111 patients with melanoma. Biopsied specimens were collected and re-evaluated. Demographic information and histopathological findings were noted. SPSS 16 was used for analyzing data. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA was conducted for comparing categorical and numerical variables respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.33±14.68 years old. Most common melanoma type was acral lentiginous (40.5%, followed by nodular (35.1% and mucosal (10.8%. The highest tumor thickness was viewed in nodular melanoma followed by mucosal melanoma. The highest rate of metastasis, microsatellitosis, perineural invasion and Clark level of the invasion were reported in nodular and acral lentiginous respectively. The most frequent rate of ulceration and vascular invasion was reported in mucosal melanoma. Distribution of melanoma types varies largely in different regions. Lack of classic presentations in some types necessitate specific public education about warning signs. Histopathological and pathological characteristics in melanoma can aid in better staging and management of the tumor.

  13. Patients' Characteristics, Histopathological Findings, and Tumor Stage in Different Types of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Ali-Mohammad; Ehsani, Amir-Hoshang; Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Mohsenian, Maryam; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is currently the most fatal of skin cancers accounting for 50000 deaths annually. Five distinct melanomas are described histopathologically: superficial spreading, lentigo maligna, nodular, acral lentiginous and mucosal melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with various types of malignant melanoma and evaluate histopathological findings. In this retrospective study, we obtained our data from the records of 111 patients with melanoma. Biopsied specimens were collected and re-evaluated. Demographic information and histopathological findings were noted. SPSS 16 was used for analyzing data. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA was conducted for comparing categorical and numerical variables respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.33±14.68 years old. Most common melanoma type was acral lentiginous (40.5%), followed by nodular (35.1%) and mucosal (10.8%). The highest tumor thickness was viewed in nodular melanoma followed by mucosal melanoma. The highest rate of metastasis, microsatellitosis, perineural invasion and Clark level of the invasion were reported in nodular and acral lentiginous respectively. The most frequent rate of ulceration and vascular invasion was reported in mucosal melanoma. Distribution of melanoma types varies largely in different regions. Lack of classic presentations in some types necessitate specific public education about warning signs. Histopathological and pathological characteristics in melanoma can aid in better staging and management of the tumor.

  14. L1CAM in early-stage type I endometrial cancer: results of a large multicenter evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Huszar, Monica; Winterhoff, Boris; Puistola, Ulla; Azim, Samira Abdel; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Ben-Arie, Alon; van Kempen, Léon C; Petru, Edgar; Jahn, Stephan; Geels, Yvette P; Massuger, Leon F; Amant, Frédéric; Polterauer, Stephan; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bulten, Johan; Meuter, Alexandra; Tanouye, Staci; Oppelt, Peter; Stroh-Weigert, Monika; Reinthaller, Alexander; Mariani, Andrea; Hackl, Werner; Netzer, Michael; Schirmer, Uwe; Vergote, Ignace; Altevogt, Peter; Marth, Christian; Fogel, Mina

    2013-08-07

    Despite the excellent prognosis of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to predict clinical outcome. We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study to determine expression of L1CAM by immunohistochemistry in 1021 endometrial cancer specimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied for survival and multivariable analyses. A machine-learning approach was used to validate variables for predicting recurrence and death. Of 1021 included cancers, 17.7% were rated L1CAM-positive. Of these L1CAM-positive cancers, 51.4% recurred during follow-up compared with 2.9% L1CAM-negative cancers. Patients bearing L1CAM-positive cancers had poorer disease-free and overall survival (two-sided Log-rank P relevance of these parameters was related strictly to L1CAM positivity. A classification and regression decision tree (CRT)identified L1CAM as the best variable for predicting recurrence (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.91) and death (sensitivity = 0.77; specificity = 0.89). To our knowledge, L1CAM has been shown to be the best-ever published prognostic factor in FIGO stage I, type I endometrial cancers and shows clear superiority over the standardly used multifactor risk score. L1CAM expression in type I cancers indicates the need for adjuvant treatment. This adhesion molecule might serve as a treatment target for the fully humanized anti-L1CAM antibody currently under development for clinical use.

  15. Optimal topotactic conversion of layered octosilicate to RWR-type zeolite by separating the formation stages of interlayer condensation and elimination of organic guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Osada, Shimon; Hosaka, Nami; Terasawa, Taichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate that the separation of two stages of interlayer condensation under refluxing and elimination of organic guests provides the optimal conditions for the formation of RWR-type zeolite from layered octosilicate. The obtained RWR-type zeolite has higher quality than any other RWR-type zeolite reported previously.

  16. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  17. Solvent water interactions within the active site of the membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaneto, Elena; Vasilevskaya, Tatiana; Kutin, Yuri; Ogata, Hideaki; Grossman, Moran; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Thiel, Walter; Cox, Nicholas

    2017-11-22

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are an important family of proteases which catalyze the degradation of extracellular matrix components. While the mechanism of peptide cleavage is well established, the process of enzyme regeneration, which represents the rate limiting step of the catalytic cycle, remains unresolved. This step involves the loss of the newly formed N-terminus (amine) and C-terminus (carboxylate) protein fragments from the site of catalysis coupled with the inclusion of one or more solvent waters. Here we report a novel crystal structure of membrane type I MMP (MT1-MMP or MMP-14), which includes a small peptide bound at the catalytic Zn site via its C-terminus. This structure models the initial product state formed immediately after peptide cleavage but before the final proton transfer to the bound amine; the amine is not present in our system and as such proton transfer cannot occur. Modeling of the protein, including earlier structural data of Bertini and coworkers [I. Bertini, et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2006, 45, 7952-7955], suggests that the C-terminus of the peptide is positioned to form an H-bond network to the amine site, which is mediated by a single oxygen of the functionally important Glu240 residue, facilitating efficient proton transfer. Additional quantum chemical calculations complemented with magneto-optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopies clarify the role of two additional, non-catalytic first coordination sphere waters identified in the crystal structure. One of these auxiliary waters acts to stabilize key intermediates of the reaction, while the second is proposed to facilitate C-fragment release, triggered by protonation of the amine. Together these results complete the enzymatic cycle of MMPs and provide new design criteria for inhibitors with improved efficacy.

  18. Impact of the entry site on late outcome in acute Stanford type B aortic dissection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tadashi; Torii, Shinzo; Oka, Norihiko; Horai, Tetsuya; Itatani, Keiichi; Yoshii, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Shibata, Miyuki; Tamura, Tomoki; Araki, Haruna; Matsunaga, Yoshikiyo; Sato, Hajime; Miyaji, Kagami

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the entry site of acute type B aortic dissection affects late outcomes. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 224 cases of acute type B aortic dissection between 1998 and 2013. Of these 224 patients, 168 were men and the age was 64.2 ± 12.6 (range 23-94) years, from which 130 presented with the entry at a location downstream of the distal aortic arch, 67 with the entry at the outer curvature of the distal aortic arch and 27 with the entry at the inner curvature. At the initial presentation, 127 patients had descending false lumen thrombosis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2%, and 8% of patients had malperfusion. The entry at the outer curvature was associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. Patients with the entry at a location downstream were significantly older, and had a higher chance for primarily thrombosed descending false lumen and a lower risk of malperfusion. At follow-up (6.0 ± 4.1 years), the actuarial survival rates were 97, 83 and 60%, freedoms from open aortic surgery were 96, 91 and 86%, aortic intervention were 73, 66 and 63% and aortic events were 71, 60 and 52% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the outer curvature entry and maximum aortic diameter were correlated with open aortic surgery, aortic intervention and aortic events. Of the 127 patients with primarily thrombosed false lumen, the outer curvature entry was significantly correlated with aortic events. The primary entry at the outer curvature of the distal aortic arch, as well as the large aortic diameter, is associated with a higher risk of late open aortic surgery, aortic intervention and aortic events in acute type B aortic dissection. Thus, the entry site should be taken into consideration in the establishment of an appropriate treatment indication of type B aortic dissection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  19. Attachment site selection of life stages of Ixodes ricinus ticks on a main large host in Europe, the red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Hatlegjerde, Idar Lauge; Sørensen, Ole Jakob

    2014-11-13

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are increasing in many areas of Europe and North America due to climate change, while land use and the increased abundances of large hosts play a more controversial role. The pattern of host selection involves a crucial component for tick abundance. While the larvae and nymphs feed on a wide range of different sized hosts, the adult female ticks require blood meal from a large host (>1 kg), typically a deer, to fulfil the life cycle. Understanding the role of different hosts for abundances of ticks is therefore important, and also the extent to which different life stages attach to large hosts. We studied attachment site selection of life stages of I. ricinus ticks on a main large host in Europe, the red deer (Cervus elaphus). We collected from 33 felled red deer pieces of skin from five body parts: leg, groin, neck, back and ear. We counted the number of larval, nymphal, adult male and adult female ticks. Nymphs (42.2%) and adult (48.7%) ticks dominated over larvae (9.1%). There were more larvae on the legs (40.9%), more nymphs on the ears (83.7%), while adults dominated in the groins (89.2%) and neck (94.9%). Large mammalian hosts are thus a diverse habitat suitable for different life stages of ticks. The attachment site selection reflected the life stages differing ability to move. The spatial separation of life stages may partly limit the role of deer in co-feeding transmission cycles.

  20. Human endogenous retrovirus type K antibodies and mRNA as serum biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Johanning, Feng; Li, Ming; Esteva, Francisco J; Hess, Kenneth R; Yin, Bingnan; Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B; Garza, Jeremy G; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    A simple and accurate test to detect early-stage breast cancer has not been developed. Previous studies indicate that the level of human endogenous retrovirus type K (group HERV-K(HML-2)) transcription may be increased in human breast tumors. We hypothesized that HERV-K(HML-2) reactivation can serve as a biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. Serum samples were collected from women without cancer (controls) and patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer. ELISA assays were used to detect serum anti-HERV-K(HML-2) antibody titers. RNA was extracted from sera and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR to quantitate the level of HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA. We measured significantly higher serum mRNA and serum antibody titers against HERV-K(HML-2) proteins in women with DCIS and stage I disease than in women without cancer. At optimized cutoffs for the antibody titers, the assay produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.00) for DCIS and of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.89-1.00) for invasive breast cancer. These AUCs are comparable to those observed for mammograms. We also found that serum HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA tended to be higher in breast cancer patients with a primary tumor who later on developed the metastatic disease than in patients who did not develop cancer metastasis. Our results show that HERV-K(HML-2) antibodies and mRNA are already elevated in the blood at an early stage of breast cancer, and further increase in patients who are at risk of developing a metastatic disease. © 2013 UICC.

  1. An Atlas for Schistosoma mansoni Organs and Life-Cycle Stages Using Cell Type-Specific Markers and Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alexis; Williams, David L.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a tropical disease caused by trematode parasites (Schistosoma) that affects hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Currently only a single drug (praziquantel) is available to treat this disease, highlighting the importance of developing new techniques to study Schistosoma. While molecular advances, including RNA interference and the availability of complete genome sequences for two Schistosoma species, will help to revolutionize studies of these animals, an array of tools for visualizing the consequences of experimental perturbations on tissue integrity and development needs to be made widely available. To this end, we screened a battery of commercially available stains, antibodies and fluorescently labeled lectins, many of which have not been described previously for analyzing schistosomes, for their ability to label various cell and tissue types in the cercarial stage of S. mansoni. This analysis uncovered more than 20 new markers that label most cercarial tissues, including the tegument, the musculature, the protonephridia, the secretory system and the nervous system. Using these markers we present a high-resolution visual depiction of cercarial anatomy. Examining the effectiveness of a subset of these markers in S. mansoni adults and miracidia, we demonstrate the value of these tools for labeling tissues in a variety of life-cycle stages. The methodologies described here will facilitate functional analyses aimed at understanding fundamental biological processes in these parasites. PMID:21408085

  2. Natural type 3/type 2 intertypic vaccine-related poliovirus recombinants with the first crossover sites within the VP1 capsid coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei; Liu, Guiyan; Bai, Ruyin; Wang, Dongyan; Chen, Li; Zhu, Hui; An, Hongqiu; Kew, Olen; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-12-21

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a) into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of diabetic nephropathy stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy with sulodexide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kadzharyan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus (DM - takes the main place in the structure of endocrine diseases, and the third after cardiovascular and cancer pathology. In Ukraine 1.2 million of people suffer from diabetes and type 2 diabetes occurs in 85-90% of them. In 2004, 3.4 million of people died from diabetes complications. Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious chronic complication of diabetes that leads to the formation of nodular or diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is the most frequent cause of terminal chronic renal failure (CRF in the world, accounting for over 25% of all cases of CRF. The generally accepted classification is Moggensen`s classification (1983, WHO, according to which five stages of diabetic nephropathy are identified, the first two stages of them are preclinical. Leading role in the pathogenesis of DN takes hyperglycemia, which is implemented by the phenomenon of glucosetoxicity. A lot of facts underscore the importance of inflammatory mechanisms triggered by cytokines. There's immune and non-immune theory of DN. The basis of non-immune theory is a violation of the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs that are a major component of the glomerular basement membrane (GMB. GAGs create its negative charge, which prevents the passage through the renal filter small negatively charged molecules, including albumin. In hemodynamic regulation leading role belongs to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. The blockade of the RAAS system with ACE inhibitors is the basis of a treatment strategy of DN. All mentioned above became a reason for study of the possibility of a new direction in the treatment of DN using the drug sulodexid, which is a natural mixture of GAGs. Objective of the research. Evaluating the effectiveness of sulodexide therapy of DN stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of 24 patients aged 40 to 68 years. 5 of them were women and 19

  4. Dynamics of a Stochastic Predator-Prey Model with Stage Structure for Predator and Holling Type II Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and study a stochastic predator-prey model with stage structure for predator and Holling type II functional response. First of all, by constructing a suitable stochastic Lyapunov function, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution of the positive solutions to the model. Then, we obtain sufficient conditions for extinction of the predator populations in two cases, that is, the first case is that the prey population survival and the predator populations extinction; the second case is that all the prey and predator populations extinction. The existence of a stationary distribution implies stochastic weak stability. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the analytical results.

  5. Aortic superoxide production at the early hyperglycemic stage in a rat type 2 diabetes model and the effects of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Kajikuri, Junko; Hori, Eisei; Nagami, Chie; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Kazunori; Itoh, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelium-derived superoxide induces vascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which leads to vascular superoxide production in type 2 diabetes, in addition to the effects of pravastatin. We studied these mechanisms in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (type 2 diabetes model) at the early hyperglycemic stage (vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] rats). Superoxide production and catalase activity were measured in aortas, as were the protein expressions of PKCδ and phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS. Superoxide production was increased in OLETF rats, and this increase was inhibited by the selective conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 and by the non-selective cPKC and novel PKC inhibitor GF109203X. Phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS was significantly increased in OLETF rats, whereas the protein expressions of PKCδ and phosopho-Thr(505) PKCδ and catalase activity were all greatly reduced. Pravastatin administration to OLETF rats in vivo had normalizing effects on all of these variables. The increment in superoxide production seen in OLETF rats (but not the production in pravastatin-treated OLETF rats) was abolished by high concentration of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (electron transport inhibitor of eNOS), by sepiapterin (precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin), and by LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-kinase] inhibitor). In OLETF rats at the early hyperglycemic stage, aortic superoxide production is increased owing to activation of uncoupled eNOS through phosphorylation by PI3-kinase/Akt. This may be related to the observed reduction in PKCδ/catalase activities. Pravastatin inhibited endothelial superoxide production via normalization of PKCδ/catalase activities.

  6. Non-albuminuric renal disease among subjects with advanced stages of chronic kidney failure related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; García-Cantón, César; Quevedo, Virginia; Lorenzo, Dionisio L; López-Ríos, Laura; Batista, Fátima; Riaño, Marta; Saavedra, Pedro; Checa, María D

    2014-03-01

    Urinary albumin excretion has been consistently found to be normal in a significant number of subjects with early stages of diabetic kidney disease. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of non-albuminuric chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among subjects who reach advanced stages of renal failure. Study population was composed of incident patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min) related to type 2 diabetes in a tertiary hospital from Gran Canaria (Spain) during a period of 2 years. Subjects were classified as normoalbuminuric (urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UACR ≥30 and <300 mg/g), or proteinuric (UACR ≥300 mg/g). Of 78 eligible patients, 21.8% had normoalbuminuria, 20.5% had microalbuminuria, and 57.7% had proteinuria. Individuals with normoalbuminuria were mostly women and had a lower prevalence of smoking and polyneuropathy than subjects with microalbuminuria or proteinuria. They also presented greater measures of body mass index and waist circumference, higher values of total and LDL cholesterol, and lower values of HbA1c and serum creatinine than subjects with microalbuminuria or proteinuria. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female sex (positively) and HbA1c and polyneuropathy (negatively) were independently associated with absence of albuminuria. In conclusion, around 20% of subjects with diabetes-related advanced chronic kidney disease, characteristically women, have normal urinary albumin excretion. HbA1c and polyneuropathy are inversely related to this non-albuminuric form of nephropathy.

  7. Capmatinib, Ceritinib, Regorafenib, or Entrectinib in Treating Patients With BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Stage III-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    ALK Fusion Protein Expression; BRAF wt Allele; Invasive Skin Melanoma; MET Fusion Gene Positive; NRAS wt Allele; NTRK1 Fusion Positive; NTRK2 Fusion Positive; NTRK3 Fusion Positive; RET Fusion Positive; ROS1 Fusion Positive; Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  9. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Baker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon

  10. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching.

  11. Rock shelter occupation during isotopic stage 5: level D of the site of Payre (Ardèche, France. Territorial organisation and intra-site activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from an interdisciplinary study of the level D archaeological assemblages from Payre (Ardèche, France. This site is dated to the final of OIS 6 and the beginning of OIS 5. The combined analysis of the lithic and faunal assemblages accumulated and their management “into” and “out of” the site gives a better understanding of the behaviour of the Neanderthal groups that inhabited it. This study has allowed us to correlate the territorial exploitation for game hunting and for raw material procurement, within the context of seasonal short term occupations probably during the end of autumn and the beginning of winter.  

    Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos a través del estudio multidisciplinar del registro arqueológico del nivel D del yacimiento de Payre (Ardèche, Francia datado entre el final del OIS 6 y el comienzo del OIS 5. El análisis conjunto de la industria lítica y de los restos óseos recuperados en el yacimiento y de la gestión de dichos recursos dentro y fuera de él, ha hecho posible la comprensión de los comportamientos humanos de los grupos neandertales que lo ocuparon. Dicho estudio nos ha permitido poner en relación el tipo de explotación del territorio de caza y de captación de materias primas, dentro del marco de ocupaciones estacionales de corta duración desarrolladas probablemente entre el final del otoño y el principio del invierno.  

  12. Differential alterations of cortical glutamatergic binding sites in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, D.T.; Dewar, D.; Graham, D.I.; Brooks, D.N.; McCulloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Involvement of cortical glutamatergic mechanisms in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) has been investigated with quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography. The distribution and density of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake sites and glutamate receptor subtypes--kainate, quisqualate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate--were measured in adjacent sections of frontal cortex obtained postmortem from six patients with SDAT and six age-matched controls. The number of senile plaques was determined in the same brain region. Binding of D-[3H]aspartate to Na(+)-dependent uptake sites was reduced by approximately 40% throughout SDAT frontal cortex relative to controls, indicating a general loss of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals. [3H]Kainate receptor binding was significantly increased by approximately 70% in deep layers of SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls, whereas this binding was unaltered in superficial laminae. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.914) between kainate binding and senile plaque number in deep cortical layers. Quisqualate receptors, as assessed by 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-[3H]methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding, were unaltered in SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls. There was a small reduction (25%) in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive [3H]glutamate binding only in superficial cortical layers of SDAT brains relative to control subjects. [3H]Glutamate binding in SDAT subjects was unrelated to senile plaque number in superficial cortical layers (r = 0.104). These results indicate that in the presence of cortical glutamatergic terminal loss in SDAT plastic alterations occur in some glutamate receptor subtypes but not in others

  13. Exit site and tunnel infections in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis: findings from the Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (SCOPE) Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sarah J; Neu, Alicia; Skversky Mason, Amy; Richardson, Troy; Rodean, Jonathan; Lawlor, John; Warady, Bradley; Somers, Michael J G

    2018-02-26

    The Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (SCOPE) Collaborative is a quality improvement initiative to reduce dialysis-associated infections. The frequency of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter exit site infection (ESI) and variables influencing its development and end result are unclear. We sought to determine ESI rates, to elucidate the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for ESI, and to assess for association between provider compliance with care bundles and ESI risk. We reviewed demographic, dialysis and ESI data, and care bundle adherence and outcomes for SCOPE enrollees from October 2011 to September 2014. ESI involved only the exit site, only the subcutaneous catheter tunnel, or both. A total of 857 catheter insertions occurred in 734 children over 10,110 cumulative months of PD provided to these children. During this period 207 ESIs arose in 124 children or 0.25 ESIs per dialysis year. Median time to ESI was 392 days, with 69% of ESIs involving exit site only, 23% involving the tunnel only, and 8% involving both sites. Peritonitis developed in 6%. ESI incidence was associated with age (p = 0.003), being the lowest in children aged  0 at prior month's visit (p renal disease etiology, exit site orientation, catheter cuff number or mobilization, and presence of G-tube, stoma, or vesicostomy were unassociated with ESI incidence. Of the ESIs reported, 71% resolved with treatment, 24% required hospitalization, and 9% required catheter removal, generally secondary to tunnel infection. Exit site infections occur at an annualized rate of 0.25, typically well into the dialysis course. Younger patient age and documented review of site care are associated with lower ESI rates. Although most ESIs resolve, hospitalization is frequent, and tunnel involvement/catheter loss complicate outcomes.

  14. Effects of diet type, developmental stage, and gut compartment in the gut bacterial communities of two Cerambycidae species (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Shin Ae; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Seong-Hyun; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    The gut bacterial community of wood-feeding beetles has been examined for its role on plant digestion and biocontrol method development. Monochamus alternatus and Psacothea hilaris, both belonging to the subfamily Lamiinae, are woodfeeding beetles found in eastern Asia and Europe and generally considered as destructive pests for pine and mulberry trees, respectively. However, limited reports exist on the gut bacterial communities in these species. Here, we characterized gut bacterial community compositions in larva and imago of each insect species reared with host tree logs and artificial diets as food sources. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed 225 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a 97% sequences similarity cutoff from 138,279 sequence reads, the majority of which were derived from Proteobacteria (48.2%), Firmicutes (45.5%), and Actinobacteria (5.2%). The OTU network analysis revealed 7 modules with densely connected OTUs in specific gut samples, in which the distributions of Lactococcus-, Kluyvera-, Serratia-, and Enterococcus-related OTUs were distinct between diet types or developmental stages of the host insects. The gut bacterial communities were separated on a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) plot and by c-means fuzzy clustering analysis, according to diet type. The results from this study suggest that diet was the main determinant for gut bacterial community composition in the two beetles.

  15. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kravchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinomas (ACs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003 were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC. When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri, the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes. Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype

  16. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas (ACs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003) were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages) were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC). When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri), the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes). Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype being more strongly associated with ACs/SCCs histotype than with organ/site.

  17. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic site and disease stage in the United States from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Eng, Cathy; Nieman, Linda Z; Kapadia, Asha S; Du, Xianglin L

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the current study were to examine the trends in incidence rates of subsite-specific colorectal cancer at all stages in a large US population and to explore the impact of age and sex on colorectal cancer incidence. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 registries. Colorectal cancer incidence was divided into 3 anatomic subsite groupings: proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Incidence rates and relative risk were calculated using the SEER*Stat software provided by the National Cancer Institute. From 1976 to 2005, age-adjusted incidence of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers per 100,000 population have steadily decreased from 22.5, 18.8, and 19.2 to 21.1, 11.7, and 13.6, respectively, contributing to the overall decline in the incidence of colorectal cancer from 60.5 to 46.4. Distal colon cancer had the greatest incidence decline (-37.79%), whereas the most minimal change in the incidence rates occurred for proximal colon cancer (-6.37%) because of increased incidence rates of ascending colon (24.8%) and hepatic flexure (21.3%) over 30 years. The steadily increased proportion of proximal colorectal cancer subsites was observed in both men and women starting at age 50 although women experienced a greater increase than did men. Overall incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased over the past 3 decades. The percent of ascending colon and hepatic flexure cancers diagnosed at early stages (localized and regional) increased. The finding on sex difference over years suggests that great attention should be paid in the future studies to male and female disparities.

  18. Minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH) vs laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) in early stage cervical cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, Anna; Ghezzi, Fabio; Boruta, David M; Scambia, Giovanni; Escobar, Pedro; Fader, Amanda N; Malzoni, Mario; Fanfani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) and minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH). Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Seven institutions in Italy. Forty-six patents with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2-IB1/IIA1) were included in the study. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent LESS-RH, and 27 (58.7%) underwent mLPS-RH. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in all patients. In the LESS-RH group, all surgical procedures were performed through a single umbilical multichannel port. In the mLPS-RH group, the procedure was completed using a 5-mm umbilical optical trocar and 3 additional 3-mm ancillary trocars, placed suprapubically and in the left and right lower abdominal regions. There was no difference in clinicopathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis between the LESS-RH and mLPS-RH groups. Median operative time was 270 minutes (range, 149-380 minutes) for LESS-RH, and was 180 minutes (range, 90-240 minutes) for mLPS-RH (p = .001). No further differences were detected between the 2 groups insofar as type of radical hysterectomy, number of lymph nodes removed, or perioperative outcomes. In the LESS-RH group, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 1 patient (5.3%) because of external iliac vein injury, and in another patient, conversion to standard laparoscopy was required because of truncal obesity. In the mLPS-RH group, no conversions were observed; however, a repeat operation was performed to repair a ureteral injury. The percentage of patients discharged 1 day after surgery was significantly higher in the LESS-RH group (57.9%) compared with the mLPS-RH group (25.0%) (p = .03). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-73 months), only 1 patient, who had undergone mLPS-RH, experienced pelvic recurrence and died of the disease. Both LESS-RH and mLPS-RH are feasible ultra-minimally invasive approaches for performance of radical hysterectomy

  19. Improvement of a mediator-type biochemical oxygen demand sensor for on-site measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Hoashi, J; Morita, T; McNiven, S J; Nakamura, H; Karube, I

    2001-07-12

    We characterized a mediator-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor with a three-electrode system using potassium ferricyanide (FC) and Pseudomonas fluorescens in our previous study. In the present study, we have utilized the advantages of a mediator-type biosensor, which does not require air-supply equipment for on-site measurements, and made a fully disposable sensor tip for a portable device. The tip consists of a two-electrode system with P. fluorescens immobilized on a cellulose acetate membrane and is packaged in polyester film to prevent it from drying out. By aeration with a 0.1 M NaCl solution of P. fluorescens (after growth), the sensor responses as well as their reproducibility and stability have been successfully improved. The responses increased more than seven times, and the calibration curve from 15 to 260 mg l(-1) also remained linear although the response decreased approximately half the original after at least 35 days in storage. The reproducibility of the sensor responses improved to 12.7% (average of relative standard deviations (RSDs)) in the calibration curve obtained by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development synthetic sewage. Examination of real samples from three different sources showed that the BOD as determined by the sensor correlates well with the conventional 5-day BOD method (r(2)=0.982, 0.823, and 0.809). Consequently, the aeration process makes it possible to realize rapid, and in situ measurements without the long conditioning process that is generally required to activate the microorganisms immobilized on bio-films before use. Finally, we have designed a portable device that utilizes our disposable sensor tip.

  20. Identification of a Second Site of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Comfrey to Boost Plant Defense in Floral Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Lars H; Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-05-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In comfrey ( Symphytum officinale ; Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that comfrey plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves express not only HSS but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Surgical Site Infection by Corynebacterium macginleyi in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cacopardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium (C. macginleyi is a gram positive, lipophilic rod, usually considered a colonizer of skin and mucosal surfaces. Several reports have associated C. macginleyi with ocular infections, such as conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis. However, even if rare, extraocular infections from C. macginleyi may occur, especially among immunocompromised patients and patients with indwelling medical devices. We report herein the first case of surgical site infection by C. macginleyi after orthopaedic surgery for the correction of kyphoscoliosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Our patient developed a nodular granulomatous lesion of about two centimetres along the surgical scar, at the level of C4-C5, with purulent discharge and formation of a fistulous tract. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a two-centimetre fluid pocket in the subcutaneous tissue. Several swabs were collected from the borders of the lesion as well as from the exudate, with isolation of C. macginleyi. The isolate was susceptible to beta-lactams, cotrimoxazole, linezolid, and glycopeptides but resistant to quinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, and erythromycin. Two 30-day courses of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanate (1 g three times/day and cotrimoxazole (800/160 mg twice a day were administered, obtaining a complete healing of the lesion.

  2. Comparison of sample types and diagnostic methods for in vivo detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Daniels, Jason; Rovira, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage renal failure due to type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukema, J. Wouter; Smets, Yves F. C.; van der Pijl, Johan W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Ringers, Jan; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lemkes, Herman H. P. J.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; de Fijter, Johan W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mortality in type 1 diabetic patients with end-stage renal failure is high and dominated by coronary atherosclerotic events. With regard to prognosis, simultaneous transplantation of pancreas and kidney (SPK) may be superior to kidney transplantation alone (KTA) in type 1 diabetic

  4. Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Predicts End-Stage Renal Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD worldwide. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1 participates in inflammation and catalyzes the deamination of primary amines into aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We have shown that serum VAP-1 is higher in patients with diabetes and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and can predict cardiovascular mortality in subjects with diabetes. In this study, we investigated if serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD in diabetic subjects.In this prospective cohort study, a total of 604 type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled between 1996 to 2003 at National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, and were followed for a median of 12.36 years. The development of ESRD was ascertained by linking our database with the nationally comprehensive Taiwan Society Nephrology registry. Serum VAP-1 concentrations at enrollment were measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay.Subjects with serum VAP-1 in the highest tertile had the highest incidence of ESRD (p<0.001. Every 1-SD increase in serum VAP-1 was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.55 (95%CI 1.12-2.14, p<0.01 for the risk of ESRD, adjusted for smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, hypertension, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, total cholesterol, use of statins, ankle-brachial index, estimated GFR, and proteinuria. We developed a risk score comprising serum VAP-1, HbA1c, estimated GFR, and proteinuria, which could predict ESRD with good performance (area under the ROC curve = 0.9406, 95%CI 0.8871-0.9941, sensitivity = 77.3%, and specificity = 92.8%. We also developed an algorithm based on the stage of CKD and a risk score including serum VAP-1, which can stratify these subjects into 3 categories with an ESRD risk of 0.101%/year, 0.131%/year, and 2.427%/year, respectively.In conclusion, serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD and is a useful biomarker to

  5. Quantitative determination of occupation sites of trace Co substituted for multiple Fe sites in M-type hexagonal ferrite using statistical beam-rocking TEM-EDXS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Masahiro; Muto, Shunsuke; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Kawata, Tsunehiro

    2016-04-01

    The occupation sites and the occupancies of trace dopants in La/Co co-doped Sr-M-type ferrite, SrFe12O19, were quantitatively and precisely determined by beam-rocking energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) on the basis of electron-channeling effects. Because the Co atoms, in particular, should be partially substituted for the five crystallographically inequivalent sites, which could be key parameters in improving the magneto-crystalline anisotropy, it is difficult yet intriguing to discover their occupation sites and occupancies without using the methods of large-scale facilities, such as neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation. In the present study, we tackled this problem by applying an extended statistical atom location by channeling enhanced microanalysis method, using conventional transmission electron microscopy, EDXS and dynamical electron elastic/inelastic scattering theories. The results show that the key occupation sites of Co were the 2a, 4f1 and 12k sites. The quantified occupancies of Co were consistent with those of the previous study, which involved a combination of neutron diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, as well as energetics considerations based on by first-principles calculations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the composition of forest soil litter derived from three different sites at various decompositional stages using FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Rafferty, B.; Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M. H.

    1998-06-01

    Transmission Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was used to compare organic soil layers originating from three different sites in two climatic regions. A variety of bands characteristic of molecular structures and functional groups have been identified for these samples from a humic podsol, a dystric cambisol and a spodo dystric cambisol. Similar results were obtained for all three soils. From L to H soil horizons, an increase of the band at 1630 cm -1 and decrease of bands in the region from 1510 cm -1 to 1230 cm -1 were observed. The band at 1630 cm -1 can be assigned to carboxylic and aromatic groups. The decline of the peak intensity at 1510 cm -1 is significantly correlated to the total carbon content and C/N ratio. The mineral material of the Ah horizons leads to an increase of the band at 1050 cm -1 due to IR-absorbance of the Si-O bond and to an appearance of bands in the region from 900 to 400 cm -1 , which are characteristic for clay and quartz minerals. Analysis of the FTIR absorbance showed that intensities of distinct peaks (e.g., at 1510 cm -1 ) can be a measure of decomposition of forest litter. Therefore, the proposed simple FTIR method has potential for identification and differentiation of organic soil horizons originating from known tree litter. The similarity of the characteristics of the spectra of the three soil profiles investigated suggests a broad applicability of this method to distinguish organic forest soil horizons. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FTIR spectroscopy offers a simple, powerful, non-destructive tool for the investigation of decomposition of L to H horizons in forest soils. (author)

  8. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Amy T; Callard, Gloria V

    2008-11-12

    Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR), normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping") gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), TATA-box binding protein (tbp), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa), and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s) during development (2 - 120 hr postfertilization, hpf); in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads) of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 - 96 hpf) with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using different reference genes to measure suppression

  9. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  10. Prognosis and Clinicopathologic Features of Patients With Advanced Stage Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutant and IDH Wild-Type Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lipika; Govindan, Aparna; Sheth, Rahul A; Nardi, Valentina; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Faris, Jason E; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ryan, David P; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Murphy, Janet E; Saha, Supriya K; Hong, Theodore S; Wo, Jennifer Y; Ferrone, Cristina R; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Chong, Dawn Q; Deshpande, Vikram; Borger, Darrell R; Iafrate, A John; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Zheng, Hui; Zhu, Andrew X

    2015-09-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and limited data exist in patients with advanced-stage disease. Similarly, the clinical phenotype of patients with advanced IDH mutant (IDHm) ICC has not been characterized. In this study, we report the correlation of IDH mutation status with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients with advanced ICC. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced ICC who underwent tumor mutational profiling as a routine part of their care between 2009 and 2014 were evaluated. Clinical and pathological data were collected by retrospective chart review for patients with IDHm versus IDH wild-type (IDHwt) ICC. Pretreatment tumor volume was calculated on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 104 patients with ICC who were evaluated, 30 (28.8%) had an IDH mutation (25.0% IDH1, 3.8% IDH2). The median overall survival did not differ significantly between IDHm and IDHwt patients (15.0 vs. 20.1 months, respectively; p = .17). The pretreatment serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level in IDHm and IDHwt patients was 34.5 and 118.0 U/mL, respectively (p = .04). Age at diagnosis, sex, histologic grade, and pattern of metastasis did not differ significantly by IDH mutation status. The IDH mutation was not associated with prognosis in patients with advanced ICC. The clinical phenotypes of advanced IDHm and IDHwt ICC were similar, but patients with IDHm ICC had a lower median serum CA19-9 level at presentation. Previous studies assessing the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) mainly focused on patients with early-stage disease who have undergone resection. These studies offer conflicting results. The target population for clinical trials of IDH inhibitors is patients with unresectable or metastatic disease, and the current study is the first to

  11. Detection of Two Types of Weed through Machine Vision System: Improving Site-Specific Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction With increase in world population, one of the approaches to provide food is using site-specific management system or so-called precision farming. In this management system, management of crop production inputs such as fertilizers, lime, herbicides, seed, etc. is done based on farm location features, with the aim of reducing waste, increasing revenues and maintaining environmental quality. Precision farming involves various aspects and is applicable on farm fields at all stages of tillage, planting, and harvesting. Today, in line with precision farming purposes, and to control weeds, pests, and diseases, all the efforts of specialists in precision farming is to reduce the amount of chemical substances in products. Although herbicides improve the quality and quantity of agricultural production, the possibility of applying inappropriately and unreasonably is very high. If the dose is too low, weed control is not performed correctly. Otherwise, If the dosage is too high, herbicides can be toxic for crops, can be transferred to soil and stay in it for a long time, and can penetrate to groundwater. By applying herbicides to variable rate, the potential for significant cost savings and reduced environmental damage to the products and environment will be possible. It is evident that in large-scale modern agriculture, individual management of each plant without using some advanced technologies is not possible. using machine vision systems is one of precision farming techniques to identify weeds. This study aimed to detect three plant such as Centaurea depressa M.B, Malvaneglecta and Potato plant using machine vision system. Materials and Methods In order to train algorithm of designed machine vision system, a platform that moved with the speed of 10.34 was used for shooting of Marfona potato fields. This platform was consisted of a chassis, camera (DFK23GM021,CMOS, 120 f/s, Made in Germany, and a processor system equipped with Matlab 2015

  12. Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Staehr, Peter; Hansen, Bo Falck

    2003-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. In animal muscle, insulin activates GS by reducing phosphorylation at both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal sites, but the mecha...... in the phosphorylation of sites 2 + 2a. This phosphorylation abnormality likely caused the impaired GS activation and glucose storage, thereby contributing to skeletal muscle insulin resistance, and may therefore play a pathophysiological role in type 2 diabetes.......In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. In animal muscle, insulin activates GS by reducing phosphorylation at both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal sites....... Despite that, insulin-mediated glucose disposal and storage were reduced and activation of GS was virtually absent in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin did not decrease phosphorylation of sites 2 + 2a in healthy human muscle, whereas in diabetic muscle insulin infusion in fact caused a marked increase...

  13. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication with artificial transcription factors targeting the highly conserved primer-binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberhardy, Scott R.; Goncalves, Joao; Coelho, Sofia; Segal, David J.; Berkhout, Ben; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primer-binding site (PBS) is a highly conserved region in the HIV genome and represents an attractive target for the development of new anti-HIV therapies. In this study, we designed four artificial zinc finger transcription factors to bind at or

  14. Subtype-specific sequence variation of the HIV type 1 long terminal repeat and primer-binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baar, M. P.; de Ronde, A.; Berkhout, B.; Cornelissen, M.; van der Horn, K. H.; van der Schoot, A. M.; de Wolf, F.; Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied sequence differences in regulatory elements of the long terminal repeat (LTR) and primer-binding site (PBS) among various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes. Phylogenetic sequence analysis of a fragment of 729 base pairs (bp) covering the Gag-coding region for half of

  15. Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Staehr, Peter; Hansen, Bo Falck

    2003-01-01

    -hyperinsulinemic clamps. Analysis using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that insulin decreases phosphorylation of sites 3a + 3b in human muscle, and this was accompanied by activation of Akt and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha. In type 2 diabetic subjects these effects of insulin were fully intact...

  16. Correlating planned radiation dose to the cochlea with primary site and tumor stage in patients with head and neck cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jeanette; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine tumor characteristics that predict higher planned radiation (RT) dose to the cochlea in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2004 to 2012, 99 patients with HNC underwent definitive IMRT to a median dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left cochlea-vestibular apparatus contoured for IMRT optimization as avoidance structures. If disease involvement was adjacent to the cochlea, preference was given to tumor coverage by prescription dose. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dose-volume histogram planning data, and mean planning dose to the cochlea (from left or right cochlea, receiving the greater amount of RT dose) was correlated to primary site and tumor stage. Mean (standard deviation) cochlear volume was 1.0 (0.60) cm{sup 3} with maximum and mean planned doses of 31.9 (17.5) Gy and 22.1 (13.7) Gy, respectively. Mean planned dose (Gy) to cochlea by tumor site was as follows: oral cavity (18.6, 14.4), oropharynx (21.7, 9.1), nasopharynx (36.3, 10.4), hypopharynx (14.9, 7.1), larynx (2.1, 0.62), others including the parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus (33.6, 24.0), and unknown primary (25.6, 6.7). Average mean planned dose (Gy) to the cochlea in T0-T2 and T3-T4 disease was 22.0 and 29.2 Gy, respectively (p = 0.019). By site, a significant difference was noted for nasopharynx and others (31.6 and 50.7, p = 0.012) but not for oropharynx, oral cavity, and hypopharynx. Advanced T category predicted for higher mean cochlear dose, particularly for nasopharyngeal, parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus HNC sites.

  17. Colorectal liver metastases are more often super wild type. Toward treatment based on metastatic site genotyping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M A; Saffroy, R; de la Maisonneuve, P Bouvet; Ricca, L; Bosselut, N; Hamelin, J; Lecorche, E; Bejarano, M A; Innominato, P; Sebagh, M; Adam, R; Morère, J F; Lemoine, A

    2015-09-01

    Recent data showed that metastatic colorectal (mCRC) tumors exhibiting extended RAS-BRAF mutations were resistant to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, making these drugs suitable for the so-called "super" wild-type (WT) patients only. This study aimed to compare the extended RAS-BRAF mutation frequency and characteristics according to location of tumor sampling. All consecutive mCRC specimens (N = 1659) referred to our institution from January 2008 till June 2014 were included in the analysis. Tumor genotyping (first for KRAS exon 2, then for BRAF exon 15, and later for KRAS exons 2, 3, and 4 and NRAS exons 2, 3, and 4) was performed with high-resolution melting analysis or allelic discrimination. The factors predicting for the presence of mutation were explored using multivariate binary logistic regression. Overall, the prevalence of KRAS exon 2 was 36.8%, and it was lower in liver metastases (N = 138/490; 28.2%) in comparison with primary tumors (N = 442/1086; 40.7%), lung metastases (16/32; 50%), or other metastatic sites (15/51; 29.4%; P < 0.0001). Similarly, in the 1428 samples analyzed, BRAF mutations were less often found in liver metastases (N = 9/396; 2.3%) as compared to primary tumors (N = 79/959; 8.2%), lung metastases (N = 2/29; 6.9%), or other metastatic locations (N = 2/44; 4.5%; P < 0.0002). Overall occurrence of extended RAS mutation was 51.7%. Of the 503 samples tested, the prevalence of extended RAS-BRAF mutations was twice as low in liver metastases (N = 53/151; 34.2 %) as compared to primary tumors (N = 191/322; 59.3%, P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis identified age ≤65 years, male gender, and liver localization as predictors of super WT status. At multivariate analysis, only liver metastases were retained (RR 2.85 [95% CI 1.91-4.30]). Colorectal liver metastases are twice as likely to exhibit a super WT genotype as compared to other tumor locations

  18. Radiographic evaluation in clinical practice of the types and stage of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T J; Puchalski, S M; Arzi, B; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2017-07-01

    There are several reports of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses but, to date, studies have been limited in case numbers and to advanced lesions. Tooth resorption in other species is a radiographic diagnosis of types of resorption that are often identified before clinical signs. Our goal was to evaluate radiographically incisor tooth resorption in a large population of horses, utilising interpretation criteria from canine and human dentistry. To document and classify incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis. Retrospective descriptive case series. Horses presented for routine dental care >5 years old were included only if owners were unaware of incisor pathology. Radiographs (three views) were obtained of the incisor teeth and incisor teeth resorption was classified according to the radiographic criteria described for man and dogs. Hypercementosis and its location were recorded. Tooth resorption was detected in 149 of 169 (88.2%) horses and 951 of 1952 (48.7%) of incisor teeth. The classification system used was applicable in 926 (97.2%) of 951 affected teeth. Hypercementosis was detected in 34 (20.1%) horses and 148 (7.6%) teeth. As horses increased in age, resorption and hypercementosis was more frequent; no significant differences were found among sex or breed categories. All horses with hypercementosis had resorption, but only 23.4% of horses with resorption had hypercementosis. Advanced (stage ≥3) resorption was detected in 159 (8.1%) teeth and 54 (32.0%) horses in an otherwise clinically healthy population. Certain horses' anatomy precluded isolation of the mandibular third incisor teeth from the canine teeth due to superimposition. Incisor tooth resorption, in particular external replacement resorption and external inflammatory resorption, is common in horses. Hypercementosis is consistently associated with resorption, but the inverse association is inconsistent. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Correlative study of the brain CT and clinical features of patients with Down's syndrome in three clinical stages of Alzheimer type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Keiko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Yanagisawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with Down's syndrome often develop Alzheimer type neuropathological changes as well as dementia of the Alzheimer type after the age of 40. We studied brain CT findings in relation to three clinical stages of Alzheimer type dementia in 11 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 17 to 55 years. In addition, 123 I-IMP-SPECT was studied in 4 of these patients. Dementia of the Alzheimer type was present in 9 patients; 5 patients were in the early stage, 2 were in the progressive stage, and the other 2 were in the end stage. The earliest CT finding was enlargement of the suprasellar cistern, which indicated atrophy of the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus and amygdala. This finding was not present in non-demented individuals with Down's syndrome. Moreover, CT scans showed that brain atrophy progressed to the temporal, frontal lobe, and then generalized cerebral cortices, which correlated clinically with the severity of dementia. Studies of 123 I-IMP-SPECT in two patients with mild dementia revealed abnormally decreased isotope uptake in the temporal and posterior parietal regions. We suggest to measure the size of the suprasellar cistern in CT and SPECT scans for early detection and diagnosis of mild dementia of the Alzheimer type in patients with Down's syndrome. (author)

  20. Comprehensive identification and annotation of cell type-specific and ubiquitous CTCF-binding sites in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebing Chen

    Full Text Available Chromatin insulators are DNA elements that regulate the level of gene expression either by preventing gene silencing through the maintenance of heterochromatin boundaries or by preventing gene activation by blocking interactions between enhancers and promoters. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF, a ubiquitously expressed 11-zinc-finger DNA-binding protein, is the only protein implicated in the establishment of insulators in vertebrates. While CTCF has been implicated in diverse regulatory functions, CTCF has only been studied in a limited number of cell types across human genome. Thus, it is not clear whether the identified cell type-specific differences in CTCF-binding sites are functionally significant. Here, we identify and characterize cell type-specific and ubiquitous CTCF-binding sites in the human genome across 38 cell types designated by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE consortium. These cell type-specific and ubiquitous CTCF-binding sites show uniquely versatile transcriptional functions and characteristic chromatin features. In addition, we confirm the insulator barrier function of CTCF-binding and explore the novel function of CTCF in DNA replication. These results represent a critical step toward the comprehensive and systematic understanding of CTCF-dependent insulators and their versatile roles in the human genome.

  1. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark, stage 2.2. A fracture domain concept as a basis for the statistical modelling of fractures and minor deformation zones, and interdisciplinary coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Manageme nt Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), U ppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [G eosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Roeshoff, Kennert; Lindberg, Ulrika; Lanaro, Flavio [Bergbygg konsult AB, Haesselby (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders; Persson, Lars [Golder Associat es AB (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar, with the objective of siting a final waste repository at depth for spent nuclear fuel. The programme is built upon the development of site descriptive models after each data freeze. This report describes the first attempt to define fracture domains for the Forsmark site modelling in stage 2.2. Already during model version 1.2 at Forsmark, significant spatial variability in the fracture pattern was observed. The variability appeared to be so significant that it provoked the need for a subdivision of the model volume for the treatment of geological and hydrogeological data into sub-volumes. Subsequent analyses of data collected up to data freeze 2.1 led to a better understanding of the site and a concept for the definition of fracture domains based on geological characteristics matured. The main objectives of this report are to identify and describe fracture domains at the site on the basis of geological data and to compile hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and rock mechanics data within each fracture domain and address the implications of this integration activity. On the basis of borehole data, six fracture domains (FFM01-FFM06) have been recognized inside and immediately around the candidate volume. Three of these domains (FFM01, FFM02 and FFM06) lie inside the target volume for a potential repository in the northwestern part of the candidate area, and need to be addressed in the geological DFN modelling work. The hydrogeological data support the subdivision of the bedrock into fracture domains FFM01, FFM02 and FFM03. Few or no data are available for the other three domains. The hydrogeochemical data also support the subdivision into fracture domains FFM01 and FFM02. Since few data are available from the bedrock between deformation zones inside FFM03, there is little information on the hydrogeochemical

  2. A Conserved Surface Loop in Type I Dehydroquinate Dehydratases Positions an Active Site Arginine and Functions in Substrate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Peterson, Scott N.; Caffrey, Michael; Anderson, Wayne F.; Lavie, Arnon (UC); (UIC)

    2012-04-18

    Dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) catalyzes the third step in the biosynthetic shikimate pathway. We present three crystal structures of the Salmonella enterica type I DHQD that address the functionality of a surface loop that is observed to close over the active site following substrate binding. Two wild-type structures with differing loop conformations and kinetic and structural studies of a mutant provide evidence of both direct and indirect mechanisms of involvement of the loop in substrate binding. In addition to allowing amino acid side chains to establish a direct interaction with the substrate, closure of the loop necessitates a conformational change of a key active site arginine, which in turn positions the substrate productively. The absence of DHQD in humans and its essentiality in many pathogenic bacteria make the enzyme a target for the development of nontoxic antimicrobials. The structures and ligand binding insights presented here may inform the design of novel type I DHQD inhibiting molecules.

  3. A Multi-criteria Decision Analysis System for Prioritizing Sites and Types of Low Impact Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yeol; Chung, Eun-Sung

    2017-04-01

    This study developed a multi-criteria decision analysis framework to prioritize sites and types of low impact development (LID) practices. This framework was systemized as a web-based system coupled with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Using the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), which is a type of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method, multiple types and sites of designated LID practices are prioritized. This system is named the Water Management Prioritization Module (WMPM) and is an improved version of the Water Management Analysis Module (WMAM) that automatically generates and simulates multiple scenarios of LID design and planning parameters for a single LID type. WMPM can simultaneously determine the priority of multiple LID types and sites. In this study, an infiltration trench and permeable pavement were considered for multiple sub-catchments in South Korea to demonstrate the WMPM procedures. The TOPSIS method was manually incorporated to select the vulnerable target sub-catchments and to prioritize the LID planning scenarios for multiple types and sites considering socio-economic, hydrologic and physical-geometric factors. In this application, the Delphi method and entropy theory were used to determine the subjective and objective weights, respectively. Comparing the ranks derived by this system, two sub-catchments, S16 and S4, out of 18 were considered to be the most suitable places for installing an infiltration trench and porous pavement to reduce the peak and total flow, respectively, considering both socio-economic factors and hydrological effectiveness. WMPM can help policy-makers to objectively develop urban water plans for sustainable development. Keywords: Low Impact Development, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, SWMM, TOPSIS, Water Management Prioritization Module (WMPM)

  4. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1  30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  5. Subsurface moisture regimes and tracer movement under two types of trench-cap designs for shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.A.; Cokal, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Los Alamos work has focused on proper design of shallow land burial (SLB) sites in arid and semiarid regions and on applying corrective measures to existing sites. One of the most important design features affecting the probability of movement of radionuclides in SLB sites is the type of trench cap placed over the waste. The cap influences such interdependent parameters as erosion, water infiltration and percolation, and biointrusion. To obtain experimental data for arid and semiarid sites, two different designs of trench caps, one with topsoil underlain with a cobble/gravel biobarrier and one with topsoil underlain with crushed tuff, were compared with respect to (1) seasonal changes in volumetric soil water content, and (2) downward migration of tracers emplaced directly below each type of trench cap. The causes for the large differences in concentrations found in this experiment need to be investigated further. Problems in environmental modeling and monitoring of arid and semiarid SLB sites because of heterogeneities in the soil profiles and their implications for SLB waste management need to be better understood. More work in trench-cap design and its influence on the many pathways available for mobilization is needed

  6. Nocturnal continuous glucose and sleep stage data in adults with type 1 diabetes in real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feupe, Stephanie Feudjio; Frias, Patrick F; Mednick, Sara C; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Heintzman, Nathaniel D

    2013-09-01

    Sleep plays an important role in health, and poor sleep is associated with negative impacts on diabetes management, but few studies have objectively evaluated sleep in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nocturnal glycemia and sleep characteristics in T1DM were evaluated using body-worn sensors in real-world conditions. Analyses were performed on data collected by the Diabetes Management Integrated Technology Research Initiative pilot study of 17 T1DM subjects: 10 male, 7 female; age 19-61 years; T1DM duration 14.9 ± 11.0 years; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.3% ± 1.3% (mean ± standard deviation). Each subject was equipped with a continuous glucose monitor and a wireless sleep monitor (WSM) for four nights. Sleep stages [rapid eye movement (REM), light, and deep sleep] were continuously recorded by the WSM. Nocturnal glycemia (mg/dl) was evaluated as hypoglycemia (250 mg/dl) and by several indices of glycemic variability. Glycemia was analyzed within each sleep stage. Subjects slept 358 ± 48 min per night, with 85 ± 27 min in REM sleep, 207 ± 42 min in light sleep, and 66 ± 30 min in deep sleep (mean ± standard deviation). Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c (R2 = 0.42; F = 9.37; p < .01). Nocturnal glycemia varied widely between and within subjects. Glycemia during REM sleep was hypoglycemia 5.5% ± 18.1%, low 6.6% ± 18.5%, euglycemia 44.6% ± 39.5%, high 37.9% ± 39.7%, and hyperglycemia 5.5% ± 21.2%; glycemia during light sleep was hypoglycemia 4.8% ± 12.4%, low 7.3% ± 12.9%, euglycemia 42.1% ± 33.7%, high 39.2% ± 34.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.5% ± 20.5%; and glycemia during deep sleep was hypoglycemia 0.5% ± 2.2%, low 5.8% ± 14.3%, euglycemia 48.0% ± 37.5%, high 39.5% ± 37.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.2% ± 19.5%. Significantly less time was spent in the hypoglycemic range during deep sleep compared with light sleep (p = .02). Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c, and less hypoglycemia occurred in

  7. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  8. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  9. Three types of children’s informational web sites: an inventory of design conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna; Lentz, Leo; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Sanders, Ted

    2012-01-01

    "Purpose: Research on Web design conventions has an almost exclusive focus on Web design for adults. There is far less knowledge about Web design for children. For the first time, an overview is presented of the current design conventions for children's informational Web sites. Method: In this study

  10. Determination of weather types and associated diffusion conditions by statistical treatment of the meteorological data of a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, A.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of meteorological data collected at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center during several years showed they were distributed into 5 homogeneous classes, demonstrating that 5 types of weather prevailed on the site. By means of the usual resolution method of the diffusion equation, average values of atmospheric diffusion coefficients were given to these various weather conditions. For each weather condition and each pollutant release point, the variations of the atmospheric transfer coefficients were plotted vs the distance from the release point. Pollutant concentration values at various points in the environment can thus be predicted in case of planned or accidental release as a function of the diffusion conditions applying to the specific site, and not from universal graphs valid for any kind of site. Two experimental investigations showed a good agreement between predicted and field measurements. More fullscale field experiments shoud be made to confirm the results of this method [fr

  11. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  12. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  13. Comparative cyto-histological study of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after intravitreal injection using different needle types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk

    Full Text Available A comparison of the cellular content of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after transconjunctival intravitreal injection (IVI using different needle types was performed. White outbred rats and human cadaver eyes were used for IVI by hypodermic 27 gauge (G and 30G needles, and spinal anesthesia Pencan 27G needles. Aspiration of vitreous for quantitative morphological and cell cultivation analysis, as well as cyto-histological analysis of aspirates and entry sites were carried out. The most common cells in the aspirates from all needle types were conjunctival epithelial-, ciliary body non-pigmented epithelial- and sclerocyte-like cells and granular proteins. Crystallized vitreous specimens were present in each aspirate. The entry sites of hypodermic needles showed marked trauma in all wall layers of rat and human eyes accompanied by cellular destruction and hemorrhages. Pencan 27G needle caused less tissue trauma with partial reposition of sclerocytes. Transconjunctival IVIs with hypodermic 27G and 30G, and Pencan 27G needles result in trauma of all layers of the eyeball. The possible consequences of cellular content being cut and injected into the eye, as well as the entry site wound shape deserve future consideration and improvements.

  14. An analysis of free flap failure using the ACS NSQIP database. Does flap site and flap type matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Alvin C; Agarwal, Jayant P

    2017-09-01

    We sought to use the NSQIP database to determine the national rate and predictors of free flap failure based upon flap sites and flap types. Free flaps were identified using the 2005-2010 NSQIP database. We examined overall flap failure rates as well as failure rates based upon flap sites (head and neck, extremities, trunk, and breast) and flap types (muscle, fascial, skin, bone, and bowel flaps). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of flap failure. There were 1,187 microvascular free tissue transfers identified. The overall flap failure rate was 5.1%. Head and neck flaps had the highest rate of free flap failure at 7.7%. Prolonged operative time is an independent predictor of flap failure for all free flaps (OR: 2.383, P = 0.0013). When examining predictors of failure by flap site, free flaps to the breast with prolonged operative time are independently associated with flap failure (OR: 2.288, P = 0.0152). When examining predictors of flap failure by flap type, muscle based free flaps with an ASA classification ≥3 are associated with flap failure (P = 0.0441). Risk factors for free flap failure differ based upon flap site and flap type. Prolonged operative time is an independent risk factor for the failure of free flaps used for breast reconstruction. An ASA classification ≥3 is associated with the failure of free muscle based flaps. Our findings identify actionable areas that may help to improve free flap success. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Multiple Sites Ultrasonography of Peripheral Nerves in Differentiating Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 1A from Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMultiple sites measurement of cross-sectional areas (CSA by ultrasound was performed to differentiate Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1A (CMT1A and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP.MethodsNine patients with CMT1A, 28 patients with CIDP, and 14 healthy controls (HC were recruited prospectively. Consecutive ultrasonography scanning was performed from wrist to axilla on median and ulnar nerves. CSAs were measured at 10 predetermined sites of each nerve.ResultsCMT1A had significantly larger CSAs at all sites of median and ulnar nerves (p < 0.01. In CMT1A, CSAs increased gradually and homogeneously from distal to proximal along the nerve, except potential entrapment sites. CIDP displayed three different morphological patterns, including mild enlargement in 15 patients, prominent segmental enlargement in 12, and slight enlargement in 1, among which different treatment responses were observed. All patients with mild nerve enlargement treated with intravenous immunoglobulin were responsive (7/7, while less than half of those with prominent segmental enlargement (3/7 were responsive (p < 0.01.DiscussionConsecutive scan along the nerve and multiple sites measurement by ultrasound could supply more detailed morphological feature of the nerve and help to differentiate CMT1A from CIDP.

  16. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  17. The risk of developing end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy : The RENAAL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keane, WF; Brenner, BM; de Zeeuw, D; Grunfeld, JP; McGill, J; Mitch, WE; Ribeiro, AB; Shahinfar, S; Simpson, RL; Snapinn, SM; Toto, R

    Background. Diabetic nephropathy has become the single most important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Strategies to slow the rate of loss of renal function in these patients have been developed. We examined the risk factors that predict loss of kidney function (doubling of serum

  18. CD2AP is associated with end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyvönen, Mervi E; Ihalmo, Pekka; Sandholm, Niina

    2013-01-01

    CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) is essential for podocyte function. CD2AP mutations have been found in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a disease histologically resembling diabetic nephropathy and often progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesised that variations...

  19. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana, ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  20. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Armenta-Medina, Alma; Xiang, Daoquan; Datla, Raju; Gillmor, C Stewart; Abreu-Goodger, Cei

    2017-12-01

    The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana , ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  1. UISESS scale for staging and classifying clinical-epidemiological risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus and for establishing multidisciplinary preventive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba, Javier E; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L; Colunga Rodríguez, Cecilia; González Barrera, Juan Antonio; Herrera Solís, Evangelina; Milke Najar, María Eugenia

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study is the creation and use of a five-stage scale for the description of the health status of a type 2 diabetes mellitus patient population, as individuals and as a set. The scale, named UISESS, ranges from the pre-pathological to the sequelae stage, and can help orient multidisciplinary prevention actions. SETTING AND SAMPLING: A sample of nondiabetics (n = 404), together with a census of all type 2 diabetic patients (n = 2,702) over 30 years of age, were obtained from a family medicine clinic of the Mexican Federal Social Security System (IMSS) in Guadalajara, Mexico. A descriptive study in which the Natural History of the Disease and an epidemiological focus on risk were used to create the UISESS scale. Case histories of a total of 3,106 persons from a family practice clinic were used. The data was classified in five stages and three risk control levels were used for analysis. In the type 2 diabetic group, the average age was 57.6 years; 58% were women. In the nondiabetic group, the average age was 55.38 years; 63% were women. The UISESS scale was applied. A large majority (86%) of the studied type 2 diabetic patients were classified within unfavorable stages for controlling their illness, and 65% of the 3,106 people were at high or very high risk of increasing deterioration of their health status. The UISESS scale appears to be a useful tool to detect the distribution, evolution and control of type 2 diabetes in a population attended at the outpatient clinic of a family medicine unit, according to the Natural History of the Disease.

  2. The association of polymorphic sites in some genes with type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have been implicated as the major genetic component in the predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Other loci outside the MHC had also been reported to contribute in the susceptibility of T1DM. The aim of this study was to examine the role of ...

  3. The association of polymorphic sites in some genes with type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed A. El-Kafoury

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... Abstract Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have been implicated as the major genetic component in the predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Other loci outside the MHC had also been reported to contribute in the susceptibility of T1DM. The aim of this study was ...

  4. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of protein...

  5. Site requirements and kinetics of immune-dependent elimination of intravascularly administered lung stage schistosomula in mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the migration and survival of 75Se-labeled schistosomes, introduced by percutaneous cercarial exposure or by intravascular administration of 7-day-old lung stage schistosomula, in control and irradiated cercaria-immunized mice. Schistosomula were intravascularly introduced into the lungs, systemic organs and liver by injection via the femoral vein (FV), left ventricle (LV), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), respectively. The fate of challenge larvae was examined by autoradiography of host tissues and by recovery of adult worms. It was found that both normal and immune elimination were site-dependent. In control mice 45%-60% of cercarial penetrants and lung schistosomula injected into the FV and LV were recoverable as adult worms, while a significantly greater number (70%-85%) were recoverable when lung schistosomula were injected into the SMV. In immunized mice, parasites introduced as either cercariae or FV-injected schistosomula were both highly sensitive to immune elimination. LV-injected schistosomula were also sensitive but to a slightly lesser degree. In contrast, schistosomula placed directly in the liver by SMV injection were totally insensitive to immune elimination. It was concluded that elimination of schistosomula in irradiated cercaria-immunized mice occurs in the lungs and/or in the systemic organs, but not in the liver. Also, it was concluded that immune elimination is not a rapid process, since more than 7 days were required after intravascular challenge for the development of demonstrable differences between control and immunized mice

  6. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages?An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types

    OpenAIRE

    Korsch, Margarethe; Fr?hholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as t...

  7. Ubiquinone binding site of yeast NADH dehydrogenase revealed by structures binding novel competitive- and mixed-type inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Shiba, Tomoo; Oohashi, Takumi; Iwata, So; Yagi, Takao; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hideto; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2018-02-05

    Yeast Ndi1 is a monotopic alternative NADH dehydrogenase. Its crystal structure in complex with the electron acceptor, ubiquinone, has been determined. However, there has been controversy regarding the ubiquinone binding site. To address these points, we identified the first competitive inhibitor of Ndi1, stigmatellin, along with new mixed-type inhibitors, AC0-12 and myxothiazol, and thereby determined the crystal structures of Ndi1 in complexes with the inhibitors. Two separate binding sites of stigmatellin, STG-1 and STG-2, were observed. The electron density at STG-1, located at the vicinity of the FAD cofactor, further demonstrated two binding modes: STG-1a and STG-1b. AC0-12 and myxothiazol are also located at the vicinity of FAD. The comparison of the binding modes among stigmatellin at STG-1, AC0-12, and myxothiazol revealed a unique position for the aliphatic tail of stigmatellin at STG-1a. Mutations of amino acid residues that interact with this aliphatic tail at STG-1a reduced the affinity of Ndi1 for ubiquinone. In conclusion, the position of the aliphatic tail of stigmatellin at STG-1a provides a structural basis for its competitive inhibition of Ndi1. The inherent binding site of ubiquinone is suggested to overlap with STG-1a that is distinct from the binding site for NADH.

  8. In vivo labelling in several rat tissues of 'peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Guilloux, F.; Rufat, P.; Uzan, A.; Renault, C.; Dubroeucq, M.C.; Gueremy, C.; Le Fur, G. (Pharmuka Laboratoires, 92 - Gennevilliers (France))

    1984-03-16

    'Peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites in several rat tissues were labelled by intravenous injection of (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 and (/sup 3/H)RO5-4864. Binding was saturable in all tissues studied and regional distribution paralleled the in vitro binding. A similar potency order of displacing compounds was found in vivo and in vitro PK 11195 > PK 11211 > RO5-4864 > diazepam > dipyridamole > clonazepam. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to examine the effects of pharmacological manipulation on the binding sites in their native state. However, some properties (broader maximum during time course, higher percentage of particulate binding in the brain and independence of temperature) make (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 the most suitable ligand for this kind of studies.

  9. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Q; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic.......1-1.7]). In contrast, in normoalbuminuric patients, plasma CTGF did not correlate with clinical parameters and did not predict outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CTGF contributes significantly to prediction of ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetic nephropathy....... patients with persistent normoalbuminuria. Follow-up time was 12.8 years. Prediction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality by plasma CTGF was analyzed in conjunction with conventional risk factors. RESULTS: Plasma CTGF was higher in patients with nephropathy than in patients with normoalbuminuria...

  10. Serum adiponectin predicts all-cause mortality and end stage renal disease in patients with type I diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A.; Tarnow, L.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin levels are increased in patients with type I diabetes especially in the presence of microangiopathy. Here we determined the predictive value of serum adiponectin levels and 8 adiponectin gene polymorphisms for mortality, cardiovascular events and end-stage renal disease in type I...... diabetic patients. This prospective, observational follow-up study of type I diabetics consisted of 438 patients with overt diabetic nephropathy that were compared to 440 type I patients with normal albumin excretion. These two groups were followed an average of 8 years and generally matched for gender......, age and duration of diabetes. Cox regression analysis of 373 patients showed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.46 for a change of one standard deviation in log10 of serum adiponectin. There was no association with cardiovascular events; however, serum adiponectin levels...

  11. Site index curves for Norway spruce plantations on farmland with different soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    1995-01-01

    Growth data were collected from 157 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands planted on farmland in Sweden. The stands ranged in latitude from 55'N to 66'N. The mean age of the stands was 41 years (range, 25-91), and the mean stand density was 1640 stems ha-' (range, 400-3 722). The mean diameter at breast height (on bark) was 25 cm (range, 12-48). Classified soil types from northern Sweden were united into five groups: coarse sand (n= lo), the fine sand and silt group (14) till clay (1...

  12. Urodynamics post stroke in patients with urinary incontinence: Is there correlation between bladder type and site of lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of bladder by urodynamic study (UDS in patients with urinary incontinence following stroke, and correlation with site of lesion. Study Design and Setting: Retrospective cross-sectional study in the neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Forty patients (22 males with arterial or venous, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, with urinary incontinence in the acute phase following the event, underwent UDS. Seventeen patients had right hemiplegia, 18 had left hemiplegia, and five had posterior circulation stroke with brainstem/cerebellar features. Bladder type was correlated with age, side, and site of lesion. Results: The mean age was 46.80 ± 16.65 years (range: 18-80 years. Thirty-six patients had arterial stroke and four had cortical venous thrombosis. UDS was performed after a mean of 28.32 ± 10.27 days (range: 8-53 days after the stroke. All but one patient had neurogenic bladder dysfunction, with 36 patients (90% having overactive detrusor (OD and three having underactive/areflexic detrusor. Among the 36 patients with OD, 25 patients (62.5% had OD without detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy (DSD and 11 (27.5% had OD with DSD. Bladder management was advised based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation ( P > 0.05 was found between type of bladder and age or side and site of lesion. Conclusions: UDS is a useful tool to assess and manage the bladder following stroke with urinary incontinence. In this study, no significant correlation was found between UDS findings and site of lesion.

  13. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan

    2018-01-18

    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  14. Review of the SQUG type seismic program at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitner, J.L.; Lin, C.W.; Anderson, N.R.; Bezler, P.

    1991-01-01

    The production reactors at Savannah River were shut down in 1988 because of questions about their safety. One question is whether they can withstand earthquakes. To answer the earthquake question, the site operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) developed a program to evaluate the capability of the safety systems in the K, L, and P reactors to function during and after an earthquake, and to upgrade them if necessary. The seismic program for Savannah River relies heavily on the Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP) developed by the Seismic qualification Utility Group. The GIP was originally developed for application to over 65 commercial power reactors throughout the U.S. It has been thoroughly reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the ISWRT (Independent Seismic Walkdown Review Team) review were to: evaluate the program and evaluate its execution. The first objective was accomplished using an in-office review of the program. The second objective was accomplished using an in-office review and in-plant walkdown of selected safety systems. The ISWRT review and walkdown are summarized in this paper

  15. Site-specific RNase A activity was dramatically reduced in serum from multiple types of cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Huang

    Full Text Available Potent RNase activities were found in the serum of mammals but the physiological function of the RNases was never well illustrated, largely due to the caveats in methods of RNase activity measurement. None of the existing methods can distinguish between RNases with different target specificities. A systematic study was recently carried out in our lab to investigate the site-specificity of serum RNases on double-stranded RNA substrates, and found that serum RNases cleave double-stranded RNAs predominantly at 5'-U/A-3' and 5'-C/A-3' dinucleotide sites, in a manner closely resembling RNase A. Based on this finding, a FRET assay was developed in the current study to measure this site-specific serum RNase activity in human samples using a double stranded RNA substrate. We demonstrated that the method has a dynamic range of 10(-5 mg/ml- 10(-1 mg/ml using serial dilution of RNase A. The sera of 303 cancer patients were subjected to comparison with 128 healthy controls, and it was found that serum RNase activities visualized with this site-specific double stranded probe were found to be significantly reduced in patients with gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, ovary cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer and lung cancer, while only minor changes were found in breast and colon cancer patients. This is the first report using double stranded RNA as probe to quantify site-specific activities of RNase A in a serum. The results illustrated that RNase A might be further evaluated to determine if it can serve as a new class of biomarkers for certain cancer types.

  16. Site-Specific RNase A Activity Was Dramatically Reduced in Serum from Multiple Types of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiyan; Zhao, Mei; Wei, Na; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Huqing; Du, Quan; Liang, Zicai

    2014-01-01

    Potent RNase activities were found in the serum of mammals but the physiological function of the RNases was never well illustrated, largely due to the caveats in methods of RNase activity measurement. None of the existing methods can distinguish between RNases with different target specificities. A systematic study was recently carried out in our lab to investigate the site-specificity of serum RNases on double-stranded RNA substrates, and found that serum RNases cleave double-stranded RNAs predominantly at 5′-U/A-3′ and 5′-C/A-3′ dinucleotide sites, in a manner closely resembling RNase A. Based on this finding, a FRET assay was developed in the current study to measure this site-specific serum RNase activity in human samples using a double stranded RNA substrate. We demonstrated that the method has a dynamic range of 10−5 mg/ml- 10−1 mg/ml using serial dilution of RNase A. The sera of 303 cancer patients were subjected to comparison with 128 healthy controls, and it was found that serum RNase activities visualized with this site-specific double stranded probe were found to be significantly reduced in patients with gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, ovary cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer and lung cancer, while only minor changes were found in breast and colon cancer patients. This is the first report using double stranded RNA as probe to quantify site-specific activities of RNase A in a serum. The results illustrated that RNase A might be further evaluated to determine if it can serve as a new class of biomarkers for certain cancer types. PMID:24805924

  17. Inversion of Moraxella lacunata type 4 pilin gene sequences by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae site-specific recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, F W; Meyer, T F; Fussenegger, M

    1997-01-01

    A plasmid library of Neisseria gonorrhoeae sequences was screened for the ability to mediate recombinations on a sequence containing the Moraxella lacunata type 4 pilin gene invertible region in Escherichia coli. A plasmid containing the N. gonorrhoeae sequence encoding the putative recombinase (gcr) was identified and sequenced. Plasmids containing gcr were able to mediate site-specific recombinations despite a weak amino acid homology to Piv, the native M. lacunata pilin gene invertase. The gcr gene is present only in pathogenic strains of Neisseria tested; however, in our assays gene knockouts of gcr did not alter the variation of surface features that play a role in the pathogenesis of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:9079926

  18. Expression of type 3 complement receptor on activated CD8+ T cells facilitates homing to inflammatory sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H V; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersson, E C

    1994-01-01

    /macrophages and CD8+ cells, the majority of which are CD11b+. Adoptive transfer experiments involving i.v. transplantation of Ag-primed donor cells revealed that preincubation of the cells with 5C6 delayed the virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction under conditions in which the recipient delivered...... that anti-CR3 treatment inhibits extravasation of both the Ag-specific and the nonspecific cellular components of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced, CD8+ cell-dependent inflammatory reaction. Thus, expression of CR3 seems to facilitate T cell homing to sites of inflammation....

  19. Climate and environments during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the central Iberian Peninsula: the herpetofaunal assemblage from the Acheulean site of Áridos-1, Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Panera, Joaquin; Rubio-Jara, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The interglacial episodes of the Quaternary Period are currently the focus of a great deal of attention within the scientific community, primarily because they can help us to understand how the climate of the current interglacial may have evolved without human intervention and to assess the impact of these climate changes on ecological systems. In the central Iberian Peninsula, the archaeological site of Áridos-1 (Arganda, Madrid), with numeric dates of 379.7 ± 45 ka obtained by AAR for the upper part of the sedimentological unit of Arganda I, in combination with the evolved state of the small mammals, has been chronologically attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Given the diversified faunal assemblages delivered by the 1976 excavations, Áridos-1 is probably one of the best terrestrial candidates for an understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed in central Spain during the MIS 11 interglacial. In consequence, the fossil amphibians and squamate reptiles stored in the collections of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Madrid have been newly described and quantified in order to apply the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods for estimating quantitative data. The Mediterranean climate is shown to have been warmer and wetter than today in central Spain during MIS 11, with the mean annual temperature 1.7 °C higher and mean annual precipitation 223.9 mm higher than at present. The monthly climatic reconstruction shows differences in the distribution of precipitation over the course of the year, with more abundant precipitation during the winter months, at the beginning of spring and at the end of fall (from October to March) and less precipitation than today during the summer months and at the end of spring (from May to August), suggesting stronger rainfall seasonality between winter and summer than currently occurs. Such climate reconstruction is consistent with other European MIS 11 paleoclimatic records. The

  20. The Adenovirus Type 3 Dodecahedron's RGD Loop Comprises an HSPG Binding Site That Influences Integrin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gout

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human type 3 adenovirus dodecahedron (a virus like particle made of twelve penton bases features the ability to enter cells through Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans (HSPGs and integrins interaction and is used as a versatile vector to deliver DNA or proteins. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the pseudoviral particle with Heparan Sulphate (HS oligosaccharide shows an extradensity on the RGD loop. A set of mutants was designed to study the respective roles of the RGD sequence (RGE mutant and of a basic sequence located just downstream. Results showed that the RGE mutant binding to the HS deficient CHO-2241 cells was abolished and unexpectedly, mutation of the basic sequence (KQKR to AQAS dramatically decreased integrin recognition by the viral pseudoparticle. This basic sequence is thus involved in integrin docking, showing a close interplay between HSPGs and integrin receptors.

  1. Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yexiong; Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

  2. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  3. [Treatment of open tile type C pelvic fractures by open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches at early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baichuan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches in treatment of open Tile type C pelvic fractures at early stage. Between January 2009 and April 2012, 12 patients with open Tile C pelvic fractures were treated. There were 7 males and 5 females, aged 6-53 years (median, 31 years). Of 12 cases, 4 were classified as Tile type C1, 6 as Tile type C2, and 2 as Tile type C3; 5 were rated as Gustilo type II and 7 as Gustilo type III. The injury severity score was 18-57 (mean, 37.2). The interval of injury and admission ranged from 15 minutes to 3 days (median, 50 minutes). The debridement and external fixation were performed at first stage; then open reduction and internal fixation were used through anterior approach (reconstruction plate) and posterior approach (cannulated lag screws). The vacuum sealing drainage was performed during treatment until the wounds healed. Delayed healing of incison was obtained in 12 cases because of wound infection. Anatomical reduction or approximate anatomical reduction was achieved in all 12 cases. The patients were followed up 3-39 months (median, 18 months). No loosening of internal fixation or fracture displacement was observed during follow-up. The fracture healing time was 7-13 weeks (mean, 9.7 weeks). At last follow-up, according to the Matta standard, the outcome was excellent in 10 cases and good in 2 cases; according to Majeed score, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1, and poor in 2. Early internal fixation operation of open Tile type C pelvic fractures can effectively restore the pelvic anatomical structure and stability, reduce the complication, and achieve satisfactory effectiveness.

  4. One-stage treatment and reconstruction of Gustilo Type III open tibial shaft fractures with a vascularized fibular osteoseptocutaneous flap graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Ping; Hu, Yun-Yu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Xing-Yan; Lu, Hao; Li, Xu-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of a single-stage, free-fibular vascularized osteoseptocutaneous flap transfer for Type III open tibial shaft fractures with segmental bone loss for the reconstruction of combined bone and soft tissue defects. Nonrandomized retrospective study. University Level I trauma center. All Gustilo Type III open tibial shaft fractures with segmental bone loss that were treated at one institution between 2000 and 2007 were identified from a trauma registry. The study group consisted of 28 patients with Type III open tibial fractures: 27 were Gustilo-Anderson Type IIIB and one was Grade IIIC. The cause of tibial injury included eight industrial accidents, seven motor vehicle accidents, five crushing injuries caused by heavy objects, five falls from a height, and three motorcycle crashes. The lengths of the preoperative segmental tibial bone loss ranged from 9 to 17 cm and the size of the associated soft tissue defects ranged from 8 × 6 cm to 15 × 7 cm. The free fibular vascularized osteoseptocutaneous flap was used to graft and reconstruct combined bone and soft tissue defects. The radical wound débridement, soft tissue and bone revision, fracture stabilization, and early soft tissue coverage were achieved by this technique in a one-stage procedure. The average duration from injury to one-stage reconstruction was 15.8 hours (range, 5.3 hours to 6.5 days). Radiographic and functional evaluation of the lower extremity. All free fibular osteoseptocutaneous flaps survived completely. The average time to overall union for the entire group was 32 weeks after surgery (range, 26-41 weeks). None of the patients in this series had a nonunion. Acceptable radiographic alignment, defined as 5° of angulation in any plane, was obtained in 22 patients (78.6%). Malunion affected six (21.4%) fractures. According to the lower extremity functional assessment, excellent and good results were achieved for 82.1% (23 of 28), fair results were seen in 14

  5. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  6. Forecasting cracked collectors on anticlinal type structures at late stage of exploration in oil and gas area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, M. A.; Aleksandrov, B. L.; Eljayev, A. S.; Ezirbaev, T. B.; Gatsaeva, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of using complex information on morphological parameters of structures, block porosity and the reservoir pressure gradient over previously explored deposits for the development of a multidimensional equation for estimating secondary porosity is considered. This is examined by the example of reservoirs with secondary (fractured) porosity of the Upper Cretaceous carbonate deposits of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya oil and gas bearing region of the Ciscaucasia. The use of this equation makes it possible to predict the magnitude of the secondary porosity on the anticlinal structures, which are newly discovered by seismic methods at a later stage of exploration in the relevant oil and gas region, as a quantitative criterion that predicts the presence of a trap.

  7. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus-related genetic polymorphisms in microRNAs and microRNA target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weijing; Xiao, Di; Ming, Guangfeng; Yin, Jiye; Zhou, Honghao; Liu, Zhaoqian

    2014-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important endogenous regulators in eukaryotic gene expression and a broad range of biological processes. MiRNA-related genetic variations have been proved to be associated with human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms in miRNA genes (primary miRNAs, precursor miRNAs, mature miRNAs, and miRNA regulatory regions) may be involved in the development of T2DM by changing the expression and structure of miRNAs and target gene expression. Genetic polymorphisms of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in miRNA target genes may destroy putative miRNA binding sites or create new miRNA binding sites, which affects the binding of UTRs with miRNAs, finally resulting in susceptibility to and development of T2DM. Therefore, focusing on studies into genetic polymorphisms in miRNAs or miRNA binding sites will help our understanding of the pathophysiology of T2DM development and lead to better health management. Herein, we review the association of genetic polymorphisms in miRNA and miRNA targets genes with T2DM development. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Epidemiology and risk factors associated with surgical site infection after different types of hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikane, Keita

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs); however, SSI after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery (HBPS) has not been well investigated in a large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the factors associated with SSI following HBPS in Japan, using a Japanese national database. Data on HBPS performed between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from a national monitoring system for HAI: The Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance. Using multivariate logistic regression, I assessed the factors associated with SSI. The cumulative incidence of SSI following HBPS was 15.6% (2873/18,398). The incidence of SSI after pancreatoduodenectomy was 28.0%, which was significantly higher than that after liver resection and other types of HBPS (8.8 and 15.5%, respectively). Among the four traditional risk factors, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score was ineffective for predicting SSI in the final model of all three types of surgery. Additional risk factors were identified, including age and male gender. The incidence of and factors associated with SSI after the three types of HBPS analyzed differed significantly. To accurately compare hospital performance in relation to SSI following HBPS, the operative procedure category in the surveillance system must be divided into three types.

  10. Lipidomic and metabolomic characterization of a genetically modified mouse model of the early stages of human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Weir, Jacquelyn M; De Souza, David Peter

    2016-01-01

    The early mechanisms regulating progression towards beta cell failure in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood, but it is generally acknowledged that genetic and environmental components are involved. The metabolomic phenotype is sensitive to minor variations in both, and accordingly reflects...

  11. The relationship between clinical stage, prognosis and myocardial damage in patients with Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Five-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Miyagi, Junko; Arii, Tohru; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Jinnai, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of myocardial damage by [ 123 I]15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging, which represents free fatty acid metabolism, has not been reported in patients with Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy (DMD). To date, the relationship between clinical stage, prognosis and myocardial damage has not been evaluated by radionuclear cardiac imaging. The main goal of this study was to elucidate the relationship of quantitative indices of myocardial damage obtained by radionuclear cardiac imaging ([ 201 Tl] and [ 123 I]BMIPP) to clinical stage and incidence of severe cardiac events in patients with Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy (DMD). The study population consisted of 28 male patients with DMD. The average age at the beginning of observation was 19.1±7.4 yrs. Nuclear tomographic imaging was performed using [ 201 Tl] and [ 123 I]BMIPP. The mid-ventricular short axial slices were classified into four anatomical regions, and the normalized count data in these areas (TL, BM) were obtained. The endpoint was the occurrence of heart failure during the follow up period. Thirteen cases of heart failure occurred during the 5-year follow-up period, including three cases with cardiac death due to congestive heart failure. Clinical staging correlated directly with TL (p=0.0118) and BM (p=0.0401) in the whole left ventricle. In regional TL analysis, an association was observed only in the septum (p=0.0151), and in the anterior (p=0.0361) region. The only discrepancy between the tracer parameters (TL-BM) in the septum was observed with the radionuclear cardiac values, which exhibited a relationship with cardiac events (p=0.0124). This discordance, TL 201 Tl] in this area was representative of the clinical stage, and TL-BM correlated well with the prognosis. (author)

  12. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids: II. Optimum type and number of testers in two-stage selection for general combining ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Reif, Jochen C

    2007-02-01

    Optimum allocation of test resources is of crucial importance for the efficiency of breeding programs. Our objectives were to (1) determine the optimum allocation of the number of lines, test locations, as well as number and type of testers in hybrid maize breeding using doubled haploids with two breeding strategies for improvement of general combining ability (GCA), (2) compare the maximum selection gain (DeltaG) achievable under both strategies, and (3) give recommendations for the optimum implementation of doubled haploids in commercial hybrid maize breeding. We calculated DeltaG by numerical integration for two two-stage selection strategies with evaluation of (1) testcross performance in both stages (BS1) or (2) line per se performance in the first stage followed by testcross performance in the second stage (BS2). Different assumptions were made regarding the budget, variance components (VCs), and the correlation between line per se performance and GCA. Selection gain for GCA increased with a broader genetic base of the tester. Hence, testers combining a large number of divergent lines are advantageous. However, in applied breeding programs, the use of single- or double-cross testers in the first and inbred testers in the second selection stage may be a good compromise between theoretical and practical requirements. With a correlation between line per se performance and GCA of 0.50, DeltaG for BS1 is about 5% higher than for BS2, if an economic weight of line per se performance is neglected. With increasing economic weight of line per se performance, relative efficiency of BS2 increased rapidly resulting in a superiority of BS2 over BS1 already for an economic weight for line per se performance larger than 0.1. Considering the importance of an economic seed production, an economic weight larger than 0.1 seems realistic indicating the necessity of separate breeding strategies for seed and pollen parent heterotic groups.

  13. [Intervention of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis patients in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yi; Zhang, Yin-qiang; Liu, Yan-ling; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Chun-mei

    2013-11-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of treating chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis (CHBLF) in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods (ABRSM). Totally 100 CHBLF patients of vital qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome (VQDBSS) treated at the Department of Liver Diseases, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from July 2008 to December 2011, were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each group. Those in the treatment group were treated by self-formulated decoctions for activating blood nourishing blood (ABNB), activating blood removing stasis (ABRS), and activating blood softening hard mass (ABSHM) according to their stages of disease conditions (mild, moderate, and severe). Those in the control group were treated with Compound Biejia Ruangan Tablet (CBRT). Integrals of Chinese medical syndromes, liver functions [mainly including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin/globulin (A/ G)], ultrasonographic examinations of liver (mainly including echoes of liver, width of spleens, width of portal vein), four indicators of serum hepatic fibrosis [including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type IV collagen (IV-C), type III collagen peptide (P-III-P)] were statistically analyzed. The therapeutic course was 6 months for all. Compared with before treatment in the same group, the integrals of Chinese medical syndromes both decreased after treatment in the two groups (P serum biochemical indicators.

  14. Glycaemic, blood pressure and lipid goal attainment and chronic kidney disease stage of type 2 diabetic patients treated in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcillo, Antonella; Pivin, Edward; Lalubin, Fabrice; Pitteloud, Nelly; Burnier, Michel; Zanchi, Anne

    2017-07-11

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes is rising in Europe. These patients are at high cardiovascular and renal risk and need a challenging multifactorial therapeutic approach. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the treatment and attainments of goals related to cardiovascular risk factors within chronic kidney disease stages in type 2 diabetic patients followed up by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Each participating physician entered into a web database the anonymised data of up to 15 consecutive diabetic patients attending her/his office between December 2013 and June 2014. Diabetes, hypertension and lipid lowering therapies were analysed, as well as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and goal attainments by KDIGO chronic kidney disease stage 1 to 4. A total of 1359 patients (mean age 66.5±12.4 years) were included by 109 primary care physicians. Chronic kidney disease stages 0-2, 3a, 3 b and 4 were present in 77.6%, 13.9%, 6.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. Average HbA1c was independent of chronic kidney disease stage and close to 7%; more than half of the patients reached the HbA1c goal. Eighty-four percent of patients were hypertensive and only 18.2% reached the then current Swiss or American Diabetes Association 2013 blood pressure goals. Despite loosening of blood pressure goals in 2015, only half of the patients reached them and most needed multiple therapies. Increased body mass index and advanced chronic kidney disease stage decreased the chance of reaching blood pressure goals. Lipid lowering therapy was prescribed in 62.1% of cases, with average LDL-c levels similar across chronic kidney disease stages. Only 42% of patients reached the LDL-c goal of primary prevention and 32% reached primary care physicians in Switzerland. Goal attainments for HbA1c and LDL-c were not influenced by chronic kidney disease stages, in contrast to blood pressure. Reaching

  15. The Value of Preoperative CA 125 Levels in Prediction of Myometrial Invasion in Patients with Early-stage Endometrioid- type Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atguden, Zeynep; Yildiz, Askin; Aksut, Hayri; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Yalcin, Yakup; Uysal, Dilek; Yetimalar, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion in patients with early-stage endometrioid-type endometrial cancer. Two-hundred and sixty patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer between January 2007 and December 2012. Of these, 136 patients with stage 1 endometrioid histologic-type and documented pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were included in the study. Age, preoperative CA-125 level, histologic grade, surgical grade, and presence of deep myometrial invasion were recorded. Additionally, 16, 20, and 35 IU/ml cutoff values were used and compared to evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion. The average serum CA-125 level was 35.4±36.7 in patients with deep myometrial invasion, and 21.5±35.8 in cases without deep myometrial invasion. The relationship between the presence of deep myometrial invasion and CA-125 cut-off values (16, 20, 35 IU/ml) was statistically significant, although the correlation was weak (pCA-125 cut-off values and the presence of deep myometrial invasion was studied, specifity and sensitivity values were identified as: 0.60-0.68 for 16 IU/ml; 0.73-0.48 for 20 IU/ml; and 0.89-0.33 for 35 IU/ml. The sensitivity of 16 IU/ml cut-off value was higher when compared to other values. This study demonstrates that preoperative serum CA-125 values maybe used as a predictive test in patients with early stage endometrioid-type endometrium cancer, and as a prognostic factor alone. Further studies should be conducted to identify different CA-125 cut-off values in patients with low risk endometrial cancer.

  16. Preclinical characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1-pseudotyped vector demonstrates dose-dependent injection site inflammation and dissemination of vector genomes to distant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Poirier, Amy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Byrne, Barry J

    2007-03-01

    To translate the potential advantages of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1 (rAAV1) vectors into a clinical application for muscle-directed gene therapy for alpha1 -antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, we performed safety studies in 170 C57BL/6 mice and 26 New Zealand White rabbits. A mouse toxicology study included 8 cohorts of 10 mice each (5 per sex). Mice were killed either 21 or 90 days after intramuscular injection of doses ranging up to 1x10(13)vector genomes (VG), equivalent to 4 x 10(14)VG/kg. A mouse biodistribution study was performed in 5 cohorts of 10 mice, receiving intramuscular injections at the same doses; as well as in a lower dose cohort (3 x 10(8) VG; equivalent to 1.2 x 10(10)VG/kg); and in 4 other cohorts (excluding the vehicle control) injected with identical doses intravenously. Finally, biodistribution was examined in rabbits, with serial collection of blood and semen, as well as terminal tissue collection. Two significant findings were present, both of which were dose dependent. First, inflammatory cell infiltrates were detected at the site of injection 21, 60, or 90 days after intramuscular injection of 1 x 10(13)VG. This was not associated with loss of transgene expression. Second, vector DNA sequences were detected in most animals, levels being highest with the highest doses and earliest time points. Vector DNA was also present in liver, spleen, kidneys, and a number of other organs, including the gonads of animals receiving the highest dose. Likewise, vector DNA was present in the semen of male rabbits at higher doses. The copy number of vector DNA in the blood and semen declined over time throughout the study. These two dose-dependent findings have served to guide to the design of a phase 1 human trial of rAAV1-AAT.

  17. Association of Self-efficacy and Decisional Balance with Stages of Change for Fiber Intake and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Constructs of behavioral models such as trans-theoretical model can be associated with healthy eating behaviors like increasing fiber intake. They can also be effective in improving these behaviors in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to assess the association of self-efficacy and decisional balance with stages of change for fiber intake and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 literate male and female patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 30 to 65 years they were randomly selected from the patients’ list of “Charity Foundation for Special Diseases” and ”Iranian Diabetes Society” in Tehran-Iran. Stages of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance questionnaires were filled out, and three food records were used to assess their nutritional status. Blood samples were taken to assess fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and insulin resistance. One-way ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The tests were done using the SPSS software (ver. 16. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: 126 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the study. Participants’ mean age was 53.5±6.02 and 65% were men. Patients in post-action stages revealed higher self-efficacy than did those in pre-action stages (P=0.035. A relationship was observed between insulin resistance and self-efficacy (P=0.040. One unit increase in self-efficacy decreased the risk of insulin resistance by 12%, and each unit increase in decisional balance increased the chance of eating sufficient fiber by 2.2 times. There was also a significant relationship between the perceived cons (P<0.0001 and self-efficacy (P=0.037 with fiber intake after adjustment with confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that there is a relationship between transtheoretical model constructs such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, especially cons, with

  18. Vocational activity and health insurance type among patients with end-stage renal disease: association with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiacong; Lee, Andrew; Cohen, Dena E; Colson, Carey; Brunelli, Steven M

    2018-02-07

    It is widely thought that patients with end-stage renal disease who remain vocationally active and/or commercially insured following dialysis initiation have better clinical outcomes and higher quality of life than those who do not. However, scientifically robust data are lacking. Here, we examined whether vocational status (active, N = 1848; inactive, N = 10,001) and, separately, insurance status (commercial, N = 4858; Medicare/self-pay, N = 13,329; Medicaid, N = 3528) were associated with clinical outcomes and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) scores among a cohort of patients who initiated dialysis at a large US dialysis organization during 2015-2016. Outcomes were considered from the day after index (31 days after dialysis initiation for vocational status and 1 day after initiation for insurance status) until the earliest of death, discontinuation of dialysis, transplant, loss to follow-up, or end of study (30 September 2016). Comparisons were made using intention-to-treat principles and generalized linear models adjusted for imbalanced patient characteristics, including sociodemographic variables. Vocational inactivity (vs. vocational activity) was independently associated with higher rates of mortality and hospitalization, lower rates of transplant, and lower KDQoL scores in 4 of 5 domains. Similar trends were observed when comparing Medicare/self-pay or Medicaid insurance to commercial insurance. Vocational activity, and separately, commercial insurance, were independently associated with better clinical and quality of life outcomes compared to other insurance and vocational categories. These findings may inform patient and physician education, and guide advocacy efforts.

  19. Analysis of Brassica oleracea early stage abiotic stress responses reveals tolerance in multiple crop types and for multiple sources of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M

    2017-12-01

    Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of dental caries on quality of life among preschool children: emphasis on the type of tooth and stages of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Soares, Maria Eliza da Consolação; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries on the quality of life of preschool children and their parents/caretakers, with an emphasis on the type of tooth and stage of progression. A randomly selected sample of preschool children, 3-5 yrs of age, underwent an oral examination for the assessment of dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) criteria. Parents/caretakers answered two questionnaires, one on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the child [the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)], and the other on the socio-economic characteristics of the family. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Poisson regression. A total of 451 preschool children participated in the study. The majority of carious lesions exhibited severe decay (60.6%) and were found in both anterior (incisors/canines) and posterior (molars) teeth. The final Poisson model revealed negative impacts on quality of life from more advanced stages of dental caries, both in incisors/canines and molars. Child's age and household income were also associated with impact on quality of life. Carious lesions in more advanced stages of progression in anterior and posterior teeth were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschool children. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. The dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with pinning sites studied by the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter, E-mail: mpso@dtu.dk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Pedersen, Niels Falsig [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Ögren, Magnus [School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182 (Sweden)

    2017-02-15

    We investigate the dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with normal state pinning sites using the Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulation results demonstrate hopping of vortices between pinning sites, influenced by external magnetic fields and external currents. The system is highly nonlinear and the vortices show complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour.

  2. Genetic diversity through human leukocyte antigen typing in end-stage renal disease patients and prospective donors of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Chowdhry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD is rapidly increasing, the demand for dialysis and transplantation has dramatically increased, which has led to concerns about the availability and equitable allocation of kidneys for transplantation. The distribution of HLA-A, B and DR alleles in 148 renal transplant recipients and 191 live related prospective donors from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. Allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies were calculated in recipients and donors. The prospective donors were further analyzed on the basis of their relationship to the patients and according to the sex ratio. A significant female preponderance was noted in the prospective donor population, most of whom were either siblings or parents of the recipients. On the contrary, the recipient population predominantly comprised of males. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in renal transplant patients were HLA-AFNx0111, AFNx0102, AFNx0101, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0140, BFNx0144, BFNx0115, BFNx0152, and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0113, DRB1FNx0111 respectively. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in prospective donors were HLA-AFNx0102, AFNx0111, AFNx0133, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0144, BFNx0140, BFNx0115 and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0111, DRB1FNx0113 respectively. AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0102-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 were the most common HLA A-B , HLA A-DR, HLA B-DR haplotypes respectively in renal transplant patients, whereas, AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0111-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 were the most common haplotypes in renal donors. In three locus haplotype, HLA-AFNx0102-BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 was the most frequent haplotype in patients, whereas, in prospective renal donors HLA-AFNx0133-BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 was the most frequent haplotype.

  3. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  4. Contaminated Materials and Groundwater Investigation: Chaska Flood Control Project Stages 3 and 4, Chaska, Minnesota: MPCA Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ... of environmental hazards. This report summarizes the environmental investigation findings based on historical, geological, and regulatory agency records for Stages 3 and 4 of the Chaska Flood Control Project...

  5. Ethnic disparities in risk of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and all-cause mortality: a prospective study among Asian people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J J; Lim, S C; Yeoh, L Y; Su, C; Tai, B C; Low, S; Fun, S; Tavintharan, S; Chia, K S; Tai, E S; Sum, C F

    2016-03-01

    To study prospectively the ethnic-specific risks of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and all-cause mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus among native Asian subpopulations. A total of 2337 subjects with Type 2 diabetes (70% Chinese, 17% Malay and 13% Asian Indian) were followed for a median of 4.0 years. Time-to-event analysis was used to study the association of ethnicity with adverse outcomes. Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease in ethnic Malay and Asian Indian subjects were 2.01 (1.40-2.88; PChinese subjects. Adjustment for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid profile, slightly attenuated the hazards in Malay (1.82, 1.23-2.71; P=0.003) and Asian Indian subjects (1.47, 0.95-2.30; P=0.086); However, further adjustment for baseline renal function (estimated GFR) and albuminuria weakened the cardiovascular disease risks in Malay (1.48, 0.98-2.26; P=0.065) but strengthened that in Asian Indian subjects (1.81, 1.14-2.87; P=0.012). Competing-risk regression showed that the age- and gender-adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio for end-stage renal disease was 1.87 (1.27-2.73; P=0.001) in Malay and 0.39 (0.18-0.83; P=0.015) in Asian Indian subjects. Notably, the difference in end-stage renal disease risk among the three ethnic groups was abolished after further adjustment for baseline estimated GFR and albuminuria. There was no significant difference in risk of all-cause mortality among the three ethnic groups. Risks of cardiovascular and end-stage renal diseases in native Asian subjects with Type 2 diabetes vary substantially among different ethnic groups. Differences in prevalence of diabetic kidney disease may partially explain the ethnic disparities. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  6. Expression of CTRP3, a Novel Adipokine, in Rats at Different Pathogenic Stages of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Impacts of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist on It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the expression of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 in rats at different pathogenic stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and the impacts of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist on it. Male wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR and then were given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. Exendin-4 (Ex-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, was subcutaneous injected to the IR rats and T2DM rats for 4 weeks. The expression of CTRP3 mRNA and protein in epididymis adipose tissue of rats at the stage of IR was lower significantly than that of normal control (NC rats and decreased more when they were at the stage of overt T2DM (all P<0.05 or P<0.01. After the treatment with Ex-4, the mRNA and protein expressions of CTRP3 were increased by 15.5% (P<0.01 and 14.8% (P<0.05, respectively, in IR rats and increased by 20.6% (P<0.01 and 16.5% (P<0.05, respectively, in T2DM rats. Overall, this study found that the expression of CTRP3 in visceral adipose tissue was progressively decreased in a T2DM rat model from the pathogenic stage of IR to overt diabetes, while Ex-4 treatment increased its expression in such animals.

  7. MultiSite Gateway-Compatible Cell Type-Specific Gene-Inducible System for Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siligato, Riccardo; Wang, Xin; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lehesranta, Satu; Ma, Guojie; Ursache, Robertas; Sevilem, Iris; Zhang, Jing; Gorte, Maartje; Prasad, Kalika; Heidstra, Renze

    2016-01-01

    A powerful method to study gene function is expression or overexpression in an inducible, cell type-specific system followed by observation of consequent phenotypic changes and visualization of linked reporters in the target tissue. Multiple inducible gene overexpression systems have been developed for plants, but very few of these combine plant selection markers, control of expression domains, access to multiple promoters and protein fusion reporters, chemical induction, and high-throughput cloning capabilities. Here, we introduce a MultiSite Gateway-compatible inducible system for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants that provides the capability to generate such constructs in a single cloning step. The system is based on the tightly controlled, estrogen-inducible XVE system. We demonstrate that the transformants generated with this system exhibit the expected cell type-specific expression, similar to what is observed with constitutively expressed native promoters. With this new system, cloning of inducible constructs is no longer limited to a few special cases but can be used as a standard approach when gene function is studied. In addition, we present a set of entry clones consisting of histochemical and fluorescent reporter variants designed for gene and promoter expression studies. PMID:26644504

  8. Effect of the type of maternal pushing during the second stage of labour on obstetric and neonatal outcome: a multicentre randomised trial-the EOLE study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasinski, Chloé; Vendittelli, Françoise

    2016-12-20

    The scientific data currently available do not allow any definitive conclusion to be reached about what type of pushing should be recommended to women during the second stage of labour. The objective of this trial is to assess and compare the effectiveness of directed open-glottis pushing versus directed closed-glottis pushing. Secondary objectives are to assess, according to the type of pushing: immediate maternal and neonatal morbidity, intermediate-term maternal pelvic floor morbidity, uncomplicated birth, and women's satisfaction at 4 weeks post partum. This multicentre randomised clinical trial compares directed closed-glottis pushing (Valsalva) versus directed open-glottis pushing during the second stage of labour in 4 hospitals of France. The study population includes pregnant women who received instruction in both types of pushing, have no previous caesarean delivery, are at term and have a vaginal delivery planned. Randomisation takes place during labour once cervical dilation ≥7 cm. The principal end point is assessed by a composite criterion: spontaneous delivery without perineal lesion (no episiotomy or spontaneous second-degree, third-degree or fourth-degree lacerations). We will need to recruit 125 women per group. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat analysis, with the principal results reported as crude relative risks (RRs) with their 95% CIs. A multivariate analysis will be performed to take prognostic and confounding factors into account to obtain adjusted RRs. This study was approved by a French Institutional Review Board (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Est 6:N°AU1168). Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. This study will make it possible to assess the effectiveness of 2 types of directed pushing used in French practice and to assess their potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects. Findings from the study will be useful for counselling pregnant women before and during

  9. Purification and characterization of nuclear type II [(3)H]estradiol binding sites from the rat uterus: covalent labeling with [(3)H]luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaverich, B M; Shoulars, K; Brown, M A

    2001-09-01

    Type II [3H]estradiol binding sites play an important role in normal and malignant cell growth and proliferation and the delineation of the precise function of the type II site in cell growth has been hampered by the inability to purify, sequence and or clone this protein. The present manuscript describes methodology for the solubilization, purification and tentative identification of type II sites from the estrogen-treated rat uterus. This protein(s) chromatographs as a single major peak on DNA-cellulose, Affigel Blue dye affinity resin and during high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on hydroxyapatite. The purified fractions from these columns elicited classical [3H]estradiol binding characteristics (sigmoidal saturation curve, hyperbolic Scatchard plot, and Hill coefficient of approximately 4) for type II sites that are typically observed in crude or highly purified nuclear fractions or extracts. The type II binding activity also eluted as a single major component from a ligand affinity resin (GT-18-Sepharose) prepared by coupling 2,6-bis((3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene)-cyclohexanone to epoxy-activated Sepharose (Pharmacia). The molecular weight of the type II site ([3H]estradiol binding activity) under non-denaturing or denaturing conditions was estimated to be approximately 10-15 kDa by gel filtration HPLC. Similarly, nuclear type II sites covalently labeled with the bioflavonoid, [3H]luteolin, migrated in the 10 kDa range on SDS PAGE. Thus, under these various experimental conditions, nuclear type II sites detected by [3H]estradiol or [3H]luteolin labeling techniques displayed little heterogeneity and appear much smaller than ERalpha or ERbeta or other steroid hormone receptors.

  10. Incidence and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma by morphology, anatomical site and TNM stage: a Danish Population-based Register Study 1989-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Christiane; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Storm, Hans H; Engholm, Gerda

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of melanoma of the skin has risen in Denmark in recent decades, the increase being steeper from 2004. It is unclear whether this represents a true rise in incidence or whether it is caused by an increased awareness of the condition. To assess whether the increase was characterised by early-stage melanomas and a higher proportion of melanomas with superficial spreading morphology, we studied all skin melanoma patients registered in the Danish Cancer Register 1989-2011 (n=27,010) and followed up for death through 2013. Trends in age-standardised incidence by sex, subsite and morphology, relative survival, TNM stage distribution and stage-specific relative survival from 2004 were analysed. The incidence of melanoma more than doubled over 23 years. A steeper increase from 2004 was driven mainly by superficial spreading tumours, but the proportion of nodular melanomas in patients 50 years of age and over also increased significantly. The largest increase occurred for stage I tumours and for tumours on the trunk. From 1989-1993 to 2009-2011 the 5-year relative survival increased at 12% and 6% points for male and female patients, respectively. Greater awareness, and thus lower stage at diagnosis (mediated by a large skin cancer prevention campaign from 2007), might explain part of the increase, but the increase in nodular melanoma also points to a genuine increase in the risk of melanoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences for Two Metal-Reducing Pelosinus fermentans Strains Isolated from a Cr(VI) Contaminated Site and for Type Strain R7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences for Two Metal-Reducing Pelosinus fermentans Strains Isolated from a Cr(VI)-Contaminated Site and for Type Strain R7

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Steven D.; Podar, Mircea; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Courtney M.; Yang, Zamin K.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Land, Miriam L.; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Hurt, Richard A.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.

  13. Identification and characterization of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of human papillomavirus type 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Hansen, Christina N

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the prototype strain among the malignant types of HPV in the western world. The main promoter, P97, located in front of the E6 ORF, has been shown to control expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes are expressed continuously in HPV-16......-transformed cells. In contrast to malignant HPV types, non-malignant HPV types have separate promoters driving the expression of E6 and E7. Experiments have shown that the translation of E7 is more efficient from monocistronic than bicistronic transcripts encoding both E6 and E7. Here, identification...... of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of HPV-16 is presented. Transcripts from this region contain the E7 ORF as the first reading frame. The cluster consists of multiple transcription start sites located around nt 441. Additional transcription start sites were identified in a cluster...

  14. Hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease at Stages 1 and 2: Effect of mild anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Artul, Suheil; Nasrallah, Najib; Mograbi, Julnar; Mahamid, Mahmud

    2016-07-01

    The effect of anemia in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) on morbidity and mortality is known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mild anemia on hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. Hospitalized T2DM patients (n = 307) with a glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin excretion > 30 mg/24 h (Stage 1 and 2 CKD) were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups based on hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations: those with (mean [ ± SD] Hb 10.7 ± 0.7 g/dL) and without (mean Hb 13.3 ± 1.28 g/dL) anemia. There was no significant difference between patients with and without anemia in terms of age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, and cardiovascular diseases. The mean length of hospitalization of the 130 anemic and 177 non-anemic patients was 4.3 ± 3.5 and 3.5 ± 1.9 days, respectively (P anemia (9.2% vs 1.7%, respectively; P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that mild anemia was significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.92-2.54; P = 0.033). Mild anemia may increase the length of hospitalization and was associated with 1-year all-cause mortality among hospitalized T2DM patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Scrap tire pyrolysis using a new type two-stage pyrolyzer: Effects of dolomite and olivine on producing a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Scrap tire pyrolysis was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor to produce a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the effect of the residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor was investigated at ∼300 (auger reactor) and 500 °C (fluidized bed reactor). In addition, natural dolomite and olivine and calcined dolomite and olivine were used as the fluidized bed materials to examine their effects on reducing the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the yields of the oil from the auger reactor were 1.4–3.7 wt%, and it was enriched with DL-limonene whose content in the oil was 40–50 wt%. The yields of the oil from the fluidized bed reactor were 42–46 wt%. The optimum residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor turned out to be 3.5 min. Calcined dolomite and olivine significantly decreased the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. Metal oxides of the additives appeared to react with H 2 S to form metal sulfides. The sulfur content of pyrolysis oil obtained with calcined olivine was 0.45 wt%. - Highlights: • Scrap tires were successfully pyrolyzed in a new type two-stage pyrolyzer. • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and fluidized bed reactors. • Calcination of olivine and dolomite led to a strong decrease in sulfur. • The lowest sulfur content of pyrolysis oil was 0.45 wt%. • Pyrolysis oil yields from the fluidized bed reactor were 43–46 wt%.

  16. Recurrent truncating mutations in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase gene in two South Indian families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 causing later onset end-stage kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate transaminase deficiency. Here, we describe two unrelated patients who were diagnosed to have primary hyperoxaluria. Homozygous c.445_452delGTGCTGCT (p.L151Nfs*14 (Transcript ID: ENST00000307503; human genome assembly GRCh38.p2 (HGMD ID CD073567 mutation was detected in both the patients and the parents were found to be heterozygous carriers. Our patients developed end-stage renal disease at 23 years and 35 years of age. However, in the largest series published from OxalEurope cohort, the median age of end-stage renal disease for null mutations carriers was 9.9 years, which is much earlier than our cases. Our patients had slower progressions as compared to three unrelated patients from North India and Pakistan, who had homozygous c.302T>C (p.L101P (HGMD ID CM093792 mutation in exon 2. Further, patients need to be studied to find out if c.445_452delGTGCTGCT mutation represents a founder mutation in Southern India.

  17. Hyposensitivity of C-fiber afferents at the distal extremities as an indicator of early stages diabetic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy and early stages of autonomic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 137 diabetic women with minimal coexisting confounders of voiding dysfunction followed at a diabetes clinic were subject to the following evaluations: current perception threshold (CPT tests on myelinated and unmyelinated nerves at the big toe for peroneal nerve and middle finger for median nerve, uroflowmetry, post-void residual urine volume, and overactive bladder (OAB symptom score questionnaire. Patients presenting with voiding difficulty also underwent urodynamic studies and intravesical CPT tests. RESULTS: Based on the OAB symptom score and urodynamic studies, 19% of diabetic women had the OAB syndrome while 24.8% had unrecognized urodynamic bladder dysfunction (UBD. The OAB group had a significantly greater mean 5 Hz CPT test value at the big toe by comparison to those without OAB. When compared to diabetic women without UBD, those with UBD showed greater mean 5 Hz CPT test values at the middle finger and big toe. The diabetic women categorized as C-fiber hyposensitivity at the middle finger or big toe by using CPT test also had higher odds ratios of UBD. Among diabetic women with UBD, the 5 Hz CPT test values at the big toe and middle finger were significantly associated with intravesical 5 Hz CPT test values. CONCLUSIONS: Using electrophysiological evidence, our study revealed that hyposensitivity of unmyelinated C fiber afferents at the distal extremities is an indicator of early stages diabetic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. The C fiber dysfunction at the distal extremities seems concurrent with vesical C-fiber neuropathy and may be a sentinel for developing early diabetic bladder dysfunction among female patients.

  18. A Systematic Study of Site-specific GalNAc-type O-Glycosylation Modulating Proprotein Convertase Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B.; Goth, Christoffer K.

    2011-01-01

    for O-glycosylation especially of isolated sites, but serine and to a lesser extent threonine residues are frequently found adjacent to PC processing sites. In the present study we used in vitro enzyme assays and ex vivo cell models to systematically address the boundaries of the region within site...

  19. Definition of the native and denatured type II collagen binding site for fibronectin using a recombinant collagen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Abbonante, Vittorio; Yigit, Sezin; Balduini, Alessandra; Kaplan, David L; Brodsky, Barbara

    2014-02-21

    Interaction of collagen with fibronectin is important for extracellular matrix assembly and regulation of cellular processes. A fibronectin-binding region in collagen was identified using unfolded fragments, but it is not clear if the native protein binds fibronectin with the same primary sequence. A recombinant bacterial collagen is utilized to characterize the sequence requirement for fibronectin binding. Chimeric collagens were generated by inserting the putative fibronectin-binding region from human collagen into the bacterial collagen sequence. Insertion of a sufficient length of human sequence conferred fibronectin affinity. The minimum sequence requirement was identified as a 6-triplet sequence near the unique collagenase cleavage site and was the same in both triple-helix and denatured states. Denaturation of the chimeric collagen increased its affinity for fibronectin, as seen for mammalian collagens. The fibronectin binding recombinant collagen did not contain hydroxyproline, indicating hydroxyproline is not essential for binding. However, its absence may account, in part, for the higher affinity of the native chimeric protein and the lower affinity of the denatured protein compared with type II collagen. Megakaryocytes cultured on chimeric collagen with fibronectin affinity showed improved adhesion and differentiation, suggesting a strategy for generating bioactive materials in biomedical applications.

  20. Associations of cancer site and type with occupation and industry from the Third National Cancer Survey Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R R; Stegens, N L; Goldsmith, J R

    1977-10-01

    From the Third National Cancer Survey (TNCS) Interview Study of 7,518 incident cases, lifetime histories of occupations and industries were studied for associations with specific cancer sites and types while controlling for age, sex, race, education, use of cigarettes or alcohol, and geographic location. Lung cancer patients were found more often than expected among several categories including trucking, air transportation, wholesaling, painting, building construction, building maintenance, and manufacturing (furniture, transportation equipment, and food products). Controlling for cigarette smoking did not change these associations. Leukemia and multiple myeloma were associated with sales personnel of both sexes, whereas lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease were excessive among women working in the medical industry. Other associations included rectal cancer with several retail industries; prostate cancer with ministers, farmers, plumbers, and coal miners; malignant melanoma with school teachers; and invasive cervical cancer with women working in hotels and restaurants. Breast cancer patients were more common among women who were teachers or other professionals and who worked in business and finance (even after controlling for education). Many other findings are presented in detailed tables. Results are reported mainly as a research resource for use by other investigators doing work in this field. Suggestions are given for future studies.

  1. Natural Type 3/Type 2 Intertypic Vaccine-Related Poliovirus Recombinants with the First Crossover Sites within the VP1 Capsid Coding Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008.......Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008....

  2. Bardoxolone Methyl Improves Kidney Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4 and Type 2 Diabetes: Post-Hoc Analyses from Bardoxolone Methyl Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Melanie P.; Bakris, George L.; Block, Geoffrey A.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Goldsberry, Angie; Inker, Lesley A.; Heerspink, Hiddo J.L.; O'Grady, Megan; Pergola, Pablo E.; Wanner, Christoph; Warnock, David G.; Meyer, Colin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Increases in measured inulin clearance, measured creatinine clearance, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been observed with bardoxolone methyl in 7 studies enrolling approximately 2,600 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The largest of these studies was Bardoxolone Methyl Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes (BEACON), a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial which enrolled patients with T2D and CKD stage 4. The BEACON trial was terminated after preliminary analyses showed that patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl experienced significantly higher rates of heart failure events. We performed post-hoc analyses to characterize changes in kidney function induced by bardoxolone methyl. Methods Patients in ­BEACON (n = 2,185) were randomized 1: 1 to receive once-daily bardoxolone methyl (20 mg) or placebo. We compared the effects of bardoxolone methyl and placebo on a post-hoc composite renal endpoint consisting of ≥30% decline from baseline in eGFR, eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) events (provision of dialysis or kidney transplantation). Results Consistent with prior studies, patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl experienced mean increases in eGFR that were sustained through study week 48. Moreover, increases in eGFR from baseline were sustained 4 weeks after cessation of treatment. Patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl were significantly less likely to experience the composite renal endpoint (hazards ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.36–0.64]; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Bardoxolone methyl preserves kidney function and may delay the onset of ESRD in patients with T2D and stage 4 CKD. PMID:29402767

  3. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for BOMARC Missile Accident Site, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-26

    resources include those contained within the New Jersey Pinelands, such as cranberry bogs and blueberry harvesting. 2.6 Cultural Resources Cultural resources...settlements which were associated with this industry can still be found. Commercial blueberry production was also practiced in the late 1800s and early...used was Battelle Memorial Institute (Golden, Colorado Remediation Division). During the course of the program, and prior to 3-3 STAGE 1 IDENTIFY

  4. Complete characterization of posttranslational modification sites in the bovine milk protein PP3 by tandem mass spectrometry with electron capture dissociation as the last stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Haselmann, Kim F; Budnik, Bogdan A

    2003-01-01

    the PTM site. Chromatographic peak analysis continues until full sequence coverage is obtained, after which the molecular mass is reconstructed and compared with the measured value. An agreement indicates that the PTM characterization was complete. This procedure applied to the bovine milk PP3 protein...

  5. A novel splice site mutation in the dentin sialophosphoprotein gene in a Chinese family with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haoyang; Hou Yanning; Cui Yingxia; Huang Yufeng; Shi Yichao; Xia Xinyi; Lu Hongyong; Wang Yunhua; Li Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four individuals were investigated that spanned six generations in a Chinese family affected with an apparently autosomal dominant form of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II, OMIM 125490). All affected individuals presented with typical, clinical and radiographic features of DGI-II, but without bilateral progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. To investigate the mutated molecule, a positional candidate approach was used to determine the mutated gene in this family. Genomic DNA was obtained from 24 affected individuals, 18 unaffected relatives of the family and 50 controls. Haplotype analysis was performed using leukocyte DNA for 6 short tandem repeat (STR) markers present in chromosome 4 (D4S1534, GATA62A11, DSPP, DMP1, SPP1 and D4S1563). In the critical region between D4S1534 and DMP1, the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene (OMIM *125485) was considered as the strongest candidate gene. The first four exons and exon/intron boundaries of the gene were analyzed using DNA from 24 affected individuals and 18 unaffected relatives of the same family. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous deletion mutation in intron 2 (at positions -3 to -25), which resulted in a frameshift mutation, that changed the acceptor site sequence from CAG to AAG (IVS2-3C→A) and may also have disrupted the branch point consensus sequence in intron 2. The mutation was found in the 24 affected individuals, but not in the 18 unaffected relatives and 50 controls. The deletion was identified by allele-specific sequencing and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis. We conclude that the heterozygous deletion mutation contributed to the pathogenesis of DGI-II

  6. The significance of removing ruptured intervertebral discs for interbody fusion in treating thoracic or lumbar type B and C spinal injuries through a one-stage posterior approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Shi Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify the negative effect on treatment results of reserving damaged intervertebral discs when treating type B and type C spinal fracture-dislocations through a one-stage posterior approach.This is a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who were treated in our spine surgery center from January 2005 to May 2012 due to severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture-dislocation. The patients in Group A (24 patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression. In Group B (29 patients, the patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression evacuating of the ruptured disc and inserting of a bone graft into the evacuated disc space for interbody fusion. The mean time between injury and operation was 4.1 days (range 2-15 days. The clinical, radiologic and complication outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.Periodic follow-ups were carried out until an affirmative union or treatment failure took place. A progressive kyphosis angle larger than 10°, loss of disc height, pseudoarthrosis, recurrence of dislocation or subluxation, or instrument failure before fusion were considered treatment failures. Treatment failures were detected in 13 cases in Group A (failure rate was 54.2%. In Group B, there were 28 cases in which definitive bone fusion was demonstrated on CT scans, and CT scans of the other cases demonstrated undefined pseudoarthrosis without hardware failure. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p0.05 Fisher's exact test.Intervertebral disc damage is a common characteristic in type B and C spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. The damaged intervertebral disc should be removed and substituted with a bone graft because reserving the damaged disc in situ increases the risk of treatment failure.

  7. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts an ischemic etiology of acute heart failure in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Kim, Sung Gyun; Kim, Hyung Jik; Song, Young Rim

    2014-04-01

    The non-invasive differentiation of ischemic and non-ischemic acute heart failure (AHF) not resulting from acute myocardial infarction is difficult and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to assess whether plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can identify ischemic etiology in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting with AHF. We prospectively analyzed 61 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic AHF was confirmed by coronary angiography or stress myocardial perfusion imaging. Plasma levels of BNP were measured at admission (BNP1) and 48 h after admission (BNP2). The mean age of the study patients was 67 years. In these patients, 70.5% had diabetes and 47.5% had dialysis-dependent CKD; 28 of these patients (45.9%) had an ischemic etiology with significantly higher concentrations of BNP1 and BNP2 than did patients without ischemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.755 (P=0.001) for BNP1 and 0.868 (Pischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP1 >2907 ng/L (odds ratio [OR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-48.4; P=0.002) and BNP2 >2322 ng/L (OR 93.1, 95% CI 7.0-1238.7; P=0.001) were independently associated with an ischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP may represent a clinically useful non-invasive tool for identification of ischemic etiology of AHF in patients with stage 4-5 CKD. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower Activation in Frontal Cortex and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Observed during Sex Determination Test in Early-Stage Dementia of the Alzheimer Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Rajmohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Face-labeling refers to the ability to classify faces into social categories. This plays a critical role in human interaction as it serves to define concepts of socially acceptable interpersonal behavior. The purpose of the current study was to characterize, what, if any, impairments in face-labeling are detectable in participants with early-stage clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer type (CDDAT through the use of the sex determination test (SDT. In the current study, four (1 female, 3 males CDDAT and nine (4 females, 5 males age-matched neurotypicals (NT completed the SDT using chimeric faces while undergoing BOLD fMRI. It was expected that CDDAT participants would have poor verbal fluency, which would correspond to poor performance on the SDT. This could be explained by decreased activation and connectivity patterns within the fusiform face area (FFA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. DTI was also performed to test the association of pathological deterioration of connectivity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF and verbally-mediated performance. CDDAT showed lower verbal fluency test (VFT performance, but VFT was not significantly correlated to SDT and no significant difference was seen between CDDAT and NT for SDT performance as half of the CDDAT performed substantially worse than NT while the other half performed similarly. BOLD fMRI of SDT displayed differences in the left superior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, but not the FFA or ACC. Furthermore, although DTI showed deterioration of the right inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, as well as the PCC, it did not demonstrate significant deterioration of UF tracts. Taken together, early-stage CDDAT may represent a common emerging point for the loss of face labeling ability.

  9. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-site study of HPV type-specific prevalence in women with cervical cancer, intraepithelial neoplasia and normal cytology, in England

    OpenAIRE

    Howell-Jones, R; Bailey, A; Beddows, S; Sargent, A; de Silva, N; Wilson, G; Anton, J; Nichols, T; Soldan, K; Kitchener, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is necessary to predict the expected, and to monitor the actual, impact of HPV immunisation and to design effective screening strategies for vaccinated populations. Methods: Residual specimens of cervical cytology (N=4719), CIN3/CGIN and cervical cancer biopsies (N=1515) were obtained from sites throughout England, anonymised and tested for HPV DNA using the Linear Array typing system (Roche). Resul...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix IV to Part 960 - Types of Information for the Nomination of Sites as Suitable for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include— • Expected climatic conditions and cycles, based on extrapolation of climates during the Quaternary Period. • Geomorphology of the site region and evidence of changes due to climatic changes... climatic conditions of the site region, in context with global and regional patterns of climatic changes...

  12. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  13. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  14. Plasma high-sensitivity troponin T predicts end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, Julie; Persson, Frederik; Hansen, Tine Willum; Jorsal, Anders; Tarnow, Lise; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter

    2017-11-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in type 2 diabetes also a marker of renal events, but has not been evaluated in type 1 diabetics. We therefore reviewed a type 1 diabetes cohort of 442 without and 458 with diabetic nephropathy. Baseline samples were analyzed for hsTnT levels. Cox regression analyses assessed predictive value in relation to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 99 patients, all-cause mortality in 178, and CVD events in 134 after up to 12 years of follow-up. To assess if hsTnT improved risk prediction beyond traditional clinical risk markers, we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement. HsTnT was significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to normoalbuminuria (median 8.9 vs 3.1 ng/L). For a doubling in hsTnT levels, and after adjustment for well-known risk factors, including NT-proBNP and hsCRP, the hazard ratio for ESRD at 1.26 was not significant in the diabetic nephropathy group, but there was a significant association with GFR decline after adjustment during follow-up (2.9 ml/min/1.73 m 2 annual decline per doubling in hsTnT). The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for mortality (1.64 and 1.32, respectively) were significant in patients with, but not for patients without, nephropathy. Adjusted hazard ratios for fatal and non-fatal CVD events were significant for the whole cohort (1.13), and those with nephropathy (1.14), but not significant for normoalbuminuria (1.06). Addition of hsTNT to traditional risk factors significantly increased the area under the curve by 0.01 in a receiver-operating characteristic curve for mortality. The relative integrated discrimination improvement was increased 15.7% for mortality, 6.3% for CVD, and 1.9% for ESRD (all significant). Thus, higher hsTnT is an independent predictor of renal decline and cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Copyright

  15. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth A.; Houston, Patrick J.; White, John H.; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S.; Cooper, Laurie P.; Dryden, David T.F.; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA. PMID:23771140

  16. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth A; Houston, Patrick J; White, John H; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S; Cooper, Laurie P; Dryden, David T F; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-08-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA.

  17. Numerical studies on spatial variation of the in situ stress field at Forsmark - a further step. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The present work is an investigation into the depiction of a spatial distribution of the in situ stresses at the Forsmark candidate site. The methodology is based on numerical simulations of the pre-occurrences of perturbation of the stress field, produced by the deformations/displacements that rock mass/major fracture zones undergo. The distinct element program DEC, was used for the purpose. Forsmark area is dominated mainly by the Forsmark and the Singoe faults but also by a number of major fracture zones. Almost all these structures, not only that they are reported to dip vertically, but they more or less run sub-parallel with the inferred overall orientation of the major principal stress, s1. These zones, as a result, cause a fairly limited perturbation in the state of in situ stress at the site. At a diminished scale, however, fracture zones of a lesser extent - which dip obliquely and run at an angle in relation to the s1 orientation - produce a significant perturbation of the state of stress. This work also included two preliminary investigations on: - Assessing the remote orientation of the major principal stress. This was done by looking at the crustal shortening, which characterizes in part the past tectonic activities of the Fennoscandian shield. - Looking for the mechanically viable explanations for the formation of joints sub-parallel with ground surface within the uppermost section of the rock mass.

  18. Identification of a Second Site of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Comfrey to Boost Plant Defense in Floral Stage1,2[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In comfrey (Symphytum officinale; Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that comfrey plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves express not only HSS but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures. PMID:28275146

  19. The Analysis of Intracellular and Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Human Anterior Lens Capsule Epithelial Cells with Regard to Different Types and Stages of the Cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Gosak

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated how modifications of the Ca2+ homeostasis in anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs are associated with different types of cataract (cortical or nuclear and how the progression of the cataract (mild or moderate affects the Ca2+ signaling. We systematically analyzed different aspects of intra- and inter-cellular Ca2+ signaling in the human LECs, which are attached to surgically isolated lens capsule (LC, obtained during cataract surgery. We monitored the temporal and spatial changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after stimulation with acetylcholine by means of Fura-2 fluorescence captured with an inverted microscope. In our analysis we compared the features of Ca2+ signals in individual cells, synchronized activations, spatio-temporal grouping and the nature of intercellular communication between LECs. The latter was assessed by using the methodologies of the complex network theory. Our results point out that at the level of individual cells there are no significant differences when comparing the features of the signals with regard either to the type or the stage of the cataract. On the other hand, noticeable differences are observed at the multicellular level, despite inter-capsule variability. LCs associated with more developed cataracts were found to exhibit a slower collective response to stimulation, a less pronounced spatio-temporal clustering of LECs with similar signaling characteristics. The reconstructed intercellular networks were found to be sparser and more segregated than in LCs associated with mild cataracts. Moreover, we show that spontaneously active LECs often operate in localized groups with quite well aligned Ca2+ activity. The presence of spontaneous activity was also found to affect the stimulated Ca2+ responses of individual cells. Our findings indicate that the cataract progression entails the impairment of intercellular signaling thereby suggesting the functional importance of altered Ca2

  20. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  1. Comparison of two different flow types on CO removal along a two-stage hydrogen permselective membrane reactor for methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Mazinani, S.; Vaferi, B.; Baktash, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous pollutant with adverse effects on human health and the environment. Industrial chemical processes contribute significantly to CO accumulation in the atmosphere. One of the most important processes for controlling carbon monoxide emissions is the conversion of CO to methanol by catalytic hydrogenation. In this study, the effects of two different flow types on the rate of CO removal along a two-stage hydrogen permselective membrane reactor have been investigated. In the first configuration, fresh synthesis gas flows in the tube side of the membrane reactor co-currently with reacting material in the shell side, so that more hydrogen is provided in the first sections of the reactor. In the second configuration, fresh synthesis gas flows in the tube side of the membrane reactor counter-currently with reacting material in the shell side, so that more hydrogen is provided in the last sections of the reactor. For this membrane system, a one-dimensional dynamic plug flow model in the presence of catalyst deactivation was developed. Comparison between co-current and counter-current configurations shows that the reactor operates with higher conversion of CO and hydrogen permeation rate in the counter-current mode whereas; longer catalyst life is achieved in the co-current configuration. Enhancement of CO removal in the counter-current mode versus the co-current configuration results in an ultimate reduction in CO emissions into the atmosphere.

  2. Effect of Land Cover Type and Structure on Water Cycling Dynamics for Agricultural and Wetland Sites in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelmann, E.; Hemes, K. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta is an important source of fresh water for California. To reverse soil subsidence, which is linked to draining the natural wetlands for agriculture, parts of the Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta have been restored to managed wetlands. While these restored wetlands provide greenhouse gas benefits compared to agricultural use of the land, implications for the water balance of these ecosystems, specifically evapotranspiration, are not well known. Based on multiple years of eddy covariance measurements of water, CO2, and sensible energy fluxes we explored the water cycling dynamics for several sites under different land use covers in the Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta. We investigated four sites under agricultural use (rice, corn, and alfalfa crops and cow pasture) and three restored wetland sites of varying ages and structures to examine the influence of land cover type and structure on evapotranspiration, sensible energy flux, and water use efficiency. While the wetland and the rice sites are usually flooded for the majority of the year, the alfalfa, corn, and pasture sites have a water table that is maintained to be below ground level throughout the year. The three wetland sites also have different fractions of open water to vegetation, covering a gradient from very dense vegetation with no open water to a fairly open structure with large pools of open water. These differences in land cover (dry vs flooded and fraction of open water to vegetation) have an effect on the patterns of evapotranspiration on diurnal to annual timescales. Although the flooded sites (wetland sites and rice) tend to have larger annual evapotranspiration than the drained sites (cow pasture, alfalfa, and corn), the fraction of open water to vegetation affects the extend to which the flooded sites' evapotranspiration exceeds that of drained sites. On diurnal timescales, we found that flooded sites with a larger fraction of open water to vegetation

  3. Comparison of renal function assessment by cystatin c and creatinine based equations for e-gfr in type 2 diabetics in different stages of albuminuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, A.; Ahmad, T.M.; Hayat, A.; Khan, M.A.; Rehman, S. Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare e-GFR estimated by creatinine or cystatin C based and combined creatinine and cystatin C based equations in type 2 diabetics in different stages of albuminuria. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with endocrinology outpatient department Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Nov 2015 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 119 type 2 diabetic subjects of either gender, aged 30- 60 years were enrolled in the study with duration of diabetes less than 15 years and were divided into further sub groups on the basis of degree of albuminuria determined by spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (uACR). Fifty age matched disease free controls with no history of any systemic disease were also included in the study. Known patients of type 1 diabetes, chronic inflammatory disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, on lipid lowering drugs, steroids, ACE inhibitors and pregnant ladies were excluded from the study. Serum creatinine serum cystatin C were assessed on fully automated chemistry analyzer selectra. E-GFR was calculated by online GFR calculator by National Kidney Foundation. Comparison of means of e-GFR calculated by various equations was carried out by one way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. Degree of agreement between various equations for the estimation of GFR was assessed by kappa statistics. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Mean e-GFR (ml/min/1.73m2) was lowest in cystatin C based CKD-EPI equation (89.56 +- 39.84) followed by combined cystatin C and creatinine based CKD-EPI (92.34 +- 37.88). Values of e-GFR by creatinine based CKD-EPI equation (95.84 +- 27.24), and by creatinine based MDRD equation (105.37 +- 64.98) were both higher. In creatinine based MDRD, equation normo albuminuria and micro albuminuria groups did not show statistically

  4. Feasibility, safety, and tolerance of subcutaneous synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide (syncBNP) in healthy dogs and dogs with stage B1 mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, M A; Solter, P F; Thorn, C L; Stern, J A

    2017-06-01

    An important aspect of heart failure is the progressive ineffectiveness of the salutary natriuretic peptide system and its secondary messenger, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In humans with acute heart failure, administration of exogenous natriuretic peptide is associated with improvement in clinical signs and reduction of cardiac filling pressures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility, tolerance, and safety of subcutaneous (SC) synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide (syncBNP) administration in dogs. Six privately owned dogs. Dogs were enrolled in a modified 3 + 3 phase I trial. Three dogs initially received doses of 2.5 and 5 μg/kg SC syncBNP followed by an additional three dogs dosed at 5 and 10 μg/kg. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed for 120 min after each injection. Blood and urine samples were collected at 45 and 120 min after injection of 5 μg/kg. Major adverse clinical events that would potentially halt testing were pre-defined. Four healthy dogs and two dogs with stage B1 mitral valve disease were recruited. Synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide was well tolerated at all doses. Synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide at 5 μg/kg significantly increased median plasma cGMP (baseline cGMP, 131.5 pmol/mL [range, 91.9-183.6 pmol/mL]; 45 min, 153.6 pmol/mL [140.3-214.3 pmol/mL]; 120 min, 192.7 pmol/mL [139.1-240.1 pmol/mL]; p=0.041). We report for the first time administration of syncBNP in privately owned dogs. Administration of SC syncBNP was feasible, well tolerated, safe, and increased plasma cGMP concentration. Further studies using exogenous syncBNP for treatment of heart disease are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand [3H]PK 14105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with [ 3 H]PK 14105. In thymus sections, [ 3 H]PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands

  6. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand [3H]PK 14105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, J; Dubois, A; Dennis, T; Hamel, E; Scatton, B

    1989-04-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with [3H]PK 14105. In thymus sections, [3H]PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands.

  7. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand (/sup 3/H)PK 14105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-04-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with (/sup 3/H)PK 14105. In thymus sections, (/sup 3/H)PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands.

  8. G to A substitution in 5{prime} donor splice site of introns 18 and 48 of COL1A1 gene of type I collagen results in different splicing alternatives in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, M.; Deschenes, S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a G to A substitution in the 5{prime} donor splice site of intron 18 of one COL1A1 allele in two unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. A third OI type I family has a G to A substitution at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele. Both mutations abolish normal splicing and lead to reduced steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant COL1A1 allele. The intron 18 mutation leads to both exon 18 skipping in the mRNA and to utilization of a single alternative splice site near the 3{prime} end of exon 18. The latter results in deletion of the last 8 nucleotides of exon 18 from the mRNA, a shift in the translational reading-frame, and the creation of a premature termination codon in exon 19. Of the potential alternative 5{prime} splice sites in exon 18 and intron 18, the one utilized has a surrounding nucleotide sequence which most closely resembles that of the natural splice site. Although a G to A mutation was detected at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele in another OI type I family, nine complex alternative splicing patterns were identified by sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from fibroblast mRNA from this cell strain. All result in partial or complete skipping of exon 48, with in-frame deletions of portions of exons 47 and/or 49. The different patterns of RNA splicing were not explained by their sequence homology with naturally occuring 5{prime} splice sites, but rather by recombination between highly homologous exon sequences, suggesting that we may not have identified the major splicing alternative(s) in this cell strain. Both G to A mutations result in decreased production of type I collagen, the common biochemical correlate of OI type I.

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  11. Application of SAFRAN Tool for the Knowledge Management at the Stage of Radioactive Waste Retrieval from Historical Radon-type Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetnik, A.; Murlis, D.

    2016-01-01

    Our task was to assess waste retrieval operations from a typical RADON-type historical waste storage facility during decommissioning. Challenges: “Historical radioactive waste” is generated without a complete traceable characterization programme or quality management system in place. Key characteristics of historical waste are: — may be conditioned, partially treated, or raw; — poor or no information/traceability; — cannot conclusively identify originating process/location; — waste streams may be mixed. Conclusions: • SAFRAN uses methodologies agreed upon at the international level, namely, by IAEA standards; • Several experts can work more effectively when performing the same safety assessment. SAFRAN makes it easier to exchange experience through sharing projects and data bases; • It is helpful for systematic and structured safety assessment as per safety standards; • It manages information and data in the same software environment. • SAFRAN can play a significant role in managing records and knowledge on radioactive waste, nuclear facility site, characteristics of geological environment and safety barriers. • It can provide reliable long-term storage and effective management of safety related records for the purposes of safety reassessments, review and supervision.

  12. Osteocalcin and N-telopeptides of type I collagen marker levels in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze changes in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic movement by assessing the levels of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen marker (NTx) and osteocalcin (OC) activity. Twenty patients requiring all first premolars to be extracted were selected and treated with conventional straight-wire mechanotherapy. The canines were retracted with closed-coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side acted as the experimental site, and the contralateral canine was the control. GCF was collected from around the canines before retraction, and 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days after retraction. GCF NTx and OC levels were estimated and compared with the control side. The results showed statistically significant changes in NTx and OC levels on days 7, 14, and 21 when we compared the experimental and control sides. The peak in all activity of the variables occurred on day 14 after retraction. The study showed that NTx and OC levels can be successfully estimated in the GCF, and its increased levels might indicate the active tooth movement phase in orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA cleavage site selection by Type III restriction enzymes provides evidence for head-on protein collisions following 1D bidirectional motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Friedrich W.; van Aelst, Kara; Tóth, Júlia; Seidel, Ralf; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes requires communication in 1D between two distant indirectly-repeated recognitions sites, yet results in non-specific dsDNA cleavage close to only one of the two sites. To test a recently proposed ATP-triggered DNA sliding model, we addressed why one site is selected over another during cleavage. We examined the relative cleavage of a pair of identical sites on DNA substrates with different distances to a free or protein blocked end, and on a DNA substrate using different relative concentrations of protein. Under these conditions a bias can be induced in the cleavage of one site over the other. Monte-Carlo simulations based on the sliding model reproduce the experimentally observed behaviour. This suggests that cleavage site selection simply reflects the dynamics of the preceding stochastic enzyme events that are consistent with bidirectional motion in 1D and DNA cleavage following head-on protein collision. PMID:21724613

  14. Geraniin extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum binds to dengue virus type-2 envelope protein and inhibits early stage of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Ahmad, Siti Aisyah; Palanisamy, Uma D; Tejo, Bimo A; Chew, Miaw Fang; Tham, Hong Wai; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2017-11-21

    The rapid rise and spread in dengue cases, together with the unavailability of safe vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, warrant the need to discover and develop novel anti-dengue treatments. In this study the antiviral activity of geraniin, extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum, against dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) was investigated. Geraniin was prepared from Nephelium lappaceum rind by reverse phase C-18 column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of geraniin towards Vero cells was evaluated using MTT assay while IC 50 value was determined by plaque reduction assay. The mode-of-action of geraniin was characterized using the virucidal, attachment, penetration and the time-of-addition assays'. Docking experiments with geraniin molecule and the DENV envelope (E) protein was also performed. Finally, recombinant E Domain III (rE-DIII) protein was produced to physiologically test the binding of geraniin to DENV-2 E-DIII protein, through ELISA competitive binding assay. Cytotoxicity assay confirmed that geraniin was not toxic to Vero cells, even at the highest concentration tested. The compound exhibited DENV-2 plaque formation inhibition, with an IC 50 of 1.75 μM. We further revealed that geraniin reduced viral infectivity and inhibited DENV-2 from attaching to the cells but had little effect on its penetration. Geraniin was observed to be most effective when added at the early stage of DENV-2 infection. Docking experiments showed that geraniin binds to DENV E protein, specifically at the DIII region, while the ELISA competitive binding assay confirmed geraniin's interaction with rE-DIII with high affinity. Geraniin from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum has antiviral activity against DENV-2. It is postulated that the compound inhibits viral attachment by binding to the E-DIII protein and interferes with the initial cell-virus interaction. Our results demonstrate that geraniin has the potential to be developed into an effective antiviral treatment, particularly for

  15. Prediction of new onset of end stage renal disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-08-01

    Since diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), this study aimed to develop a 5-year ESRD risk prediction model among Chinese patients with Type 2 DM (T2DM) in primary care. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 149,333 Chinese adult T2DM primary care patients without ESRD in 2010. Using the derivation cohort over a median of 5 years follow-up, the gender-specific models including the interaction effect between predictors and age were derived using Cox regression with a forward stepwise approach. Harrell's C-statistic and calibration plot were applied to the validation cohort to assess discrimination and calibration of the models. Prediction models showed better discrimination with Harrell's C-statistics of 0.866 (males) and 0.862 (females) and calibration power from the plots than other established models. The predictors included age, usages of anti-hypertensive drugs, anti-glucose drugs, and Hemogloblin A1c, blood pressure, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Specific predictors for male were smoking and presence of sight threatening diabetic retinopathy while additional predictors for female included longer duration of diabetes and quadratic effect of body mass index. Interaction factors with age showed a greater weighting of insulin and urine ACR in younger males, and eGFR in younger females. Our newly developed gender-specific models provide a more accurate 5-year ESRD risk predictions for Chinese diabetic primary care patients than other existing models. The models included several modifiable risk factors that clinicians can use to counsel patients, and to target at in the delivery of care to patients.

  16. Interferon-alpha mediates restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 replication in primary human macrophages at an early stage of replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Cheney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNα and β are induced directly in response to viral infection, resulting in an antiviral state for the cell. In vitro studies have shown that IFNα is a potent inhibitor of viral replication; however, its role in HIV-1 infection is incompletely understood. In this study we describe the ability of IFNα to restrict HIV-1 infection in primary human macrophages in contrast to peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Inhibition to HIV-1 replication in cells pretreated with IFNα occurred at an early stage in the virus life cycle. Late viral events such as budding and subsequent rounds of infection were not affected by IFNα treatment. Analysis of early and late HIV-1 reverse transcripts and integrated proviral DNA confirmed an early post entry role for IFNα. First strand cDNA synthesis was slightly reduced but late and integrated products were severely depleted, suggesting that initiation or the nucleic acid intermediates of reverse transcription are targeted. The depletion of integrated provirus is disproportionally greater than that of viral cDNA synthesis suggesting the possibility of a least an additional later target. A role for either cellular protein APOBEC3G or tetherin in this IFNα mediated restriction has been excluded. Vpu, previously shown by others to rescue a viral budding restriction by tetherin, could not overcome this IFNα induced effect. Determining both the viral determinants and cellular proteins involved may lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Our results add to the understanding of HIV-1 restriction by IFNα.

  17. Transient biouptake flux and accumulation by micro-organisms: The case of two types of sites with Langmuir adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galceran, J.; Monne, J.; Puy, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of a chemical species by an aquatic microorganism is modelled considering two kinds of sites where Langmuirian adsorption is followed by first order internalisation kinetics. Simpler models, such as only one internalisation route (while most of the adsorption takes place on

  18. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4.......0 software, Three computer libraries of PFGE DNA profiles were constructed, and their ability to recognize new DNA profiles was analyzed. The results obtained pointed out that the combination of PFGE with computerized analysis could be suitable in long-term epidemiological comparison and surveillance...

  19. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site - 8422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Wieland; V Yucel; L Desotell; G Shott; J Wrapp

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators

  20. Mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to monoclonal antibody B12 that effectively targets the site of CD4 attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueling; Zhou, Tongqing; O'Dell, Sijy; Wyatt, Richard T; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R

    2009-11-01

    The region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 that engages its primary cellular receptor CD4 forms a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibodies. The monoclonal antibody b12 exploits the conservation and accessibility of the CD4-binding site to neutralize many, though not all, HIV-1 isolates. To understand the basis of viral resistance to b12, we used the atomic-level definition of b12-gp120 contact sites to study a panel of diverse circulating viruses. A combination of sequence analysis, computational modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the influence of amino acid variants on binding and neutralization by b12. We found that several substitutions within the dominant b12 contact surface, called the CD4-binding loop, mediated b12 resistance, and that these substitutions resided just proximal to the known CD4 contact surface. Hence, viruses varied in key b12 contact residues that are proximal to, but not part of, the CD4 contact surface. This explained how viral isolates were able to evade b12 neutralization while maintaining functional binding to CD4. In addition, some viruses were resistant to b12 despite minimal sequence variation at b12 contact sites. Such neutralization resistance usually could be reversed by alterations at residues thought to influence the quaternary configuration of the viral envelope spike. To design immunogens that elicit neutralizing antibodies directed to the CD4-binding site, researchers need to address the antigenic variation within this region of gp120 and the restricted access to the CD4-binding site imposed by the native configuration of the trimeric viral envelope spike.

  1. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Is Associated with Enhanced Baseline and Antigen-Specific Induction of Type 1 and Type 17 Cytokines and Reduced Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 at the Site of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathamuthu, Gokul Raj; Moideen, Kadar; Baskaran, Dhanaraj; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Sekar, Gomathi; Sridhar, Rathinam; Vidyajayanthi, Bharathi; Gajendraraj, Ganeshan; Parandhaman, Dinesh Kumar; Srinivasan, Alena; Babu, Subash

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is characterized by an expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells with altered serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the cytokine profile at the site of infection, i.e., the affected lymph nodes, has not been examined in detail. To estimate the baseline and mycobacterial antigen-stimulated concentrations of type 1, type 17, and other proinflammatory cytokines in patients with TBL ( n = 14), we examined both the baseline and the antigen-specific concentrations of these cytokines before and after chemotherapy and compared them with those in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) ( n = 14). In addition, we also compared the cytokine responses in whole blood and those in the lymph nodes of TBL individuals. We observed significantly enhanced baseline and antigen-specific levels of type 1 cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and a type 17 cytokine (interleukin-17 [IL-17]) and significantly diminished baseline and antigen-specific levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18) in the whole blood of TBL individuals compared to those in the whole blood of PTB individuals. Moreover, we also observed a pattern of baseline and antigen-specific cytokine production at the site of infection (lymph node) similar to that in the whole blood of TBL individuals. Following standard antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment, we observed alterations in the baseline and/or antigen-specific levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18. TBL is therefore characterized by enhanced baseline and antigen-specific production of type 1 and type 17 cytokines and reduced baseline and antigen-specific production of IL-1β and IL-18 at the site of infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Effector/memory T cells of the weanling mouse exhibit Type 2 cytokine polarization in vitro and in vivo in the advanced stages of acute energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevels, Tessa A M; Hillyer, Lyn M; Monk, Jennifer M; Fisher, Megan E; Woodward, Bill D

    2010-06-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the polarizing cytokine profile of the effector/memory T-cell compartment reflects the profound decline of cell-mediated inflammatory competence that characterizes acute prepubescent malnutrition. Weanling C57BL/6J mice were permitted free access to a complete purified diet, free access to an isocaloric low-protein diet or restricted intake of the complete diet for 14 days. First, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma concentrations generated in vitro by splenic and nodal effector/memory T cells were assessed following exposure to plate-bound anti-CD3. Second, net systemic production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by the effector/memory T-cell compartment was assessed by the in vivo cytokine capture assay following anti-CD3 stimulation. In vitro stimulation generated less IFN-gamma (P=.002) but more IL-4 (P=.05) by T cells from the restricted-intake group relative to the age-matched control group. Similarly, in vivo stimulation generated low serum levels of antibody-captured IFN-gamma in the restricted-intake group vis-à-vis the age-matched control group (P=.01), while the IL-4 response was sustained (P=.39). By contrast, the 14-day low-protein model exhibited no change in T-cell cytokine signature either in vitro or in vivo. However, following extended consumption of the low-protein diet (26 days), carcass energy losses exceeded those of the 14-day protocol and serum levels of in vivo antibody-captured IFN-gamma were low after anti-CD3 challenge relative to the age-matched control group (P=.02), while levels of captured IL-4 remained unaffected (P=.07). Acute weanling malnutrition elicits a Type 2 polarizing cytokine character on the part of the effector/memory T-cell compartment, but only in the most advanced stages of energy decrement. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  4. New type of tachykinin binding site in the rat brain characterized by specific binding of a labeled eledoisin derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujouan, J.C.; Torrens, Y.; Viger, A.; Glowinski, J.

    1984-09-01

    A new ligand for investigating tachykinin-binding site subtypes was synthesized by coupling the /sup 125/I-Bolton and Hunter reagent to eledoisin (/sup 125/I-BHE). Using a synaptosomal preparation (P2 fraction) of rat cerebral cortex, /sup 125/I-BHE was shown to bind with apparent high affinity (apparent Kd . 15.3 nM). When concentrations of up to 30 nM /sup 125/I-BHE were used, /sup 125/I-BHE binding was specific, saturable, reversible, and temperature-dependent. In contrast to (/sup 3/H)dopamine, /sup 125/I-BHE was not taken up within synaptosomes by an ouabain-sensitive process. Eledoisin, kassinin, and substance P were examined for their ability to inhibit specific /sup 125/I-BHE binding to cortical synaptosomes. Eledoisin and kassinin were considerably more potent than substance P, in contrast to the order of potency observed for specific /sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter substance P (/sup 125/I-BHSP) binding. Specific /sup 125/I-BHE binding was highest in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus; intermediate in the hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus; low in the mesencephalon, septum, and substantia nigra; and absent in the cerebellum. Comparison of these data with those previously obtained for /sup 125/I-BHSP binding to synaptosomes indicated that /sup 125/I-BHE-labeled binding sites differ markedly from those of /sup 125/I-BHSP-labeled binding sites. Therefore, tachykinin receptors other than substance P receptors seem to be present in the central nervous system.

  5. Synthesis and Preliminary Characterization of a PPE-Type Polymer Containing Substituted Fullerenes and Transition Metal Ligation Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Basinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A substituted fullerene was incorporated into a PPE-conjugated polymer repeat unit. This subunit was then polymerized via Sonogashira coupling with other repeat units to create polymeric systems approaching 50 repeat units (based on GPC characterization. Bipyridine ligands were incorporated into some of these repeat units to provide sites for transition metal coordination. Photophysical characterization of the absorption and emission properties of these systems shows excited states located on both the fullerene and aromatic backbone of the polymers that exist in a thermally controlled equilibrium. Future work will explore other substituted polyaromatic systems using similar methodologies.

  6. Expression of type 3 complement receptor on activated CD8+ T cells facilitates homing to inflammatory sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H V; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersson, E C

    1994-01-01

    -cell extravasation at inflammatory foci. The in vivo administration of 5C6 significantly reduced the severity of the T cell-mediated meningitis induced by intracerebral inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. FACS analysis of the inflammatory exudate showed that this consists of monocytes...... that anti-CR3 treatment inhibits extravasation of both the Ag-specific and the nonspecific cellular components of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced, CD8+ cell-dependent inflammatory reaction. Thus, expression of CR3 seems to facilitate T cell homing to sites of inflammation....

  7. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1–2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. PMID:26507855

  8. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-02

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1-2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Efficacy of two antiseptic regimens on skin colonization of insertion sites for two different catheter types: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Juergen Thomas; Diener, Isabel Victoria; Freiberg, Kerstin; Zillmann, Robert; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Seifert, Harald; Berger-Schreck, Bettina; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections affect patients in surgical and intensive care settings worldwide, causing complications, aggravation of existing symptoms and increased length of stay. The trial aimed at comparing two registered skin antiseptics with respect to their residual and therefore infection-preventing effects. In a parallel, monocentric, prospective, triple-blind, randomized trial the difference in bacterial recolonization of catheter skin sites in central venous (CVC) and epidural catheters (EC) was investigated by comparing two alcoholic-based skin disinfectants. Patients receiving planned surgeries or intensive care were eligible for the trial. Those in the trial group received skin disinfection with the additive octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) (n = 51), those in the control group were treated with benzalkonium chloride as additive (BAC) (n = 59) prior to catheter insertion. Randomization was carried out by assigning patients to groups week-wise. Endpoints of the investigation were skin colonization of the catheter site counted in colony forming units per swab at three time points: (1) prior to catheter insertion, on untreated skin; (2) directly after catheter insertion, prior to sterile coverage; (3) 48 h after catheter insertion. The hypothesis was tested by a Wilcoxon test with a two-sided alpha = 5 %. From second to third swab, recolonization of the catheter-surrounding skin was significantly lower in the trial group for both sorts of catheters: delta 2-3 OCT group: 0.72 (95 % CI: 0.42; 1.02); delta 2-3 BAC group: 1.97 (95 % CI: 1.45; 2.50); p < 0.001. None of the patients enrolled developed a catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) during follow-up. Previous studies have shown that skin colonization is strongly associated with the occurrence of CRBSI. This randomized controlled trial supports the observations made in previous trials that octenidine dihydrochloride in disinfectants is more effective than agents

  10. Mapping of protein-protein interaction sites in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Kameda

    Full Text Available Knowing the manner of protein-protein interactions is vital for understanding biological events. The plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (Fd, a well-known small iron-sulfur protein with low redox potential, partitions electrons to a variety of Fd-dependent enzymes via specific protein-protein interactions. Here we have refined the crystal structure of a recombinant plant-type Fd I from the blue green alga Aphanothece sacrum (AsFd-I at 1.46 Å resolution on the basis of the synchrotron radiation data. Incorporating the revised amino-acid sequence, our analysis corrects the 3D structure previously reported; we identified the short α-helix (67-71 near the active center, which is conserved in other plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fds. Although the 3D structures of the four molecules in the asymmetric unit are similar to each other, detailed comparison of the four structures revealed the segments whose conformations are variable. Structural comparison between the Fds from different sources showed that the distribution of the variable segments in AsFd-I is highly conserved in other Fds, suggesting the presence of intrinsically flexible regions in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fd. A few structures of the complexes with Fd-dependent enzymes clearly demonstrate that the protein-protein interactions are achieved through these variable regions in Fd. The results described here will provide a guide for interpreting the biochemical and mutational studies that aim at the manner of interactions with Fd-dependent enzymes.

  11. Distinct high molecular weight organic compound (HMW-OC) types in aerosol particles collected at a coastal urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Healy, R. M.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Harrison, Roy M.; Beddows, D. C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Organic oligomers were discovered in laboratory-generated atmospheric aerosol over a decade ago. However, evidence for the presence of oligomers in ambient aerosols is scarce and mechanisms for their formation have yet to be fully elucidated. In this work, three unique aerosol particle types internally mixed with High molecular weight organic compounds (HMW-OC) species - likely oligomers - were detected in ambient air using single particle Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) in Cork (Ireland) during winter 2009. These particle types can be described as follows: (1) HMW-OCs rich in organic nitrogen - possibly containing nitrocatechols and nitroguaiacols - originating from primary emissions of biomass burning particles during evening times; (2) HMW-OCs internally mixed with nitric acid, occurring in stagnant conditions during night time; and (3) HMW-OCs internally mixed with sea salt, likely formed via photochemical reactions during day time. The study exemplifies the power of methodologies capable of monitoring the simultaneous formation of organic and inorganic particle-phase reaction products. Primary emissions and atmospheric aging of different types of HMW-OC contributes to aerosol with a range of acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties, which can have different impacts on climate and health.

  12. Interactions among the A and T units of an ECF-type biotin transporter analyzed by site-specific crosslinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Neubauer

    Full Text Available Energy-coupling factor (ECF transporters are a huge group of micronutrient importers in prokaryotes. They are composed of a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component and a module consisting of a moderately conserved transmembrane protein (T component and two ABC ATPase domains (A components. Modules of A and T units may be dedicated to a specific S component or shared by many different S units in an organism. The mode of subunit interactions in ECF transporters is largely unknown. BioMNY, the focus of the present study, is a biotin transporter with a dedicated AT module. It consists of the S unit BioY, the A unit BioM and the T unit BioN. Like all T units, BioN contains two three-amino-acid signatures with a central Arg residue in a cytoplasmic helical region. Our previous work had demonstrated a central role of the two motifs in T units for stability and function of BioMNY and other ECF transporters. Here we show by site-specific crosslinking of pairs of mono-cysteine variants that the Ala-Arg-Ser and Ala-Arg-Gly signatures in BioN are coupling sites to the BioM ATPases. Analysis of 64 BioN-BioM pairs uncovered interactions of both signatures predominantly with a segment of ~13 amino acid residues C-terminal of the Q loop of BioM. Our results further demonstrate that portions of all BioN variants with single Cys residues in the two signatures are crosslinked to homodimers. This finding may point to a dimeric architecture of the T unit in BioMNY complexes.

  13. Interactions among the A and T Units of an ECF-Type Biotin Transporter Analyzed by Site-Specific Crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Olivia; Reiffler, Christin; Behrendt, Laura; Eitinger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a huge group of micronutrient importers in prokaryotes. They are composed of a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a module consisting of a moderately conserved transmembrane protein (T component) and two ABC ATPase domains (A components). Modules of A and T units may be dedicated to a specific S component or shared by many different S units in an organism. The mode of subunit interactions in ECF transporters is largely unknown. BioMNY, the focus of the present study, is a biotin transporter with a dedicated AT module. It consists of the S unit BioY, the A unit BioM and the T unit BioN. Like all T units, BioN contains two three-amino-acid signatures with a central Arg residue in a cytoplasmic helical region. Our previous work had demonstrated a central role of the two motifs in T units for stability and function of BioMNY and other ECF transporters. Here we show by site-specific crosslinking of pairs of mono-cysteine variants that the Ala-Arg-Ser and Ala-Arg-Gly signatures in BioN are coupling sites to the BioM ATPases. Analysis of 64 BioN-BioM pairs uncovered interactions of both signatures predominantly with a segment of ∼13 amino acid residues C-terminal of the Q loop of BioM. Our results further demonstrate that portions of all BioN variants with single Cys residues in the two signatures are crosslinked to homodimers. This finding may point to a dimeric architecture of the T unit in BioMNY complexes. PMID:22216173

  14. Two novel splicing mutations in the SLC45A2 gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism Type IV by unmasking cryptic splice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, Letizia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Andreucci, Elena; Bargiacchi, Sara; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Asselta, Rosanna; Primignani, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type IV (OCA4) is one of the four commonly recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the SLC45A2 gene. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of OCA4 in an Italian child. The mutational screening of the SLC45A2 gene identified two novel potentially pathogenic splicing mutations: a synonymous transition (c.888G>A) involving the last nucleotide of exon 3 and a single-nucleotide insertion (c.1156+2dupT) within the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of intron 5. As computer-assisted analysis for mutant splice-site prediction was not conclusive, we investigated the effects on pre-mRNA splicing of these two variants by using an in vitro minigene approach. Production of mutant transcripts in HeLa cells demonstrated that both mutations cause the almost complete abolishment of the physiologic donor splice site, with the concomitant unmasking of cryptic donor splice sites. To our knowledge, this work represents the first in-depth molecular characterization of splicing defects in a OCA4 patient.

  15. Early renin-angiotensin system intervention is more beneficial than late intervention in delaying end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schievink, B; Kröpelin, T; Mulder, S

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To develop and validate a model to simulate progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) from early onset until end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to assess the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) intervention in early, intermediate and advanced stages of DKD. METHODS: We used data from......, intermediate and advanced stage of disease, whose mean age was 60 years and who received placebo, the median time to ESRD was 21.4, 10.8 and 4.7 years, respectively. RAS intervention delayed the predicted time to ESRD by 4.2, 3.6 and 1.4 years, respectively. The benefit of early RAS intervention was more...... pronounced in younger patients; for example, for patients with a mean age of 45 years, RAS intervention at early, intermediate or advanced stage delayed ESRD by 5.9, 4.0 and 1.1 years versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: RAS intervention early in the course of proteinuric DKD is more beneficial than late...

  16. Positive selection pressure introduces secondary mutations at Gag cleavage sites in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 harboring major protease resistance mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, S.; Lillemark, M.R.; Gerstoft, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) specifically target the HIV-1 protease enzyme. Mutations in the enzyme can result in PI resistance (termed PI mutations); however, mutations in the HIV-1 gag region, the substrate for the protease enzyme, might also lead to PI...... resistance. We analyzed gag and pol sequence data from the following 313 HIV-1-infected patients: 160 treatment-naive patients, 93 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with no major PI mutations), and 60 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with major PI...... that positive selection pressure was the driving evolutionary force for the gag region in all three patient groups. An increase in positive selection was observed in gag cleavage site regions p7/p1/p6 only after the acquisition of major PI mutations, suggesting that amino acids in gag cleavage sites under...

  17. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua; Pfister, Roman; Deppe, Antje-Christin; Matoussevitch, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  18. An Aromatic Cap Seals the Substrate Binding Site in an ECF-Type S Subunit for Riboflavin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpowich, Nathan K.; Song, Jinmei; Wang, Da-Neng

    2016-06-13

    ECF transporters are a family of active membrane transporters for essential micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace metals. Found exclusively in archaea and bacteria, these transporters are composed of four subunits: an integral membrane substrate-binding subunit (EcfS), a transmembrane coupling subunit (EcfT), and two ATP-binding cassette ATPases (EcfA and EcfA'). We have characterized the structural basis of substrate binding by the EcfS subunit for riboflavin from Thermotoga maritima, TmRibU. TmRibU binds riboflavin with high affinity, and the protein–substrate complex is exceptionally stable in solution. The crystal structure of riboflavin-bound TmRibU reveals an electronegative binding pocket at the extracellular surface in which the substrate is completely buried. Analysis of the intermolecular contacts indicates that nearly every available substrate hydrogen bond is satisfied. A conserved aromatic residue at the extracellular end of TM5, Tyr130, caps the binding site to generate a substrate-bound, occluded state, and non-conservative mutation of Tyr130 reduces the stability of this conformation. Using a novel fluorescence binding assay, we find that an aromatic residue at this position is essential for high-affinity substrate binding. Comparison with other S subunit structures suggests that TM5 and Loop5-6 contain a dynamic, conserved motif that plays a key role in gating substrate entry and release by S subunits of ECF transporters.

  19. Hydrogenation of biofuels with formic acid over a palladium-based ternary catalyst with two types of active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhang, Bingsen; Meng, Xiangju; Su, Dang Sheng; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-06-01

    A composite catalyst including palladium nanoparticles on titania (TiO2) and on nitrogen-modified porous carbon (Pd/TiO2@N-C) is synthesized from palladium salts, tetrabutyl titanate, and chitosan. N2 sorption isotherms show that the catalyst has a high BET surface area (229 m(2)  g(-1)) and large porosity. XPS and TEM characterization of the catalyst shows that palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed across the TiO2 and nitrogen-modified porous carbon, respectively. The Pd/TiO2@N-C catalyst is very active and shows excellent stability towards hydrogenation of vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol using formic acid as hydrogen source. This activity can be attributed to a synergistic effect between the Pd/TiO2 (a catalyst for dehydrogenation of formic acid) and Pd/N-C (a catalyst for hydrogenation of vanillin) sites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cementless total hip arthroplasty for patients with Crowe type III or IV developmental dysplasia of the hip: two-stage total hip arthroplasty following skeletal traction after soft tissue release for irreducible hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Dong Ok; Yu, Cheol Hwan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2013-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a technically demanding procedure for arthroplasty surgeons, and it is often difficult to reduce the hip joint without soft tissue release due to severe flexion contracture. We performed two-stage THAs in irreducible hips with expected lengthening of the affected limb after THA of over 2.5 cm or with flexion contractures of greater than 30 degrees in order to place the acetabular cup in the true acetabulum and to prevent neurologic deficits associated with acute elongation of the limb. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of cementless THA in patients with severe DDH with a special focus on the results of two-stage THA. Retrospective clinical and radiological evaluations were done on 17 patients with Crowe type III or IV developmental DDH treated by THA. There were 14 women and 3 men with a mean age of 52.3 years. Follow-ups averaged 52 months. Six cases were treated with two-stage THA followed by surgical hip liberalization and skeletal traction for 2 weeks. The mean Harris hip score improved from 40.9 to 89.1, and mean leg length discrepancy (LLD) in 13 unilateral cases was reduced from 2.95 to 0.8 cm. In the patients who underwent two-stage surgery, no nerve palsy was observed, and the single one-stage patient with incomplete peroneal nerve palsy recovered fully 4 weeks postoperatively. The short-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of primary cementless THA for patients with Crowe type III or IV DDH were encouraging. Two-stage THA followed by skeletal traction after soft tissue release could provide alternative solutions to the minimization of limb shortenings or LLD without neurologic deficits in highly selected patients.

  1. Stages of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests or procedures are used for staging. Staging laparotomy (a surgical incision made in the wall of ... treatment. Two types of standard treatment are used: Surgery The type of surgery (removing the tumor in ...

  2. Super-resolution imaging of C-type lectin spatial rearrangement within the dendritic cell plasma membrane at fungal microbe contact sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S Itano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells express DC-SIGN and CD206, C-type lectins (CTLs that bind a variety of pathogens and may facilitate pathogen uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. Both proteins form punctate membrane nanodomains (~80 nm on naïve cells. We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of CTLs following host-fungal particle contact using confocal microscopy and three distinct methods of cluster identification and measurement of receptor clusters in super-resolution datasets: DBSCAN, Pair Correlation and a custom implementation of the Getis spatial statistic. Quantitative analysis of confocal and super-resolution images demonstrated that CTL nanodomains become concentrated in the contact site relative to non-contact membrane after the first hour of exposure and established that this recruitment is sustained out to four hours. DC-SIGN nanodomains in fungal contact sites exhibit a 70% area increase and a 38% decrease in interdomain separation. Contact site CD206 nanodomains possess 90% greater area and 42% lower interdomain separation relative to non-contact regions. Contact site CTL clusters appear as disk-shaped domains of approximately 150-175 nm in diameter. The increase in length scale of CTL nanostructure in contact sites suggests that the smaller nanodomains on resting membranes may merge during fungal nanodomain structure, or that they become packed closely enough to achieve sub-resolution inter-domain edge separations of < 30 nm. This study provides evidence of local receptor spatial rearrangements on the nanoscale that occur in the plasma membrane upon pathogen binding and may direct important signaling interactions required to recognize and respond to the presence of a relatively large pathogen.

  3. Bifurcations of steady states in a class of lattices of nonlinear discrete Klein-Gordon type with double-quadratic on-site potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    By using the method of symbolic dynamics, we study the bifurcations of steady states in a class of lattices of nonlinear discrete Klein-Gordon type with double-quadratic on-site potential. We derive by virtue of the admissible condition the critical value ε 0 of the coupling strength, below which the steady states persist without bifurcations. If the coupling coefficient ε passes through the critical value, some of the steady states disappear. Meanwhile there are no new steady states created as ε varies. We obtain bifurcation values of some lower-order spatially periodic steady states by introducing the concept 'characteristic polynomial' of periodic sequences

  4. Effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, and method of analysis on digestibility of soluble and insoluble fiber in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Guamán, Rodrigo Medardo; Carabaño Luengo, Rosa Maria; Goméz Conde, María Soledad; Garcia Alonso, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The effect of type of fiber, site of fermetation, method for quantifying insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and their correction for intestinal mucin on fiber digestibility were examined in rabbits. Three diets differing in soluble fiber were formulated (8.5% soluble fiber, on DM basis, in the low soluble fiber [LSF] diet; 10.2% in the medium soluble fiber [MSF] diet; and 14.5% in the high soluble fiber [HSF] diet). They were obtained by replacing half of the dehydrated alfalfa in the MSF d...

  5. Surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection without resection of supra-aortic entry sites leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Woon; Song, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Baek, Min-Young; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2018-01-29

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of remnant re-entries in arch branches on postoperative change in the aortic arch and descending aortic diameters and the rate of major adverse aortic events. Between January 2010 and December 2016, 249 patients underwent surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection. Patients who underwent total arch replacement, had Marfan syndrome or had intramural haematoma were excluded. Seventy-two patients with predischarge and follow-up computed tomography scans were enrolled. Patients with and without re-entries in the arch branches after surgery were assigned to the supra-aortic entry (SAE, n = 21) and no supra-aortic entry (n = 51) groups, respectively. Diameters were measured at 7 levels: the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery, pulmonary artery bifurcation, coeliac axis and maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta. Growth rates at the levels of the pulmonary artery bifurcation and 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery were significantly higher in the SAE group than in the no supra-aortic entry group. The rate of freedom from major adverse aortic events (annual growth >5 mm or maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta >50 mm) at 5 years was significantly higher in the no supra-aortic entry group than in the SAE group. Remnant SAE leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling after acute Type I aortic dissection repair. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-Stage Progressive Femoral Lowering Followed by Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty for Treating Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type 3 Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    High developmental dysplasia of the hip is commonly treated with total hip arthroplasty and shortening osteotomy. We present a two stage technique, consisting of progressive femoral lowering followed by total hip arthroplasty. The clinico-radiographic results of eleven patients (twelve hips) who were operated on with the two-stage technique were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 11 ± 5 years. At the final follow-up, ten patients (eleven hips) had a mean Harris hip score of 85 ± 5 points with no implant loosening. One patient (one hip) was revised at 5 years due to infection. No neurovascular complications were observed in any patients. With this technique, we could place the cup in the anatomical position and obtain complete limb symmetry with excellent clinical results at long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Metformin Use and Cancer Stage at Diagnosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Preexisting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Incident Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit D. Raval

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between metformin use and cancer stage at diagnosis among elderly men with preexisting diabetes mellitus and incident prostate cancer. Methods. This study used a population-based observational cohort of elderly men (≥66 years with preexisting diabetes and incident prostate cancer between 2008 and 2009 (N=2,652. Cancer stage at diagnosis (localized versus advanced was based on the American Joint Cancer Committee classification. Metformin use and other independent variables were measured during the one year before cancer diagnosis. Logistic regressions with inverse probability treatment weights were used to control for the observed selection bias. Results. A significantly lower percentage of metformin users were diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer as compared to nonusers (4.7% versus 6.7%, p<0.03. After adjusting for the observed selection bias and other independent variables, metformin use was associated with a 32% reduction in the risk of advanced prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 0.68, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.48, 0.97. Conclusions. This is the first epidemiological study to support the role of metformin in reducing the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the causal link between metformin use and prostate cancer diagnosis stage.

  8. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Remarkable Strontium B-Site Occupancy in FerroelectricPb(Zr1-xTix)O3 Solid Solutions Doped with Cryolite-Type StrontiumNiobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, A.; Schmidt-Winkel, P.; Schossman, M.; Booth, C.H.; Albering, J.

    2007-04-26

    New high-performance ferroelectric materials based on Pb(Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} (PZT) that are doped with cryolite-type strontium niobate (SNO, Sr{sub 4}(Sr{sub 2-2y/3}Nb{sub 2+2y/3})O{sub 11+y}V{sub 0,1-y} with 0 {le} y {le} 1), hence denoted PZT:SNO, and their microscopic structure are described. The combination of exceptional piezoelectric properties, i.e. a piezoelectric strain constant of d{sub 33} {approx} 760 pm/V, with excellent stability and degradation resistance makes ferroelectric PZT:SNO solid solutions very attractive for use in novel and innovative piezoelectric actuator and transducer applications. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) analyses of PZT:SNO samples revealed that {approx}10 % of the Sr cations occupy the nominal B-sites of the perovskite-type PZT host lattice. This result was supported by EXAFS analyses of both a canonical SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite and two SNO model and reference compounds. Fit models that do not account for Sr cations on B-sites were ruled out. A clear Sr-Pb peak in Fourier transformed EXAFS data visually confirmed this structural model. The generation of temporary oxygen vacancies and the intricate defect chemistry induced by SNO-doping of PZT are crucial for the exceptional materials properties exhibited by PZT:SNO materials.

  10. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  11. Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralization sites. In this study the ED3 epitopes recognized by seven, murine, IgG1 DENV-2 type-specific, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were determined using site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant DENV-2 ED3 (rED3) protein. A total of 41 single amino acid substitutions were introduced into the rED3 at 30 different surface accessible residues. The affinity of each MAb with the mutant rED3s was assessed by indirect ELISA and the results indicate that all seven MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes with residues K305 and P384 critical for binding. These residues are conserved among DENV-2 strains and cluster together on the upper lateral face of ED3. A linear relationship was observed between relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion by MAb and neutralization of the majority of virus infectivity (∼ 90%) for all seven MAbs. Depending on the MAb, it is predicted that between 10% and 50% relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion is necessary for virus neutralization and for all seven MAbs occupancy levels approaching saturation were required for 100% neutralization of virus infectivity. Overall, the conserved antigenic site recognized by all seven MAbs is likely to be a dominant DENV-2 type-specific, neutralization determinant

  12. Type Ia Supernovae as Sites of the p-process: Two-dimensional Models Coupled to Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglio, C.; Röpke, F. K.; Gallino, R.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-10-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between 74Se and 196Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the "gamma processes" by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A explosive nucleosynthesis with a detailed nuclear reaction network for all isotopes up to 209Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) × 109 K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at quite flat average production factors, tightly related to the s-process seed distribution. For the first time, we find a stellar source able to produce both light and heavy p-nuclei almost at the same level as 56Fe, including the debated neutron magic 92, 94Mo and 96, 98Ru. We also find that there is an important contribution from the p-process nucleosynthesis to the s-only nuclei 80Kr, 86Sr, to the neutron magic 90Zr, and to the neutron-rich 96Zr. Finally, we investigate the metallicity effect on p-process production in our models. Starting with different s-process seed distributions for two metallicities Z = 0.02 and Z = 0.001, running two-dimensional SN Ia models with different initial composition, we

  13. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aldering, Greg [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arimoto, Nobuo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Pereira, Rui [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 Rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: hanindyo.kuncarayakti@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  14. Role of changes in the L3 loop of the active site in the evolution of enzymatic activity of VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, María; Pérez-Llarena, Francisco J; Kerff, Frederic; Poza, Margarita; Mallo, Susana; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Beceiro, Alejandro; Juan, Carlos; Oliver, Antonio; Bou, Germán

    2010-09-01

    The new metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-13 has been recently characterized. In comparison with the VIM-1 enzyme, VIM-13 showed 19 amino acid differences, 2 of which were located in the active site centre. The main objective of the present study was to assess whether differences between VIM-1 and VIM-13 beta-lactamases in the active site, at His224Leu and Ser228Arg, are necessary and sufficient to explain the microbiological and biochemical differences between the two enzymes. Single mutants VIM-13 (Leu224His) and VIM-13 (Arg228Ser) and double mutant VIM-13 (Leu224His, Arg228Ser) were created by site-directed mutagenesis with the bla(VIM-13) gene as template. VIM-1, VIM-13 and VIM-13 (Leu224His, Arg228Ser) were purified by affinity chromatography, and kinetic parameters for these enzymes were obtained with ceftazidime, cefepime and ampicillin. Ceftazidime and cefepime MICs (mg/L) for Escherichia coli TG1 expressing VIM-1, VIM-13, VIM-13 (Leu224His), VIM-13 (Arg228Ser) and VIM-13 (Leu224His, Arg228Ser) were >256 and 64, 6 and 4, 8 and 1, >256 and 8, and >256 and 48, respectively. VIM-1, VIM-13 and VIM-13 (Leu224His, Arg228Ser) revealed k(cat)/K(m) values (M(-1)s(-1)) for ceftazidime of 3.7 E(4), 1.9 E(4) and 10 E(4), respectively, and revealed k(cat)/K(m) values for cefepime of 3.5 E(5), 3 E(4) and 1.5 E(5), respectively. Overall, the results showed that the two residues located in the L3 loop are sufficient to confer the substrate specificity of each enzyme, thus highlighting the importance of the L3 loop of the active site in the evolution of VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamases.

  15. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  16. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    patients with persistent normoalbuminuria. Follow-up time was 12.8 years. Prediction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality by plasma CTGF was analyzed in conjunction with conventional risk factors. RESULTS: Plasma CTGF was higher in patients with nephropathy than in patients with normoalbuminuria.......3 +/- 3.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year). Moreover, in patients with nephrotic range albuminuria (>3 g/day), plasma CTGF was the only predictor of ESRD (covariate-adjusted HR 4.5 [2.0-10.4]). Plasma CTGF was an independent predictor also of overall mortality (covariate-adjusted HR 1.4 [1...

  17. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Hodl, [No Value; Poll, C; Kandeler, E; Gerzabek, MH; van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant

  18. Plasma high-sensitivity troponin T predicts end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galsgaard, Julie; Persson, Frederik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2017-01-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in type 2 diabetes also a marker of renal events, but has not been evaluated in type 1 diabetics. We therefore reviewed a type 1 diabetes cohort of 442 without and 458 with diabetic nephropathy. Baseline samples...... significant). Thus, higher hsTnT is an independent predictor of renal decline and cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy....... traditional clinical risk markers, we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement. HsTnT was significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to normoalbuminuria (median 8.9 vs 3.1 ng/L). For a doubling in hsTnT levels, and after adjustment for well-known risk...

  19. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  20. Severe hypoglycemia identifies vulnerable patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for premature death and all-site cancer: the Hong Kong diabetes registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alice P S; Yang, Xilin; Luk, Andrea; Ma, Ronald C W; So, Wing Yee; Ozaki, Risa; Ting, Rose; Cheung, Kitty; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Chow, Chun Chung; Chan, Juliana C N

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the associations of clinical profiles in type 2 diabetic patients who developed severe hypoglycemia and their clinical outcomes, including death and all-site cancer. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A consecutive cohort of 8,767 type 2 diabetic patients with and without severe hypoglycemia in the 12 months before enrollment were recruited between 1995 and 2007, with follow-up until 2009. Severe hypoglycemia was defined by ICD-9 codes as hospitalizations resulting from hypoglycemia. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CIs of clinical factors collected at enrollment for severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS In this cohort, mean age was 57.4 (SD 13.2) years and median disease duration of diabetes was 5 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-11) years. During a median follow-up of 6.71 (IQR 3.47-10.38) years, 235 patients had severe hypoglycemia (incidence 3.96 [95% CI 3.45-4.46] per 1,000 patient-years). At enrollment, patients with and without severe hypoglycemia had similar cancer rates. During follow-up, patients with severe hypoglycemia had a higher incidence of all-site cancer (13.4 vs. 6.4%, P < 0.0001) and mortality (32.8 vs. 11.2%, P < 0.0001) than those without severe hypoglycemia. After adjusting for confounders, old age, low BMI, high glycated hemoglobin, low triglyceride (TG), low LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), albuminuria, and chronic kidney disease were independent predictors for severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS In type 2 diabetes, severe hypoglycemia is associated with advanced age, renal dysfunction, poor glycemic control, and cancer subphenotypes (low BMI, low LDL-C, and low TG).

  1. Human xanthine oxidase changes its substrate specificity to aldehyde oxidase type upon mutation of amino acid residues in the active site: roles of active site residues in binding and activation of purine substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Matsumura, Tomohiro; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi

    2007-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase (oxidoreductase; XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) are similar in protein structure and prosthetic group composition, but differ in substrate preference. Here we show that mutation of two amino acid residues in the active site of human XOR for purine substrates results in conversion of the substrate preference to AO type. Human XOR and its Glu803-to-valine (E803V) and Arg881-to-methionine (R881M) mutants were expressed in an Escherichia coli system. The E803V mutation almost completely abrogated the activity towards hypoxanthine as a substrate, but very weak activity towards xanthine remained. On the other hand, the R881M mutant lacked activity towards xanthine, but retained slight activity towards hypoxanthine. Both mutants, however, exhibited significant aldehyde oxidase activity. The crystal structure of E803V mutant of human XOR was determined at 2.6 A resolution. The overall molybdopterin domain structure of this mutant closely resembles that of bovine milk XOR; amino acid residues in the active centre pocket are situated at very similar positions and in similar orientations, except that Glu803 was replaced by valine, indicating that the decrease in activity towards purine substrate is not due to large conformational change in the mutant enzyme. Unlike wild-type XOR, the mutants were not subject to time-dependent inhibition by allopurinol.

  2. Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ.

  3. Single-stage total endoscopic resection of a plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus in a child with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ralph N Abi; Bared, Anthony; Zeitouni, Joseph; Younis, Ramzi T

    2010-04-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. The maxillary sinus is an extremely rare location of the plexiform neurofibroma and only two adult cases have been previously reported. We report the first case of plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus occurring in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1. This unusual location presents a management challenge considering the infiltrative nature and the potential malignant degeneration of this type of tumor. MRI is highly valuable to diagnose and plan the surgical approach of the plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus. Due to the location of the tumor and the patient's age, conservative surgery is highly recommended. We performed an endoscopic total en-bloc resection of the tumor with no recurrence after nine months of follow-up.

  4. Clinical management of ovarian small-cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type: A proposal for conservative surgery in an advanced stage of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.M. Dykgraaf (Ramon); D. de Jong (Diederick); M. van Veen (Mirjam); P.C. Ewing-Graham (Patricia); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOvarian small-cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type is a rare and highly malignant tumor. In two thirds of the patients, the tumor is associated with asymptomatic paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. The diagnosis may be impeded; the tumor must be distinguished from other tumors with similar

  5. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K.R.; Vinberg, N

    2001-01-01

    Using an invasive technique, we studied the mean transit time, the net quantitative turnover rate, and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in healthy young volunteers in the fasting, steady state. Blood....../min, respectively. The extraction fraction and the mean transit time in the splanchnic circulation were, respectively, 0.63 and 5.6 min for active t-PA and 0.17 and 21 min for t-PA antigen. Active PAI-1 was synthesized in the splanchnic circulation at a rate of 890 IU/min and had a mean transit time of about 9...

  6. A Purple Cupredoxin from Nitrosopumilus maritimus Containing a Mononuclear Type 1 Copper Center with an Open Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Tian, Shiliang; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Hemp, James; Mullen, Timothy; Nilges, Mark J.; Gao, Yi-Gui; Robinson, Howard; Stahl, David A.; Gennis, Robert B.; Lu, Yi

    2016-05-25

    Mononuclear cupredoxin proteins usually contain a coordinately saturated type 1 copper (T1Cu) center and function exclusively as electron carriers. Here we report a cupredoxin isolated from the nitrifying archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, called Nmar1307, that contains a T1Cu center with an open binding site containing water. It displays a deep purple color due to strong absorptions around 413 nm (1880 M–1 cm–1) and 558 nm (2290 M–1 cm–1) in the UV–vis electronic spectrum. EPR studies suggest the protein contains two Cu(II) species of nearly equal population, one nearly axial, with hyperfine constant A∥ = 98 × 10–4 cm–1, and another more rhombic, with a smaller A∥ value of 69 × 10–4 cm–1. The X-ray crystal structure at 1.6 Å resolution confirms that it contains a Cu atom coordinated by two His and one Cys in a trigonal plane, with an axial H2O at 2.25 Å. Both UV–vis absorption and EPR spectroscopic studies suggest that the Nmar1307 can oxidize NO to nitrite, an activity that is attributable to the high reduction potential (354 mV vs SHE) of the copper site. These results suggest that mononuclear cupredoxins can have a wide range of structural features, including an open binding site containing water, making this class of proteins even more versatile.

  7. A New Type of Metal-Binding Site in Cobalt- And Zinc-Containing Adenylate Kinases Isolated From Sulfate-Reducers D. Gigas And D. Desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavel, O.Y.; Bursakov, S.A.; Rocco, G.Di; Trincao, J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Calvete, J.J.; Brondino, C.; Pereira, A.S.; Lampreia, J.; Tavares, P.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I.

    2009-05-18

    Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterized in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the 'LID' domain. The sequence {sup 129}Cys-X{sub 5}-His-X{sub 15}-Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

  8. A new type of metal-binding site in cobalt- and zinc-containing adenylate kinases isolated from sulfate-reducers Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavel, Olga Yu; Bursakov, Sergey A; Di Rocco, Giulia; Trincão, José; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N; Calvete, Juan J; Shnyrov, Valery L; Brondino, Carlos D; Pereira, Alice S; Lampreia, Jorge; Tavares, Pedro; Moura, José J G; Moura, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterised in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the "LID" domain. The sequence 129Cys-X5-His-X15-Cys-X2-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

  9. Dietary traits of the late Early Pleistocene Bison menneri (Bovidae, Mammalia) from its type site Untermassfeld (Central Germany) and the problem of Pleistocene 'wood bison'

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the Early and early Middle Pleistocene, a climatic cooling trend led to the partial opening up of landscapes in the western Palaearctic. This led to a gradual replacement of browsers by grazers, whilst some herbivore species shifted their diet towards including more grass. Wear patterns of herbivore cheek teeth can inform our understanding of the timing and extent of this change and indicate levels of dietary plasticity. One of the indicator species of the faunal turnover is the first large-sized form of bison in the Palaearctic, Bison menneri. The dental mesowear of the palaeopopulation from the species' late Early Pleistocene type site of Untermassfeld in Central Germany and the Late Pleistocene B. priscus from Taubach, both from habitat mosaics of forested habitats and more open landscapes, have a mixed feeder profile similar to that of North American wood bison, which has a distinct preference for open habitats but occasionally consumes a high amount of browse as a fall-back food. In contrast, the grazer mesowear signature of early Middle Pleistocene B. schoetensacki voigtstedtensis from Voigtstedt indicates these animals likely did not regularly feed in the densely forested area around the site. The mesowear of B. schoetensacki from Süssenborn, in a more open environment, is similar to that of extant European bison. Both Pleistocene and extant bison are grazers to mixed feeders with relatively high tolerance of a suboptimal browsing diet. None of these species can be regarded as true 'wood bison'.

  10. Boron-substitution and defects in B2-type AlNi compound: Site-preference and influence on structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaz, Rodrigo B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); ElMassalami, M., E-mail: massalam@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Terrazos, L.A. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Cuité, PB 58175-000 (Brazil); Elhadi, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Takeya, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2016-06-05

    Using a combination of theoretical (first-principles total-energy and electronic structure calculations) as well as experimental (structural, thermodynamics) techniques, we systematically investigated the influence of B incorporation on the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of a series of technologically-important B-containing AlNi matrix. Special attention was paid to calculating the energy cost of placing B at various sites within the cubic unit cell. The most energetically favorable defects were identified to be, depending on initial stoichiometry, substitutional B at Al site (B{sub Al}), Ni vacancy (V{sub Ni}), or Ni antisite (Ni{sub Al}). We show that the induced variation in the lattice parameters can be correlated with the type and concentration of the involved defects: e.g. the surge of V{sub Ni} defects leads to a stronger lattice-parameter reduction, that of Ni{sub Al} ones to a relatively weaker reduction while that of B{sub Al} defects to a much weaker influence. Both electronic band structure calculations as well as thermodynamics measurements indicate that the 3d bands of Ni are fully occupied and magnetically unpolarized and that the resulting N(E{sub F}) is very small: all studied compounds are normal conductors with no trace of superconductivity or magnetic polarization.

  11. XAFS and XPS studies on site occupation of Sm3+ ions in Sm doped M-type BaFe12O19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lixi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qitu; Xu, Naicen; Song, Jie

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrites doped with Sm 3+ , Ba 1−x Sm x Fe 12 O 19 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, 0.50) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. Occupation of Sm 3+ ions in Ba 1−x Sm x Fe 12 O 19 was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The changes of crystal cell volume and valency of Sm, Ba and Fe ions indicated that Sm 3+ occupied Ba 2+ sites and Fe 3+ ions were partially reduced to Fe 2+ ions to keep the valence neutrality. - Highlights: • Sm 3+ doped BaFe 12 O 19 were synthesized by solid state reaction technique. • The occupation of Sm 3+ was investigated by XAFS, XPS and XRD. • Sm 3+ occupied Ba 2+ sites and Fe 3+ ions were partially reduced to Fe 2+ ions

  12. Spectroscopic and DFT Studies of Second Sphere Variants of the Type 1 Copper Site in Azurin: Covalent and Non-Local Electrostatic Contributions to Reduction Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadt, Ryan G.; Sun, Ning; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Lu, Yi; Solomon, Edward I.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction potentials (E0) of type 1 (T1) or blue copper (BC) sites in proteins and enzymes with identical first coordination spheres around the redox active copper ion can vary by ~400 mV. Here, we use a combination of low temperature electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, resonance Raman, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate a series of second sphere variants—F114P, N47S, and F114N in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (Az)—which modulate hydrogen bonding to and protein derived dipoles nearby the Cu-S(Cys) bond. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations correlated to the experimental data allow for the fractionation of the contributions to tuning E0 into covalent and non-local electrostatic components. These are found to be significant, comparable in magnitude, and additive for active H-bonds, while passive H-bonds are mostly non-local electrostatic in nature. For dipoles, these terms can be additive to or oppose one another. This study provides a methodology for uncoupling covalency from non-local electrostatics, which, when coupled to X-ray crystallographic data, distinguishes specific local interactions from more long range protein/active interactions, while affording further insight into the second sphere mechanisms available to the protein to tune the E0 of electron transfer sites in biology. PMID:22985400

  13. The National Cancer Data Base report on recent hospital cancer program progress toward complete American Joint Committee on Cancer/TNM staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, I D; Phillips, J L; Menck, H R; Murphy, G P; Winchester, D P

    1997-12-15

    American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging procedures were first published in 1977. Since 1991 the Commission on Cancer (COC) has required AJCC staging of all nonpediatric cancers. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) encouraged recording of AJCC staging through analyses of selected aspects of staging completeness. We reviewed the trend toward the adoption of routine AJCC staging by hospitals for the 5-year period 1990-1994. NCDB reports for nearly 2 million stageable cancers diagnosed from 1990 through 1994 were examined with emphasis on the hospital cancer program environment. Staging was complete if the hospital submitted stage codes for > or =90% of stageable cases or absent if stage codes were submitted for <5%. Hospitals were classified by ownership and type of cancer program. Regional staging practices also were reviewed. Overall staging increased from 78% to 88%, with increases for every site except carcinomas of the skin, cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts and urethra, melanoma of the eyelid, and retinoblastoma The percent of hospitals staging completely increased from 49% to 61%, and the percent not routinely staging decreased from 6% to 3%. Complete staging increased in all hospital categories except For-Profit. The trend toward complete staging was uneven among states and regions. Hospital staging policies were affected by activities of the AJCC, COC, NCDB, clinical protocol procedures, and state policies. The varied completeness of staging at the hospital level by state, region, and type of hospital indicates that the adoption of routine staging is ongoing.

  14. A NEW APPROACH FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY A TYPE OF INTERACTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN CONSORTIUMS OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches for evaluation of types of interactions between individual monocultures in consortiums allow obtaining only qualitative results (synergistic, antagonistic, additive interaction as a whole, without regarding to changes in the cultivation process. Therefore, the development of a new approach for the quantitative determination of this indicator as a continuous function defined during the all period of cultivation is in need. In the course of the research a two-component consortium of lactic acid microorganisms cultivated on different mediums according to directed fermentation process in vegetable products was chosen to analyze types of interaction. As a result, the an original approach that was based on comparison of grow speed of biomass of microorganisms with calculated additive curve determined by results of dynamic analysis of titre of microorganism participating in consortium in monoculture during their cultivation has been elaborated. This approach is a convenient tool to identify complex regularity in changes of types of microorganism interaction in consortium represented by continuous function defined during all cultivation period.

  15. Role of Site-Specific N-Glycans Expressed on GluA2 in the Regulation of Cell Surface Expression of AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR, which is a tetrameric complex composed of four subunits (GluA1-4 with several combinations, mediates the majority of rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions in the nervous system. Cell surface expression levels of AMPAR modulate synaptic plasticity, which is considered one of the molecular bases for learning and memory formation. To date, a unique trisaccharide (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate, was found expressed specifically on N-linked glycans of GluA2 and regulated the cell surface expression of AMPAR and the spine maturation process. However, evidence that the HNK-1 epitope on N-glycans of GluA2 directly affects these phenomena is lacking. Moreover, it is thought that other N-glycans on GluA2 also have potential roles in the regulation of AMPAR functions. In the present study, using a series of mutants lacking potential N-glycosylation sites (N256, N370, N406, and N413 within GluA2, we demonstrated that the mutant lacking the N-glycan at N370 strongly suppressed the intracellular trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HEK293 cells. Cell surface expression of GluA1, which is a major subunit of AMPAR in neurons, was also suppressed by co-expression of the GluA2 N370S mutant. The N370S mutant and wild-type GluA2 were co-immunoprecipitated with GluA1, suggesting that N370S was properly associated with GluA1. Moreover, we found that N413 was the main potential site of the HNK-1 epitope that promoted the interaction of GluA2 with N-cadherin, resulting in enhanced cell surface expression of GluA2. The HNK-1 epitope on N-glycan at the N413 of GluA2 was also involved in the cell surface expression of GluA1. Thus, our data suggested that site-specific N-glycans on GluA2 regulate the intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of AMPAR.

  16. A new psammosteid (Agnatha, Heterostraci from the Amata Regional Stage of the Main Devonian Field and morpho-histological types of discrete micromeric elements in the family Psammosteidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Glinskiy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In memory of an outstanding palaeoichthyologist Elga Mark-Kurik The range of diversity of psammosteids from the family Psammosteidae is still poorly known. Here a new species, Psammosteus ramosus sp. nov. Glinskiy, from the Amata Regional Stage of the Main Devonian Field is described. Its morphology, ornamentation, histology of exoskeletal plates, and micromeric elements are compared with those of other representatives of the family Psammosteidae. The comparison shows a close relationship of the new species with Psammosteus falcatus Obruchev, P. kiaeri Halstead Tarlo and P. pectinatus Obruchev, a group of species that is significantly different from other representatives of the genus Psammosteus and constitutes a separate evolutionary lineage. On the basis of morphological and histological features we here differentiate in the fields of tesserae of Psammosteidae the discrete micromeric elements of the ‘basic type’, known in Psammosteus bergi (Obruchev, P. levis Obruchev, P. livonicus Obruchev, P. maeandrinus Agassiz, P. megalopteryx (Trautschold, P. praecursor Obruchev and Karelosteus weberi Obruchev, and micromeric elements of the ‘progressive type’, known in Psammosteus falcatus, P. cf. kiaeri and P. ramosus sp. nov. Glinskiy.

  17. An anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody and small molecule CCR5 antagonists synergize by inhibiting different stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarian, Diana; Carnec, Xavier; Tsamis, Fotini; Kajumo, Francis; Dragic, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 coreceptors are attractive targets for novel antivirals. Here, inhibition of entry by two classes of CCR5 antagonists was investigated. We confirmed previous findings that HIV-1 isolates vary greatly in their sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors of CCR5-mediated entry, SCH-C and TAK-779. In contrast, an anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody (PA14) similarly inhibited entry of diverse viral isolates. Sensitivity to small molecules was V3 loop-dependent and inversely proportional to the level of gp120 binding to CCR5. Moreover, combinations of the MAb and small molecules were highly synergistic in blocking HIV-1 entry, suggesting different mechanisms of action. This was confirmed by time course of inhibition experiments wherein the PA14 MAb and small molecules were shown to inhibit temporally distinct stages of CCR5 usage. We propose that small molecules inhibit V3 binding to the second extracellular loop of CCR5, whereas PA14 preferentially inhibits subsequent events such as CCR5 recruitment into the fusion complex or conformational changes in the gp120-CCR5 complex that trigger fusion. Importantly, our findings suggest that combinations of CCR5 inhibitors with different mechanisms of action will be central to controlling HIV-1 infection and slowing the emergence of resistant strains

  18. Electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process using a new type of nanosized TiO₂/activated charcoal plate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil; Khataee, Alireza; Alipour, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an activated charcoal (AC) plate was prepared by physical activation method. Its surface was coated with TiO₂ nanoparticles by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined approximately 28 nm. The nature of prepared electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement before and after immobilization. The electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process was investigated in degradation of Lanasol Red 5B (LR5B), and the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and contact time was optimized and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The dye concentration of 30 mg L(-1), Na₂SO₄ concentration of 4.38 g L(-1), pH of 4, voltage of 250 mV, and contact time of 120 min were determined as optimum conditions. Decolorization efficiency increased in combined process to 85.65% at optimum conditions compared to 66.03% in TiO₂/AC photocatalytic, 20.09% in TiO₂/AC electrosorption, and 1.91% in AC photocatalytic processes.

  19. Does Type of Tumor Histology Impact Survival among Patients with Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with First-Line Doublet Chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Karen M.; Peltz, Gerson; Faries, Douglas E.; Lang, Kathleen; Nyambose, Joshua; Earle, Craig C.; Sugarman, Katherine P.; Taylor, Douglas C. A.; Thompson, David; Marciniak, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy regimens may have differential efficacy by histology in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the impact of histology on survival of patients (N = 2,644) with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC who received first-line cisplatin/carboplatin plus gemcitabine (C/C+G) and cisplatin/carboplatin plus a taxane (C/C+T) identified retrospectively in the SEER cancer registry (1997–2002). Patients with squamous and nonsquamous cell carcinoma survived 8.5 months and 8.1 months, respectively (P = .018). No statistically significant difference was observed in survival between C/C+G and C/C+T in both histologies. Adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, the effect of treatment regimen on survival did not differ by histology (P for interaction = .257). There was no statistically significant difference in hazard of death by histology in both groups. These results contrast the predictive role of histology and improved survival outcomes observed for cisplatin-pemetrexed regimens in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. PMID:22482053

  20. Does Type of Tumor Histology Impact Survival among Patients with Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with First-Line Doublet Chemotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Clements

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy regimens may have differential efficacy by histology in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We examined the impact of histology on survival of patients (N=2,644 with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC who received first-line cisplatin/carboplatin plus gemcitabine (C/C+G and cisplatin/carboplatin plus a taxane (C/C+T identified retrospectively in the SEER cancer registry (1997–2002. Patients with squamous and nonsquamous cell carcinoma survived 8.5 months and 8.1 months, respectively (P=.018. No statistically significant difference was observed in survival between C/C+G and C/C+T in both histologies. Adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, the effect of treatment regimen on survival did not differ by histology (P for interaction =.257. There was no statistically significant difference in hazard of death by histology in both groups. These results contrast the predictive role of histology and improved survival outcomes observed for cisplatin-pemetrexed regimens in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

  1. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05 and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals. Results Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that

  2. Comparison of sample types and analytical methods for the detection of highly campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks at different stages in the poultry meat production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Duarte, Alexandra; Baré, Julie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-05-01

    Exclusion of broiler batches, highly colonized with Campylobacter (>7.5 log10 colony-forming units/g), from the fresh poultry meat market might decrease the risk of human campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to compare different sample types (both at the farm and the slaughterhouse) and methods (direct culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], propidium monoazide [PMA]-qPCR) applied for the quantification of the Campylobacter colonization level. In addition, the applicability of the lateral flow-based immunoassay, Singlepath(®) Direct Campy Poultry test (Singlepath(®) test), was evaluated as a rapid method for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches. Campylobacter counts differed significantly between sample types collected at farm level (cecal droppings, feces, boot swabs) and at slaughterhouse level (cecal content, fecal material from crates). Furthermore, comparison of Campylobacter counts obtained by different methods (direct culture, qPCR, PMA-qPCR) in cecal droppings revealed significant differences, although this was not observed for cecal-content samples. Evaluation of the Singlepath(®) test on cecal droppings and cecal-content samples revealed an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, cecal droppings and cecal content are proposed as the most representative sample types for quantification of Campylobacter colonization level of broilers at farm and slaughterhouse, respectively. Direct culture and qPCR are equally sensitive for quantification of Campylobacter in fresh cecal-content samples. PMA treatment before qPCR inhibits the signal from dead Campylobacter cells. Consequently, when samples are extensively stored and/or transported, qPCR is preferred to direct culture and PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, the Singlepath(®) test offers a convenient alternative method for rapid detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches.

  3. The impact of patient narratives on self-efficacy and self-care in Australians with type 2 diabetes: stage 1 results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tina; Dunt, D; Fitzgerald, J L; Gordon, I

    2015-09-01

    A randomized-controlled trial (RCT) was conducted from September 2009 to June 2011. National Diabetes Services Scheme registrants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and aged 30-70 years were invited to participate in a 3-week intervention programme with follow-up at 4 weeks and 6 months. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires in the participant's homes. The intervention group received diabetes factsheets and a DVD comprising patient stories (narratives) of type 2 diabetes management. The control group (CG) received factsheets only. The RCT evaluated the impact of patient narratives on the study outcomes, self-efficacy and self-care, using the Aust/English Diabetes Management Self-efficacy Scale and the Summary Diabetes Self-care Activities measure. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or CG using block randomization. The study was not blinded. Six hundred and seventy people enrolled into the study with 335 allocated to each group. At 4 weeks, data were available for 598 participants. t-tests were used to analyse the results. The mean difference between the groups for self-efficacy was 7.2 units (P diabetes self-management programmes. ACTRN 12609000210279. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zaccari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1 in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg, followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg, and immature fruits (18.82 mg. Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis and α-carotene (34.1%. Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3% and mature (34.5% fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04 vs. raw pulp (0.96.

  5. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  6. Optical, microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols over a tropical rural site in Kenya, East Africa: Source identification, modification and aerosol type discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is a crucial challenge for climate change studies. In the present study, column-integrated aerosol optical and radiative properties observed at a rural site, Mbita (0.42°S, 34.20 °E, and 1125 m above sea level) located in Kenya, East Africa (EA) are investigated using ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data retrieved during January, 2007 to December, 2015. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm), Ångström exponent (AE440-870 nm), fine mode fraction of AOD500 nm (FMF500 nm), and columnar water vapor (CWV, cm) were found to be 0.23 ± 0.08, 1.01 ± 0.16, 0.60 ± 0.07, and 2.72 ± 0.20, respectively. The aerosol optical properties exhibited a unimodal distribution with substantial seasonal heterogeneity in their peak values being low (high) during the local wet (dry) seasons. The observed data showed that Mbita and its environs are significantly influenced by various types of aerosols, with biomass burning and/or urban-industrial (BUI), mixed (MXD), and desert dust (DDT) aerosol types contributing to 37.72%, 32.81%, and 1.40%, respectively during the local dry season (JJA). The aerosol volume size distribution (VSD) exhibited bimodal lognormal structure with a geometric mean radius of 0.15 μm and 3.86-5.06 μm for fine- and coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Further, analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (ASY) and refractive index (RI) revealed dominance of fine-mode absorbing aerosols during JJA. The averaged aerosol direct radiative forcing (ARF) retrieved from the AERONET showed a strong cooling effect at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) and significant warming within the atmosphere (ATM), representing the important role of aerosols played in this rural site of Kenya. Finally, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that aerosols from distinct sources resulted in enhanced loading

  7. Alpha-Mangostin Attenuation of Hyperglycemia-Induced Ocular Hypoperfusion and Blood Retinal Barrier Leakage in the Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Jariyapongskul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of alpha-mangostin (α-MG supplementation on the retinal microvasculature, including ocular blood flow (OBF and blood-retinal barrier (BRB permeability in a type 2 diabetic animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control and diabetes with or without α-MG supplementation. Alpha-mangostin (200 mg/Kg/day was administered by gavage feeding for 8 weeks. The effects of α-MG on biochemical and physiological parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP, OBF, and BRB leakage were investigated. Additionally, levels of retinal malondialdehyde (MDA, advance glycation end products (AGEs, receptor of advance glycation end products (RAGE, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were evaluated. The elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were observed in DM2 rats. Moreover, DM2 rats had significantly decreased OBF but statistically increased MAP and leakage of the BRB. The α-MG-treated DM2 rats showed significantly lower levels of retinal MDA, AGEs, RAGE, TNF-α, and VEGF than the untreated group. Interestingly, α-MG supplementation significantly increased OBF while it decreased MAP and leakage of BRB. In conclusion, α-MG supplementation could restore OBF and improve the BRB integrity, indicating its properties closely associated with antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiglycation activities.

  8. Alpha-Mangostin Attenuation of Hyperglycemia-Induced Ocular Hypoperfusion and Blood Retinal Barrier Leakage in the Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapongskul, Amporn; Areebambud, Chonticha; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Mekseepralard, Chantana

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined effects of alpha-mangostin (α-MG) supplementation on the retinal microvasculature, including ocular blood flow (OBF) and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability in a type 2 diabetic animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control and diabetes with or without α-MG supplementation. Alpha-mangostin (200 mg/Kg/day) was administered by gavage feeding for 8 weeks. The effects of α-MG on biochemical and physiological parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), OBF, and BRB leakage were investigated. Additionally, levels of retinal malondialdehyde (MDA), advance glycation end products (AGEs), receptor of advance glycation end products (RAGE), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated. The elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were observed in DM2 rats. Moreover, DM2 rats had significantly decreased OBF but statistically increased MAP and leakage of the BRB. The α-MG-treated DM2 rats showed significantly lower levels of retinal MDA, AGEs, RAGE, TNF-α, and VEGF than the untreated group. Interestingly, α-MG supplementation significantly increased OBF while it decreased MAP and leakage of BRB. In conclusion, α-MG supplementation could restore OBF and improve the BRB integrity, indicating its properties closely associated with antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiglycation activities. PMID:25950001

  9. Somatic Typing as an Approach to the Individualization of Health Care Support at the Stages of Education and Professional Self-Identity (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnova Margarita Viktorovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review is devoted to the origin, formation and distribution of somatotypes in various human populations. The total impact of various environmental and social factors on individual reactions depends strongly on human somatotype which ensures the realization of its individual biological program. Traditional anatomic and functional criteria of somatotype are analyzed by the author in the present article. The prevalence of some somatotypes has certain influence on the socialization and development of various diseases affecting human population. Accordingly, the problem of relationships between various constitutions and predispositions to certain diseases is urgent, and at the same time, it is only a part of a more serious problem of correlations between structural features of functional organization including the functional state and behavior of a person. The analyzed relationships between physiological, psychological, and anthropometric characteristics confirm both the consistency of the individual homeostasis organization, and inevitability of genetically determined structural and functional features of human population. Understanding these laws makes it possible to identify the mechanisms of adaptation of the human body in the process of growth and development in terms of changes in the environment. The constitutional typology has important diagnostic and prognostic value. The variety of approaches offered by various experts generates a set of estimates and definitions. The types of relationship of constitution and predisposition to certain diseases is only part of the more general problem of correlation between morphological and physiological features of the organization, functional condition and human behavior.

  10. [The biological reaction of inflammation, methylglyoxal of blood plasma, functional and structural alterations in elastic type arteries at the early stage of hypertension disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A; Oshchepkov, E V; Balakhonova, T V; Tripoten', M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-08-01

    The article deals with studying of the relationship between biologic reaction of inflammation with glycosylation reaction and content of methylglyoxal in blood serum. The positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and content of methylglyoxal, C-reactive protein in intercellular medium and malleolar brachial index value was established. This data matches the experimental results concerning involvement of biological reaction of inflammation into structural changes of elastic type arteries under hypertension disease, formation of arteries' rigidity and increase of pulse wave velocity. The arterial blood pressure is a biological reaction of hydrodynamic pressure which is used in vivo by several biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, function of endoecology, biological function of adaptation and function of locomotion. The biological reaction of hydrodynamic (hydraulic) pressure is a mode of compensation of derangement of several biological functions which results in the very high rate of hypertension disease in population. As a matter of fact, hypertension disease is a syndrome of lingering pathological compensation by higher arterial blood pressure of the biological functions derangements occurring in the distal section at the level of paracrine cenoses of cells. The arterial blood pressure is a kind of in vivo integral indicator of deranged metabolism. The essential hypertension disease pathogenically is a result of the derangement of three biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, biological function of trophology - nutrition (biological reaction of external feeding - exotrophia) and biological function of endoecology. In case of "littering" of intercellular medium in vivo with nonspecific endogenic flogogens a phylogenetically earlier activation of biological reactions of excretion, inflammation and hydrodynamic arterial blood pressure occur. In case of derangement of biological function of homeostasis, decreasing of

  11. Two stages of immiscible liquid separation in the formation of Panzhihua-type Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fu Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic oxide deposits in the ∼260 Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP, SW China and northern Vietnam, are important sources of Fe, Ti and V. Some giant magmatic Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, such as the Panzhihua, Hongge, and Baima deposits, are well described in the literature and are hosted in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Panxi region, the central ELIP. The same type of ELIP-related deposits also occur far to the south and include the Anyi deposit, about 130 km south of Panzhihua, and the Mianhuadi deposit in the Red River fault zone. The Anyi deposit is relatively small but is similarly hosted in a layered mafic intrusion. The Mianhuadi deposit has a zircon U-Pb age of ∼260 Ma and is thus contemporaneous with the ELIP. This deposit was variably metamorphosed during the Indosinian orogeny and Red River faulting. Compositionally, magnetite of the Mianhuadi deposit contains smaller amounts of Ti and V than that of the other deposits, possibly attributable to the later metamorphism. The distribution of the oxide ore deposits is not related to the domal structure of the ELIP. One major feature of all the oxide deposits in the ELIP is the spatial association of oxide-bearing gabbroic intrusions, syenitic plutons and high-Ti flood basalts. Thus, we propose that magmas from a mantle plume were emplaced into a shallow magma chamber where they were evolved into a field of liquid immiscibility to form two silicate liquids, one with an extremely Fe-Ti-rich gabbroic composition and the other syenitic. An immiscible Fe-Ti-(P oxide melt may then separate from the mafic magmas to form oxide deposits. The parental magmas from which these deposits formed were likely Fe-Ti-rich picritic in composition and were derived from enriched asthenospheric mantle at a greater depth than the magmas that produced sulfide-bearing intrusions of the ELIP.

  12. Port Pirie rare earths plant stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    SX Holdings Limited intends to establish a rare earths plant at Port Pirie, South Australia. The proposal involves three stages of development, Stage 3 being to develop a monazite cracking plant and associated rare earths separation facility with the capacity to process up to 8,000 t/a of monazite-type ores. The proposed initial capacity is 4,000 t/a. This Draft Environmental Impact Statement relates to Stage 3 and is based on a monazite processing capacity of 8,000 t/a. The justification of the project is given in terms of use and the market for rare earths, the economic and environmental benefits of the proposal, the site selection process, site rehabilitation, and the consequences of not proceeding. A detailed description of the project is given, including the treatment process, site development and facilities, the supply of raw materials, product and waste handling, transport and storage, plant commissioning, operation and decommissioning, construction and staffing. The environmental issues entailed in the proposed development are discussed and include social effects, land use and infrasturcture considerations, risk management and transport. Occupational and environmental radiation issues, including assessments of exposure pathways and doses, management and monitoring, disposal of monosite residue are also discussed. It is estimated that the effects of disposal of 2,330 t/year of radioactive slurry in the sub-aerial tailing disposal system at Olympic Dam will be negligible. Moreover, the gamma dose increases would not result in any significant increase in occupational exposures. 38 refs., tabs., ills

  13. Similarly potent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by P-site inhibitors in hearts from wild type and AC5 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg H Braeunig

    Full Text Available Adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5 was described as major cardiac AC isoform. The knockout of AC5 (AC5KO exerted cardioprotective effects in heart failure. Our study explored the impact of AC5KO on mouse heart AC activities and evaluated putative AC5-selective inhibitors. In cardiac membranes from AC5KO mice, basal AC activity was decreased, while AC stimulation was intact. The putative AC5-selective P-site inhibitors SQ22,536 [9-(tetra-hydro-2-furanyl-9H-purin-6-amine], vidarabine (9-β-D-arabinosyladenine and NKY80 [2-amino-7-(2-furanyl-7,8-dihydro-5(6H-quinazolinone] inhibited recombinant AC5 more potently than AC2 and AC1, but selectivity was only modest (∼4-40-fold. These compounds inhibited cardiac AC from WT and AC5KO mice with similar potencies. In conclusion, AC regulation in AC5KO hearts was unimpaired, questioning the supposed dominant role of AC5 in the heart. Moreover, the AC inhibitors SQ22,536, NKY80 and vidarabine lack adequate selectivity for AC5 and, therefore, do not present suitable tools to study AC5-specific functions.

  14. Mapping the binding site of a large set of quinazoline type EGF-R inhibitors using molecular field analyses and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tingjun; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Xiaojie

    2003-01-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional QSAR studies for one large set of quinazoline type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) inhibitors were conducted using two types of molecular field analysis techniques: comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). These compounds belonging to six different structural classes were randomly divided into a training set of 122 compounds and a test set of 13 compounds. The statistical results showed that the 3D-QSAR models derived from CoMFA were superior to those generated from CoMSIA. The most optimal CoMFA model after region focusing bears significant cross-validated r(2)(cv) of 0.60 and conventional r(2) of 0.92. The predictive power of the best CoMFA model was further validated by the accurate estimation to these compounds in the external test set, and the mean agreement of experimental and predicted log(IC(50)) values of the inhibitors is 0.6 log unit. Separate CoMFA models were conducted to evaluate the influence of different partial charges (Gasteiger-Marsili, Gasteiger-Hückel, MMFF94, ESP-AM1, and MPA-AM1) on the statistical quality of the models. The resulting CoMFA field map provides information on the geometry of the binding site cavity and the relative weights of various properties in different site pockets for each of the substrates considered. Moreover, in the current work, we applied MD simulations combined with MM/PBSA (Molecular mechanics/Possion-Boltzmann Surface Area) to determine the correct binding mode of the best inhibitor for which no ligand-protein crystal structure was present. To proceed, we define the following procedure: three hundred picosecond molecular dynamics simulations were first performed for the four binding modes suggested by DOCK 4.0 and manual docking, and then MM/PBSA was carried out for the collected snapshots. The most favorable binding mode identified by MM/PBSA has a binding free energy about 10 kcal/mol more

  15. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  16. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  17. Content of Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies against Islet Autoantigens (IA-2A, GADA, IAA and the Level of Different Cytokines in Children and Adolescents on the Pre-Clinical and Early Clinical Stages of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Popova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the data on the immunological mechanisms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM on the preclinical and early clinical stages of disease formation on the basis of studying the features of T1DM pathogenesis, monitoring the process of autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells by determining the content of diabetes-associated auto-antibodies (the incidence and titers dynamics, the study of the characteristics of cytokine secretion on the pre-clinical stage of T1DM development in children and adolescents. Introduction of new approaches to pre-clinical diagnosis of T1DM allowed determine the group of marker-positive children with burdened heredity and predictable risk of disease development. The study involved 450 healthy normoglycemic children and adolescents aged from 7 to 15 years old. It was revealed that 94 (26.7 % of 366 children with burdened hereditary by at least two-fold determination of DAAb had an increased DAAb titer, mainly GADA and IA-2A, the clinical debut of T1DM manifested in 49 (52.1 % of them from 6 months to 12 years (30.9 ± 3.2 months. T1DM developed in the same period in a child, that was 0.8 % of the 272 (73.3 % DAAb-negative children. There was determined a formula of combined incidence and values of simultaneously elevated DAAb titers to islet autoantigens, namely IA-2A + GADA, which are predictor of the duration of T1DM pre-clinical stage and debut occurrence. It has been also established a disturbance of cytokine production (increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and FNO-α, IL-8 and IL-16 while reduced concentration of IL-4 in blood plasma as a key factor in the T1DM pathogenesis that causes the debut occurrence, and aggressiveness of its course.

  18. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  19. Type II restriction endonuclease R.Hpy188I belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily, but exhibits an unusual active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Kawai, Mikihiko; Boniecki, Michal; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2008-11-14

    Catalytic domains of Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) belong to a few unrelated three-dimensional folds. While the PD-(D/E)XK fold is most common among these enzymes, crystal structures have been also determined for single representatives of two other folds: PLD (R.BfiI) and half-pipe (R.PabI). Bioinformatics analyses supported by mutagenesis experiments suggested that some REases belong to the HNH fold (e.g. R.KpnI), and that a small group represented by R.Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG fold. However, for a large fraction of REases with known sequences, the three-dimensional fold and the architecture of the active site remain unknown, mostly due to extreme sequence divergence that hampers detection of homology to enzymes with known folds. R.Hpy188I is a Type II REase with unknown structure. PSI-BLAST searches of the non-redundant protein sequence database reveal only 1 homolog (R.HpyF17I, with nearly identical amino acid sequence and the same DNA sequence specificity). Standard application of state-of-the-art protein fold-recognition methods failed to predict the relationship of R.Hpy188I to proteins with known structure or to other protein families. In order to increase the amount of evolutionary information in the multiple sequence alignment, we have expanded our sequence database searches to include sequences from metagenomics projects. This search resulted in identification of 23 further members of R.Hpy188I family, both from metagenomics and the non-redundant database. Moreover, fold-recognition analysis of the extended R.Hpy188I family revealed its relationship to the GIY-YIG domain and allowed for computational modeling of the R.Hpy188I structure. Analysis of the R.Hpy188I model in the light of sequence conservation among its homologs revealed an unusual variant of the active site, in which the typical Tyr residue of the YIG half-motif had been substituted by a Lys residue. Moreover, some of its homologs have the otherwise invariant Arg residue in

  20. Type II restriction endonuclease R.Hpy188I belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily, but exhibits an unusual active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Ichizo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic domains of Type II restriction endonucleases (REases belong to a few unrelated three-dimensional folds. While the PD-(D/EXK fold is most common among these enzymes, crystal structures have been also determined for single representatives of two other folds: PLD (R.BfiI and half-pipe (R.PabI. Bioinformatics analyses supported by mutagenesis experiments suggested that some REases belong to the HNH fold (e.g. R.KpnI, and that a small group represented by R.Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG fold. However, for a large fraction of REases with known sequences, the three-dimensional fold and the architecture of the active site remain unknown, mostly due to extreme sequence divergence that hampers detection of homology to enzymes with known folds. Results R.Hpy188I is a Type II REase with unknown structure. PSI-BLAST searches of the non-redundant protein sequence database reveal only 1 homolog (R.HpyF17I, with nearly identical amino acid sequence and the same DNA sequence specificity. Standard application of state-of-the-art protein fold-recognition methods failed to predict the relationship of R.Hpy188I to proteins with known structure or to other protein families. In order to increase the amount of evolutionary information in the multiple sequence alignment, we have expanded our sequence database searches to include sequences from metagenomics projects. This search resulted in identification of 23 further members of R.Hpy188I family, both from metagenomics and the non-redundant database. Moreover, fold-recognition analysis of the extended R.Hpy188I family revealed its relationship to the GIY-YIG domain and allowed for computational modeling of the R.Hpy188I structure. Analysis of the R.Hpy188I model in the light of sequence conservation among its homologs revealed an unusual variant of the active site, in which the typical Tyr residue of the YIG half-motif had been substituted by a Lys residue. Moreover, some of its homologs

  1. Mapping of rock types using a joint approach by combining the multivariate statistics, self-organizing map and Bayesian neural networks: an example from IODP 323 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mampi; Maiti, Saumen; Singh, Amrita; Ojha, Maheswar; Maity, Bhabani Sankar

    2017-07-01

    Modeling and classification of the subsurface lithology is very important to understand the evolution of the earth system. However, precise classification and mapping of lithology using a single framework are difficult due to the complexity and the nonlinearity of the problem driven by limited core sample information. Here, we implement a joint approach by combining the unsupervised and the supervised methods in a single framework for better classification and mapping of rock types. In the unsupervised method, we use the principal component analysis (PCA), K-means cluster analysis (K-means), dendrogram analysis, Fuzzy C-means (FCM) cluster analysis and self-organizing map (SOM). In the supervised method, we use the Bayesian neural networks (BNN) optimized by the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) (BNN-HMC) and the scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) (BNN-SCG) techniques. We use P-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, resistivity and gamma ray logs of the well U1343E of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea slope region. While the SOM algorithm allows us to visualize the clustering results in spatial domain, the combined classification schemes (supervised and unsupervised) uncover the different patterns of lithology such of as clayey-silt, diatom-silt and silty-clay from an un-cored section of the drilled hole. In addition, the BNN approach is capable of estimating uncertainty in the predictive modeling of three types of rocks over the entire lithology section at site U1343. Alternate succession of clayey-silt, diatom-silt and silty-clay may be representative of crustal inhomogeneity in general and thus could be a basis for detail study related to the productivity of methane gas in the oceans worldwide. Moreover, at the 530 m depth down below seafloor (DSF), the transition from Pliocene to Pleistocene could be linked to lithological alternation between the clayey-silt and the diatom-silt. The present results could provide the basis for

  2. Congenital heart block: identification of autoantibody binding site on the extracellular loop (domain I, S5-S6) of alpha(1D) L-type Ca channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnabi, Eddy; Qu, Yongxia; Wadgaonkar, Raj; Mancarella, Salvatore; Yue, Yuankun; Chahine, Mohamed; Clancy, Robert M; Buyon, Jill P; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies against intracellular ribonucleoproteins SSB/La and SSA/Ro. The hallmark of CHB is complete atrioventricular block. We have recently established that anti-SSA/Ro -SSB/La autoantibodies inhibit alpha(1D) L-type Ca current, I(Ca-L), and cross-react with the alpha(1D) Ca channel protein. This study aims at identifying the possible binding sites on alpha(1D) protein for autoantibodies from sera of mothers with CHB children. GST fusion proteins of the extracellular regions between the transmembrane segments (S5-S6) of each of the four alpha(1D) Ca channel protein domains I-IV were prepared and tested for reactivity with sera from mothers with CHB children and controls using ELISA. Sera containing anti-Ro/La autoantibodies from 118 mothers with CHB children and from 15 mothers with anti-Ro/La autoantibodies but have healthy children, and from 28 healthy mothers without anti-Ro/La autoantibodies and healthy children were evaluated. Seventeen of 118 (14.4%) sera from mothers with CHB children reacted with the extracellular loop of domain I S5-S6 region (E1). In contrast, only 2 of 28 (7%) of sera from healthy mothers (-anti-Ro/La) and healthy children reacted with E1 loop and none (0 of 15) of sera from healthy mothers (+anti-Ro/La) and healthy children reacted with the E1 loop. Preincubation of E1 loop with the positive sera decreased the O.D reading establishing the specificity of the response. Electrophysiological characterization of the ELISA positive sera and purified IgG showed inhibition (44.1% and 49.8%, respectively) of the alpha(1D) I(Ca-L) expressed in tsA201 cells. The inhibition was abolished when the sera were pre-incubated with E1 fusion protein. The results identified the extracellular loop of domain I S5-S6 of L-type Ca channel alpha(1D) subunit as a target for autoantibodies from a subset of mothers with CHB children. This novel finding provides insights into the

  3. Intra-Operative Inspired Fraction of Oxygen and the Risk of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Type 1 Surgical Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanta, Brendan T; Hanson, Kristine T; Hyder, Joseph A; Stewart, Thomas M; Curry, Timothy B; Berbari, Elie F; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Kor, Daryl J; Brown, Michael J

    2018-04-02

    Whether the fraction of inspired oxygen (F I O 2 ) influences the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) is controversial. The World Health Organization and the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists offer conflicting recommendations. In this study, we evaluate simultaneously three different definitions of F I O 2 exposure and the risk of SSI in a large surgical population. Patients with clean (type 1) surgical incisions who developed superficial and deep organ/space SSI within 30 days after surgery from January 2003 through December 2012 in five surgical specialties were matched to specialty-specific controls. Fraction of inspired oxygen exposure was defined as (1) nadir F I O 2 , (2) percentage of operative time with F I O 2 greater than 50%, and (3) cumulative hyperoxia exposure, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) of F I O 2 by time for the duration in which F I O 2 greater than 50%. Stratified univariable and multivariable logistic regression models tested associations between F I O 2 and SSI. One thousand two hundred fifty cases of SSI were matched to 3,248 controls. Increased oxygen exposure, by any of the three measures, was not associated with the outcome of any SSI in a multivariable logistic regression model. Elevated body mass index (BMI; 35+ vs. operative oxygen exposure was associated with higher odds of SSI in the neurosurgical and spine populations. Increased intra-operative inspired fraction of oxygen was not associated with a reduction in SSI. These findings do not support the practice of increasing F I O 2 for the purpose of SSI reduction in patients with clean surgical incisions.

  4. A donor splice site mutation in CISD2 generates multiple truncated, non-functional isoforms in Wolfram syndrome type 2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Monica; La Sala, Lucia; Rondinelli, Maurizio; Errichiello, Edoardo; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Puca, Annibale Alessandro; Genovese, Stefano; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-12-13

    Mutations in the gene that encodes CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) are causative of Wolfram syndrome type 2 (WFS2), a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, peptic ulcer bleeding and defective platelet aggregation. Four mutations in the CISD2 gene have been reported. Among these mutations, the homozygous c.103 + 1G > A substitution was identified in the donor splice site of intron 1 in two Italian sisters and was predicted to cause a exon 1 to be skipped. Here, we employed molecular assays to characterize the c.103 + 1G > A mutation using the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). 5'-RACE coupled with RT-PCR were used to analyse the effect of the c.103 + 1G > A mutation on mRNA splicing. Western blot analysis was used to analyse the consequences of the CISD2 mutation on the encoded protein. We demonstrated that the c.103 + 1G > A mutation functionally impaired mRNA splicing, producing multiple splice variants characterized by the whole or partial absence of exon 1, which introduced amino acid changes and a premature stop. The affected mRNAs resulted in either predicted targets for nonsense mRNA decay (NMD) or non-functional isoforms. We concluded that the c.103 + 1G > A mutation resulted in the loss of functional CISD2 protein in the two Italian WFS2 patients.

  5. The effects of sequence and type of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on cosmesis and complications after breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy in stage I and II breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, Deborah A.; Schultz, Delray J.; Haas, Jonathan A.; Harris, Eleanor E. R.; Fox, Kevin R.; Glick, John H.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of both node negative and node positive breast cancer patients, but the optimal sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is not well established. Our goal is to evaluate the interaction of sequence and type of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy given with radiation therapy on the cosmetic outcome and the incidence of complications of stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 1053 stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with curative intent with breast conserving surgery, axillary dissection and radiation therapy between 1977-91 were reviewed. Median follow-up after treatment was 80 months. 206 patients received chemotherapy alone, 141 patients received hormonal therapy alone, 94 patients received both and 612 patients received no adjuvant therapy. Patients who received chemotherapy +/- hormonal therapy were grouped according to sequence of chemotherapy: (a)concurrent = concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy; (b)sequential = radiation followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiation; and (c)sandwich = chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation followed by chemotherapy. Compared to node negative patients, node positive patients more commonly received chemotherapy (77% vs. 9%, p 2 cm difference in arm circumference) was 2% without chemotherapy vs. 9% with chemotherapy (p-.00001). However, the incidence of arm edema was not affected by sequencing or type of chemotherapy (all p>.40). Patients treated sequentially had a 10% incidence of grade 4 or 5 arm edema vs. 7% in the patients treated concurrently (p=.53). The incidence was 8% vs. 18% in patients treated with CMF vs. CAF (p=.19). The incidence of clinical pneumonitis and rib fracture was not influenced by use of chemotherapy, sequence of chemotherapy or use of hormonal therapy (all p>.13

  6. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and NH₄⁺ and inhibition by ouabain of (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L⁻¹) of the decapodid III (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity by K⁺ also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K⁺ (K₀.₅ = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L⁻¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH₄⁺ had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na⁺ (K₀.₅ = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L⁻¹) of zoea I (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na⁺, Mg²⁺ and NH₄⁺ obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K⁺ modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²⁺ stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²⁺-stimulated ATPases other than (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na⁺-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH₄⁺-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages.

  7. The effect of expressive and instrumental touch on the behavior states of older adults with late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type and on music therapist's perceived rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy interventions utilizing two types of touch, expressive touch and instrumental touch, on the behavior states of older adults who have late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of the music therapist when expressive and instrumental touch was employed during music therapy sessions. A within-subject design was used with 9 participants receiving 3 sessions in each of the experimental conditions: no touch, expressive touch, and instrumental touch. Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed that expressive touch was significantly more effective during the initial session in eliciting and maintaining alert behavior states than the instrumental and control conditions; however, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions during the first and second session repetitions. Rapport ratings revealed that the therapist's client rapport was perceived to be significantly higher during both the expressive touch and instrumental touch conditions than during the control condition. These findings have important implications for music therapy practice and the effective use of nonverbal communication.

  8. Optimizing loop-type cryogenic modulation in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using time-variable combination of the dual-stage jets for analysis of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; de Sousa, Gustavo R; de A M Reis, Francisco; Augusto, Fabio

    2018-02-09

    The enhanced chromatographic capability of the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has already found several applications in analytical chemistry comprising complex samples. However, setting the appropriate chromatographic conditions that maximize sensitivity and separation efficiency in GC×GC may be more difficult than in conventional one-dimension gas chromatography, mainly due to the additional parameters strictly related to the modulation. Loop-type cryogenic modulators have been currently used for crude oil analysis using GC×GC, requiring sometimes a laborious try-and-error procedure to properly tune the dual-jets elapsed times on modulation. In this work, the advantages of choosing a time-variable combination of cold and hot jets pulses in a loop-type cryogenic modulator is presented when performing the fingerprinting analysis of crude oils using GC×GC-QMS, contrary to the conventional procedure based on a single combination for the dual-stage jets. A design of experiments approach is proposed to most effectively optimize the time-variable combination of the dual-jets elapsed times while modulating the wide hydrocarbons range along the GC×GC analysis. The most abundant classes of hydrocarbons contained in the maltenes fraction of a crude oil sample, such as paraffins, aromatics, steranes and hopanes were successfully resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, and method of analysis on digestibility of soluble and insoluble fiber in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Guamán, R; Carabaño, R; Gómez-Conde, M S; García, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of type of fiber, site of fermentation, method for quantifying insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and their correction for intestinal mucin on fiber digestibility were examined in rabbits. Three diets differing in soluble fiber were formulated (8.5% soluble fiber, on DM basis, in the low soluble fiber [LSF] diet; 10.2% in the medium soluble fiber [MSF] diet; and 14.5% in the high soluble fiber [HSF] diet). They were obtained by replacing half of the dehydrated alfalfa in the MSF diet with a mixture of beet and apple pulp (HSF diet) or with a mix of oat hulls and soybean protein (LSF diet). Thirty rabbits with ileal T-cannulas were used to determine ileal and fecal digestibility. Cecal digestibility was determined by difference between fecal and ileal digestibility. Insoluble fiber was measured as NDF, insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and in vitro insoluble fiber, whereas soluble fiber was calculated as the difference between total dietary fiber (TDF) and NDF (TDF-NDF), IDF (TDF-IDF), and in vitro insoluble fiber (TDF-in vitro insoluble fiber). The intestinal mucin content was used to correct the TDF and soluble fiber digestibility. Ileal and fecal concentration of mucin increased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (P soluble fiber increased whereas cecal digestibility decreased (P fiber increased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (11.3 vs. 21.0%; P effect of fiber method, resulting in a higher fecal digestibility for rabbits fed the HSF diet compared with the MSF and LSF diet groups (P fiber (P soluble fiber digestibility was higher for the HSF than for the LSF diet group (43.6 vs. 14.5%;P fiber method did not affect it. Cecal soluble fiber digestibility decreased from the LSF to the HSF diet group (72.1 vs. 49.2%; P soluble fiber digestibility was measured using TDF-NDF (P soluble fiber digestibility whereas the selection of the fiber method has a minor relevance. The inclusion of sugar beet and apple pulp increased the amount of TDF fermented in the

  10. Benthic data for corals, macroalgae, invertebrates, and non-living bottom types from 12 sites in American Samoa, 2005-2009. (NODC Accession 0068364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic transects were repeated at 12 sites around Tutuila at various depths on the reef slopes and flats. Benthic coverage categories include coral species,...

  11. TRMM Ground Validation Radar Site Rain Type Totals Map L3 1 month 2 km V7 (TRMM_3A54) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3A54 product, 'Site Rainfall Map', is a map of monthly surface rain totals derived from the instantaneous rain rate maps (2A53). The map is in Cartesian...

  12. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  13. Evidence of Stage- and Age-Related Heterogeneity of Non-HLA SNPs and Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittni N. Frederiksen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we examined 20 non-HLA SNPs for association with islet autoimmunity (IA and/or progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D. Our objective was to investigate fourteen additional non-HLA T1D candidate SNPs for stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. Of 1634 non-Hispanic white DAISY children genotyped, 132 developed IA (positive for GAD, insulin, or IA-2 autoantibodies at two or more consecutive visits; 50 IA positive children progressed to T1D. Cox regression was used to analyze risk of IA and progression to T1D in IA positive children. Restricted cubic splines were used to model SNPs when there was evidence that risk was not constant with age. C1QTNF6 (rs229541 predicted increased IA risk (HR: 1.57, CI: 1.20–2.05 but not progression to T1D (HR: 1.13, CI: 0.75–1.71. SNP (rs10517086 appears to exhibit an age-related effect on risk of IA, with increased risk before age 2 years (age 2 HR: 1.67, CI: 1.08–2.56 but not older ages (age 4 HR: 0.84, CI: 0.43–1.62. C1QTNF6 (rs229541, SNP (rs10517086, and UBASH3A (rs3788013 were associated with development of T1D. This prospective investigation of non-HLA T1D candidate loci shows that some SNPs may exhibit stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D.

  14. Evidence of Stage- and Age-Related Heterogeneity of Non-HLA SNPs and Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Steck, Andrea K.; Lamb, Molly M.; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we examined 20 non-HLA SNPs for association with islet autoimmunity (IA) and/or progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our objective was to investigate fourteen additional non-HLA T1D candidate SNPs for stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. Of 1634 non-Hispanic white DAISY children genotyped, 132 developed IA (positive for GAD, insulin, or IA-2 autoantibodies at two or more consecutive visits); 50 IA positive children progressed to T1D. Cox regression was used to analyze risk of IA and progression to T1D in IA positive children. Restricted cubic splines were used to model SNPs when there was evidence that risk was not constant with age. C1QTNF6 (rs229541) predicted increased IA risk (HR: 1.57, CI: 1.20–2.05) but not progression to T1D (HR: 1.13, CI: 0.75–1.71). SNP (rs10517086) appears to exhibit an age-related effect on risk of IA, with increased risk before age 2 years (age 2 HR: 1.67, CI: 1.08–2.56) but not older ages (age 4 HR: 0.84, CI: 0.43–1.62). C1QTNF6 (rs229541), SNP (rs10517086), and UBASH3A (rs3788013) were associated with development of T1D. This prospective investigation of non-HLA T1D candidate loci shows that some SNPs may exhibit stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. PMID:24367383

  15. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-human beta-endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta type opioid binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keren, O.; Gioannini, T.L.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Affinity crosslinking of human /sup 125/I-beta-Endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta binding sites was carried out. Autoradiography of SDS-PAGE gels from these crosslinked cell lines revealed that these two sites contain major peptide subunits that differ in molecular size. This confirms our earlier finding in mammalian brain which demonstrated separate and distinct subunits for mu and delta opioid receptors.

  16. Identification of new splice sites used for generation of rev transcripts in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C primary isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Delgado

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 primary transcript undergoes a complex splicing process by which more than 40 different spliced RNAs are generated. One of the factors contributing to HIV-1 splicing complexity is the multiplicity of 3' splice sites (3'ss used for generation of rev RNAs, with two 3'ss, A4a and A4b, being most commonly used, a third site, A4c, used less frequently, and two additional sites, A4d and A4e, reported in only two and one isolates, respectively. HIV-1 splicing has been analyzed mostly in subtype B isolates, and data on other group M clades are lacking. Here we examine splice site usage in three primary isolates of subtype C, the most prevalent clade in the HIV-1 pandemic, by using an in vitro infection assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral spliced RNAs were identified by RT-PCR amplification using a fluorescently-labeled primer and software analyses and by cloning and sequencing the amplified products. The results revealed that splice site usage for generation of rev transcripts in subtype C differs from that reported for subtype B, with most rev RNAs using two previously unreported 3'ss, one located 7 nucleotides upstream of 3'ss A4a, designated A4f, preferentially used by two isolates, and another located 14 nucleotides upstream of 3'ss A4c, designated A4g, preferentially used by the third isolate. A new 5' splice site, designated D2a, was also identified in one virus. Usage of the newly identified splice sites is consistent with sequence features commonly found in subtype C viruses. These results show that splice site usage may differ between HIV-1 subtypes.

  17. Stage of Alcohol and Drug Use among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined stages of drug habit acquisition and change among college students, basing the proposed stages of drug use on the Multi-Component Motivational Stages prevention model. Surveys indicated the model helped explain the stages of substance use. The proportion of youths at each stage differed by type of drug. (SM)

  18. New chronological data for the timing of the Saalian- and Elsterian glacial cycle in Europe - studies on a key site within the type area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tobias; Weiß, Marcel; Wansa, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The type area for the Elsterian- and Saalian glacial cycles is located in central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) where the gravel deposits of the rivers Saale- and Elster interfinger with tills and meltwater deposits of both glacial cycles in proximity to the maximum extensions of the Middle-Pleistocene Scandinavian ice-sheets in Central Europe. The Elsterian- and Saalian glacial cycles, including the corresponding interglacial periods are also correlated with first human appearance in the area (see Haidle and Pawlik 2010). Nevertheless, the timing of these glacial cycles is still unclear due to a lack of resilient chronological data on sediments representing the advance- and retreat of the glaciers. The Elsterian is defined to be terminated by the Holsteinian, but for the latter, a correlation to MIS 9 or 11 is still a matter of debate (e. g. Sirocko et al. 2006; Nitychoruk et al. 2007). Consequently, a correlation of the Elsterian to MIS 10 or 12 is possible. Within the last decades, new luminescence dating techniques such as pIRIR-luminescence protocols or infrared-radiofluorescence dating made it possible to extent the datable age range and hence, it is now possible to establish reliable chronologies also for deposits beyond the last glacial-/interglacial cycle. In the present study, we dated the quaternary sequence of Uichteritz (close to the Saale-river near Weissenfels, Saxony-Anhalt) using luminescence and infrared-radiofluorescence dating. The base of the quaternary layers consists of Elsterian sediments pre-dating the first Elsterian ice advance. This is evidenced mainly by the lithology, especially the absence of Nordic components in the composition of the gravel. Additionally, remains of the advancing Saalian ice sheet, represented by fluvial sediments from the Middle-Pleistocene river Saale, as well as till, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, cover the Elsterian succession. The upper part of the fluvial Elsterian sediments

  19. Computed tomography in the staging of esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyung Min; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was found to be highly accurate in predicting tumor size and assessing invasion of the surrounding structures and distant metastasis. Also CT played an important role for determination of operability of esophageal carcinoma. The CT findings with barium esophagogram in 21 patients with histologically proven esophageal carcinoma were reviewed from Feb. 1985 to Feb. 1986 at the department of Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine. The results were as follows: 1. Number of patients in each stages were: 2 in stage 1, 6 in stage 2, 4 in stage 3, and 9 in stage 4. 2. Paek age distribution was in tis 6th decades as 9 patients (42.9%). Overall mean age was 60.8 years. Number of male patients were 19 and 2 of female. 3. Histologic types of esophageal carcinoma were 19 cases of epidermoid (90.5%) and 2 cases of adenocarcinoma (9.5%). 4. The tumor location was 1 case in upper, 14 cases (66.7%) in middle and 6 cases in lower one-third. 5. Various types of esophageal carcinoma were as follows: 3 cases of fungating, 4 cases of infiltrating, 5 cases of ulcerofungating, and 9 cases of ulceroinfiltrating type. 6. Average length of involvement in each stages were 4 cm in stage 1, 5.5 cm in stage 2, 8.8 cm stage 3, and 8.3 cm in stage 4. The involved length was longer in advanced cases. In 11 cases (52.4%), the involved length was between 4 and 8 cm. 7. Angle of periaortic fat plane obliteration of the aortic circumference were as follows: Below 45 (7 cases 33.3%), 45-90 (3 cases 14.3%), over 90 (11 cases, 52.4%). 8. Method of treatment of esophageal carcinoma were as follows: Only radiotherapy in 11 cases (52.4%), radiotherapy with operation in 5 cases, only operation on 1 case, and no treatment in 4 cases. 9. Distant metastatic sites were: brain in 1, pericardium in 5, liver in 5, trachea in 2, bronchus in 9, and distant lymph node in 5 cases.

  20. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  1. Positive selection pressure introduces secondary mutations at Gag cleavage sites in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 harboring major protease resistance mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, S.; Lillemark, M.R.; Gerstoft, J.

    2009-01-01

    mutations). Additional sequences from 13 patients were included for longitudinal analysis. We assessed positive selection pressure on the gag/protease region using a test for the overall influence of positive selection and a total of five tests to identify positively selected single codons. We found...... that positive selection pressure was the driving evolutionary force for the gag region in all three patient groups. An increase in positive selection was observed in gag cleavage site regions p7/p1/p6 only after the acquisition of major PI mutations, suggesting that amino acids in gag cleavage sites under...... positive selection pressure could function as compensatory mutations for major PI mutations in the protease region. Isolated gag mutations did not appear to confer PI resistance, but mutations in the gag cleavage sites could substitute for minor PI resistance mutations in the protease region Udgivelsesdato...

  2. Serum levels of N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide as a diagnostic marker for left ventricular dysfunction in children with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoair, Amr Mohamed; Abdel-Hafez, Maher Ahmed; Mawlana, Wegdan; Sweylam, Mohamed Abdel-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic cutoff value of N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) as a marker of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out on thirty children with ESRD on regular HD and thirty healthy controls. Echocardiographic studies were done, including a conventional mode for ejection fraction, fractional shortening, tissue Doppler imaging, and longitudinal global strain by speckle tracking. Serum levels of NT-pro BNP were measured in venous blood samples before and about 30 min after HD by ELISA. Volume status was assessed by calculating interdialytic weight gain %. There were significant higher serum NT-pro BNP levels before HD (mean: 702.3 ± 274.3 ng/L) compared to controls (mean: 365.55 ± 76.5 ng/L) (P children with ESRD on regular HD. A postdialysis cutoff value of 630 ng/L could serve as a biochemical marker of LV dysfunction in those children regardless of chronic fluid overload.

  3. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Analysis of Amino Acids Critical for Activity of the Type I Signal Peptidase of the Archaeon Methanococcus voltae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Sonia L.; Ng, Sandy Y. M.; Carnegie, David S.; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2005-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis studies of the signal peptidase of the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus voltae identified three conserved residues (Ser52, His122, and Asp148) critical for activity. The requirement for one conserved aspartic acid residue distinguishes the archaeal enzyme from both the Escherichia coli and yeast Sec11 enzymes. PMID:15659694

  4. Site specific information in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  5. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  6. Discrimination of wild types and hybrids of Duboisia myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii at different growth stages using1H NMR-based metabolite profiling and tropane alkaloids-targeted HPLC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike; Averesch, Nils J H; Castellanos, Leonardo; Choi, Young Hae; Rothauer, Andreas; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Duboisia species, which belong to the family of Solanaceae, are commercially cultivated in large scale, as they are main source of the pharmaceutically-used active compound scopolamine. In this study, 1 H NMR-based metabolite profiling linking primary with secondary metabolism and additional quantification via HPCL-MS with special focus on the tropane alkaloids were applied to compare leaf and root extracts of three wild types and two hybrids of Duboisia myoporoides and D. leichhardtii at different developmental stages grown under controlled conditions in climate chambers and under agricultural field plantation. Based on the leaf extracts, a clear distinction between the Duboisia hybrids and the wild types Duboisia myoporoides and D. leichhardtii using principal component analysis of 1 H NMR data was observed. The average content in scopolamine in the hybrids of Duboisia cultivated in climate chambers increased significantly from month 3-6 after potting of the rooted cuttings, however not so for the examined wild types. The Duboisia hybrids grown in climate chambers showed higher growth and contained more sugars and amino acids than Duboisia hybrids grown in the field, which in contrast showed an enhanced flux towards tropane alkaloids as well as flavonoids. For a more detailed analysis of tropane alkaloids, an appropriate HPLC-MS method was developed and validated. The measurements revealed large differences in the alkaloid pattern within the different genotypes under investigation, especially regarding the last enzymatic step, the conversion from hyoscamine to scopolamine by the hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase. Scopolamine was found in highest concentrations in Duboisia hybrids (20.04 ± 4.05 and 17.82 ± 3.52 mg/g dry wt) followed by Duboisia myoporoides (12.71 ± 2.55 mg/g dry wt), both showing a high selectivity for scopolamine in contrast to Duboisia leichhardtii (3.38 ± 0.59 and 5.09 ± 1.24 mg/g dry wt) with hyoscyamine being the

  7. Airports and Airfields, Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type, effective date, air strip name, city name, latitude, longitude, and elevation., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of 2008. Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type,...

  8. Effect of developmental stage of unfed fry on survival and growth of steelhead released in a stream and hatchery ponds (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in developmental stage of unfed fry at release affected subsequent survival and growth of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in a stream and hatchery ponds. Differences in development were created by artificially spawning hatchery steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho, and incubating their progeny at three different temperatures (means=10.9, 11.3, and 11.7°C). Time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) was predicted from incubation temperature using a model. MAWW is equivalent to the button - up fry stage of development. Developmental stages at release were “underdeveloped” (97.7% of model - predicted time to MAWW, mean weight=0.177 g, proportion yolk=0.087), “intermediate” (102.5%, 0.179 g, 0.044), and “overdeveloped” (107.9%, 0.156 g, 0.030). Neither survival nor growth in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period differed among groups. In the stream, frequency of overdeveloped fish relative to the other two groups decreased fro m release in May to September, probably indicating lower survival for the overdeveloped fish during that interval since emigration of sub - yearlings is typically negligible. Length in September was less for overdeveloped than for intermediate fish and was in between for underdeveloped fish, suggesting that growth between May and September was less for overdeveloped fish than for intermediate fish. Although changes in relative frequency and size occurred among fry development groups from September to one ye ar later, those changes may have reflected differences in emigration rate during the interval rather than differential survival or growth. Our results show a cost to survival and growth in a stream, but not in a hatchery, from overdevelopment characterize d by loss of weight and yolk reserves relative to fry closer to MAWW at release. We didn’t find any cost from underdevelopment; however, our underdeveloped fry were closer to MAWW than the

  9. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  10. Variation in patient–provider communication by patient’s race and ethnicity, provider type, and continuity in and site of care: An analysis of data from the Connecticut Health Care Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H Aseltine; Alyse Sabina; Gillian Barclay; Garth Graham

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of patient-reported communication with their health care providers using data from a large, statewide survey of patients. We examine the relationship between patient?s race and ethnicity, type of health care provider, site of and continuity in care, and the quality of patient?provider communication. Methods: We analyze data from the Connecticut Health Care Survey, a representative telephone survey of 4608 Connecticut residents co...

  11. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  12. Enhanced Tracking of Nosocomial Transmission of Endemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Type IV Isolates among Patients and Environmental Sites by Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnevey, Peter M; Shore, Anna C; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Creamer, Eilish; Brennan, Gráinne I; Humphreys, Hilary; Rogers, Thomas R; O'Connell, Brian; Coleman, David C

    2016-02-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 41 patient and environmental sequence type 22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) isolates recovered over 6 weeks in one acute hospital ward in Dublin, Ireland, where ST22-MRSA IV is endemic, revealed 228 pairwise combinations differing by transmission events (CTEs). In contrast, 15 pairwise combinations of isolates representing five CTEs were previously identified by conventional molecular epidemiological typing. WGS enhanced ST22-MRSA-IV tracking and highlighted potential transmission of MRSA via the hospital environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) Genetic Variation with Type 2 Diabetes and End Stage Renal Disease in Two Large Population Samples from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Priyanka; Sikka, Ruhi; Kaur, Ramandeep; Sokhi, Jasmine; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Singh, Virinder; Bhanwer, A J S

    2015-05-01

    Geographic and ethnic differences impart an immense influence on the genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), a ubiquitously expressed pro-fibrotic cytokine plays a pivotal role in mediating the hypertrophic and fibrotic manifestations of DN. The present study is aimed to study the association of TGF-β1 g.869T>C (rs1800470) and g.-509C>T (rs1800469) polymorphism in T2D and end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases from the two geographically and ethnically different populations from North India. A total of 1313 samples comprising 776 samples from Punjab (204 with ESRD, 257 without ESRD, and 315 healthy controls) and 537 samples from Jammu and Kashmir (150 with ESRD, 187 without ESRD, and 200 controls) were genotyped for TGF-β1 (rs1800470 and rs1800469) using ARMS-PCR. The CC genotype of rs1800470 increased ESRD risk by 3.1-4.5-fold in both populations. However, for rs1800469, the TT genotype provided 5.5-fold risk towards ESRD cases from Jammu and Kashmir and no risk for the cases from Punjab. The haplotype C-T conferred nearly a 2-3-fold risk towards T2D and ESRD and diplotype CC-CT conferred a 4-fold risk towards ESRD. Our results conclude that TGF-β1 (rs1800470) may increase the risk of both ESRD and T2D in both populations, but TGF-β1 (rs1800469) provided risk for only ESRD in the population of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study is one of the large sample sized genetic association studies of T2D and ESRD from Indian population and adds to the scholarship on global health omics.

  14. Decree n. 2007-534 of the 4. april 2007 allowing the creation of the base nuclear installation named Flamanville 3, including a EPR type reactor, on the site of Flamanville (Manche); Decret no 2007-534 du 10 avril 2007 autorisant la creation de l'installation nucleaire de base denommee Flamanville 3, comportant un reacteur nucleaire de type EPR, sur le site de Flamanville (Manche)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This decree gives the authorization to EDF to create on the site of Flamanville a nuclear installation including a PWR type reactor for a power of 4500 MW and devoted to the electric production. This reactor will can use uranium oxide or a mixture of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide. Considerations concerning the safety are given, as well as the control of the impact of this exploitation on the populations and the environment. (N.C.)

  15. Coordinated site characterization and performance assessment - an iterative approach for the site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Ericsson, L.O.; Thegerstroem, C.; Almen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    SKB planning for siting a deep repository involves feasibility studies in 5-10 municipalities surface based characterization and drilling on two candidate sites and detailed characterization of one site including a shaft to proposed repository depth. The selection of a site or the detailed layout of the repository defines characteristics that might influence safety in a broad sense. There is a strong ling between the safety, technical (engineering) and functional aspects. The site selection will be based on general geoscientific information, i.e. mechanical stability, ground-water chemistry, slow ground-water movements and complicating factors like high potential for mineralization. The general layout of the repository in the actual geological structure of the site must be done with regard to a number of guidelines, e.g. to hydraulically separate the parts of the repository containing the spent nuclear fuel from those for other types of long lived waste and to separate the two stages of the spent fuel repository so they can be handled separately in the licensing process. When the various parts of the repository have been tentatively located the consequence of the multiple barrier principle is that the layout of the various parts should be made with the aim to utilize the available natural barrier system at the site as well as possible. (authors). 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 6, 11, 16, 18, by Anatomic Site of HPV Infection, in Women Aged 16-64 Years living in the Metropolitan Area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Caraballo, Aixa M; Suarez, Erick; Unger, Elizabeth R; Palefsky, Joel M; Panicker, Gitika; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2018-03-01

    It is unknown if human papillomavirus (HPV) serum antibody responses vary by anatomic site of infection. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in association with HPV DNA detection in different anatomic sites among women. This cross sectional population-based study analyzed data from 524 women aged 16-64 years living in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico (PR). Questionnaires were used to assess demographic and lifestyle variables, while anogenital and blood samples were collected for HPV analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) in order to determine the association between HPV DNA infection status in the cervix and anus and serum antibody status, controlling for different potential confounders. Overall, 46.9% of women had detectable antibodies to one or more types whereas 8.7% had HPV DNA for one or more of these types detected in cervix (4.0%) or anus (6.5%). Women with cervical HPV detection tended to be more HPV seropositive than women without cervical detection (adjusted POR (95%CI): 2.41 (0.90, 6.47), p=0.078); however the type-specific association between cervical DNA and serum antibodies was only significant for HPV 18 (adjusted POR (95% CI): 5.9 (1.03, 33.98)). No significant association was detected between anal HPV and seropositivity (p>0.10). Differences in the anatomic site of infection could influence seroconversion, however, longitudinal studies will be required for further evaluation. This information will be instrumental in advancing knowledge of immune mechanisms involved in anatomic site response.

  17. The plasminogen binding site of the C-type lectin tetranectin is located in the carbohydrate recognition domain, and binding is sensitive to both calcium and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Lorentsen, R H; Jacobsen, C

    1998-01-01

    Tetranectin, a homotrimeric protein belonging to the family of C-type lectins and structurally highly related to corresponding regions of the mannose-binding proteins, is known specifically to bind the plasminogen kringle 4 protein domain, an interaction sensitive to lysine. Surface plasmon...

  18. Preparative engineering on the Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3. In-site measurement on wave pressure working to new type bank protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoriaki; Hoshi, Hideki; Amano, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 is planned to construct it at sea-side area adjacent to southern-east portion of Unit 1 and 2, and has been carried out its preparative engineerings such as bank protection with about 670 m in length, its development, and so on, corresponding to it. Among them, as type of landfill for protection of important construction at its background the Amahata covered-block type bank protection developed by a series of hydrologic tests was adopted. This engineering was begun on March, 2001, and most of establishment on the landfill bank protection was finished on June, 2003. Then, an in-situ measurement aiming to obtain actual testing data and so on of wave pressure at this type of bank protection, was planned, to carry out its measurement at winter (October, 2002 to February, 2003) showing the highest wave at this sea area. Here were reported on relationship between incident wave and wave pressure feature working at new type bank protection together with describing on outlines of the in-situ measurement. (G.K.)

  19. User-centered design of a web-based self-management site for individuals with type 2 diabetes - providing a sense of control and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine H; Parsons, Janet A; Hall, Susan; Newton, David; Jovicic, Aleksandra; Lottridge, Danielle; Shah, Baiju R; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-07-23

    To design and test a web-based self-management tool for patients with type 2 diabetes for its usability and feasibility. An evidence-based, theory-driven website was created for patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were recruited from 2 diabetes care centers in Toronto, Canada. We employed focus group methodology to assess acceptability, sustainability, strengths and weaknesses of the self-management website. Based on these results, revisions were made to the website. Three cycles of individual usability testing sessions using cognitive task analysis were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes. Revisions to the website were made based on results from this testing. We identified five themes concerning participants' experiences of health care and related unmet needs: 1) Desire for information and for greater access to timely and personalized care to gain a sense of control of their disease; 2) Desire for community (sharing experiences with others) to fulfill practical and emotional needs; 3) Potential roles of an online self-management website in self-empowerment, behavior change, self-management and health care delivery; 4) Importance of a patient-centered perspective in presenting content (e.g. common assumptions, medical nomenclature, language, messaging, sociocultural context); 5) Barriers and facilitators to use of a self-management website (including perceived relevance of content, incorporation into usual routine, availability for goal-directed use, usability issues). Participants outlined a series of unmet health care needs, and stated that they wanted timely access to tailored knowledge about their condition, mechanisms to control and track their disease, and opportunities to share experiences with other patients. These findings have implications for patients with type 2 diabetes of diverse ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, and disease severity, as well as to the design of other computer

  20. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  1. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  2. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  3. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  4. Micro-ribonucleic acid-binding site variants of type 2 diabetes candidate loci predispose to gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Wei; Ma, Liangkun; Ping, Fan; Liu, Juntao; Wu, Xueyan; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xi; Nie, Min

    2018-01-20

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the genetic background of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was analogous to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the genetic studies for GDM were limited. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to extensively explore the influence of micro-ribonucleic acid-binding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci on GDM susceptibility in Chinese. A total of 839 GDM patients and 900 controls were enrolled. Six micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs were selected from 30 type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci and genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The minor allele of three SNPs, PAX4 rs712699 (OR 1.366, 95% confidence interval 1.021-1.828, P = 0.036), KCNB1 rs1051295 (OR 1.579, 95% confidence interval 1.172-2.128, P = 0.003) and MFN2 rs1042842 (OR 1.398, 95% confidence interval 1.050-1.862, P = 0.022) were identified to significantly confer higher a risk of GDM in the additive model. The association between rs1051295 and increased fasting plasma glucose (b = 0.006, P = 0.008), 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.058, P = 0.025) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (b = 0.065, P = 0.017) was also shown. Rs1042842 was correlated with higher 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.056, P = 0.028). However, no significant correlation between the other included SNPs (LPIN1 rs1050800, VPS26A rs1802295 and NLRP3 rs10802502) and GDM susceptibility were observed. The present findings showed that micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci were also associated with GDM susceptibility, which further highlighted the similar genetic basis underlying GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  12. 5-(Piperidin-4-yl)-3-Hydroxypyrazole: A Novel Scaffold for Probing the Orthosteric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    A series of bioisosteric N1- and N2-substituted 5-(piperidin-4-yl)-3-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the partial GABAAR agonists 4-PIOL and 4-PHP have been designed, synthesized, and characterized pharmacologically. The unsubstituted 3-hydroxypyrazole analogue of 4-PIOL (2 a; IC50∼300 μM) is a weak...... indicate that the N1-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 2 a–k, and previously reported 3-substituted 4-PHP analogues share a common binding mode to the orthosteric binding site in the receptor. Interestingly, the core scaffold of the N2-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 3 b...

  13. Utility of two types of MR cisternography for patency evaluation of aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site: Three dimentsional sagittal fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent fast gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the utility of two types of MR cisternography [fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent gradient echo (GRE) sequence] in addition to phase contrast-cine imaging (PC-cine), for assessing patency at the aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site. 43 patients (35 patients with suspected aqueductal stenosis and 8 patients with third ventriculostomy) were retrospectively analyzed. PC-cine, 3 dimensional sagittal fast spin echo sequence [driven-equilibrium imaging (DRIVE) or volumetric isotrophic T2-weighted acquisition (T2 VISTA)] and steady-state coherent fast GRE sequence (balanced turbo field echo; bTFE) imaging were performed in all patients. The patency of the aqueduct or third ventriculostomy site was scored. Some pitfalls of each sequence were also analyzed in individual cases. 93% of all cases showed consistent scores in PC-cine, DRIVE/T2 VISTA, and bTFE imaging. DRIVE/T2 VISTA imaging provided functional information of cerebrospinal fluid flow with flow-related artifacts, while bTFE imaging allowed direct visualization of the aqueduct or ventriculostomy site. However, evaluation of anatomical structures was difficult in three cases with strong flow-related artifacts on DRIVE/T2 VISTA and in 2 cases with susceptibility artifacts on bTFE. Both DRIVE/T2 VISTA and bTFE imaging have complementary roles in evaluating the patency of the aqueduct and 3rd ventriculostomy site.

  14. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  15. Aerosol Number Size Distribution and Type Classification from 4-Year Polarization Optical Particle Counter (POPC) Measurements at Urban-Mountain Site in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. J.; Kim, S. W.; Kobayashi, H.; Nishizawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Polarization Optical Particle Counter (POPC), unlike general OPCs, has the advantage capable of classifying the aerosol types (e.g., dust, anthropogenic pollution), because it measures particle number, size and depolarization ratio (DPR; the sphericity information of single particle) for 4 size bins with diameter (0.5-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10 μm). In this study, we investigate the temporal variations of particle number and volume size distributions with DPR values and classify aerosol types such as dust, anthropogenic pollution, from 4-year (2013-2016) POPC data at Seoul National University campus in Seoul, Korea. Coarse mode particles from 5-10 μm with relatively high DPR values (0.25-0.3) were distinctly appeared in in both spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) due to frequent transport of Asian dust particles. In summer (June -August), however, both aerosol number concentration and DPR value were decreased in all size bins due to the influences of relatively clean maritime airmass and frequent precipitations. In autumn (September - November), the particle number concentration in all size bins was the lowest. To classify the aerosol types, we investigate particle number and volume size distributions and DPR value for clean, dust-dominant and anthropogenic pollution-dominant cases, which were selected by PM10, PM2.5 mass concentrations and its ratio, because those parameters are clearly different among aerosol types (Kobayashi et al., 2014, Pan et al., 2016). Non-spherical coarse mode particles (Dp > 2.5 μm, 0.1 < DPR < 0.6) were dominantly observed during the dust-dominant period, while both spherical fine mode and coarse mode particles (Dp < 1 μm and Dp = 2-4 μm, DPR < 0.1) were dominantly appeared during the pollution event. The aerosol type classifications with these criteria values were successfully applied to the extreme Asian dust event from February 22 to 24, 2015. The results showed that pollution-dominant airmass preceded by the appearance

  16. Type I Versus Type II Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Ottesen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Two distinct types of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with different etiology, tumor characteristics, and prognosis are recognized. We investigated if the prognostic impact of comorbidity varies between these 2 types of EC. Furthermore, we studied if the recently developed ovarian cancer....... A consistent association between increasing levels of comorbidity and poorer survival was observed for both types. Cox regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between cancer stage and comorbidity indicating that the impact of comorbidity varied with stage. In contrast, the interaction between...

  17. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  18. Videoradiography of patients with habitual snoring and/or sleep apnea. Technical description and presentation of videoradiographic results during sleep concerning occurrence of apnea, type of apnea, and site of obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillarp, B.; Nylander, G.; Rosen, I.; Wickstroem, O.

    1995-01-01

    The videoradiographic examination described was designed for habitual snorers and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) patients and was performed during wakefulness and sleep. During wakefulness the purpose was to reveal any dysfunction in deglutiton and speech as well as morphologic abnormalities. The purpose during sleep, which usually was induced by low-dose midazolam intravenously, was to reveal the site and form of obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea patients and the site of snoring in habitual snorers. The preoperative results of 104 patients are presented. In 57 patients who had apneas, the occurrence and type of apnea could be determined. A continuous recording over some minutes gave a rough estimate of the degree of SAS and mean duration of apnea. Although much information on SAS can be obtained by this method, it cannot replace polygraphic sleep recording in the investigation of habitual snorers and SAS patients. However, these 2 methods are complementary and can be performed simultaneously as polygraphic videoradiography. (orig.)

  19. Videoradiography of patients with habitual snoring and/or sleep apnea. Technical description and presentation of videoradiographic results during sleep concerning occurrence of apnea, type of apnea, and site of obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillarp, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Nylander, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Rosen, I. [Dept. of Neurophysiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Wickstroem, O. [Dept. of Neurophysiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    1995-05-01

    The videoradiographic examination described was designed for habitual snorers and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) patients and was performed during wakefulness and sleep. During wakefulness the purpose was to reveal any dysfunction in deglutiton and speech as well as morphologic abnormalities. The purpose during sleep, which usually was induced by low-dose midazolam intravenously, was to reveal the site and form of obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea patients and the site of snoring in habitual snorers. The preoperative results of 104 patients are presented. In 57 patients who had apneas, the occurrence and type of apnea could be determined. A continuous recording over some minutes gave a rough estimate of the degree of SAS and mean duration of apnea. Although much information on SAS can be obtained by this method, it cannot replace polygraphic sleep recording in the investigation of habitual snorers and SAS patients. However, these 2 methods are complementary and can be performed simultaneously as polygraphic videoradiography. (orig.).

  20. Serum levels of N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide as a diagnostic marker for left ventricular dysfunction in children with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mohamed Zoair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic cutoff value of N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP as a marker of left ventricular (LV dysfunction in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis (HD. The study was carried out on thirty children with ESRD on regular HD and thirty healthy controls. Echocardiographic studies were done, including a conventional mode for ejection fraction, fractional shortening, tissue Doppler imaging, and longitudinal global strain by speckle tracking. Serum levels of NT-pro BNP were measured in venous blood samples before and about 30 min after HD by ELISA. Volume status was assessed by calculating interdialytic weight gain %. There were significant higher serum NT-pro BNP levels before HD (mean: 702.3 ± 274.3 ng/L compared to controls (mean: 365.55 ± 76.5 ng/L (P <0.001 and these levels decreased significantly after the HD session (mean: 625.1 ± 117.69 ng/L (P = 0.031. Echocardiographic studies showed a significant impairment of LV function of the patients compared to controls. Patients with LV dysfunction had significant higher serum concentrations of NT-pro BNP compared to patients without dysfunction both before (P = 0.003 and after dialysis (P <0.001. Receiver operating curve demonstrated better prediction of LV dysfunction by NT-pro BNP levels after HD compared to its levels before HD (area under the curve was 0.9 and 0.73, respectively. Using a cutoff value of 630 ng/L, serum NT-pro BNP levels after dialysis were a diagnostic predictor of LV dysfunction with a sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 93.3%, positive predictive value of 92.8%, and negative predictive value of 87.5%. Serum NT-pro BNP levels were strongly correlated with the parameters of LV dysfunction in children with ESRD on regular HD. A postdialysis cutoff value of 630 ng/L could serve as a biochemical marker of LV dysfunction in those children regardless of chronic fluid overload.

  1. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis of surfactant protein A reveals dissociation of lipid aggregation and lipid uptake by alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunezawa, W; Sano, H; Sohma, H; McCormack, F X; Voelker, D R; Kuroki, Y

    1998-09-08

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and induces phospholipid vesicle aggregation. It also regulates the uptake and secretion of surfactant lipids by alveolar type II cells. We introduced the single mutations Glu195-->Gln (rE195Q), Lys201-->Ala (rK201A) and Lys203-->Ala (rK203A) for rat SP-A, Arg199-->Ala (hR199A) and Lys201-->Ala (hK201A) for human SP-A, and the triple mutations Arg197, Lys201 and Lys203-->Ala (rR197A/K201A/K203A) for rat SP-A, into cDNAs for SP-A, and expressed the recombinant proteins using baculovirus vectors. All recombinant proteins avidly bound to DPPC liposomes. rE195Q, rK201A, rK203A, hR199A and hK201A function with activity comparable to wild type SP-A. Although rR197A/K201A/K203A was a potent inducer of phospholipid vesicle aggregation, it failed to stimulate lipid uptake. rR197A/K201A/K203A was a weak inhibitor for lipid secretion and did not competed with rat [125I]SP-A for receptor occupancy. From these results, we conclude that Lys201 and Lys203 of rat SP-A, and Arg199 and Lys201 of human SP-A are not individually critical for the interaction with lipids and type II cells, and that Glu195 of rat SP-A can be replaced with Gln without loss of SP-A functions. This study also demonstrates that the SP-A-mediated lipid uptake is not directly correlated with phospholipid vesicle aggregation, and that specific interactions of SP-A with type II cells are involved in the lipid uptake process.

  4. Variations in soil chemical properties, microbial biomass, and faunal populations as related to plant functional traits, patch types, and successional stages at Sokolov post-mining site - A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moradi, J.; Mudrák, Ondřej; Kukla, J.; Vicentini, F.; Šimáčková, H.; Frouz, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, NOV-DEC (2017), s. 58-64 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chronosequence * plant functional trait * faunal surface activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2016

  5. Differential effect of detergents on [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.; Gavish, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a differential effect of various detergent treatments on [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 and [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBS). Triton X-100 caused a decrease of about 70% in [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 binding to membranes from various peripheral tissues of rat, but had only a negligible effect on [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding. A similar effect of Triton X-100 was observed on guinea pig and rabbit kidney membranes. The decrease in [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 binding after treatment with Triton X-100 was apparently due to a decrease in the density of PBS, since the affinity remained unaltered. The detergents 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), Tween 20, deoxycholic acid, or digitonin (0.0125%) caused only a minor change in [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 and [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding to rat kidney membranes; but when concentrations were substantially increased (0.1%), all detergents caused a decrease of at least 50% in [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 binding, while [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding to rat kidney membranes remained unaffected by the first three detergents, with only a minor decrease (15%) after treatment with digitonin

  6. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  7. Relationship between the CT Value and Cortical Bone Thickness at Implant Recipient Sites and Primary Implant Stability with Comparison of Different Implant Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howashi, Miori; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Isoda-Akizuki, Kei; Kihara, Masafumi; Imai, Yu; Sogo, Motofumi; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Studies have shown that bone quality at the implant recipient site can influence primary stability. The aims of this study were to explore the quantitative estimation of the primary stability of implants preoperatively using CT values and to examine the effect of different implant designs with recommended socket preparation on primary stability. Forty-four fresh porcine femoral heads were prepared. The bone surrounding implant sockets was preoperatively evaluated by helical CT. Forty-four implants (φ 4.3 × 10 mm), 22 straight and 22 tapered, were placed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The insertion torque value (ITV), implant stability quotient (ISQ), and removal torque value (RTV) were recorded as indicators of primary implant stability. Significant correlations and linear relationships were found between the CT value and ITV, ISQ, and RTV for both straight and tapered implants (Spearman's correlation coefficient, p < .001; linear regression analysis, p < .01). Tapered implants had a significantly higher ITV than straight implants (analysis of covariance, p < .01). Obtained results suggest that the primary stability of implants could be quantitatively estimated using the CT value preoperatively, indicating the CT value of bone surrounding an implant can contribute considerably to implant planning and design choice in clinical situations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    development of significant texture components with {1 1 1} approximately parallel to the rolling plane. (4) The deformation pattern during the later stages of the development of the brass-type texture is normally dominated by shear banding. (5) Copper–manganese alloys with more than 5% manganese develop...... results from a preliminary attempt to introduce the composite pattern in a complex model. We also suggest that more advanced models (like n-site models) are applied to the shear banding stage. As to the fundamental physical process governing the fcc rolling texture transition we quote recent...

  10. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

  11. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  12. Npro of classical swine fever virus contributes to pathogenicity in pigs by preventing type I interferon induction at local replication sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Nagashima, Naofumi; Ruggli, Nicolas; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2014-04-17

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. The viral protein Npro of CSFV interferes with alpha- and beta-interferon (IFN-α/β) induction by promoting the degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). During the establishment of the live attenuated CSF vaccine strain GPE-, Npro acquired a mutation that abolished its capacity to bind and degrade IRF3, rendering it unable to prevent IFN-α/β induction. In a previous study, we showed that the GPE- vaccine virus became pathogenic after forced serial passages in pigs, which was attributed to the amino acid substitutions T830A in the viral proteins E2 and V2475A and A2563V in NS4B. Interestingly, during the re-adaptation of the GPE- vaccine virus in pigs, the IRF3-degrading function of Npro was not recovered. Therefore, we examined whether restoring the ability of Npro to block IFN-α/β induction of both the avirulent and moderately virulent GPE--derived virus would enhance pathogenicity in pigs. Viruses carrying the N136D substitution in Npro regained the ability to degrade IRF3 and suppress IFN-α/β induction in vitro. In pigs, functional Npro significantly reduced the local IFN-α mRNA expression in lymphoid organs while it increased quantities of IFN-α/β in the circulation, and enhanced pathogenicity of the moderately virulent virus. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that functional Npro influences the innate immune response at local sites of virus replication in pigs and contributes to pathogenicity of CSFV in synergy with viral replication.

  13. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?