WorldWideScience

Sample records for type measurement applicability

  1. Measurement conditions of natural soil thermoluminescence and their application in a granite type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yue; Yang Yaxin; Liu Qingcheng

    2009-01-01

    A measuring method of natural soil thermoluminescence is used for prospecting of uranium deposits. The better effects are obtained by using the method, but the parameters selected have significant effects on the intensity of soil thermoluminescent. So, the measuring parameters are selected according to the different soil samples. Based on the measuring 1 000 soil samples of granite type uranium deposit,the optimum heating up program of natural soil thermoluminescence is obtained, that is, preheating, lasting heating, constant temperature and the halting heating. The parameters selected are as follows: the heating rate being 15 degree C/s, the temperatures of the first and second constant temperature being 135 degree C and 400 degree C respectively. Using the selected parameters for measuring soil samples from a known mining area in Guangdong province, the result indicates that the abnormities of thermoluminescence have corresponding relations with the underground orebodies. (authors)

  2. Spin-State-Selective Excitation. Application for E.COSY-Type Measurement of JHHCoupling Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Axel; Duus, Jens ø.; Sørensen, Ole Winneche

    1997-09-01

    A new pulse sequence element, spin-state-selective excitation (S3E), is introduced and combined with E.COSY-type techniques for measurement of1H-1HJcoupling constants. S3E edits the two resonances of a doublet prior to an evolution period of a multidimensional experiment and results in a subspectrum for each resonance. Due to this editing the large heteronuclear one-bond coupling constants normally exploited for separation of submultiplets in E.COSY-type experiments can be suppressed in experiments employing S3E. Hence there is a concomitant effective increase in resolution. Apart from pulse imperfections and relaxation during a delay (4J)-1S3E causes no loss of sensitivity in comparison to conventional experiments. Experimental confirmation is done using the protein RAP 17-97 (N-terminal domain of α2-macroglobulin receptor associated protein).

  3. Interstrand and AC-loss measurements on Rutherford-type cables for accelerator magnet applications

    CERN Document Server

    Otmani, R; Tixador, P

    2001-01-01

    One of the main issues for particle accelerator magnets is the control of interstrand resistances. Too low resistances result in large coupling currents during ramping, which distort field quality, while too large resistances may prevent current redistribution among cable strands, resulting in degraded quench performance. In this paper, we review a series of interstrand resistance and AC-loss measurements performed on four Rutherford-type cables. The four cables have the same number of strands and similar outer dimensions, corresponding to LHC quadrupole cable specifications. The first cable is made from NbTi strands, coated with silver-tin alloy, the second one is made from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands, the third one is made also from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands but includes a 25- mu m-thick stainless steel core between the strand layers, and the last one is made from Nb/sub 3/Sn strands plated with chromium. To cross-check the two measurement types and assess their consistency, we compare the coupling-current time...

  4. Development and application of a portable manual non-contact-type goniometric instrument for measuring human anatomical angular parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susato, Shin-ichi

    2013-02-01

    Several manual contact-type goniometric instruments have previously been developed to measure joint range of motion (ROM) during physical-therapy evaluation. These include the universal goniometer and the gravity-dependent goniometer, or inclinometer, which are used to measure the ROM angle of a subject in a fully erect posture. Here, we developed a manual non-contact-type portable goniometric instrument for the measurement of anatomical angular parameters based on the principle of spot irradiation by using laser markers. The accuracy of the developed instrument was tested and its performance was compared with that of a contact-type instrument by using a skeletal model (14 static angle assessments), a free posture manikin (18 static angle assessments), and healthy human bodies (5 males and 5 females; 11 dynamic angle assessments). Measurement errors were examined also. When taking the measurements, a visual landmark-detection method was used in place of the conventional palpation method, which is inappropriate for a non-contact measuring system. The instrument developed here is applicable for practical non-contact goniometry and ROM measurements. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Application of an Unfolding Model of the PIRT Type to the Measurement of Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    1988-01-01

    A simple probabilistic model for unfolding data collected by a direct response design in which responses were scored dichotomously was applied to the measurement of attitudes toward capital punishment. Responses conformed to the unfolding mechanism. Scale values of the statements were statistically equivalent to those of Thurstone's methods. (SLD)

  6. Vertical-type chiroptical spectrophotometer (I): instrumentation and application to diffuse reflectance circular dichroism measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Reiko

    2008-07-01

    We have designed and built a novel universal chiroptical spectrophotometer (UCS-2: J-800KCMF), which can carry out in situ chirality measurement of solid samples without any pretreatment, in the UV-vis region and with high relative efficiency. The instrument was designed to carry out transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DR) circular dichroism (CD) measurements simultaneously, thus housing two photomultipliers. It has a unique feature that light impinges on samples vertically so that loose powders can be measured by placing them on a flat sample holder in an integrating sphere. As is our first universal chiroptical spectrophotometer, UCS-1, two lock-in amplifiers are installed to remove artifact signals arising from macroscopic anisotropies which are unique to solid samples. High performance was achieved by theoretically analyzing and experimentally proven the effect of the photoelastic modulator position on the CD base line shifts, and by selecting high-quality optical and electric components. Measurement of microcrystallines of both enantiomers of ammonium camphorsulfonate by the DRCD mode gave reasonable results.

  7. Application of a diode array spectroradiometer to measuring the spectral scattering properties of cloud types in a laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Smedley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years diode array spectroradiometers have become useful complements to traditional scanning instruments when measuring visible and ultraviolet solar radiation incident on the ground. This study describes the application of such an instrument to the problem of measuring the radiation scattered by different cloud-types in a laboratory environment. Details of how the instrument is incorporated into the experimental set-up are given together with the development of the system as a whole. The capability to measure a full spectrum for each scattering angle is an undoubted advantage, although the limited sensitivity impacts on the usefulness for optically thin clouds. Nevertheless example results are presented: (1 scattering phase functions at a range of wavelengths recorded simultaneously for water clouds, showing spectral deviation at the rainbow angle and verification of Mie theory; (2 likewise for mixed phase clouds, with evidence of both halo and rainbow features in a single scattering function; and, (3 detail of the forward scattering region in a glaciated cloud showing a barely perceptible halo feature, with implications for the small-scale structure of the ice crystals produced.

  8. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  9. The Gemini Spectral Library of Near-IR Late-Type Stellar Templates and Its Application for Velocity Dispersion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, Cláudia; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2009-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic library of late spectral type stellar templates in the near-IR range 2.15-2.42 μm, at R = 5300-5900 resolution, oriented to support stellar kinematics studies in external galaxies, such as the direct determination of the masses of supermassive black holes in nearby active (or non-active) galaxies. The combination of high spectral resolution and state-of-the-art instrumentation available in 8 m class telescopes has made the analysis of circumnuclear stellar kinematics using the near-IR CO band heads one of the most used techniques for such studies, and this library aims to provide the supporting data sets required by the higher spectral resolution and larger spectral coverage currently achieved with modern near-IR spectrographs. Examples of the application for kinematical analysis are given for data obtained with two Gemini instruments, but the templates can be easily adjusted for use with other near-IR spectrographs at similar or lower resolution. The example data sets are also used to revisit the "template mismatch" effect and the dependence of the velocity dispersion values obtained from the fitting process with the characteristics of the stellar templates. The library is available in electronic form from the Gemini Web pages. .

  10. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2011-05-15

    Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on

  11. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arku Godwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores, both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the

  12. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, Ali; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    ) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). The degradation characteristics of the forage species were measured by incubating samples in vitro for up to 96 h in tubes with rumen inoculum. The effect of exogenous enzyme supplementation was studied in a 5 × 6 × 5 factorial design, with five forage species, three harvesting......) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) degradation profiles were fitted to an exponential equation. The fractional rate of degradation (c) of DM or aNDFom did vary among the forage species and was highest for the legumes. The potential degradability ranged from 580 to 870 g/kg for DM and from 380 to 900 g....../kg for aNDFom. For aNDFom, legumes generally had lower potential degradability and longer lag times than grasses. The effective degradability of aNDFom for forage harvested in spring growth was considerably higher than for the same forage harvested in second re-growth. Addition of the E1 and E2 to forage...

  13. Radiation measurements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.C.; Rogers, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This 1990 symposium was the seventh in a series of meetings which began in 1964. The 300 participants from 23 countries and the 65 oral and 77 poster presentations were more than double the size of the 1985 symposium. Some of this increase derived from the broadened scope of the program. Previous meetings emphasized X-rays and gamma-rays, but it has been increasingly clear that distinction from other forms of radiation (i.e., electrons, alpha-particles and neutrons) was contrived. This broadening led to papers in fields such as ''airport'' monitors and arms control. However, most of the increase in size of the symposium is simply a reflection of the vigorous activity, both academic and industrial in radiation measurements and their many applications. The papers in these Proceedings are arranged by major topic without regard to whether the paper was invited or contributed, oral or poster. Discussion, although an important part of the meeting, was not recorded and therefore is not included in the Proceedings

  14. Measuring ambiguity in HLA typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Paunić

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched, but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure

  15. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  16. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  17. Random measures, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kallenberg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive treatment of the theory of random measures, this book has a very broad scope, ranging from basic properties of Poisson and related processes to the modern theories of convergence, stationarity, Palm measures, conditioning, and compensation. The three large final chapters focus on applications within the areas of stochastic geometry, excursion theory, and branching processes. Although this theory plays a fundamental role in most areas of modern probability, much of it, including the most basic material, has previously been available only in scores of journal articles. The book is primarily directed towards researchers and advanced graduate students in stochastic processes and related areas.

  18. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  19. Impact of Measurement Error on Synchrophasor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jiecheng [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tan, Jin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wu, Ling [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhan, Lingwei [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Phasor measurement units (PMUs), a type of synchrophasor, are powerful diagnostic tools that can help avert catastrophic failures in the power grid. Because of this, PMU measurement errors are particularly worrisome. This report examines the internal and external factors contributing to PMU phase angle and frequency measurement errors and gives a reasonable explanation for them. It also analyzes the impact of those measurement errors on several synchrophasor applications: event location detection, oscillation detection, islanding detection, and dynamic line rating. The primary finding is that dynamic line rating is more likely to be influenced by measurement error. Other findings include the possibility of reporting nonoscillatory activity as an oscillation as the result of error, failing to detect oscillations submerged by error, and the unlikely impact of error on event location and islanding detection.

  20. Iterated Hamiltonian type systems and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiba, Dan

    2018-04-01

    We discuss, in arbitrary dimension, certain Hamiltonian type systems and prove existence, uniqueness and regularity properties, under the independence condition. We also investigate the critical case, define a class of generalized solutions and prove existence and basic properties. Relevant examples and counterexamples are also indicated. The applications concern representations of implicitly defined manifolds and their perturbations, motivated by differential systems involving unknown geometries.

  1. Enrichment measurement in TRIGA type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Mazon R, R.

    2001-05-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of North America, through the program 'Idaho Operations Nuclear Spent Fuel Program' of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), in Idaho Falls; Idaho USA, hires to Global Technologies Inc. (GTI) to develop a prototype device of detection enrichment uranium (DEU Detection of Enrichment of Uranium) to determine quantitatively the enrichment in remainder U-235 in a TRIGA fuel element at the end of it useful life. The characteristics of the prototype developed by GTI are the following ones: It allows to carry out no-destructive measurements of TRIGA type fuel. Easily transportable due to that reduced of it size. The determination of the enrichment (in grams of U-235) it is obtained with a precision of 5%. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), in its facilities of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, it has TRIGA type fuel of high and low enrichment (standard and FLIP) fresh and with burnt, it also has the infrastructure (hot cells, armor-plating of transport, etc) and qualified personnel to carry out the necessary maneuvers to prove the operation of the DEU prototype. For this its would be used standard type fuel elements and FLIP, so much fresh as with certain burnt one. In the case of the fresh fuels the measurement doesn't represent any risk, the fuels before and after the measurement its don't contain a quantity of fission products that its represent a radiological risk in its manipulation; but in the case of the fuels with burnt the handling of the same ones represents an important radiological risk reason why for its manipulation it was used the transport armor-plating and the hot cells. (Author)

  2. Application of a new type of ultrasonic measurement technique to determine the flow system and level in water/steam systems; Anwendung einer neuartigen Ultraschallmesstechnik zur Bestimmung von Stroemungsregimen und Fuellstaenden in Wasser/Dampf-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W.; Melnikov, V.I. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozesstechnik, Prozessautomatisierung und Messtechnik e.V. (IPM)]|[Technische Univ. Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-01

    The new type of ultrasonic measurement process was able, to identify the forms of flow occurring in the conditions of the condensation experiments in HORUS II, such as stratified flow, wave formation on the stratified flow, surge or prop flow in an horizontal pipe of narrow crossection, and to quantify the characteristic parameters. The results of the ultrasonic measurements were confirmed by a point-type diverse measurement process. Regarding the strength of the sensors, there were no problems during a period of several months. Whether the sensitive high quality sensor loops would also prove strong in highly dynamic systems was not the purpose of the experiments and must be examined separately for each application. The evaluation electronics provided by the manufacturer must be improved for professional applications. Summarising, the suitability of the new type of ultrasonic process for determining the area volume steam content over a flow crossection could be proved with HORUS II. [Deutsch] Das neuartige US-Messverfahren war in der Lage, die bei den Bedingungen der Kondensationsexperimente an HORUS-II auftretenden Stroemungsformen wie stratifizierte Stroemung, Wellenbildung auf der Schichtenstroemung, Schwall- bzw. Pfropfenstroemung in einem engquerschnittigen, horizontalen Rohr zu identifizieren und charakteristische Parameter zu quantifizieren. Die Ergebnisse der US-Messungen wurden auch mit punktuellen diversitaeren Messverfahren bestaetigt. Hinsichtlich der Standfestigkeit der Sonden wurden keinerlei Probleme ueber einen Zeitraum von mehreren Monaten festgestellt. Ob sich die sensiblen Edelstahlsondenschleifen auch in hochdynamischen Systemen standfest verhalten, war nicht Gegenstand der Experimente und muss somit fuer den jeweiligen Einsatzzweck separat untersucht werden. Die vom Hersteller bereitgestellte Auswerteelektronik ist fuer professionelle Einsatzzwecke noch zu verbessern. Zusammenfassend konnte mit den HORUS-II Experimenten die Eignung des

  3. Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrette, L; Friedrich, K A; Stimming, U

    2000-12-15

    During the last decade, fuel cells have received enormous attention from research institutions and companies as novel electrical energy conversion systems. In the near future, they will see application in automotive propulsion, distributed power generation, and in low power portable devices (battery replacement). This review gives an introduction into the fundamentals and applications of fuel cells: Firstly, the environmental and social factors promoting fuel cell development are discussed, with an emphasis on the advantages of fuel cells compared to the conventional techniques. Then, the main reactions, which are responsible for the conversion of chemical into electrical energy in fuel cells, are given and the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals are stated. The theoretical and real efficiencies of fuel cells are also compared to that of internal combustion engines. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  4. Hybrid-type temperature sensor for in situ measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Tohru; Hiraka, Kensuke

    2006-11-01

    A hybrid-type surface temperature sensor combines the contact and noncontact methods, which allows us to overcome the shortcomings of both methods. The hybrid-type surface thermometer is composed mainly of two components: a metal film sheet that makes contact with an object and a radiometer that is used to detect the radiance of the rear surface of the metal film, which is actually a modified radiation thermometer. Temperature measurement using the hybrid-type thermometer with a several tens micrometer thick Hastelloy sheet, a highly heat and corrosion resistant alloy, is possible with a systematic error of -0.5K and random errors of ±0.5K, in the temperature range from 900to1000K. This thermometer provides a useful means for calibration of in situ temperature measurement in various processes, especially in the silicon semiconductor industry. This article introduces the basic idea of the hybrid-type surface sensor, presents experimental results and discussions, and finally describes some applications.

  5. Type I and type II residual stress in iron meteorites determined by neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Stefano; Pratesi, Giovanni; Kabra, Saurabh; Grazzi, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a preliminary investigation by means of neutron diffraction experiment to determine the residual stress state in three different iron meteorites (Chinga, Sikhote Alin and Nantan). Because of the very peculiar microstructural characteristic of this class of samples, all the systematic effects related to the measuring procedure - such as crystallite size and composition - were taken into account and a clear differentiation in the statistical distribution of residual stress in coarse and fine grained meteorites were highlighted. Moreover, the residual stress state was statistically analysed in three orthogonal directions finding evidence of the existence of both type I and type II residual stress components. Finally, the application of von Mises approach allowed to determine the distribution of type II stress.

  6. Measuring type II stresses using 3DXRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  7. Measurement error models, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buonaccorsi, John P

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, comprehensive strategies for treating measurement error in complex models and accounting for the use of extra data to estimate measurement error parameters have emerged. Focusing on both established and novel approaches, ""Measurement Error: Models, Methods, and Applications"" provides an overview of the main techniques and illustrates their application in various models. It describes the impacts of measurement errors on naive analyses that ignore them and presents ways to correct for them across a variety of statistical models, from simple one-sample problems to regres

  8. Low Drift Type N Thermocouples for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Rae, C.

    2013-06-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. In this work, undertaken as part of the European project METROFISSION, the drift of type N thermocouples has been investigated in the temperature range 600-1300 deg. C. The approach of this study is based on the attempt to separate the contributions of each thermo-element to drift. In order to identify the dominant thermo-element for drift, the contributions of both positive (NP) and negative (NN) thermo-elements to the total drift of 3.2 mm diameter MIMS thermocouples have been measured in each drift test using a pure Pt thermo-element as a reference. Conventional Inconel-600 sheathed type N thermocouples have been compared with type N thermocouples sheathed in a new alloy. At temperatures higher than 1000 deg. C conventional Inconel600 sheathed type N thermocouples can experience a

  9. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: thermometry, tracers, reaction mechanisms and chemostratigraphy. 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  11. Laser measurement technology fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donges, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Laser measurement technology has evolved in the last years in a versatile and reflationary way. Today, its methods are indispensable for research and development activities as well as for production technology. Every physicist and engineer should therefore gain a working knowledge of laser measurement technology. This book closes the gap of existing textbooks. It introduces in a comprehensible presentation laser measurement technology in all its aspects. Numerous figures, graphs and tables allow for a fast access into the matter. In the first part of the book the important physical and optical basics are described being necessary to understand laser measurement technology. In the second part technically significant measuring methods are explained and application examples are presented. Target groups of this textbook are students of natural and engineering sciences as well as working physicists and engineers, who are interested to make themselves familiar with laser measurement technology and its fascinating p...

  12. Estimation of vegetation-type areas by linear measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hasel

    1941-01-01

    Maps are very useful in providing a picture of the location of vegetation types, but mapping as a method for determining type areas may be inadequate or costly. The measurement of vegetation type areas by means of line surveys is discussed in the following article, and the method is tested in connection with detailed studies on plots. The results indicate that the...

  13. Application for Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MAHDAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wireless sensor networks, which are based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The development kit from Jennic company was used for wireless measuring of values and for creation of sensor network. For this purposes the sensor boards with wireless modules with marking JN5139 were used. These boards provide sensors (sensor of temperature, relative humidity and light sensor but also another interface, which helps to develop applications. Modules are programmed in Integrated Development Environment (IDE, which integrates C function library and C++ compiler and linker. The visualization application was created for monitoring of wireless sensor network. There is the possibility of local and wireless measurement. For creation of this application the SCADA/HMI system, Control Web 5 was used. This SCADA/HMI system enables to communicate with all wireless modules through base station (network's coordinator. The application also enables initialisation and network setting the any wireless module communicating with the base station. The advantage is the remote configuration and control of network. The application also enables the gathering, converting, viewing and archiving of incoming data from particular modules.

  14. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  15. Development and application of group importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskin, F.E.; Huang, Min; Sasser, M.K.; Stack, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a complete Level I probabilistic safety analysis of the K Production Reactor, three traditional importance measures-risk reduction, partial derivative, and variance reduction-have been extended to permit analyses of the relative importance of groups of basic and initiating events. None of the group importance measures require Monte Carlo sampling for their quantification. The group importance measures are quantified for the overall fuel damage equation and for dominant accident sequences using the following event groups: initiating events, electrical failures, instrumentation failures, common-cause failures, human errors, and nonrecovery events. Additional analyses are presented using other event groups. Collectively, these applications indicate both the utility and the versatility of the group importance measures

  16. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  17. A Levinson-Sjoeberg type theorem. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisin, A M; Kinzyabulatov, I G

    2008-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Levinson-Sjoeberg theorem is obtained for a family of analytic functions f that have estimates of the form |f(z)|≤M(dist(z,γ)) outside an arc γ, where M is a decreasing function on (0,∞) that is unbounded in a neighbourhood of the origin. Applications to questions of quasianalyticity for Carleman classes are indicated as well as to the completeness of a system of exponentials on arcs, to analytic continuation and to representation by Dirichlet series. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  18. Handbook of industrial refractories technology principles, types, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caniglia, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Encompasses the entire range of industrial refractory materials and forms: properties and their measurement, applications, manufacturing, installation and maintenance techniques, quality assurance, and statistical process control.

  19. Type-2 fuzzy neural networks and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, Rafik Aziz

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the theory, design principles, and application of hybrid intelligent systems using type-2 fuzzy sets in combination with other paradigms of Soft Computing technology such as Neuro-Computing and Evolutionary Computing. It provides a self-contained exposition of the foundation of type-2 fuzzy neural networks and presents a vast compendium of its applications to control, forecasting, decision making, system identification and other real problems. Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks and Their Applications is helpful for teachers and students of universities and colleges, for scientis

  20. Type inference for linear algebra with units of measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.R. Griffioen (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractRefining types of numerical data with units of measurement has the potential to increase safety of programming languages but is restricted to homogeneous units when checked statically with parametric polymorphism. We lift units to vectors and show how type inference of linear algebra

  1. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  2. Measures of risk importance and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Davis, T.C.; Denning, R.S.; Saltos, N.

    1983-07-01

    This work is part of a project being conducted for the Division of Risk Analysis (DRA) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the importances of containment, the different safety functions, and other various contributers as assessed in probabilistic risk analyses and to identify generic conclusions regarding the importances. Effective display of the importances is an important part of these objectives. To address these objectives, measures of risk importance need to be first identified and then they need to be evaluated for the different risk analyses which have been performed. This report describes the risk importance measures that were defined and were applied to the risk analyses which were performed as part of the Reactor Safety Study Methodology Applications Program (RSSMAP). The risk importance measures defined in this report measure the importance of features not only with regard to risk reduction but also with regard to reliability assurance, or risk maintenance. The goal of this report is not to identify new mathematical formulas for risk importance but to show how importance measures can be interpreted and can be applied

  3. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  4. NASA CYGNSS Satellite Measurements and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Ruf, C. S.; Baker, N. L.; Green, D. S.; Stough, T.

    2017-12-01

    NASA launched the CYGNSS mission 15 December 2016 which comprises a constellation of eight satellites flying in a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit. Each satellite measures up to four independent GPS signals scattered by the ocean, to obtain surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux. Utilizing such a large number of satellites, these measurements which are uniquely able to penetrate clouds and heavy precipitation, allows CYGNSS to frequently sample tropical cyclone intensification and of the diurnal cycle of winds. Additionally, data retrievals over land have proven effective to map surface water and soil moisture. Engineering commissioning of the constellation was successfully completed in March 2017 and the mission is now conducting science measurements. An overview of the CYGNSS system, mission and measurement concept will be presented, together with highlights of early on-orbit performance. Scientific results obtained during the 2017 hurricane season and featured at the NASA CYGNSS Applications Workshop in Monterey, CA 31 October - 2 November 2, 2017 will also be presented.

  5. A touch typing application for blind and visually impaired users

    OpenAIRE

    Blažič , Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Fast typing is nowadays one of the most important skills needed to efficiently use a computer. As a part of this thesis, we have developed an application, that guides its user towards mastering touch typing, which can significantly increase one's typing speed. We collaborated with the Association for the Blind and Partially Sighted Youth in Ljubljana, which is also an educational institution, and adapted our solution to suit their student's needs by creating a customizable interface that can ...

  6. Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements of some Allende Type B inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Jean M.; Hewins, Roger H.; Ulmer, Gene C.

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic oxygen fugacities (IOFs) of two type B Ca-rich and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite were measured using the solid-electrolyte double-cell IOF technique of Ulmer et al. (1976). The measurements were compared to calculated and experimentally extrapolated fO2 of type B phases. It was found that the IOFs of the type B are 6-8 orders of magnitude more oxidized (H2/H2O = 1-10) than the canonical solar nebular gas (H2/H2O = 100-2000). It is suggested that some local fO2 enhancing mechanism, such as dust or gas concentrations, or the release of oxygen-rich vapors during CAI volatilization in the type B inclusions was in operation at temperatures higher than 700 C.

  7. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  8. Personality types of otolaryngology resident applicants as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardouz, Shawn; German, Michael A; Wu, Edward C; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2011-05-01

    To assess the personality types of applicants to a single otolaryngology residency program using the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator. The personality types were compared with those of the general population and with physicians in other medical specialties. Cross-sectional survey. University hospital. A personality survey was emailed to 327 resident physician applicants over 2 consecutive years (2008- 2009). Analysis was accomplished by calculating prevalence estimates. Of the 327 anonymous surveys, 137 were completed (response rate = 42%). The Introverted/Sensing/Thinking/ Judging personality type was the most prevalent (14.6%), representing 13% of the general population. Prospective applicants displayed mostly Extroverted (E; 58%), Sensing (S; 54%), Thinking (T; 62%), and Judging (J; 61%) personality traits. Of the 16 personality types, statistically significant differences were found between otolaryngology resident applicants and the general population only for the Extroverted/Sensing/Thinking/ Perceiving (P = .002) personality type after correcting for multiple comparisons. The Intuitive (N; 46%) and Feeling (F; 38%) types correlated closely with the reported personality types of those individuals in non–primary care specialties, 47% and 28%, respectively. Extroverted (E) and Thinking (T) individuals appeared to prefer surgical specialties, which occurred in 58% and 62% of the applicants, respectively. There were no significant differences between male and female applicants. This study examines the personality types of medical students applying to an otolaryngology residency. The results support a highly structured, data-driven teaching preference among applicants. These results may allow for a better understanding of the personalities of medical students who are interested in otolaryngology.

  9. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Effects of neutron source type on soil moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving Goldberg; Norman A. MacGillivray; Robert R. Ziemer

    1967-01-01

    A number of radioisotopes have recently become commercially available as alternatives to radium-225 in moisture gauging devices using alpha-neutron sources for determining soil moisture, for well logging, and for other industrial applications in which hydrogenous materials are measured.

  11. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  12. Measures and applications of quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Bromley, Thomas R; Cianciaruso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an overview of the current quest for a proper understanding and characterisation of the frontier between classical and quantum correlations (QCs) in composite states. We focus on various approaches to define and quantify general QCs, based on different yet interlinked physical perspectives, and comment on the operational significance of the ensuing measures for quantum technology tasks such as information encoding, distribution, discrimination and metrology. We then provide a broader outlook of a few applications in which quantumness beyond entanglement looks fit to play a key role. (topical review)

  13. The Construct Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ...

  14. Lyapunov convexity type theorems for non-atomic vector measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atomic, and σ-additive X-valued measure has a convex closure. We give a survey of Lyapunov convexity type theorems pertaining to this problem. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition that will insure the convexity of the closure of the ...

  15. Single-cell LEP-type cavity on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A single-cell cavity, made of copper, with tapered connectors for impedance measurements. It was used as a model of LEP-type superconducting cavities, to investigate impedance and higher-order modes and operated at around 600 MHz (the LEP acceleration frequency was 352.2 MHz). See 8202500.

  16. Review of Recent Type-2 Fuzzy Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 fuzzy logic controllers (T2 FLC can be viewed as an emerging class of intelligent controllers because of their abilities in handling uncertainties; in many cases, they have been shown to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. This paper presents a literature review on recent applications of T2 FLCs. To follow the developments in this field, we first review general T2 FLCs and the most well-known interval T2 FLS algorithms that have been used for control design. Certain applications of these controllers include robotic control, bandwidth control, industrial systems control, electrical control and aircraft control. The most promising applications are found in the robotics and automotive areas, where T2 FLCs have been demonstrated and proven to perform better than traditional controllers. With the development of enhanced algorithms, along with the advancement in both hardware and software, we shall witness increasing applications of these frontier controllers.

  17. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, John

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate Bonferroni-Type Inequalities: Theory and Applications presents a systematic account of research discoveries on multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities published in the past decade. The emergence of new bounding approaches pushes the conventional definitions of optimal inequalities and demands new insights into linear and Fréchet optimality. The book explores these advances in bounding techniques with corresponding innovative applications. It presents the method of linear programming for multivariate bounds, multivariate hybrid bounds, sub-Markovian bounds, and bounds using Hamil

  19. Clinical application of urodilatin in Type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yihua; Cao Xingjian; Chen Yuxiang; Zhang Kexia; Jin Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of urodilatin (URO) in tubular injury of DM2. Methods: 41 healthy controls, 33 type 2 diabetics without nephropathy, 37 patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy and 26 patients with clinical diabetic nephropathy were enrolled in the study and categorized into four groups. Urodilatin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The changes of urodilatin levels among four groups were analyzed, and correlation analyses were performed between urodilatin and urinary micro-albumin/urine creatinine(mA/UCr). The efficiency index of URO were evaluated by receiver operation characteristic (ROC). Results: Compared with those in the controls,diabetics without nephropathy, early stage of diabetic nephropathy and clinical diabetic nephropathy, the urodilatin level decreased significantly in the course of diabetic nephropathy (P<0.001). The value of URO was significantly correlated with mA/UCr (r=-0.626, P<0.01). In early phase of DM2, The area under curve was 0.759. When the cut-off vaule of URO was ≤51.5 pg/ml, The sensitivity and specificity were 67.14% and 70.29%, respectively. Furthermore, Urodilatin had similar diagnosis efficiency with mA/UCr. Conclusion: The decrease of urodilatin level had clinical value in pristine tubular injury of DM2 and can serve as an evaluation parameter. (authors)

  20. Multivariate phase type distributions - Applications and parameter estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisch, David

    and statistical inference, is the multivariate normal distribution. Unfortunately only little is known about the general class of multivariate phase type distribution. Considering the results concerning parameter estimation and inference theory of univariate phase type distributions, the class of multivariate......The best known univariate probability distribution is the normal distribution. It is used throughout the literature in a broad field of applications. In cases where it is not sensible to use the normal distribution alternative distributions are at hand and well understood, many of these belonging...... to the class of phase type distributions. Phase type distributions have several advantages. They are versatile in the sense that they can be used to approximate any given probability distribution on the positive reals. There exist general probabilistic results for the entire class of phase type distributions...

  1. Magnesia insulated thermocouples - Type K for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This Specification for magnesia-insulated, steel or nickel alloy sheathed thermocouples, Type K, is intended only for nuclear applications where long-term reliability is of paramount importance and where replacement would be extremely difficult and costly. The stringent requirements of this Specification are intended to eliminate, as far as is practicable, defects which could cause failure of the thermocouple in service. (author)

  2. APPLICATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF ALUMINA AND NANO-γ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    reported for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles, nucleophilic addition of cyanide ion to imines. (Strecker reaction), is of .... Application of various types of alumina and nano-γ-alumina sulfuric acid. Bull. Chem. Soc. ..... After purification by chromatography on silica gel (ethyl acetate/n-hexane 20:80) α-aminonitriles were obtained.

  3. Note: Reflection-type micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter for measuring velocity distributions in blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H; Kobayashi, D; Shirakawa, H; Andoh, T; Akiguchi, S; Wakisaka, T; Ishizuka, M; Hachiga, T

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) for measuring velocity distributions in blood vessels. We converted a transmission-based LDV into a reflection-based LDV to make it suitable for clinical applications. The velocity distribution image of a serpentine flow channel obtained could be qualitatively explained by the numerical results. Finally, we evaluated the system by using it to measure injection of blood into a glass tube by a syringe pump. The results obtained demonstrate that erythrocytes can be used as seeding particles for the reflection-type micro multipoint LDV. The results obtained are useful as basic data for clinical applications.

  4. Three types of photon detectors for in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R. G.; Gehrke, R. J.; Carpenter, M. V.

    1999-02-01

    The authors have been involved in the calibration and use of three types of γ- and X-ray detectors for in situ measurements of soil contamination. These three detectors are an N-type, thin-window Ge semiconductor detector (5.0 cm diam.× 2.0 cm deep), a plastic scintillator (30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 3.8 cm thick), and an array of six CaF 2 detectors (each 7.6 cm × 7.6 cm × 0.15 cm thick). The latter two detectors have been used with scanning systems that allow significant areas (say, >100 m 2) to be surveyed completely with the aid of either laser-based triangulation or a global positioning system (GPS) to record the precise position for each measurement. Typically, these systems scan at a rate of 15-30 cm/s which allows an area of 100 m 2 to covered with the plastic scintillator in about 15 min. The data are telemetered or transferred via RS232 protocol to a computer, providing operators with real-time mapping of the area surveyed and of the measured detector count rate. The "efficiencies" of these detectors have been determined by a combination of measurements of calibrated planar sources and Monte Carlo transport calculations for a variety of source sizes and depths in soil, as well as by comparing these field measurements with independent laboratory sample analysis.

  5. Characteristics of dosemeter types for skin dose measurements in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, D. J.; Bosmans, H.; Marchal, G.; Wambersie, A.

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of papers report deterministic effects in the skin of patients who have undergone interventional radiological procedures. Dose measurements, and especially skin dose measurements, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeters are, however, not clearly defined. This paper is the result of a literature overview with regard to assessing the entrance skin dose during radiological examinations by putting a dosemeter on the patient's skin. The relevant intrinsic characteristics, as well as some examples of clinical use of the different detector types, are presented. In this respect, thermoluminescence, scintillation, semiconductor and film dosemeters are discussed and compared with respect to their practical use. (authors)

  6. The Syntax of the Abstract-type Measurement Construction in Mandarin Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a special sub-type of measurement construction in Mandarin Chinese, namely the [Num-measure word-de-N] construction where the N is an abstract dimension-denoting noun. Evidence is presented to show that the abstract-type [Num-measure word-de-N] should be fundamentally distinguished from the quantifying-/modifying-type [Num-measure word-de-N], in which the [Num-measure word] sequence serves to quantize/modify a semantically concrete, entity-denoting N. At the interpretive level, this paper claims that the abstracttype [Num-measure word-de-N] is semantically definite. At the syntactic level, a clausal analysis within the framework of the Predicate Inversion theory is pursued to account for the derivation of the abstract-type measurement construction. Last, it is proposed that the word order distinction between the Chinese abstracttype measurement construction, which is N-final, and its English counterpart, where the N linearly precedes [Num-measure word], can be explained in terms of a parametric variation with respect to the (non-application of N-raising after Predicate Inversion.

  7. Measurement and probability a probabilistic theory of measurement with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    Measurement plays a fundamental role both in physical and behavioral sciences, as well as in engineering and technology: it is the link between abstract models and empirical reality and is a privileged method of gathering information from the real world. Is it possible to develop a single theory of measurement for the various domains of science and technology in which measurement is involved? This book takes the challenge by addressing the following main issues: What is the meaning of measurement? How do we measure? What can be measured? A theoretical framework that could truly be shared by scientists in different fields, ranging from physics and engineering to psychology is developed. The future in fact will require greater collaboration between science and technology and between different sciences. Measurement, which played a key role in the birth of modern science, can act as an essential interdisciplinary tool and language for this new scenario. A sound theoretical basis for addressing key problems in mea...

  8. Neutron Energy Measurements in Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-09-11

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  9. Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Intelligent Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We describe in this book, hybrid intelligent systems based mainly on type-2 fuzzy logic for intelligent control. Hybrid intelligent systems combine several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful automatic control systems. The book is organized in three main parts, which contain a group of chapters around a similar subject. The first part consists of chapters with the main theme of theory and design algorithms, which are basically chapters that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control with interval type-2 fuzzy logic. The second part of the book is comprised of chapters with the main theme of evolutionary optimization of type-2 fuzzy systems in intelligent control with the aim of designing optimal type-2 fuzzy controllers for complex control problems in diverse areas of application, including mobile robotics, aircraft dynamics systems and hardware implementations. Th...

  10. Ceramic materials on perovskite-type structure for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surowiak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic materials exhibiting the perovskite-type structure constitute among others, resource base for many fields of widely understood electronics (i.e., piezoelectronics, accustoelectronics, optoelectronics, computer science, tele- and radioelectronics etc.). Most often they are used for fabrication of different type sensors (detectors), transducers, ferroelectric memories, limiters of the electronic current intensity, etc., and hence they are numbered among so-called intelligent materials. Prototype structure of this group of materials is the structure of the mineral called perovskite (CaTiO 3 ). By means of right choice of the chemical composition of ABO 3 and deforming the regular perovskite structure (m3m) more than 5000 different chemical compounds and solid solutions exhibiting the perovskite-type structure have been fabricated. The concept of perovskite functional ceramics among often things ferroelectric ceramics, pyroelectric ceramics, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostrictive ceramics, posistor ceramics, superconductive ceramics and ferromagnetic ceramics. New possibilities of application of the perovskite-type ceramics are opened by nanotechnology. (author)

  11. Software Development of Speed Typing Counter Application as a Typing Lesson Supporting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusac Ismail Fauzi Widodo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design and create media applications that will be used to train the speed and accuracy of typing in the classroom. Lack of instructional media typing speed appropriate to the circumstances in the classroom was the background of this research. The study began with the observation phase, then followed by system design and coding. An application as the research results has main features: the study materials, practice typing, and data management, which each function is executed by the user level use. Implementation of the user level is intended to secure the data from unauthorized third parties so that only students and teachers can see the results of learning. Furthermore, the application also gives teachers the opportunity to participate in learning, a way to create and change the questions used for the exercise. As a typing progress report, the application can also display the results in various formats such as speed tables, accuracy tables, speed graph, and chart accuracy.   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  12. Application of EH4 conductivity image system to sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yue; Liu Hanbin; Dong Xiukong

    1998-01-01

    EH4 conductivity image system is a combined system of MT and CSAMT which can automatically acquire and process electromagnetic data. The author introduces its mechanism of measurement, data processing, and geological problems in prospecting sandstone type uranium deposits that the system can solve. The author also introduces some application achievements of the system in several known sandstone type uranium deposits in Yunnan province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

  13. Thermoluminescent dose measurements on board Salyut type orbital stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Arkhangelskij, V.V.; Aleksandrov, A.P.

    1984-06-01

    A small, vibration- and shock-resistant thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system - named PILLE - was developed for orbital stations at the Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungary, to measure the cosmic radiation dose on-board. The first on-board measurements with this system were performed by B. Farkas, the Hungarian astronaut, on the Salyut-6 space station in 1980. The same instrument was used by other crews in the following years. Doses measured at different sites in Salyut-6 are presented. The dose rates varied from 0.7 to 0.11 mGy.day -1 . After the first cosmic measurements, the system was further developed. The minimum detectable dose of the new TLD system is 1 μGy, i.e. less by one order of magnitude than that of the former system. The self-irradiation dose rate of the TLD bulbs is also reduced by more than an order of magnitude to 10 nGy.h -1 , by use of potassium-free glass for the bulb envelope. This new type of PILLE TLD system is currently on-board Salyut-7. The dose rates (0.12-0.23 mGy.day -1 ) measured in 1983 are presented in detail. (author)

  14. Adipocytokines and anthropometric measures in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harke, Shubhangi M; Khadke, Suresh P; Ghadge, Abhijit A; Manglekar, Ashwini S; Shah, Shashank S; Diwan, Arundhati G; Kuvalekar, Aniket A

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has assumed pandemic proportions worldwide. Aggressive management of hyperglycemia in diabetics is a primary goal of treatment. We have previously reported favorable effects of oral hypoglycemic agents on adipocytokines. Aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of adipocytokines with anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetics. Clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetics and age, gender matched healthy volunteers were recruited for study. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, waist-circumference, hip-circumference were recorded and BMI, waist-hip ratio were calculated. Fasting blood samples were collected from participants and sera were analyzed for glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT, insulin, adiponectin and leptin. Correlation of adipocytokines with anthropometric and biochemical parameters was assessed in healthy and diabetic individuals. BMI and WHR in diabetics were significantly higher than healthy population. BMI did not show significant association with adipocytokines. Diabetic males with WHR≥0.9 showed negative association with adiponectin and positive association with leptin. WC did not show significant association with adipocytokines in males. Irrespective of WC, healthy females exhibited positive association with leptin. Diabetic females with WC≥88cm showed leptin to be positively associated with WC. Such association of adipocytokines with WHR was not detected in females. Body fat distribution can be considered as a parameter in assessing adipokine imbalance. Central adiposity is a better measure of adipokine imbalance than BMI. Abdominal obesity in diabetics correlates with altered levels of adipocytokines indicating its importance in diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. COST 733 - WG4: Applications of circulation type classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, M.; Ustrnul, Z.

    2009-04-01

    Circulation type classifications have a long history in meteorology and climatology. Thereby, the usage of classifications has widened in recent decades, covering multiple applications in a wide range of fields. The main objective of COST 733 is to achieve a general numerical method for assessing, comparing and classifying typical weather situations in different European regions. To accomplish this goal, five different workgroups are established, each with their specific aims. In this framework, the main task of Workgroup 4 (WG4) in COST 733 implies the testing of the selected subjective and objective circulation type methods for various classifications. Specific attention is paid to a comprehensive selection of the applications, the performance of the selected applications and intercomparison and final assessment of the application results. Afterwards, final recommendations are passed on to Workgroup 2, responsible for the development of a general circulation method. At present, various classification methods are used in many fields of atmospheric and climatological sciences for a large spectrum of purposes, making the classification methods one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Workgroup 4 addresses the following application topics: air quality, climate change and variability, hydrology, risks and hazards, forest fires and climatological mapping. Workgroup 4 participants test all of these topics, each in their specific field and their geographical area of interest. Furthermore, topics on phenology, mesoscale modelling on air quality, biometeorology and agriculture are also addressed in collaboration with COST 725, 728, 730 and 734 respectively. A more detailed overview is presented here, with a comprehensive listing of all surveys done within the COST733 framework, and some examples of the application-wise testing of the various selected circulation pattern methods.

  16. Molecular methods for typing of Helicobacter pylori and their applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Hartzen, S H; Roshanisefat, H

    1999-01-01

    discriminatory power compared to genotypic methods concerning the typing of Helicobacter pylori. Therefore great efforts have been made to establish useful molecular typing methods. In this context, the most frequently used genotypic methods are described based on our own experience and the literature: (1.......g. the urease genes. Furthermore, reproducibility, discriminatory power, ease of performance and interpretation, cost and toxic procedures of each method are assessed. To date no direct comparison of all the molecular typing methods described has been performed in the same study with the same H. pylori strains....... However, PCR analysis of the urease gene directly on suspensions of H. pylori or gastric biopsy material seems to be useful for routine use and applicable in specific epidemiological situations....

  17. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Diane

    2004-10-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF THE TRANSVERSE BEAM DYNAMICS IN A TESLA-TYPE SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Edstrom, D. [Fermilab; Lunin, A. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, J. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. [Fermilab

    2016-09-26

    Superconducting linacs are capable of producing intense, ultra-stable, high-quality electron beams that have widespread applications in Science and Industry. Many project are based on the 1.3-GHz TESLA-type superconducting cavity. In this paper we provide an update on a recent experiment aimed at measuring the transfer matrix of a TESLA cavity at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. The results are discussed and compared with analytical and numerical simulations.

  19. Aerosol measurement: principles, techniques, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, Paul A; Kulkarni, Pramod; Willeke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    ... to the state-of-the-art instruments that can perform nearinstantaneous size and chemical composition measurements, the advances are indeed exciting and promising with wide implications for public health and environmental protection, climate research, medicine, and industrial technology. Until the late 1980s, the development of new measurement method...

  20. Perovskite-type catalytic materials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhasetwar, Nitin; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Kumar Megarajan, Suresh; Manwar, Nilesh; Khobragade, Rohini; Doggali, Pradeep; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-06-01

    Perovskites are mixed-metal oxides that are attracting much scientific and application interest owing to their low price, adaptability, and thermal stability, which often depend on bulk and surface characteristics. These materials have been extensively explored for their catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. They are promising candidates for the photocatalytic splitting of water and have also been extensively studied for environmental catalysis applications. Oxygen and cation non-stoichiometry can be tailored in a large number of perovskite compositions to achieve the desired catalytic activity, including multifunctional catalytic properties. Despite the extensive uses, the commercial success for this class of perovskite-based catalytic materials has not been achieved for vehicle exhaust emission control or for many other environmental applications. With recent advances in synthesis techniques, including the preparation of supported perovskites, and increasing understanding of promoted substitute perovskite-type materials, there is a growing interest in applied studies of perovskite-type catalytic materials. We have studied a number of perovskites based on Co, Mn, Ru, and Fe and their substituted compositions for their catalytic activity in terms of diesel soot oxidation, three-way catalysis, N 2 O decomposition, low-temperature CO oxidation, oxidation of volatile organic compounds, etc. The enhanced catalytic activity of these materials is attributed mainly to their altered redox properties, the promotional effect of co-ions, and the increased exposure of catalytically active transition metals in certain preparations. The recent lowering of sulfur content in fuel and concerns over the cost and availability of precious metals are responsible for renewed interest in perovskite-type catalysts for environmental applications.

  1. Practical application of COD measurement in welded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghe, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of the COD makes it possible to evaluate sensitivity to brittle fracture initiation. This technique is ideal for welded structures, owing to the types of defect likely to affect them, and the magnitude of the residual stresses introduced. Moreover, the COD concept, based on thickness and temperature experiments on materials, enables evaluation of the critical defect size in these structures. However, its application to welded joints encounters certain problems. The presence of fatigue cracks in the molten zone of a welded joint is frequently disturbed by the residual stresses caused by welding. An additional difficulty is created by the problem of stable growth of the crack during the bending test. This discussion covers all these matters and suggests some solutions [fr

  2. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  3. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  4. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  5. Cryogenic temperature measurement for large applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylöstalo, J; Kyynäräinen, J; Niinikoski, T O; Voutilainen, R

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a resistance thermometry system for the acquisition, control and monitoring of temperature in large-scale cryogenic applications. The resistance of the sensor is converted to a voltage using a self-balancing AC bridge circuit featuring square-wave excitation currents down to 1 nA. The system is easily scalable and includes intelligent features to treat special situations such as magnet quenches differently from normal operation.

  6. Who is the better applicant? Effects from gender, academic record, and type of decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Martha; Valenzuela, Jerilee

    2012-07-01

    This experiment recreates several features of the selection of candidates for junior professional positions. The situation of central interest involves an assessor (either male or female) and a pair consisting of a male and a female applicant with either equivalent or slightly different academic records. We also investigate effects from quality of record (either excellent or poor) and type of decision (namely, choice between applicants, and ratings of competence and suitability). Our hypotheses consider both gender as social status and as social identity, and predict different outcomes depending on decision type. In line with those predictions, findings show that, at both levels of performance, the question about competence elicited effects only from the two applicants' relative academic standing, while the choice and suitability measures show effects from that standing as well as from sex category of applicant and of assessor. Results and their interpretation are presented and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of nanoparticle measurement instruments for occupational health applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskinen, J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lyyränen, J.; Koivisto, J.; Ruusunen, J.; Järvelä, M.; Tuomi, T.; Hämeri, K.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in many applications because of their novel properties compared to bulk material. A growing number of employees are working with nanomaterials and their exposure to nanoparticles trough inhalation must be evaluated and monitored continuously. However, there is an ongoing debate in the scientific literature about what are the relevant parameters to measure to evaluate exposure to level. In this study, three types of nanoparticles (ammonium sulphate, synthesised TiO 2 agglomerates and aerosolised TiO 2 powder, modes in a range of 30–140 nm mobility size) were measured with commonly used aerosol measurement instruments: scanning and fast mobility particle sizers (SMPS, FMPS), electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), condensation particle counter (CPC) together with nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) to achieve information about the interrelations of the outputs of the instruments. In addition, the ease of use of these instruments was evaluated. Differences between the results of different instruments can mainly be attributed to the nature of test particles. For spherical ammonium sulphate nanoparticles, the data from the instruments were in good agreement while larger differences were observed for particles with more complex morphology, the TiO 2 agglomerates and powder. For instance, the FMPS showed a smaller particle size, a higher number concentration and a narrower size distribution compared with the SMPS for TiO 2 particles. Thus, the type of the nanoparticle was observed to influence the data obtained from these different instruments. Therefore, care and expertise are essential when interpreting results from aerosol measurement instruments to estimate nanoparticle concentrations and properties.

  8. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  9. Hair corticosterone measurement in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-09-01

    In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus. To induce type 1 diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were injected with streptozotocin and blood and hair samples were collected 28days following induction. Leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice were used as a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes and blood and hair samples were collected at 8weeks of age, after the development of hyperglycemia and obesity. Corticosterone levels from serum, new growth hair and total growth hair were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. Corticosterone levels in new growth hair and serum were significantly elevated in both models of diabetes compared to controls. In contrast, corticosterone levels in old hair growth did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Thus, hair removal and sampling of new hair growth was a more sensitive procedure for detecting changes in hair corticosterone levels induced by periods of hyperglycemia lasting for 4weeks in mice. These results validate the use of hair to measure long-term changes in corticosterone induced by diabetes in rodent models. Further studies are now needed to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a tool for measuring the stress burden of individuals with diabetes and for following the effects of long-term medical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined Risk Measures: Representation Results and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttsche, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of risk play a crucial role in different areas of modern finance. This includes pricing of financial products, capital allocation and derivation of economic capital. Key to this analysis is the quantification of the risk via risk measures. A promising approach is to

  11. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position ... nuclear fusion, and is of interest in the theory of light ion interactions [1]. Spin–orbit ... neutron modular detector to detect neutron energies. In our last paper [6], ...

  12. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2014-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author)

  14. Stable isotope geochemistry: definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2015-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author).

  15. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2012-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 89 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2008-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2016-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author).

  19. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2013-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 91 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Visualizing and Measuring Enterprise Application Architecture: An Exploratory Telecom Case

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerstroem, Robert; Baldwin, Carliss Y.; MacCormack, Alan D.; Aier, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We test a method for visualizing and measuring enterprise application architectures. The method was designed and previously used to reveal the hidden internal architectural structure of software applications. The focus of this paper is to test if it can also uncover new facts about the applications and their relationships in an enterprise architecture, i.e., if the method can reveal the hidden external structure between software applications. Our test uses data from a large international tele...

  1. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  2. Macroindentation hardness measurement-Modernization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sarsvat; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we first developed a modernized indentation technique for measuring tablet hardness. This technique is featured by rapid digital image capture, using a calibrated light microscope, and precise area-determination. We then systematically studied effects of key experimental parameters, including indentation force, speed, and holding time, on measured hardness of a very soft material, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and a very hard material, dibasic calcium phosphate, to cover a wide range of material properties. Based on the results, a holding period of 3min at the peak indentation load is recommended to minimize the effect of testing speed on H. Using this method, we show that an exponential decay function well describes the relationship between tablet hardness and porosity for seven commonly used pharmaceutical powders investigated in this work. We propose that H and H at zero porosity may be used to quantify the tablet deformability and powder plasticity, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring Anger Types among Malaysian Adolescents using the Rasch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Ahmad, Nor Shafrin; Khairani, Mohd Zahuri

    Adolescences is an important transitional phase in human development where they experience physiological as well as psychological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are often understood by teachers, parents, and even the adolescents themselves. Thus, conflicts exist and adolescents are affected from the conflict physically and emotionally. An important state of emotions that result from this conflict is anger. This article describes the development and validation of the 34-item Adolescent Anger Inventory (AAI) to measure types of anger among Malaysian adolescents. A sample of 2,834 adolescents in secondary school who provide responses that were analyzed using Rasch model measurement framework. The 4 response category worked satisfactorily for the scale developed. A total of 11 items did not fit to the model's expectations, and thus dropped from the final scale. The scale also demonstrated satisfactory reliability and separation evidence. Also, items in the AAI depicted no evidence of DIF between 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. Nevertheless, the AAI did not have sufficient items to target adolescents with a high level of physical aggressive anger.

  4. IMPROVING COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING TWIN TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhouri, H. K.; Boone, K.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fagrelius, P. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Fleury, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Barbary, K. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Baugh, D.; Chen, J. [Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Buton, C.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y. [Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Feindt, U. [Institut fur Physik, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Fouchez, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, 163 avenue de Luminy—Case 902—F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Gangler, E. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Collaboration: Nearby Supernova Factory; and others

    2015-12-10

    We introduce a method for identifying “twin” Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and using them to improve distance measurements. This novel approach to SN Ia standardization is made possible by spectrophotometric time series observations from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We begin with a well-measured set of SNe, find pairs whose spectra match well across the entire optical window, and then test whether this leads to a smaller dispersion in their absolute brightnesses. This analysis is completed in a blinded fashion, ensuring that decisions made in implementing the method do not inadvertently bias the result. We find that pairs of SNe with more closely matched spectra indeed have reduced brightness dispersion. We are able to standardize this initial set of SNfactory SNe to 0.083 ± 0.012 mag, implying a dispersion of 0.072 ± 0.010 mag in the absence of peculiar velocities. We estimate that with larger numbers of comparison SNe, e.g., using the final SNfactory spectrophotometric data set as a reference, this method will be capable of standardizing high-redshift SNe to within 0.06–0.07 mag. These results imply that at least 3/4 of the variance in Hubble residuals in current SN cosmology analyses is due to previously unaccounted-for astrophysical differences among the SNe.

  5. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  6. Kinesin and Dynein Mechanics: Measurement Methods and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zachary; Hawley, Emma; Hayosh, Daniel; Webster-Wood, Victoria A; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-02-01

    Motor proteins play critical roles in the normal function of cells and proper development of organisms. Among motor proteins, failings in the normal function of two types of proteins, kinesin and dynein, have been shown to lead many pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. As such, it is critical to researchers to understand the underlying mechanics and behaviors of these proteins, not only to shed light on how failures may lead to disease, but also to guide research toward novel treatment and nano-engineering solutions. To this end, many experimental techniques have been developed to measure the force and motility capabilities of these proteins. This review will (a) discuss such techniques, specifically microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical trapping, and magnetic tweezers, and (b) the resulting nanomechanical properties of motor protein functions such as stalling force, velocity, and dependence on adenosine triphosophate (ATP) concentrations will be comparatively discussed. Additionally, this review will highlight the clinical importance of these proteins. Furthermore, as the understanding of the structure and function of motor proteins improves, novel applications are emerging in the field. Specifically, researchers have begun to modify the structure of existing proteins, thereby engineering novel elements to alter and improve native motor protein function, or even allow the motor proteins to perform entirely new tasks as parts of nanomachines. Kinesin and dynein are vital elements for the proper function of cells. While many exciting experiments have shed light on their function, mechanics, and applications, additional research is needed to completely understand their behavior.

  7. Earable RCC: Development of an Earphone-Type Reliable Chewing-Count Measurement Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Taniguchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer patients having undergone gastrectomy are at a high risk of becoming malnourished owing to decreased gastric function. To prevent malnutrition, patients need to thoroughly chew a mouthful of food at least 30 times. For these gastrectomy patients requiring dietary support, we developed a chewing-count measurement device named earable RCC using an earphone-type sensor. Experiments to evaluate the performance of this device were conducted on six healthy volunteers who participated in “gum-chewing tests” and “almond-eating tests.” The precision calculated based on the results was ≥0.958, indicating that the earphone-type chewing-count measurement device could experimentally distinguish chewing from other actions. In addition, the recall calculated from the test results was ≥0.937, showing that the device does not miss chewing actions and can accurately count the number of chews with high probability at the timing of chewing. The experimental results also imply that earphone-type sensors may be used to measure swallowing, occlusal force, and tongue motion. Our future plans include clinical testing of the earphone-type chewing-count measurement device to determine its utility in patients who have undergone gastrectomy. We also intend to expand the application of this device for use in other patients to aid in dementia prevention and dietary support.

  8. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  9. Applications of measure theory to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pantsulaia, Gogi

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to put strong reasonable mathematical senses in notions of objectivity and subjectivity for consistent estimations in a Polish group by using the concept of Haar null sets in the corresponding group. This new approach – naturally dividing the class of all consistent estimates of an unknown parameter in a Polish group into disjoint classes of subjective and objective estimates – helps the reader to clarify some conjectures arising in the criticism of null hypothesis significance testing. The book also acquaints readers with the theory of infinite-dimensional Monte Carlo integration recently developed for estimation of the value of infinite-dimensional Riemann integrals over infinite-dimensional rectangles. The book is addressed both to graduate students and to researchers active in the fields of analysis, measure theory, and mathematical statistics.

  10. Measuring insulin adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Gonzalez, Jeffery S

    2016-08-01

    Non-adherence to insulin is common and associated with suboptimal health. We adapted the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to specify insulin adherence (MIAS) and compared it to the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale for Diabetes (ARMS-D) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities medications subscale (SDSCA-MS) and an insulin-specific (SDSCA-IS) version. A sample of 144 insulin-treated adults (58 % African American/Black, 34 % Caucasian/White, 8 % Other/Mixed race; 6.9 % Hispanic) completed these measures along with a HbA1C test. The internal consistency and factor structure of the MIAS were adequate; 59 % of participants forgot to take insulin and 46 % reported non-adherence. The MIAS was associated with the ARMS-D, SDSCA-MS, and SDSCA-IS (p < 0.001), and higher MIAS scores were marginally associated with better self-rated health (p = 0.057), but significantly associated with fewer emergency room visits (p = 0.001), and better HbA1C (p = 0.001). The MIAS is a valid and reliable insulin adherence assessment tool for practice and research applications.

  11. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of 23Na and NatFe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  12. Measurement of chemical sputtering yields of various types of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, R.; Nakamura, K.; Sone, K.; Saidoh, M.

    1980-01-01

    The methane formation from carbon due to the bombardment with hydrogen ions has been studied. The influences of the dose of incident ions and the types of carbon on methane production rate under the careful pretreatment of carbon are described in this paper. The incident energy of the hydrogen ions used was in the range from 0.1 to 6 keV for the purpose of filling the lack of the chemical sputtering coefficient for low energy hydrogen ions. The samples used were two kinds of pyrolytic graphite. Both basal and edge planes which were cut perpendicularly and in parallel to c-axis, respectively, were used as the surfaces of targets for the bombardment with H + ions. Other kinds of carbon used were isotropic atomic grade graphite and glassy carbon. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the measurement of the methane formation. The methane production rate increased with dose, and gradually reached a constant value. The samples which were pre-bombarded with hydrogen ions showed the very different dose dependence of methane production rate. The anomalous rate can be explained by the particle-induced desorption of super-saturated hydrogen concentration in the target. The energy and temperature dependences of the methane production rate were almost same for the various carbon materials. (Kato, T.)

  13. Measuring weak lensing correlations of Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovacricchi, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Macaulay, E.; Bacon, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the feasibility of detecting weak lensing spatial correlations between supernova (SN) Type Ia magnitudes with present (Dark Energy Survey, DES) and future (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST) surveys. We investigate the angular auto-correlation function of SN magnitudes (once the background cosmology has been subtracted) and cross-correlation with galaxy catalogues. We examine both analytical and numerical predictions, the latter using simulated galaxy catalogues from the MICE Grand Challenge Simulation. We predict that we will be unable to detect the SN auto-correlation in DES, while it should be detectable with the LSST SN deep fields (15 000 SNe on 70 deg2) at ≃6σ level of confidence (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). The SN-galaxy cross-correlation function will deliver much higher signal to noise, being detectable in both surveys with an integrated signal to noise of ∼100 (up to 30 arcmin separations). We predict joint constraints on the matter density parameter (Ωm) and the clustering amplitude (σ8) by fitting the auto-correlation function of our mock LSST deep fields. When assuming a Gaussian prior for Ωm, we can achieve a 25 per cent measurement of σ8 from just these LSST supernovae (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). These constraints will improve significantly if the intrinsic dispersion of SNe Ia can be reduced.

  14. Large deviation result for the empirical locality measure of typed random geometric graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena

    2014-01-01

    In this article for a finite typed random geometric graph we define the empirical locality distribution, which records the number of nodes of a given type linked to a given number of nodes of each type. We find large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical locality measure given the empirical pair measure and the empirical type measure of the typed random geometric graphs. From this LDP, we derive large deviation principles for the degree measure and the proportion of detached nodes in th...

  15. Channel Measurements and Characteristics for Cooperative Positioning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Steinböck, Gerhard; Jost, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted an indoor channel measurement campaign to characterize the propagation channel for the development of cooperative positioning algorithms. The campaign focused particularly on the characteristics of multi-link channels with applications to positioning. In this contribution we...

  16. Microbial mat ecosystems: Structure types, functional diversity, and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Prieto-Barajas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mats are horizontally stratified microbial communities, exhibiting a structure defined by physiochemical gradients, which models microbial diversity, physiological activities, and their dynamics as a whole system. These ecosystems are commonly associated with aquatic habitats, including hot springs, hypersaline ponds, and intertidal coastal zones and oligotrophic environments, all of them harbour phototrophic mats and other environments such as acidic hot springs or acid mine drainage harbour non-photosynthetic mats. This review analyses the complex structure, diversity, and interactions between the microorganisms that form the framework of different types of microbial mats located around the globe. Furthermore, the many tools that allow studying microbial mats in depth and their potential biotechnological applications are discussed.

  17. Application of Botulinum toxin Type A: An arsenal in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmana B Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An extremely effective way of preventing damage to and enhancing treatment of dental hard tissues and restorations would be to ′′de-programme′′ the muscles responsible for excessive destructive forces and other gnathological-related diseases. The new paradigm is the intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX into the affected muscles. It is a natural protein produced by anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. The toxin inhibits the release of acetylcholine (ACH, a neurotransmitter responsible for the activation of muscle contraction and glandular secretion, and its administration results in reduction of tone in the injected muscle. There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin, viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which differ in their potency, duration of action, and cellular target sites. This paper describes the different applications of BOTOX in dentistry.

  18. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2017-05-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  19. [Effectiveness of the topical application of fluor on the moderate gingivitis in diabetic type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Leticia; Soler-Huerta, Elizabeth; Saavedra-Vélez, V Margarita

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of the fluor topic application vs. oral washing gel in diabetic patients type 2 with moderate gingivitis. Controlled clinical test double blind in a Primary Care Unit from February 2003 to May 2004. Both gender patients from 40 to 60 year old diagnosed with moderate gingivitis were included and randomly assigned to each group. Cherry flavored fluor gel and hygienic measures were applied to the cases during 10 consecutive days of treatment. Hygienic measures and oral washing gel were applied to the control group during 10 days. The relative risk and confidence interval of 95 %. The fluor group (n = 14) reported a greater efficacy than oral washing gel group at the end of the treatment. No adverse effects were found. The topic application of Fluor and hygienic measures were effective diminishing gingivitis without adverse effects and at a low cost.

  20. Application of a universal optic data link for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, T.; Takada, E.

    2002-01-01

    Optic Data Link (ODL) is a device to convert electric and optic signals to each other, which is used for the field of optical communications. We examined the possibility to apply ODLs to radiation measurements. The effect of ODLs on energy and timing resolution has been investigated. From the results, fundamental applicability of ODLs to radiation measurements has been demonstrated. (author)

  1. Chemical application of positron annihilation through triple coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegnasubramanian, S.; Gangadharan, S.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarises the work on the application of triple coincidence measurement of annihilation radiation for providing chemical state information; the observations have been corroborated by angular correlation and Doppler broadening measurements and supplemented by the magnetic quenching in the angular correlation and peak-to-valley ratio in the Ge(Li) singles spectrum for the 511 keV line. (author)

  2. Capacitance-Voltage (CV) Measurement of Type-2 Superlattice Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Department of Defense position, policy, or decision. CQD Contents 1. Background and Motivation ...1. Background and Motivation 1.1. Development of Type-II superalttice Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) were first proposed by Sai-Halasz et...equals the ionized impurity concentration. In such case, the semiconductor is under extrinsic regime, and the dynamic of mobile carriers depends on

  3. Application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoqing; China Science and Technology Univ., Hefei; Yu Xiaoqi; Zhang Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    Virtual instrument is a novel computer-based technical method of measurement, which has got rapidly development and has been applied in many fields because of a variety of advantages. In this paper we mainly introduce application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system. Beam measurement system is an important part of accelerator technology and has important effect on accelerator debugging, running and machine research. Adopting new measurement methods and increasing accuracy of measurement directly affect accelerator debugging and running. Now many accelerators have been adopted virtual instrument system. (authors)

  4. Psychometric Properties of Scores on a New Measure of Psychological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts. The most popular measure of types has been the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (K. Briggs and I. Myers). This measure has been criticized for dichotomous scoring, forced-choice response formats, and differential gender…

  5. Measurement of the Type A Behavior Pattern by Self-Report Questionnaires: Several Perspectives on Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the Type A behavior pattern as measured by paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The Jenkins Activity Survey, Framingham Type A Scale, Thurstone Activity Scales, a new bipolar adjective Type A measure, and measures of achievement and nurturance needs were completed by 418 students. (Author/BS)

  6. PTSD's factor structure and measurement invariance across subgroups with differing count of trauma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Caldas, Stephanie V; Dolan, Megan; Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Chérie

    2018-03-24

    To investigate the effect of the count of traumatizing event (TE) types on post-trauma mental health, several studies have compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity between individuals experiencing one versus multiple TE types. However, the validity of these studies depends on the establishment of measurement invariance of the construct(s) of interest. The current study examined the stability of the most optimal PTSD Model symptom cluster constructs (assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. The sample included university students (n = 556) endorsing at least one TE (Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire). Using data from the entire sample, results suggest that the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model provided a significantly better fit compared to other models. Results also indicated invariance of factor loadings (metric), and intercepts (scalar) for the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model factors across subgroups endorsing one (n = 191) versus multiple TE types (n = 365). Our findings thus support the stability, applicability, and meaningful comparison of the PCL-assessed Hybrid Model factor structure (including subscale severity scores) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  8. Application of phantom type compensating filter in tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayama, A.; Mukae, H.; Itoh, M. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    We reported a new device of phantom type compensating filters for pulmonary hilar tomography with polytome U at the 35th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. This report is to show application of this compensated method to the head, the hip joint and the lower thoracic spine in tomography. Using the filters optimal density can be obtained in all area of aim part on a X-ray film, and thus makes to get more information. 1) In the head clear shadow of pars nasalis, sinus paranasales and sella turcica is obtained. Destruction or defect of bone contour is easily detected. It is also useful to differentiate the disorders and to determine the expansivity of the lesion. 2) In the hip joint this method has advantages over the ordinary method. There is a few misdiagnosis in trochanteric lesions such as tuberculosis or bone tumor, because of high density at the trochanteric region in ordinary method, but in this method optimal density can be obtained, and misdiagnosis is improved. Soft tissue is sharply visualized, indicating usefulness in diagnosis of existence of hematoma or abscess. 3) In the lower thoracic vertebra it is useful to diagnosis of the thoracic spondylosis, tuberculous spondylitis and compression fracture of the vertebral body, since optimal density of the spine can be obtained. It is also quite useful to detect small ossifications in the vertebral foraman in ossification of the flavum ligament.

  9. Application of phantom type compensating filter in tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayama, Akio; Mukae, Hideki; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1981-01-01

    We reported a new device of phantom type compensating filters for pulmonary hilar tomography with polytome U at the 35th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. This report is to show application of this compensated method to the head, the hip joint and the lower thoracic spine in tomography. Using the filters optimal density can be obtained in all area of aim part on a X-ray film, and thus makes to get more information. 1) In the head clear shadow of pars nasalis, sinus paranasales and sella turcica is obtained. Destruction or defect of bone contour is easily detected. It is also useful to differentiate the disorders and to determine the expansivity of the lesion. 2) In the hip joint this method has advantages over the ordinary method. There is a few misdiagnosis in trochanteric lesions such as tuberculosis or bone tumor, because of high density at the trochanteric region in ordinary method, but in this method optimal density can be obtained, and misdiagnosis is improved. Soft tissue is sharply visualized, indicating usefulness in diagnosis of existence of hematoma or abscess. 3) In the lower thoracic vertebra it is useful to diagnosis of the thoracic spondylosis, tuberculous spondylitis and compression fracture of the vertebral body, since optimal density of the spine can be obtained. It is also quite useful to detect small ossifications in the vertebral foraman in ossification of the flavum ligament. (author)

  10. Types of Lasers and Their Applications in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemisalman, Bahareh; Farsadeghi, Mahya; Sokhansanj, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Laser technology has been recently introduced into the dental field with the idea to replace drilling. Having a less painful first dental experience by the use of modern instruments like laser can be an efficient preventive and therapeutic strategy in pediatric dentistry. Pedodontists need to learn the new less invasive technologies and adopt them in their routine practice. This study aimed to review the available types of lasers and their applications in pediatric dentistry. An electronic search was carried out in IranMedex, InterScience, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline and Google Scholar databases to find relevant articles published from 2000 to 2014. Relevant textbooks were reviewed as well. Laser can be used as a suitable alternative to many conventional diagnostic and therapeutic dental procedures. It is especially efficient for caries detection and removal, pulp therapy, lowering the risk of infection, inflammation and swelling and reducing bleeding. On the other hand, due to minimal invasion, laser treatment is well tolerated by children. Improved patient cooperation leads to higher satisfaction of the parents, dentists and the children themselves.

  11. Antimalarial measures - type, sources of advice and compliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-01

    Jun 1, 1994 ... basis from which to document further changes in prophylactic advice and usage. The results are being ... as posing a higher risk from malaria than the KBNR's more southerly regions. The diversity of accommodation ... Compliance, drug type and sources of advice were documented. Use of personal barrier ...

  12. An Application for Measuring Frailty of Myeloma Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Bøgelund Hansen, Martin; Savic, Toma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a responsive web-based application that we have been developing for the cancer hospital in the city of Vejle, Denmark. The application administers and handles systematic frailty scoring of patients with multiple myeloma (bone marrow cancer) and thereby helps the doctor...... make a more efficient and more effective treatment choice. The application is currently being tested with a small number of patients and is to replace the frailty measurement system used until now, which is usually done by the doctor on a per patient basis....

  13. Absolute sensitivity of phase measurement in an SU(1,1) type interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Jia, Jun; Chen, J. F.; Ou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Absolute sensitivity is measured for the phase measurement in an SU(1,1) type interferometer and the results are compared to that of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated under the condition of the same intra-interferometer intensity. The interferometer is phase locked to a point with the largest quantum noise cancellation, and a simulated phase modulation is added in one arm of SU(1,1) interferometer. Both the signal and noise level are estimated at the same frequency range, and we obtain 3dB improvement in sensitivity for the SU(1,1) interferometer over the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our results demonstrate a direct phase estimation, and may pave the way for practical applications of nonlinear interferometer.

  14. Absolute sensitivity of phase measurement in an SU(1,1) type interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Jia, Jun; Chen, J F; Ou, Z Y; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Absolute sensitivity is measured for the phase measurement in an SU(1,1) type interferometer, and the results are compared to that of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated under the condition of the same intra-interferometer intensity. The interferometer is phase locked to a point with the largest quantum noise cancellation, and a simulated phase modulation is added in one arm of the SU(1,1) interferometer. Both the signal and noise level are estimated at the same frequency range, and we obtained 3 dB improvement in sensitivity for the SU(1,1) interferometer over the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our results demonstrate a direct phase estimation and may pave the way for practical applications of a nonlinear interferometer.

  15. Importance measures in reliability, risk, and optimization principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Way

    2012-01-01

    This unique treatment systematically interprets a spectrum of importance measures to provide a comprehensive overview of their applications in the areas of reliability, network, risk, mathematical programming, and optimization. Investigating the precise relationships among various importance measures, it describes how they are modelled and combined with other design tools to allow users to solve readily many real-world, large-scale decision-making problems.  Presenting the state-of-the-art in network analysis, multistate systems, and application in modern systems, this book offers a c

  16. Engineered T Regulatory Type 1 Cells for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gregori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available T regulatory cells, a specialized subset of T cells, are key players in modulating antigen (Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. Inducible T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells are characterized by the co-expression of CD49b and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3 and the ability to secrete IL-10, TGF-β, and granzyme (Gz B, in the absence of IL-4 and IL-17. The chief mechanisms by which Tr1 cells control immune responses are secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β and killing of myeloid cells via GzB. Tr1 cells, first described in peripheral blood of patients who developed tolerance after HLA-mismatched fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, have been proven to modulate inflammatory and effector T cell responses in several immune-mediated diseases. The possibility to generate and expand Tr1 cells in vitro in an Ag-specific manner has led to their clinical use as cell therapy in patients. Clinical grade protocols to generate or to enrich and expand Tr1 cell medicinal products have been established. Proof-of-concept clinical trials with Tr1 cell products have demonstrated the safety and the feasibility of this approach and indicated some clinical benefit. In the present review, we provide an overview on protocols established to induce/expand Tr1 cells in vitro for clinical application and on results obtained in Tr1 cell-based clinical trials. Moreover, we will discuss a recently developed protocol to efficient convert human CD4+ T cells into a homogeneous population of Tr1-like cells by lentiviral vector-mediated IL-10 gene transfer.

  17. Measurement and modelling of evapotranspiration in three fynbos vegetation types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Palmiet River basin. The Oudebosch valley is ori- ented southeast–northwest along an ancient fault line which defines the main valley axis (Jovanovic et al., 2012). A small stream (Oudebosch River) flows through the middle of the valley which has deep... on clear sunny days although the lower ET values were within the error margins of the measurement method and so these very low values should be used with caution. Data were lost during the measurement period due to power losses (mainly at the scin...

  18. A Scholander-type respirometer designed for measuring both aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-31

    Oct 31, 1986 ... prior to the measurement of their VOz. The data collected from four experiments lasting 6 h showed that the mean oxygen demand by microbial organisms was 48. JLI f h, with a standard deviation of 36 JLI. The mean oxygen consumption rate of a 100-g crab, calculated from the data in Table 2, was 3,50 ml ...

  19. Measurement of the Functional Status of Patients with Different Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jing Lue

    2009-06-01

    different applications used for measuring functional status in patients with different types of MD. Some of the limitations of these measures as applied to MD should be carefully considered, especially in patients with slowly progressive MD. We suggest that these applications be used in combination with other measures, or that a complicated instrument capable of evaluating the various levels of functional status be used.

  20. Personality types of family practice residents as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D L; Ebbert, P

    1985-01-01

    This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that individuals currently choosing family practice as a career are likely to have different personality types than those who previously pursued general practice. Incoming residents to the University of Utah Family Practice Residency Program were compared to a group of private primary care physicians serving rural areas. Personality types were determined by administering the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to both groups. Results showed that the current resident group differed significantly from the primary care physician group and that the residents' personality types were similar to personality types of faculty in other studies. This raises the concern that many family practice residents may not choose to practice in underserved areas. Further studies need to follow personality types through medical school and residency training and into practice to help determine which prospective physicians are likely to choose a primary care career and a rural practice. This information may be useful in health manpower planning and in examining admissions policies of medical schools and residencies.

  1. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power system networks incorporated with FACTS controllers. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this ...

  2. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  3. Sensitivity curve measurement and application of radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shunhe; Wang Jianqing; Guo Xiaoqing; Yao Yanling; Li Jingxiu

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the sensitivity curve measurements and applications for radioactivity meter. The energy-dependent sensitivity curve is established with the activity of standard sources and their corresponding current by constructing functions sub-section. Thus the current-activity ratio is acquired from the sensitivity curve and the calibration of radioactivity meter is solved satisfactorily. (authors)

  4. Measurement and Application of Radium and Radon in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guebuem Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of low-level Ra and Rn isotopes in water samples has become increasingly convenient and accurate in recent years. I summarize these new and advanced techniques and then introduce their application fields in geophysical and environmental studies.

  5. Development of resistance type moisture measuring device for grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study aimed at developing an indigenous moisture measuring device from locally available materials for grains based on the principle of resistance change of the material with corresponding change in moisture during drying. The developed device has four copper electrode cups positions in which both gauging and dummy copper electrode cups were placed to form Wheatstone bridge circuits of full, half and quarter for four, two and one gauging copper electrode cups respectively, while the remaining positions were used as dummies. These circuits were used to measure the resistances and hence obtaining the moisture content of the grains used. Grains of paddy rice, guinea corn and millet were used to test the device and it was observed that for full bridge circuits of each of the grains, paddy rice have a negative coefficient of correlation of -0.95, -0.99 for guinea corn and -0.99 for millet. The results obtained from predictive empirical equations when compared with the direct oven method, showed that the device can be used to predict or measure moisture content once calibrated.

  6. Comparison of three types of tongue pressure measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Mineka; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Yasumasa; Groher, Michael E

    2011-09-01

    A new tongue pressure device consisting of a simple and safe disposable probe and manometer has been developed. This report describes a study that examined the validity of the new device, comparing it to a widely used tongue pressure manometer, the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), and to the stable adhered three air-filled bulbs manometry system. The first test compared maximum tongue pressure measured with the new device and the IOPI (13 male, 9 female, 25.0 years). The second test compared maximum tongue pressure and swallowing tongue pressure measured with the new device and the three-bulb device (13 male, 9 female, 31.0 years). Significant correlations of maximum tongue pressure were found between the new device and the IOPI in the first test (p pressure were found between the new device at the anterior and middle sensors (p pressure between the new device and the three-bulb device were found (p pressure device are closely equivalent to those of the IOPI and three-bulb devices, demonstrating that the new device is capable of accurately measuring the pressure generated by the whole tongue.

  7. Analytical chemistry measurements quality control program using computer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Huff, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    An Analytical Chemistry Measurements Quality Control Program assures the reliability of analytical measurements performed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The program includes training, methods quality control, replicate samples and measurements, mass measurements, interlaboratory sample exchanges, and standards preparation. This program has been designed to meet the requirements of 10CFR70.57. Portions of the program have been automated by using a PDP 11/35 computer system to provide features which are not readily available in manual systems. These include such items as realtime measurement control, computer calculated bias and precision estimates, various surveillance applications, and evaluation of measurement system variables. The efficiency of the computer system has been demonstrated in gathering and assimilating the results of over 1100 quality control samples during a recent cold chemical checkout campaign. These data were used to determine equations for predicting measurements reliability estimates; to evaluate measurement performance of the analysts, equipment, and measurement period; and to provide directions for chemistry methods modifications and additional training requirements. A procedure of replicate sampling and measuring provides random error estimates. The analytical chemistry measurement quality control activities during the campaign represented about 10% of the total analytical chemistry effort

  8. Application of stereo photogrammetric techniques for measuring African Elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J Hall-Martin

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of shoulder height and back length of African elephants were obtained by means of stereo photogrammetric techniques. A pair of Zeiss UMK 10/1318 cameras, mounted on a steel frame on the back of a vehicle, were used to photograph the elephants in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa. Several modifications of normal photogrammetry procedure applicable to the field situation (eg. control points and the computation of results (eg. relative orientation are briefly mentioned. Six elephants were immobilised after being photographed and the measurements obtained from them agreed within a range of 1 cm-10 cm with the photogrammetric measurements.

  9. An integrative review of self-efficacy measurement instruments in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, Lisa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Laffel, Lori

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the extant literature on instruments used to measure self-efficacy in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their caregivers and to critically evaluate these measurements. An integrative review (2003-2013) was conducted searching PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and US National Library of Medicine PubMed service (PubMed) databases using key words diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and self-efficacy. The authors reviewed the resulting 294 references for inclusion criteria of (a) sample of youth with T1DM or sample of caregivers of youth with T1DM, (b) description of the self-efficacy instrument as primary research, and (c) the instrument measured self-efficacy specifically related to diabetes management. Forty-five articles out of the initial 294 met criteria. Of the 45 articles, 10 different self-efficacy instruments were identified. The primary theoretical framework used was Bandura's social cognitive theory and model of self-efficacy. Most participants were white middle-class T1DM youth. Evaluations to assess validity often were not reported; however, a majority of studies reported high internal consistency of the instruments. Sample homogeneity could limit the applicability of results to certain patient populations. Further psychometric analysis, including validity assessments, should be conducted in more diverse samples. Development of valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-efficacy that are sensitive to change across a wider caregiver base over time is necessary. While this review examined reliable and valid instruments used in research, future opportunities include evaluation of measuring self-efficacy in T1DM youth exposed to recent advances in diabetes management technologies. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet.  The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

  11. Application of a virtual coordinate measuring machine for measurement uncertainty estimation of aspherical lens parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küng, Alain; Meli, Felix; Nicolet, Anaïs; Thalmann, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Tactile ultra-precise coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are very attractive for accurately measuring optical components with high slopes, such as aspheres. The METAS µ-CMM, which exhibits a single point measurement repeatability of a few nanometres, is routinely used for measurement services of microparts, including optical lenses. However, estimating the measurement uncertainty is very demanding. Because of the many combined influencing factors, an analytic determination of the uncertainty of parameters that are obtained by numerical fitting of the measured surface points is almost impossible. The application of numerical simulation (Monte Carlo methods) using a parametric fitting algorithm coupled with a virtual CMM based on a realistic model of the machine errors offers an ideal solution to this complex problem: to each measurement data point, a simulated measurement variation calculated from the numerical model of the METAS µ-CMM is added. Repeated several hundred times, these virtual measurements deliver the statistical data for calculating the probability density function, and thus the measurement uncertainty for each parameter. Additionally, the eventual cross-correlation between parameters can be analyzed. This method can be applied for the calibration and uncertainty estimation of any parameter of the equation representing a geometric element. In this article, we present the numerical simulation model of the METAS µ-CMM and the application of a Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty estimation of measured asphere parameters. (paper)

  12. Developments and applications in the Amtrak track geometry measurement car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosino, Michael; Yang, Ta-Lun; Kelshaw, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Amtrak's high-speed track geometry measurement car no. 10002 is used routinely on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor (NEC) trackage and on other routes used by Amtrak throughout the country. Data collected by the measurement system is used for many purposes, including: checking compliance with respect to safety standards; maintaining the requirements set forth in the government waiver for 125 MPH operation on the NEC; evaluating the service quality of the track; monitoring the rate of degradation; directing short-term and long-term maintenance programs; evaluating the quality of maintenance work; and serving as inputs in vehicle dynamic modeling. This paper presents brief descriptions of the measurement and data processing capabilities, and examples of applications. Data collected at regular intervals serves as a monitoring tool to measure the quality and the effectiveness of maintenance performed. Data collected at high speed is of particular value in modeling the dynamic performance of high speed passenger trains. Track geometry data processed with the appropriate algorithms can be put into a space curve representation which contains long wavelength information that is critical in higher speed trains. The Amtrak 10002 measures approximately 40,000 miles of track each year. The many applications which use the collected data are a perfect illustration of how modern measurement and data processing technology can be fully integrated into an old industry with established traditional practices.

  13. Electromagnetic Differential Measuring Method: Application in Microstrip Sensors Developing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters. Different disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits, remote sensing, earth sciences (geology, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biological or medical disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted and analyzed in the receiver to determine the interaction produced. In this work a method based in differential measurement technique is proposed as a novel way of detecting and characterizing electromagnetic matter characteristics using sensors based on a microstrip patch. The experimental results, based on simulations, show that it is possible to obtain benefits from the behavior of the wave-medium interaction using differential measurement on reception of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies or environmental conditions. Differential method introduce advantages in measure processes and promote new sensors development. A new microstrip sensor that uses differential time measures is proposed to show the possibilities of this method.

  14. Electromagnetic Differential Measuring Method: Application in Microstrip Sensors Developing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario

    2017-07-18

    Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters. Different disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits, remote sensing, earth sciences (geology, atmosphere, hydrosphere), biological or medical disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted and analyzed in the receiver to determine the interaction produced. In this work a method based in differential measurement technique is proposed as a novel way of detecting and characterizing electromagnetic matter characteristics using sensors based on a microstrip patch. The experimental results, based on simulations, show that it is possible to obtain benefits from the behavior of the wave-medium interaction using differential measurement on reception of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies or environmental conditions. Differential method introduce advantages in measure processes and promote new sensors development. A new microstrip sensor that uses differential time measures is proposed to show the possibilities of this method.

  15. Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, T; Lloyd, C E; Pouwer, F

    2012-01-01

    Inventory and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were the most popular screening tools (used in 24% and 21% of studies). Information on the cultural applicability of screening tools was mostly unavailable and, where reported, included only details of the language translation process....... Information on the cultural applicability of these instruments is even scantier. Further research is required in order to determine the suitability of screening tools for use in clinical practice and to address the increasing problem of co-morbid diabetes and depression.......BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients and is associated with poor outcomes and higher mortality rates. Several guidelines encourage screening of patients with diabetes for depression...

  16. Molecular methods for typing of Helicobacter pylori and their applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Hartzen, S H; Roshanisefat, H

    1999-01-01

    discriminatory power compared to genotypic methods concerning the typing of Helicobacter pylori. Therefore great efforts have been made to establish useful molecular typing methods. In this context, the most frequently used genotypic methods are described based on our own experience and the literature: (1.......g. the urease genes. Furthermore, reproducibility, discriminatory power, ease of performance and interpretation, cost and toxic procedures of each method are assessed. To date no direct comparison of all the molecular typing methods described has been performed in the same study with the same H. pylori strains......Microbial typing is a useful tool in clinical epidemiology for defining the source and route of infection, for studying the persistence and reinfection rates, clonal selection in the host and bacterial evolution. Phenotypic methods such as biotyping, serotyping and hemagglutinin typing have little...

  17. Development and application of piston-cylinder type clamp cells for neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity have been observed. In this article, the characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of piston-cylinder type clamp cells are reported. Both CuBe and hybrid CuBe/NiCrAl piston-cylinder-type high-pressure clamp cells were designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements. We also introduce, as the application of the cells, the results of the neutron diffraction under pressure on pressure induced superconductors of UGe 2 and CeRhIn 5 . (author)

  18. Application of textural features to the objective diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Shimada, Tetsuo; Kaeriyama, Tomoharu; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    In this study, patients with Alzheimer-type dementia were compared with healthy elderly individuals by means of 13 textural features to evaluate the application of these features to the objective diagnosis of the dementia. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 textural features between dementia patients and healthy controls. Discriminant analysis using the eight features demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 86.4%, with an overall accuracy of 89.1%. Multiple discriminant analysis using the eight features by dementia stage showed an overall accuracy of 78.2% for discrimination of four stages. These results indicate that quantitative textural feature measurements can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for Alzheimer-type dementia. (author)

  19. Non-electric applications of pool-type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.; Romenkov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper recommends the use of pool-type light water reactors for thermal energy production. Safety and reliability of these reactors were already demonstrated to the public by the long-term operation of swimming pool research reactors. The paper presents the design experience of two projects: Apatity Underground Nuclear Heating Plant and Nuclear Sea-Water Desalination Plant. The simplicity of pool-type reactors, the ease of their manufacturing and maintenance make this type of a heat source attractive to the countries without a developed nuclear industry. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab

  20. Lasers: principles, applications and energetic measures; Lasers: principes, applications et mesures energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subran, C.; Sagaut, J. [Opton Laser International, 91 - Orsay (France); Lapointe, S. [Gentec Electro-Optique (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    After having recalled the principles of a laser and the properties of the laser beam, the authors describe the following different types of lasers: solid state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers, dye lasers and gas lasers. Then, their applications are given. Very high energy lasers can reproduce the phenomenon of nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms. (O.M.)

  1. Stress measurement technique using neutron diffraction and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is the only method by which residual stresses inside materials at centimeter-order depth can be measured nondestructively. Residual lattice strains in (hkl) can be evaluated from the shift of the diffraction peak from its original position under the stress-free condition. Residual stresses can be calculated by applying Hooke's law to lattice strains measured in three orthogonal directions. In addition, the neutron diffraction method can evaluate macroscopic deformation of engineering materials by measuring microstructural factors such as microstrains. Therefore, the neutron diffraction technique is very helpful in the design and development of engineering components, as well as in studies on materials engineering. This paper shows principle of neutron stress measurement and engineering neutron diffractometers as well as some applications. (author)

  2. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  3. Application of neutron backscatter techniques to level measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi-Cattolica, A.M.; McMillan, D.H.; Telfer, A.; Griffin, L.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed and built portable level detectors and fixed level monitors based on neutron scattering and detection principles. The main components of these devices, which we call neutron backscatter gauges, are a neutron emitting radioisotope, a neutron detector, and a ratemeter. The gauge is a good detector for hydrogen but is much less sensitive to most other materials. This allows level measurements of hydrogen bearing materials, such as hydrocarbons, to be made through the walls of metal vessels. Measurements can be made conveniently through steel walls which are a few inches thick. We have used neutron backscatter gauges in a wide variety of level measurement applications encountered in the petrochemical industry. In a number of cases, the neutron techniques have proven to be superior to conventional level measurement methods, including gamma ray methods

  4. An Uncertainty Measure for Incomplete Decision Tables and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianhua; Wang, Wentao; Xu, Qing

    2013-08-01

    Uncertainty measures can supply new viewpoints for analyzing data. They can help us in disclosing the substantive characteristics of data. The uncertainty measurement issue is also a key topic in the rough-set theory. Although there are some measures to evaluate the uncertainty for complete decision systems (also called decision tables), they cannot be trivially transplanted into incomplete decision systems. There are relatively few studies on uncertainty measurement in incomplete decision systems. In this paper, we propose a new form of conditional entropy, which can be used to measure the uncertainty in incomplete decision systems. Some important properties of the conditional entropy are obtained. In particular, two validity theorems guarantee that the proposed conditional entropy can be used as a reasonable uncertainty measure for incomplete decision systems. Experiments on some real-life data sets are conducted to test and verify the validity of the proposed measure. Applications of the proposed uncertainty measure in ranking attributes and feature selection are also studied with experiments.

  5. Photogrammetry: applications of a three-dimensional remote measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photogrammetry is defined as the precise art of abstracting measurements from photographic images. Used for many years as a means to produce the world's maps, it has, in recent years, been applied in many engineering environments. The nuclear industry has, in particular, benefitted from the close range applications of photogrammetry. This paper sets out to describe the techniques involved, from the site photography through to the analytical data extraction. It will include a number of examples of where photogrammetry has been used in the nuclear industry as a remote measurement technique, from simple monitoring exercises to the compilation of complex three-dimensional as-built computer models. (author)

  6. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  7. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  8. Radioisotope tracer application in surface and groundwater flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monev, E.

    1983-01-01

    The ''peak to peak'' method for measurement of water flow with the use of radioactive tracer was investigated. The theoretical basis for this method has been established. The experiments in the open channel have shown the applicability of the method. Groundwater flow was studied by injection of radioactive tracer into the bore-hole followed by gamma-logging in three different time intervals. Interpretation of gamma lows in terms of filtration velocity in various depths proved to be possible

  9. Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-04-30

    We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

  10. Surface and interfacial tension measurement, theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hartland, Stanley

    2004-01-01

    This edited volume offers complete coverage of the latest theoretical, experimental, and computer-based data as summarized by leading international researchers. It promotes full understanding of the physical phenomena and mechanisms at work in surface and interfacial tensions and gradients, their direct impact on interface shape and movement, and their significance to numerous applications. Assessing methods for the accurate measurement of surface tension, interfacial tension, and contact angles, Surface and Interfacial Tension presents modern simulations of complex interfacial motions, such a

  11. The Syntax of the Abstract-type Measurement Construction in Mandarin Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Jing

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates a special sub-type of measurement construction in Mandarin Chinese, namely the [Num-measure word-de-N] construction where the N is an abstract dimension-denoting noun. Evidence is presented to show that the abstract-type [Num-measure word-de-N] should be fundamentally distinguished from the quantifying-/modifying-type [Num-measure word-de-N], in which the [Num-measure word] sequence serves to quantize/modify a semantically concrete, entity-denoting N. At the interpreti...

  12. Density measurement using gamma radiation - theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    There are still widespread uncertainties about the use and safety of gamma radiation in industries. This paper describes, by the example of radiometric density measurement, the theory of gamma radiation. The differences and advantages of both types of detectors, the ionization chamber and the scintillation counter, are discussed. The degree of accuracy which can be expected from the radiometric density meter will be defined, and the inter-relationship: source strength - measuring range - measuring length(normally the pipe diameter) in relation to the measuring accuracy required will be explained in detail. The use of radioactive material requires the permission of the Atomic Energy Board. The formalities involved to receive a user's licence and the implementations of safety standards set by the local authorities are discussed in depth [af

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Pavements with Application to Deflection Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Stine Skov

    Pavement surface deflection measurements are the primary means of evaluating the bearing capacity of a pavement. The most common type of device used for measuring pavement surface deflections is the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). However, increasing attention has been given to the Rolling Wheel...... with different speeds is needed. In this thesis a new Finite Element formulation for transient dynamic loading of a layered half space is developed. Equations are derived in 2D and 3D and include efficient absorbing boundary conditions in the form of the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) which ensures capability...

  14. Application of gas geochemistry experiment in the search for different types of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoliang; Liu Hanbin; Dong Xiukang; Xiong Xianxiang; Li Zhenfu; Wu Duanyang

    1998-03-01

    The study of primary and secondary gas halo and their application in the search for different types of uranium deposits in China is presented. Through measuring Rn, CO 2 , O 2 and Hg in various deposits of geological and climatic conditions for the gas geochemical survey, three comprehensive measuring methods of CO 2 , Rn and O 2 were thought to be optimum for gas geochemical exploration because of its portability, rapidity, low cost, simple operation and limited interference. The experimental data can be briefly summarized that higher concentration of CO 2 , Rn and lower concentration of secondary halo in soil show blinded deposits. The study of thermal emanating gas in soil and rock have been finished. The methods were confirmed by known deposits and can be used in uranium exploration

  15. Krichever-Novikov type algebras theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Krichever and Novikov introduced certain classes of infinite dimensionalLie algebrasto extend the Virasoro algebra and its related algebras to Riemann surfaces of higher genus. The author of this book generalized and extended them toa more general setting needed by the applications. Examples of applications are Conformal Field Theory, Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models, moduli space problems, integrable systems, Lax operator algebras, and deformation theory of Lie algebra. Furthermore they constitute an important class of infinite dimensional Lie algebras which due to their geometric origin are

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  17. Active learning in camera calibration through vision measurement application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Jierong; Wang, Xianchun; Liu, Changqing; Cao, Binfang

    2017-08-01

    Since cameras are increasingly more used in scientific application as well as in the applications requiring precise visual information, effective calibration of such cameras is getting more important. There are many reasons why the measurements of objects are not accurate. The largest reason is that the lens has a distortion. Another detrimental influence on the evaluation accuracy is caused by the perspective distortions in the image. They happen whenever we cannot mount the camera perpendicularly to the objects we want to measure. In overall, it is very important for students to understand how to correct lens distortions, that is camera calibration. If the camera is calibrated, the images are rectificated, and then it is possible to obtain undistorted measurements in world coordinates. This paper presents how the students should develop a sense of active learning for mathematical camera model besides the theoretical scientific basics. The authors will present the theoretical and practical lectures which have the goal of deepening the students understanding of the mathematical models of area scan cameras and building some practical vision measurement process by themselves.

  18. Measuring lexical diversity in children who stutter: application of vocd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Stacy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein

    2002-01-01

    There is growing but equivocal evidence that the language abilities of young children who stutter (CWS) may be depressed when compared to those of their fluent peers. In particular, the lexical skills of CWS have variously been reported to be weaker or stronger than comparison children in a number of recent studies. One source for such disagreement may be the measures used to compute lexical characteristics of these children's spoken conversations. In this study, we examined the concurrent validity of two measures of lexical diversity in spontaneous language samples, Type-Token Ratio (TTR) and the newly developed utility vocd (Malvern & Richards, 1997), using a standard test of expressive vocabulary as the comparison measure. Findings indicated that vocd values ("D") correlated well with standardized measures of expressive vocabulary, while TTR values did not. In addition, both the standardized measure and vocd revealed significantly poorer expressive lexical skills of CWS, whereas TTR analyses did not evidence this difference. Results are discussed in relation to the relative strength of vocd over TTR as a method for describing lexical characteristics of the spontaneous language samples of this population. The reader will learn about and be able to (1) identify several common measures of conversational vocabulary and the strengths and weaknesses of each, and (2) compare the performance of the young CWS in this study to their normally fluent peers in terms of vocabulary performance on both formal and conversational measures of vocabulary.

  19. Measuring channels for data transmission for on-line control systems of tokamak type thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsen'ev, V.A.; Bondarenko, I.M.; Gerasimov, V.P.; Repin, S.S.; Turkin, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results are given of studying the measuring channel accuracy of automated control systems, automatic adjustment systems, interlocking and signalling control apparatus on tokamak-type devices. The diagram of the whole measuring channel is presented. It includes a measuring amplifier, a primary converter, a receiver-transmitter, secondary converters. Measurements of metrological characteristics of the measuring channels have shown that the design principles of the channels meet the measurement requarements of a tokamak device

  20. New type integral inequalities for convex functions with applications II

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrez, Khaled; Agarwal, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    We have recently established some integral inequalities for convex functions via the Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities. In continuation here, we also establish some interesting new integral inequalities for convex functions via the Hermite--Hadamard's inequalities and Jensen's integral inequality. Useful applications involving special means are also included.

  1. A general product measurability theorem with applications to variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Kuttler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the existence of measurable weak solutions to evolution problems with randomness by proving and applying a novel theorem on product measurability of limits of sequences of functions. The measurability theorem is used to show that many important existence theorems within the abstract theory of evolution inclusions or equations have straightforward generalizations to settings that include random processes or coefficients. Moreover, the convex set where the solutions are sought is not fixed but may depend on the random variables. The importance of adding randomness lies in the fact that real world processes invariably involve randomness and variability. Thus, this work expands substantially the range of applications of models with variational inequalities and differential set-inclusions.

  2. Fixed Point Theory for Lipschitzian-type Mappings with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D R; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Offers a systematic presentation of Lipschitzian-type mappings in metric and Banach spaces. This book covers some basic properties of metric and Banach spaces. It also provides background in terms of convexity, smoothness and geometric coefficients of Banach spaces including duality mappings and metric projection mappings.

  3. 49 CFR 365.107 - Types of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract carrier of property (except household goods) , Mexican motor property carriers that perform private carriage and transport exempt items, and motor contract carrier of passengers transportation. (2) Motor carrier brokerage of general commodities (except household goods). (3) Certain types of motor...

  4. The step complexity measure - its meaning and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2003-01-01

    According to related studies, it was revealed that the procedural deviation plays a significant role in initiating accidents or incidents. This means that, to maximize safety, it is indispensable to be able to answer the question of 'why the operators deviate from procedures?' In this study, the SC(Step Complexity) measure is introduced to investigate its applicability for studying the procedural deviation, since it was shown that the change of the operators' performance is strongly correlated with the change of SC scores. This means that the SC measure could play an important role for researches related to the procedural deviation, since it is strongly believed that complicated procedures would affect both the operators' performance and the possibility of the procedural deviation. Thus, to ensure this expectation, the meaning of the SC measure is investigated through brief explanations including the necessity, theoretical basis and verification activities of the SC measure. As a result, it is confirmed that the SC measure can be used to explain the change of the operators' performance due to the task complexity implied by procedures. In addition, it seems that the SC measure may be useful for various purposes, particularly for scrutinizing the relationship between the procedural deviation and complicated procedures

  5. Simulation and measurement of optical access network with different types of optical-fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latal, Jan; Vogl, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Vitasek, Jan; Siska, Petr; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The optical access networks are nowadays swiftly developing in the telecommunications field. These networks can provide higher data transfer rates, and have great potential to the future in terms of transmission possibilities. Many local internet providers responded to these facts and began gradually installing optical access networks into their originally built networks, mostly based on wireless communication. This allowed enlargement of possibilities for end-users in terms of high data rates and also new services such as Triple play, IPTV (Internet Protocol television) etc. However, with this expansion and building-up is also related the potential of reach in case of these networks. Big cities, such as Prague, Brno, Ostrava or Olomouc cannot be simply covered, because of their sizes and also because of their internal regulations given by various organizations in each city. Standard logical and also physical reach of EPON (IEEE 802.3ah - Ethernet Passive Optical Network) optical access network is about 20 km. However, for networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplex the reach can be up to 80 km, if the optical-fiber amplifier is inserted into the network. This article deals with simulation of different types of amplifiers for WDM-PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network) network in software application Optiwave OptiSystem and than are the values from the application and from real measurement compared.

  6. Automated Testing Techniques for Event-Driven and Dynamically Typed Software Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Christoffer Quist

    2018-01-01

    Software testing is the process of executing a software application on a set of inputs, and determining if the application behaves as intended on these inputs. This thesis focuses on testing techniques for event-driven and dynamically typed applications. This is an important class of software, wh...

  7. Effects of Applicant Sex, Physical Attractiveness, and Type of Job on Employment Interviewers' Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David C.; And Others

    Past research on the employment interview has suggested that interviewers are influenced by many variables, including physical attractiveness. To investigate the potential interaction of applicant sex and attractiveness on hiring decisions, the type of job, applicant sex, and applicant physical attractiveness were manipulated to determine the…

  8. Applicability of International and DOE Target Values to ALD Destructive Measurement Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    International Target values and target value applicability are a function of the nuclear material processing campaign or application for which the accountability measurement method is being applied. Safeguarding significant quantities of nuclear-grade materials requires that accountability measurements be as accurate, precise, and representative as practically possible. In general, the ITV provides a benchmark for determining generic acceptability of the performance of the various accountability measurement methods, since it represents a performance level that is accepted as highly reliable. There are cases where it is acceptable to select alternative accountability methods not specifically referenced by the ITV, or to use the recognized measurement method, even though the uncertainties are greater than the target values

  9. The Application of Phase Type Distributions for Modelling Queuing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIMUTIS VALAKEVICIUS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Queuing models are important tools for studying the performance of complex systems, but despite the substantial queuing theory literature, it is often necessary to use approximations in the case the system is nonmarkovian. Phase type distribution is by now indispensable tool in creation of queuing system models. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a method and software for evaluating queuing approximations. A numerical queuing model with priorities is used to explore the behaviour of exponential phase-type approximation of service-time distribution. The performance of queuing systems described in the event language is used for generating the set of states and transition matrix between them. Two examples of numerical models are presented – a queuing system model with priorities and a queuing system model with quality control.

  10. Measurement and Statistics of Application Business in Complex Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yang; Li, Yipeng; Wu, Shuhang; Song, Shiji; Ren, Yong

    Owing to independent topologies and autonomic routing mechanism, the logical networks formed by Internet application business behavior cause the significant influence on the physical networks. In this paper, the backbone traffic of TUNET (Tsinghua University Networks) is measured, further more, the two most important application business: HTTP and P2P are analyzed at IP-packet level. It is shown that uplink HTTP and P2P packets behavior presents spatio-temporal power-law characteristics with exponents 1.25 and 1.53 respectively. Downlink HTTP packets behavior also presents power-law characteristics, but has more little exponents γ = 0.82 which differs from traditional complex networks research result. Moreover, downlink P2P packets distribution presents an approximate power-law which means that flow equilibrium profits little from distributed peer-to peer mechanism actually.

  11. Type Ia Supernovae: Their Origin and Possible Applications in Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Iwamoto, Koichi; Kishimoto, Nobuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric evidence indicates that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the thermonuclear explosions of accreting white dwarfs. However, the progenitor binary systems and hydrodynamical models for SNe Ia are still controversial. The relatively uniform light curves and spectral evolution of SNe Ia have led to their use as a standard candle for determining cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant, the density parameter, and the cosmological constant. Recent progress in...

  12. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki

    1999-01-01

    The neutron diffraction method is used to measure the inner strain distribution of material using the penetrating power of neutron as one of the effective use of the research reactor for the study and to evaluate a correct fatigue and a lifetime. Internal residual stress measurements have attracted great interest in material science where it is especially important to know the distribution of the internal stress when we estimated the strength of construction materials or processed goods for the industrial applications. This measurement can be applied to the study of hardening of processed goods, metal fatigue, strain of welding. Conventional techniques to measure strain such as strain gauge method, optical interference fringes method, X-ray diffraction method, Raman spectroscopic analysis method, and magnetostriction method, etc. can measure the strain only near the surface of materials. On the other hand, neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis, RESA, installed at T2-1 port of JRR-3M enables us to study the internal stress non-destructively. (J.P.N.)

  13. Application of digital radiography for measuring in clinical dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dragan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The recent literature data points out a rising application of digital radiography - radiovisiography (RVG - in dental clinical practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to apply and compare RVG with the conventional radiographic technique (CRDG in terms of accuracy in linear measurement in dentistry. Methods. Measurements were done on the mandibular dogs teeth considering incisors crown width and height of the surrounding alveolar bone using RVG and CRDG. The control technique (CONT involved values obtained by direct gauging in dogs mouth. Each measuring was done by two examiners. Results. Considering the incisors’ crown width, there were no significant statistical difference in measurement using CRDG, RVG and CONT technique (p>0.01. Concerning the alveolar height gauging there were no significant difference in recorded values between the two radiographic techniques (p>0.01. The high level of inter-examiner agreement was observed for scoring in all techniques (CRDG, RVG and CONT. Conclusion. Although RVG did not expose more accuracy comparing to CRDG, having opulent tool service the first technique contributed more comfortable work during measuring procedures in this study.

  14. Alfalfa Responses to Gypsum Application Measured Using Undisturbed Soil Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an excellent source of Ca and S, both of which are required for crop growth. Large amounts of by-product gypsum [Flue gas desulfurization gypsum-(FGDG] are produced from coal combustion in the United States, but only 4% is used for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1 untreated, (2 short-term (4-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 6720 kg ha−1, and (3 long-term (12-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 20,200 kg ha−1 on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth and nutrient uptake, and gypsum movement through soil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using undisturbed soil columns of two non-sodic soils (Celina silt loam and Brookston loam. Aboveground growth of alfalfa was not affected by gypsum treatments when compared with untreated (p > 0.05. Total root biomass (0–75 cm for both soils series was significantly increased by gypsum application (p = 0.04, however, increased root growth was restricted to 0–10 cm depth. Soil and plant analyses indicated no unfavorable environmental impact from of the 4-year and 12-year annual application of FGDG. We concluded that under sufficient water supply, by-product gypsum is a viable source of Ca and S for land application that might benefit alfalfa root growth, but has less effect on aboveground alfalfa biomass production. Undisturbed soil columns were a useful adaptation of the lysimeter method that allowed detailed measurements of alfalfa nutrient uptake, root biomass, and yield and nutrient movement in soil.

  15. Development and Applications of Residual Stress Measurements Using Neutron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The deep penetration and selective absorption of neutrons make them a powerful tool for the non-destructive testing of large samples of material or large objects. Residual stress that is formed in a material during manufacturing, welding, utilization or repair can be measured by means of neutron diffraction. In fact, neutron diffraction is the only non-destructive testing method which can facilitate three dimensional mapping of residual stress in a bulk component. Stress measurement using neutron beams is a technique that enables this kind of high quality non-destructive investigation, and provides insight into the material strain and stress state deep within engineering components and structures under various conditions representative of those which might be experienced in service. Such studies are of importance to improve the quality of industrial components in production and to optimize design criteria in applications. Anisotropies in macroscopic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivities, for instance of fuel elements, and mechanical properties of materials depend on the textures developed during their preparation or thermal treatment. Such textures also can be studied using neutron diffraction techniques. There is currently substantial scientific and industrial demand for high quality non-destructive residual stress measurements, and the continuing competitive drive to optimize performance and minimize weight in many applications indicates that this demand will continue to grow. As such, the neutron diffraction technique is an increasingly important tool for mechanical and materials engineering in the search for improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion. Considering this trend, and in accordance with its purpose of promoting the peaceful use of nuclear applications, in 2006-2009 the IAEA organized a Coordinated Research Project on the Development and Application of the Techniques of Residual Stress Measurements in Materials

  16. Wind measurements for wind energy applications. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the error sources and uncertainties in cup and sonic anemometry. In both cases the effects of the tower, boom and other mounting arrangements, as well as the siting of the anemometer, should be considered carefully. Cup anemometer measurements are inherently biased due...... to the turbulent nature of the wind, but these errors can be neglected in many applications if a well-designed, fast-responding anemometer is used. The response characteristics of sonic anemometers are fairly complicated. Based on wind tunnel investigations and field comparisons some of the associated errors...

  17. Application of nitric oxide measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Tufvesson, Ellen; Rolla, Giovanni; Bjermer, Leif; Alving, Kjell; Diamant, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, non-invasive method for the assessment of active, mainly Th2-driven, airway inflammation, which is sensitive to treatment with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Consequently, FeNO serves as a valued tool to aid diagnosis and monitoring in several asthma phenotypes. More recently, FeNO has been evaluated in several other respiratory, infectious, and/or immunological conditions. In this short review, we provide an overview of several clinical studies and discuss the status of potential applications of NO measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma.

  18. Measures against concrete cracking in underground type light oil tank pit construction work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Takeo; Kadowaki, Kazuhiko; Date, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    The underground type light oil tank pit set at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station is a tripartite underground pit structure made of reinforced concrete. This is a mass concrete made of deck slab / outer wall of 1.5 m in thickness and inner wall / top slab of 1.0 m in thickness. Since concrete placement season was July for the deck slab and October for the walls, the occurrence of thermal cracking was highly conceivable. As a result of investigating crack suppression measures based on the crack width of 0.2 mm or less as a guide, the application of fly ash cement and the addition of expansion material to the walls were judged effective and adopted. Thanks to these preliminary studies and careful construction control, it was possible to minimize the occurrence of cracks, but several through cracks of 0.2 mm or less were confirmed on part of the outer walls. As a countermeasure, repair by means of surface impregnation method was adopted, and quality and schedule could be secured. This paper outlines crack suppression measures and repair of the cracks that occurred after the implementation. (A.O.)

  19. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  20. Noise and Vibrations Measurements. External noise and vibrations measurements for offshore SODAR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormel, F.T.; Eecen, P.J.; Herman, S.A.

    2003-10-01

    The partners in the WISE project investigate whether application of the SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) measurement technique in wind energy experimental work is feasible as a replacement for cup anemometers, wind direction sensors and tall meteorological masts. In Work Package 2 of the WISE project extensive controlled experiments with the SODAR are performed. For example SODAR measurements are compared with measurements from nearby masts and different brands of SODARs are compared. Part of the work package is the measurement of vibration and noise on an offshore SODAR system. The results of these measurements are presented in this report. ECN performed measurements at an offshore location to investigate the influence of noise and vibrations on the performance of a MiniSODAR measurement system. The aim of the measurements is to quantify the effect of these external noise and vibrations disturbances on the MiniSODAR's performance. Measurements on an identical SODAR system onshore are carried out to compare the disturbances of offshore and onshore external conditions. The effect of background noise on SODAR operation has clearly been established in literature. Therefore, measurements have been performed only to establish the absolute sound pressure levels. This is done at the Measuring Platform Noordwijk (MPN) located in the North Sea, nine kilometres out of the coast at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, and at two locations onshore. At the MPN-platform, the SODAR has been moved from the middle deck to the upper deck to diminish the influence of the diesel generator needed for the electric powering of the island. Although the absolute sound pressure level became higher at the new location, this level became lower at the most important frequencies inside the SODAR, due to the use of absorbing foam. With regards to the sound pressure level the move improved the situation. The sound pressure levels measured offshore were 6 to 15 dB higher than for the two locations

  1. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  2. Flux Measurements in Trees: Methodological Approach and Application to Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Lorenzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of two sap flow methods for measuring the transpiration in vineyards is presented. The objective of this work is to examine the potential of detecting transpiration in trees in response to environmental stresses, particularly the high concentration of ozone (O3 in troposphere. The methods described are the stem heat balance and the thermal dissipation probe; advantages and disadvantages of each method are detailed. Applications of both techniques are shown, in two large commercial vineyards in Southern Italy (Apulia and Sicily, submitted to semi-arid climate. Sap flow techniques allow to measure transpiration at plant scale and an upscaling procedure is necessary to calculate the transpiration at the whole stand level. Here a general technique to link the value of transpiration at plant level to the canopy value is presented, based on experimental relationships between transpiration and biometric characteristics of the trees. In both vineyards transpiration measured by sap flow methods compares well with evapotranspiration measured by micrometeorological techniques at canopy scale. Moreover soil evaporation component has been quantified. In conclusion, comments about the suitability of the sap flow methods for studying the interactions between trees and ozone are given.

  3. Positron scattering measurements for application to medical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James

    2015-09-01

    While the use of positrons in medical imaging is now well established, there is still much to learn regarding the transport of positrons through the body, and the subsequent damage induced. Current models of dosimetry use only a crude approximation of the collision physics involved, and at low energies misrepresent the thermalisation process to a considerable degree. Recently, collaborative work has commenced to attempt to refine these models, incorporating a better representation of the underlying physics and trying to gain a better understanding of the damage done after the emission of a positron from a medical radioisotope. This problem is being attacked from several different angles, with new models being developed based upon established techniques in plasma and swarm physics. For all these models, a realistic representation of the collision processes of positrons with relevant molecular species is required. At the Australian National University, we have undertaken a program of measurements of positron scattering from a range of molecules that are important in biological systems, with a focus on analogs to DNA. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from a range of these molecules, as well as describing the experimental techniques employed to make such measurements. Targets have been measured that are both liquid and solid at room temperature, and new approaches have been developed to get absolute cross section data. The application of the data to various models of positron thermalisation will also be described.

  4. Research and Application of Digital Transmission of Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing different resistance values, this collector of this article collects signal of the Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor (UEWRTS in brief acquisition embedded in the dams, reservoirs and other hydraulic buildings, and monitors the facilities in real time view. The position of embedded sensors can be distinguished by setting the address and code. The analog signal is one-on- one converted to digital signals through high-precision analog-to-digital conversion and amplification chips by digitized transducers. The digital signals are transported to the central server, and the deformation of the structure is estimated by original data in the server. Meanwhile, it extended the transformer’s effective measuring distance from normal analog 200 meters up to digitalized 1200 meters. In situation of multi UEWRTS installed field, all the output of the transformers can be connected in parallel to eliminate the cables to only one RS485-Bus as a twisted-pair cable and a power line. Applications of the transducer in several reservoir dams’ security monitoring system proof that is of high accuracy, reliable, strong anti-interference solution for all the UEWRTS applications of the relative monitoring and measurement projects. The collector has been applied in dam monitoring, and achieved good results.

  5. Type Ia supernovae: their origin and possible applications in cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, K; Iwamoto, K; Kishimoto, N

    1997-05-30

    Spectroscopic and photometric evidence indicates that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the thermonuclear explosions of accreting white dwarfs. However, the progenitor binary systems and hydrodynamical models for SNe Ia are still controversial. The relatively uniform light curves and spectral evolution of SNe Ia have led to their use as a standard candle for determining cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant, the density parameter, and the cosmological constant. Recent progress includes the calibration of the absolute maximum brightness of SNe Ia with the Hubble Space Telescope, the reduction of the dispersion in the Hubble diagram through the use of the relation between the light curve shape and the maximum brightness of SNe Ia, and the discovery of many SNe Ia with high red shifts.

  6. Recent Advances in Global Measurement and Application of River Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Among variables relevant to river form and discharge that can be observed from space, river width is perhaps the simplest to measure. Width can be extracted directly from optical or radar imagery, and application of remotely sensed widths to problems in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and ecology dates back more than two decades. Despite this long heritage, until very recently remotely sensed width measurements have largely been made on an ad-hoc basis for individual studies over relatively small regions. Global studies that required river widths have largely relied on estimates from downstream hydraulic geometry relationships with basin area, which inevitably simplify width variability and may, in practice, underestimate the fraction of wide rivers and the total river surface area in many basins. Over the last two years, multiple new regional- and global-scale, satellite-derived river width datasets have been developed that have substantially improved our global understanding of river form. These datasets include the Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR), which provides width measurements for rivers wider than ~180 m, and all rivers wider than ~300 m, based on the SRTM water mask and the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL), which provides measurements for rivers as narrow as 30 m and all rivers wider than ~100 m. Several regional-scale datasets have also been developed. These datasets will facilitate improvements to regional and global scale hydrodynamic models, will provide more robust information on global river surface area for gas flux studies, and constitute novel information on global patterns of fluvial geomorphology. These datasets represent the beginning, not the end, of global river width measurements, however, as in the future multitemporal width measurements can be combined with recently developed algorithms to estimate river discharge for many rivers, globally.

  7. Development of Z-type hexaferrites for high frequency EMI shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magham, S. B. S.; Sharma, M.; Shannigrahi, S. R.; Tan, Hui Ru; Sharma, V.; Meng, Yu Song; Idapalpati, S.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Repaka, D. V. M.

    2017-11-01

    Barium Z-type hexaferrites (Ba3Co2Cr2xFe24-2xO41 with x = 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) were synthesised using solid state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase Z-type hexaferrite structure. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis platelet morphologies were observed in all the studied samples and the average grain size were calculated, which were around 100 nm. Magnetisation measurements (M-H) and (M-T) were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Saturation magnetisation (Ms) was found to decrease with increasing Cr content in the samples whereas, magnetic coercive field (Hc) and remanent magnetisation (Mr) were increased. Electromagnetic absorption properties of all the ferrite samples were tested in 2-18 GHz frequency range using Agilent Vector Network Analyser. The sample Ba3Co2Cr1.2Fe22.8O41 (x = 0.6) had exhibited maximum microwave absorption of 99.8% at 5.34 GHz. All the samples showed broad absorption bandwidth of 3-3.2 GHz as well significantly high enough reflection loss of -10 dB. Therefore, the developed Z-type hexaferrites can be used for good electromagnetic shielding/absorber applications.

  8. Permeability of Two Parachute Fabrics - Measurements, Modeling, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.; O'Farrell, Clara; Hennings, Elsa; Runnells, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Two parachute fabrics, described by Parachute Industry Specifications PIA-C-7020D Type I and PIA-C-44378D Type I, were tested to obtain their permeabilities in air (i.e., flow-through volume of air per area per time) over the range of differential pressures from 0.146 psf (7 Pa) to 25 psf (1197 Pa). Both fabrics met their specification permeabilities at the standard differential pressure of 0.5 inch of water (2.60 psf, 124 Pa). The permeability results were transformed into an effective porosity for use in calculations related to parachutes. Models were created that related the effective porosity to the unit Reynolds number for each of the fabrics. As an application example, these models were used to calculate the total porosities for two geometrically-equivalent subscale Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes fabricated from each of the two fabrics, and tested at the same operating conditions in a wind tunnel. Using the calculated total porosities and the results of the wind tunnel tests, the drag coefficient of a geometrically-equivalent full-scale DGB operating on Mars was estimated.

  9. Computer-Based Technologies in Dentistry: Types and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Mahdi Musawi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During dental education, dental students learn how to examine patients, make diagnosis, plan treatment and perform dental procedures perfectly and efficiently. However, progresses in computer-based technologies including virtual reality (VR simulators, augmented reality (AR and computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM systems have resulted in new modalities for instruction and practice of dentistry. Virtual reality dental simulators enable repeated, objective and assessable practice in various controlled situations. Superimposition of three-dimensional (3D virtual images on actual images in AR allows surgeons to simultaneously visualize the surgical site and superimpose informative 3D images of invisible regions on the surgical site to serve as a guide. The use of CAD/CAM systems for designing and manufacturing of dental appliances and prostheses has been well established.This article reviews computer-based technologies, their application in dentistry and their potentials and limitations in promoting dental education, training and practice. Practitioners will be able to choose from a broader spectrum of options in their field of practice by becoming familiar with new modalities of training and practice.Keywords: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy; Immersion; Computer-Aided Design; Dentistry; Education

  10. Development of T9 type thin gap chamber and measurement of the detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Feng Cunfeng; Zhu Chengguang; Sun Yansheng; Zhang Naijian; He Mao

    2006-01-01

    The development and production of 400 sets of T9 type TGC (Thin Gap Chamber) for ATLAS experiment are undertaken by Shandong University. The process of development of T9 type TGC is introduced first and then the method of measuring the detection efficiency of the TGC is described. The testing result of detection efficiency of 288 sets of T9 type TGC built by Shandong University shows that all the detectors excellently fulfill the quality requirements of ATLAS experiment. (authors)

  11. Applications of nonvariational finite element methods to Monge--Amp\\`ere type equations

    OpenAIRE

    Pryer, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to illustrate the application of the nonvariational finite element method to a specific Monge--Amp\\`ere type nonlinear partial differential equation. The equation we consider is that of prescribed Gauss curvature.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF AGRICULTURE SUITED FOR APPLICATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Abdullah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The world's population is expected to double by 2050; world food supply is unlikely to double by doubling the area under cultivation or by doubling the availability of water. There are other challenges too, such as decline in the number of farms and a decline in the number of agriculture workforce. Climate change is expected to further aggravate the existing situation. Therefore, for the humanity to survive agriculture has to become smart - one way is by integrating Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN in agriculture. In this paper, we will present the application of WSN in agriculture and discuss different types of sensors, different types of WSN and their application in 13 different types of traditional agriculture. We identify the type of agriculture most suited for WSN in terms of applications. We will also review some recent applications of WSN in agriculture; identify challenges and present possible future directions.

  13. Picone-type inequalities for nonlinear elliptic equations and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaŝi Kusano

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Picone-type inequalities are derived for nonlinear elliptic equations, and Sturmian comparison theorems are established as applications. Oscillation theorems for forced super-linear elliptic equations and superlinear-sublinear elliptic equations are also obtained.

  14. Main chain type benzoxaine polymers for high performance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, Andrey

    A new polymer with benzoxazine group in the main chain has been synthesized through the Mannich condensation of a difunctional phenol, formaldehyde and a diamine. Obtained polymer has weight average molecular weight of approximately 10,000 Da and a moderately broad polydispersity index. The new polymer is used to manufacturer self-supporting film of thermosetting resins. Aiming to obtain higher molecular weight, click chemistry approach has been applied to synthesize linear benzoxazine polymers. Three types of polymers have been prepared from dipropargyl- and novel diazide-functionalized benzoxazine monomers, showing a tremendous flexibility for applying click reaction to obtain various polymer architectures. The weight average molecular weight is estimated to be in the range from 50,000 to 100,000 Da which is significantly higher than the benzoxazine polymers which have been chain extended via Mannich reaction. Further developing approach of polycondensation of the monomers containing ozaxine rings, the oxidative coupling approach has been utilized in order to couple benzoxazines with terminal acetylene groups. A model benzoxazine compound containing diacetylene linkage exhibits unexpectedly low exothermic peak with the onset around 140°C, which is significantly lower than the temperature of conventional benzoxazine polymerization. The initial model studies have been made in order to understand this phenomenon and preliminary explanation is given. Extending this pathway to the difunctional propargyl- and ethynyl-functionalized benzoxazine monomers, a series of novel benzoxazine polymers containing diacetylene groups in the main chain have been synthesized. The weight average molecular weight of the polymers is achieved to be up to 50,000 Da. The effect of diacetylene moiety on the benzoxazine crosslinking behavior is even more pronounced for the obtained linear polymers showing exothermic peak with the onset at around 125°C and its maximum at 185°C. Upon

  15. The application of conditioning paradigms in the measurement of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu

    2013-09-15

    Pain is a private experience that involves both sensory and emotional components. Animal studies of pain can only be inferred by their responses, and therefore the measurement of reflexive responses dominates the pain literature for nearly a century. It has been argued that although reflexive responses are important to unveil the sensory nature of pain in organisms, pain affect is equally important but largely ignored in pain studies primarily due to the lack of validated animal models. One strategy to begin to understand pain affect is to use conditioning principles to indirectly reveal the affective condition of pain. This review critically analyzed several procedures that are thought to measure affective learning of pain. The procedures regarding the current knowledge, the applications, and their advantages and disadvantages in pain research are discussed. It is proposed that these procedures should be combined with traditional reflex-based pain measurements in future studies of pain, which could greatly benefit both the understanding of neural underpinnings of pain and preclinical assessment of novel analgesics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as 'Key Component' for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  17. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Measure for Individuals and Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Looks at history and development of the MBTI, characteristics, scores, Jung's theory of lifelong development, the dynamic interaction of the four functions measured by the MBTI, the construction of the MBTI, use with groups, how to use type tables, and use of the MBTI in career counseling. (NB)

  18. Development of an instrument for measuring different types of cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppink, J.; Paas, F.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Gog, T.A.J.M. van; Merrienboer, J.J. Van

    2013-01-01

    According to cognitive load theory, instructions can impose three types of cognitive load on the learner: intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load. Proper measurement of the different types of cognitive load can help us understand why the effectiveness and efficiency of learning

  19. The Use of Mobile Applications Among Adults with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trawley, Steven; Baptista, Shaira; Browne, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    of the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of diabetes for adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Associations between diabetes-specific app usage and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were examined. RESULTS: Of the 1589 respondents responding to the diabetes...... respondents, the most commonly reported reason for not using apps was a belief that they could not help with diabetes self-management. CONCLUSIONS: A minority of adults with T1D and T2D use apps to support their self-management. App use among adults with T1D is associated with a more recent T1D diagnosis......-specific app questions, 795 had T1D (mean ± standard deviation age 43 ± 14 years; 61% women; diabetes duration 19 ± 14 years) and 794 had T2D (age 60 ± 9 years; 40% women; diabetes duration 11 ± 7 years). Among adults with T1D, 24% (n = 188) reported using apps, with carbohydrate counting (74%; n = 139...

  20. Application of Anova to Pulse Detonation Engine Dynamic Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Kumar, Rakesh; Sandhu, Manmohan; Jindal, TK

    2017-10-01

    Application of Anova to Pulse detonation engine dynamic performance measurement resulted in quantifying engine functionality during various operations. After evaluating the performance, techniques of improving it, were applied in multiple areas of relevant interest. This produced encouraging results and helped in upscaling efforts in a significant manner. The current paper deals in the details of anova implementation and systematic identification of key areas of improvements. The improvements were carried out after careful selection of plans in the engine, ground rig and instrumentation setup etc. It also yielded better reproducibility of performance and optimization of main subsystems of PDE. Further, this will also contribute to reduce the development cycle and trial complexity also, if researchers continue to extract concern areas to be addressed.

  1. Kullback-Leibler divergence measure of intermittency: Application to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Belinchón, Carlos; Roux, Stéphane G.; Garnier, Nicolas B.

    2018-01-01

    For generic systems exhibiting power law behaviors, and hence multiscale dependencies, we propose a simple tool to analyze multifractality and intermittency, after noticing that these concepts are directly related to the deformation of a probability density function from Gaussian at large scales to non-Gaussian at smaller scales. Our framework is based on information theory and uses Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. We provide an extensive application to three-dimensional fully developed turbulence, seen here as a paradigmatic complex system where intermittency was historically defined and the concepts of scale invariance and multifractality were extensively studied and benchmarked. We compute our quantity on experimental Eulerian velocity measurements, as well as on synthetic processes and phenomenological models of fluid turbulence. Our approach is very general and does not require any underlying model of the system, although it can probe the relevance of such a model.

  2. Applications and Outreach for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, D. W.; Kirschbaum, D.

    2017-12-01

    Too much or too little rain can serve as a tipping point for triggering catastrophic flooding and landslides or widespread drought. Knowing when, where and how much rain is falling globally is vital to understanding how people may be more or less impacted by disasters, the spread of water or vector-borne disease, or crop shortages. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission provides near real-time precipitation data worldwide that is used by a broad range of end users, from tropical cyclone forecasters to agricultural modelers to researchers evaluating the spread of diseases. The GPM mission has an active applications and outreach program designed to engage and work closely with user communities across a broad spectrum of societal benefit areas with the goal of extending the application of GPM and other NASA data to support decision making. This presentation will outline some examples of how GPM has been engaging with the user community, highlighting some past and planned initiatives with specific organizations and across several thematic areas.

  3. Measurement and Simulation Techniques For Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Febriansyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Applications of microcantilevers as biosensors have been explored by many researchers for the applications in medicine, biological, chemistry, and environmental monitoring. This research discusses a design of measurement method and simuations for piezoresistive microcantilever as a biosensor, which consist of designing Wheatstone bridge circuit as object detector, simulation of resonance frequency shift based on Euler Bernoulli Beam equation, and microcantilever vibration simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5. The piezoresistive microcantilever used here is Seiko Instrument Technology (Japan product with length of 110 ?m, width of 50 ?m, and thickness of 1 ?m. Microcantilever mass is 12.815 ng, including the mass receptor. The sample object in this research is bacteria EColi. One bacteria mass is assumed to 0.3 pg. Simulation results show that the mass of one bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03053 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,90 kHz. Moreover, four bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03054 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,68 kHz. These datas indicate that the increasing of the bacteria mass increases the deflection value and reduces the value of resonance frequency.

  4. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  5. Physiological measurement platform using wireless network with Android application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Devi

    Full Text Available Currently, many people suffer from arrhythmia or hypoxia, which are abnormal health conditions. Arrhythmia occurs when a person has an irregular or abnormal heart rate, while hypoxia is realized when there is a deficiency in oxygen reaching the tissues. When a person suffers from arrhythmia, there is the possibility that the person has cardiovascular disease. A low oxygen level eventually leads to organ failure, which can result in death. To prevent such conditions, a mobile physiological measurement platform has been proposed in this paper. This system will continuously monitor the heart rate and the oxygen level of a patient. The proposed system is mainly beneficial because the medical staff or the caregiver can provide care to patients without being in close proximity. In this way, multiple numbers of patients can be treated by the physician at the same time. In this paper, two main physiological signals: the electrocardiogram (ECG and the photoplethysmogram (PPG are recorded, to measure the heart rate (in beats per minute and the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation level or SpO2 (in percentage of the patient. This is done by using a convenient graphical user interface (GUI in the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB. Pre-processing of the bio-medical signals is done in the GUI and the calculated results are saved as text files in the current directory of MATLAB. We further propose an Android application, which will display the physiological parameters after the text files have been accessed via a wireless network. The heart rate and the oxygen level can both be monitored via this application. In case the results show an abnormal reading, the physician is notified immediately via text messaging. Keywords: ECG, PPG, SpO2, GUI, MATLAB, Android, Android App

  6. Density and moisture measurements by nuclear method and its application to compaction control in road construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azmi Ismail

    1994-01-01

    The application of nuclear technique in civil engineering sector which emphasises on the in-situ density and moisture measurements of soil in road construction is discussed. The nuclear density-moisture gauge utilises both gamma-rays and neutrons for the determination of the density and moisture content, respectively. The knowledge on the density and moisture content will be used to evaluate the degree of compaction of the compacted layers. The technique offers not only a fast and non-destructive measurement but it is also accurate, economical and repeatable. A calibration equation which is stored in the built-in microprocessor is applicable for any type of soil. Corrections for the interferences from needless gamma-rays produced as a result of thermal neutrons interaction with certain nuclei for the density measurement and effects of hydrogen other than absorbed water for the moisture measurement are considered in the equation. This paper describes briefly the theory and the characteristics of the nuclear gauge and its application in road construction work

  7. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  8. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy.

  9. Application of optical scanning for measurements of castings and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper application of non destructive method for dimensional control of elements in initial phase of car manufacturing, at Volks-wagen Poznań foundry was presented. VW foundry in Poznań is responsible of series production of chill and dies castings made of light alloys using contemporary technologies. Castings have a complex shape: they are die castings of housings for steering columns and gravity chill castings of cylinder heads, for which cores are manufactured using both hot box and cold box method. Manufacturing capabilities of VW foundry in Poznań reach 26.000 tons of aluminum castings per year. Optical system ATOS at Volkswagen Poznań foundry is used to digitize object and determination of all dimensions and shapes of inspected object. This technology is applied in car industry, reverse engineering, quality analysis and control and to solve many similar tasks. System is based on triangulation: sensor head projects different fringes patterns onto a measured object while scanner observes their trajectories using two cameras. Basing on optical transform equations a processing unit automatically and with a great accuracy calculates 3D coordinates for every pixel of camera. Depending on camera reso-lution as an effect of such a scan we obtain a cloud of up to 4 million points for every single measurement. In the paper examples of di-mensional analysis regarding castings and cores were presented.

  10. Near-realtime cosmic ray measurements for space weather applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In its FP7 program the European Commission has funded the creation of scientific databases. One successful project is the Neutron Monitor database NMDB which provides near-realtime access to ground-based Neutron Monitor measurements. In its beginning NMDB hosted only data from European and Asian participants, but it has recently grown to also include data from North American stations. We are currently working on providing also data from stations in Australia, South Africa, and Tibet. With the increased coverage of stations the accuracy of the NMDB applications to issue an alert of a ground level enhancement (GLE) or to predict the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is constantly improving. Besides the Cosmic Ray community and Airlines, that want to calculate radiation doses on flight routes, NMDB has also attracted users from outside the core field, for example hydrologists who compare local Neutron measurements with data from NMDB to determine soil humidity. By providing access to data from 50 stations, NMDB includes already data from the majority of the currently operating stations. However, in the future we want to include data from the few remaining stations, as well as historical data from stations that have been shut down.

  11. Using FLIM-FRET to measure conformational changes of transglutaminase type 2 in live cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Caron

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family, capable of mediating a transamidation reaction between a variety of protein substrates. TG2 also has a unique role as a G-protein with GTPase activity. In response to GDP/GTP binding and increases in intracellular calcium levels, TG2 can undergo a large conformational change that reciprocally modulates the enzymatic activities of TG2. We have generated a TG2 biosensor that allows for quantitative assessment of TG2 conformational changes in live cells using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET, as measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. Quantifying FRET efficiency with this biosensor provides a robust assay to quickly measure the effects of cell stress, changes in calcium levels, point mutations and chemical inhibitors on the conformation and localization of TG2 in living cells. The TG2 FRET biosensor was validated using established TG2 conformational point mutants, as well as cell stress events known to elevate intracellular calcium levels. We demonstrate in live cells that inhibitors of TG2 transamidation activity can differentially influence the conformation of the enzyme. The irreversible inhibitor of TG2, NC9, forces the enzyme into an open conformation, whereas the reversible inhibitor CP4d traps TG2 in the closed conformation. Thus, this biosensor provides new mechanistic insights into the action of two TG2 inhibitors and defines two new classes based on ability to alter TG2 conformation in addition to inhibiting transamidation activity. Future applications of this biosensor could be to discover small molecules that specifically alter TG2 conformation to affect GDP/GTP or calcium binding.

  12. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  13. Application of GPS Measurements for Ionospheric and Tropospheric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra Prasad, P.; Abdu, M. A.; Furlan, Benedito. M. P.; Koiti Kuga, Hélio

    military navigation. The DOD's primary purposes were to use the system in precision weapon delivery and providing a capability that would help reverse the proliferation of navigation systems in military. Subsequently, it was very quickly realized that civil use and scientific utility would far outstrip military use. A variety of scientific applications are uniquely suited to precise positioning capabilities. The relatively high precision, low cost, mobility and convenience of GPS receivers make positioning attractive. The other applications being precise time measurement, surveying and geodesy purposes apart from orbit and attitude determination along with many user services. The system operates by transmitting radio waves from satellites to receivers on the ground, aircraft, or other satellites. These signals are used to calculate location very accurately. Standard Positioning Services (SPS) which restricts access to Coarse/Access (C/A) code and carrier signals on the L1 frequency only. The accuracy thus provided by SPS fall short of most of the accuracy requirements of users. The upper atmosphere is ionized by the ultra violet radiation from the sun. The significant errors in positioning can result when the signals are refracted and slowed by ionospheric conditions, the parameter of the ionosphere that produces most effects on GPS signals is the total number of electrons in the ionospheric propagation path. This integrated number of electrons, called Total Electron Content (TEC) varies, not only from day to night, time of the year and solar flux cycle, but also with geomagnetic latitude and longitude. Being plasma the ionosphere affects the radio waves propagating through it. Effects of scintillation on GPS satellite navigation systems operating at L1 (1.5754 GHz), L2 (1.2276 GHz) frequencies have not been estimated accurately. It is generally recognized that GPS navigation systems are vulnerable in the polar and especially in the equatorial region during the

  14. Development and Application of Integrated Optical Sensors for Intense E-Field Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqing Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI, coupler interferometer (CI and common path interferometer (CPI. The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

  15. Genetic heritability and shared environmental influences of type A measures in the NHLBI Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelli, D; Rosenman, R; Chesney, M; Fabsitz, R; Lee, M; Borhani, N

    1988-05-01

    Data from the NHLBI Twin Study were used to investigate the genetic component in a number of Type A measures given to these twins during a second cardiovascular examination. Specifically, the objective of the current study was to determine the extent to which various Type A measures are influenced by genetic effects and by measurable environmental and cultural factors. Analyses of these data for twins yielded a number of results. First, the Type A behavior pattern as assessed by the structured interview was only weakly associated with self-report inventories developed as alternatives to the structured interview. Second, among the self-report measures of Type A, only the Thurstone Temperament Schedule Active scale showed a clear significant genetic component. Most important, a number of demographic and social characteristics known to be associated with the various Type A scales had a differential effect on twin similarities. Specifically, for the job involvement subscale of the Jenkins Activity Survey, twins of both zygosities became equally similar after adjustments for covariates, while no effect on twin similarity was noted for the Thurstone Temperament Schedule Active scale. It is concluded that a complex constellation of genetic predispositions and acquired behaviors underlies the Type A behavior construct.

  16. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  17. Measuring global credibility with application to local sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational biology is replete with high-dimensional (high-D discrete prediction and inference problems, including sequence alignment, RNA structure prediction, phylogenetic inference, motif finding, prediction of pathways, and model selection problems in statistical genetics. Even though prediction and inference in these settings are uncertain, little attention has been focused on the development of global measures of uncertainty. Regardless of the procedure employed to produce a prediction, when a procedure delivers a single answer, that answer is a point estimate selected from the solution ensemble, the set of all possible solutions. For high-D discrete space, these ensembles are immense, and thus there is considerable uncertainty. We recommend the use of Bayesian credibility limits to describe this uncertainty, where a (1-alpha%, 0< or =alpha< or =1, credibility limit is the minimum Hamming distance radius of a hyper-sphere containing (1-alpha% of the posterior distribution. Because sequence alignment is arguably the most extensively used procedure in computational biology, we employ it here to make these general concepts more concrete. The maximum similarity estimator (i.e., the alignment that maximizes the likelihood and the centroid estimator (i.e., the alignment that minimizes the mean Hamming distance from the posterior weighted ensemble of alignments are used to demonstrate the application of Bayesian credibility limits to alignment estimators. Application of Bayesian credibility limits to the alignment of 20 human/rodent orthologous sequence pairs and 125 orthologous sequence pairs from six Shewanella species shows that credibility limits of the alignments of promoter sequences of these species vary widely, and that centroid alignments dependably have tighter credibility limits than traditional maximum similarity alignments.

  18. Evaluation of the usefulness of smartphone-directed applications for measuring heart rate and arrhythmia detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Witkowski

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The majority of the free applications, available for smartphones, are able to measure HR precisely in patients with sinus rhythm, while in patients with AF, the exact measurement is significantly impeded by HR deficits. Only one out of 16 applications was able to measure HR in a patient with AF. None of the available applications could detect AF.

  19. Serological testing for coeliac disease in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: is immunoglobulin A level measurement necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, M; Leeds, J S; Hopper, A D; Wild, G; Egner, W; Tesfaye, S; Hadjivassiliou, M; Sanders, D S

    2013-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) measurement is advocated when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is a paucity of contemporary studies assessing IgA deficiency in Type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the prevalence of IgA deficiency in individuals with Type 1 diabetes, compared with patients with coeliac disease and control subjects. In addition, we evaluate whether routine IgA measurement is justifiable when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes. All patients were assessed using IgA endomysial antibodies, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and total IgA levels. Altogether, 2434 individuals were tested: 1000 patients with Type 1 diabetes, 234 patients with coeliac disease and 1200 population control subjects. Definitive IgA deficiency was defined as total IgA levels coeliac disease (1.29%, n = 3/234; P = 0.041) when compared with population control subjects (prevalence of 0.17%, 2/1200). No statistical difference between Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease for IgA deficiency was identified (P = 0.87). Of patients in the group with Type 1 diabetes, 3.3% (33/1000) had coeliac disease, and of those only one patient had IgA deficiency leading to an antibody-negative presentation. Both IgA-deficient individuals within the population control subjects had normal duodenal biopsies and no relevant symptoms. IgA deficiency is more common in Type 1 diabetes compared with population control subjects. Despite this, very few individuals with Type 1 diabetes and IgA deficiency appear to have villous atrophy on biopsy. These outcomes question the practice of routine IgA measurement when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  20. Application of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System in Short Term Load Forecasting on Special Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Dharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Interval Type-2 fuzzy logic systems (Interval Type-2 FLS in short term load forecasting (STLF on special days, study case in Bali Indonesia. Type-2 FLS is characterized by a concept called footprint of uncertainty (FOU that provides the extra mathematical dimension that equips Type-2 FLS with the potential to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. While a Type-2 FLS has the capability to model more complex relationships, the output of a Type-2 fuzzy inference engine needs to be type-reduced. Type reduction is used by applying the Karnik-Mendel (KM iterative algorithm. This type reduction maps the output of Type-2 FSs into Type-1 FSs then the defuzzification with centroid method converts that Type-1 reduced FSs into a number. The proposed method was tested with the actual load data of special days using 4 days peak load before special days and at the time of special day for the year 2002-2006. There are 20 items of special days in Bali that are used to be forecasted in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively. The test results showed an accurate forecasting with the mean average percentage error of 1.0335% and 1.5683% in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively.

  1. THE EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF 20% CARBAMIDE PEROXIDE ON THE GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TYPE II SURFACE HARDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noerdin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In dental bleaching, carbamide peroxide is usually used at concentration of 10%, 15%, to 20%. The result of our previous study showed that the application of 10% and 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent has increased the surface hardness of glass ionomer cement. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 20% carbamide peroxide bleaching to glass ionomer surface hardness. Twenty specimens of glass ionomer type II after exposed to 20% carbamide peroxide were divided into two application time groups: 4 and 8 hours per day. Glass ionomer cement surface hardness was measured by Vickers Microhardness Tester series HMV-2 with a weight of 0,025 Hv for 20 seconds. The measurement was conducted at before/no application, after a week, and after 2 weeks of application in both groups. It can be concluded that the application of 20% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent could increase the surface hardness of glass ionomer cement after 1 week and 2 weeks application period.

  2. Accurate Measurement of New Type Non-silicon Solar Cells’ Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haifeng; Xiong, Limin; Zhang, Junchao; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Bifeng; Cai, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Different from traditional silicon solar cells, new type non-silicon solar cells are composed of various kinds of materials, such as organic, perovskite, quantum dots and so on. They always show special performance in spectral responsivity, compatibility and stability, which brought great challenges for the accurate measurement of photoelectric conversion efficiency. We will illustrate a method for accurate efficiency measurement mainly in the view of metrology. Based on effective traceability and calibration of the standard value, a procedure for new type non-silicon solar cells’ efficiency measurement would be proposed. Main influencing factors such as spectral mismatch will also be analysed. Hope to provide a reference method for the accurate characterization of the photo-electric properties of various new types of solar cells.

  3. Measurements and applications of dose indices in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.R.; Tyan, Y.S.; Yang, J.J.; Shao, C.H.; Lin, J.Y.; Tung, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of radiation dose and image quality are required in diagnostic radiography for quality assurance and optimization studies. In work currently being undertaken, dose indices were measured and image quality evaluated for a chest PA procedure. Thermoluminescent dosimeters of the GR-200 type were attached to the entrance and exit surfaces and placed at various depths of the PMMA phantom to measure the entrance surface dose, the exit surface dose, and the organ dose index. The effective dose was estimated from the entrance surface dose using PCXMC software. Two contrast-detail image plates, one with air holes for the low contrast objects and the other with gypsum holes for the high contrast objects, were used to obtain radiographic images. This image plate was placed at different depths from the entrance surface of the phantom to simulate objects at different positions in the body. Each image was evaluated by three independent radiologists to determine image quality. Analyses of radiation dose versus image quality were performed to determine the optimal technical factors such as, filtration and tube potential. It was found that an 11-cm thick PMMA phantom best simulated the patients. The fractional dose backscattered from this phantom was between 22% and 27% for kVp’s between 66 and 133. Optimization analyses showed that no extra filter was required. For low contrast objects, an optimal choice of tube potential was 120 kVp. For high contrast objects, a kVp as low as 77 kVp could be used, depending on the image quality requirement.

  4. Multipoint-NIR-measurements in pharmaceutical powder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used in studying particulate pharmaceutical ingredients and their mixing and granulation processes. Homogeneous mixing of active pharmaceutical ingredients with excipients is essential in getting the correct dosage in the tableting phase. The basic principles of NIR spectroscopy and the associated molecular vibrations are briefly reviewed in the beginning of the work, followed by a summary of typical applications of NIR spectroscopy. A multipoint NIR measurement system developed at VTT is presented in this work. It consists of a spectral camera with fiber-optic inputs, a fiber-optic light source and twelve fiber-optic probes. The performance of the system in the laboratory is thoroughly reported, including signal-to-noise ratio, stability and probe-to-probe variability. The system was also tested in a fluidized bed granulator at Helsinki University. Eight probes were attached in two rows into the granulator, and several granulations were run. The mixing period in the beginning of the granulation process was clearly visible, as well as the changes in the moisture level during liquid spraying and final drying. The study shows that multipoint NIR spectroscopy is a valuable tool in monitoring the granulation process. In particular, it gives information about the macroscopic homogeneity of the fluidized bed. (orig.)

  5. Multipoint-NIR-measurements in pharmaceutical powder applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, A.

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used in studying particulate pharmaceutical ingredients and their mixing and granulation processes. Homogeneous mixing of active pharmaceutical ingredients with excipients is essential in getting the correct dosage in the tableting phase. The basic principles of NIR spectroscopy and the associated molecular vibrations are briefly reviewed in the beginning of the work, followed by a summary of typical applications of NIR spectroscopy. A multipoint NIR measurement system developed at VTT is presented in this work. It consists of a spectral camera with fiber-optic inputs, a fiber-optic light source and twelve fiber-optic probes. The performance of the system in the laboratory is thoroughly reported, including signal-to-noise ratio, stability and probe-to-probe variability. The system was also tested in a fluidized bed granulator at Helsinki University. Eight probes were attached in two rows into the granulator, and several granulations were run. The mixing period in the beginning of the granulation process was clearly visible, as well as the changes in the moisture level during liquid spraying and final drying. The study shows that multipoint NIR spectroscopy is a valuable tool in monitoring the granulation process. In particular, it gives information about the macroscopic homogeneity of the fluidized bed. (orig.)

  6. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  7. Flexible tools for interpreting tracer measurements and recent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, M.; Stewart, M.

    2012-04-01

    Steady increase of groundwater abstraction and nitrate concentrations in groundwater due to agricultural and industrial practices is a major concern for groundwater availability and deterioration of groundwater quality in New Zealand. Studies on groundwater in the Waimea Plains (for example) have shown effects of nitrate input from both diffuse and point sources since 1940. Groundwaters in gravel aquifers under Christchurch have also been studied since 1970 to characterise their flowpaths and recharge sources. In these and other cases, the mixing of waters from different recharge sources following different flow paths can be determined with the use of various tracers and the future course of nitrate concentration in the groundwaters predicted. The input of radionuclides to hydrological systems from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s revealed that outflows from such systems often comprise mixtures of water with very wide ranges of ages. Many authors have described methods of deconvolving such outputs with the use of lumped parameter models (LPMs). LPMs are evaluated using specialized software or Excel spreadsheets to compute simulations to measurements of system outputs and therefore estimate parameters of the age distribution. Excel allows easy modification of the code to enable application to individual hydrological features and for a variety of isotopes and chemicals. For the New Zealand studies, Excel spreadsheets with coded Visual Basic functions are used to deduce age distributions based on stable isotope, SF6, CFCs, 3H and 14C data (in order of ages). In particular, 3H is becoming increasingly useful as an age tracer due to the decrease of ambiguity from nuclear testing provided that the measurements can be made with high accuracy (Stewart et al., 2012).These age distributions allow us to derive the input histories of chemicals (e.g. nitrate) and the groundwater recharge sources. In addition, recent developments in modelling groundwater flow and

  8. The effect of humidity on the measurements with a well type chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1996, the IAEA maintains standards for Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy dosimetry. The sources have been calibrated at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. Thus, the well type chamber calibrations provided by the IAEA yield traceability to NIST. For the maintenance of the standards, a well type chamber (HDR 1000 Plus, Standard Imaging, USA) and a dedicated electrometer (CDX-2000A, Standard Imaging, USA) are used. The constancy of the output from the standards is checked frequently and always prior to a well type chamber calibration. The calibration factors are valid at the ambient conditions of 20 deg. C and 101.3 kPa. For air cavity chambers, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the measured charge or current be corrected for the presence of water vapour in the air. The recommended correction factor is 0.997 for measurements in an external 60 Co beam and at ambient RH between 20% RH and 70% RH. A similar recommendation does not exist for well type chamber dosimetry, and consequently, no correction is applied for the presence of water vapour in air. It is important that the periodic variation of the output be solved. In order to find out its cause, the SSDLs possessing a well type chamber are asked to perform similar frequent constancy checks and report the results to the IAEA. The following should be stated in the report: 1. Measured currents (or charge) corrected for temperature and pressure and source decay with a statement of the used half-life. 2. Dates of measurement. It is recommended that the measurements be done frequently, preferably on a weekly basis, or at least twice a month, for a period of approximately 6 months. 3. Type of source used in the constancy checks (e.g. 137 Cs, 241 Am) including its strength (e.g. in terms of reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength, apparent activity or any other quantity). 4. Electrometer model. 5. Type of well type chamber. Note

  9. Cherenkov-type diamond detectors for measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Lotte, Ph.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J-Y.; Colledani, G.; Basiuk, V.; Goniche, M.; Lipa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a schematic design and tests of a system applicable for measurements of fast electron pulses emitted from high-temperature plasma generated inside magnetic confinement fusion machines, and particularly in the TORE-SUPRA facility. The diagnostic system based on the registration of the Cherenkov radiation induced by fast electrons within selected solid radiators is considered, and electron low-energy thresholds for different radiators are given. There are some estimates of high thermal loads, which might be deposited by intense electron beams upon parts of the diagnostic equipment within the TORE-SUPRA device. There are some proposed measures to overcome this difficulty by the selection of appropriate absorption filters and Cherenkov radiators, and particularly by the application of a fast-moving reciprocating probe. The paper describes the measuring system, its tests, as well as some results of the preliminary measurements of fast electrons within TORE-SUPRA facility.

  10. Contactless Impedance Sensors and Their Application to Flow Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Štulík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical discussion of the present state of the theory of high-frequency impedance sensors (now mostly called contactless impedance or conductivity sensors, the principal approaches employed in designing impedance flow-through cells and their operational parameters. In addition to characterization of traditional types of impedance sensors, the article is concerned with the use of less common sensors, such as cells with wire electrodes or planar cells. There is a detailed discussion of the effect of the individual operational parameters (width and shape of the electrodes, detection gap, frequency and amplitude of the input signal on the response of the detector. The most important problems to be resolved in coupling these devices with flow-through measurements in the liquid phase are also discussed. Examples are given of cell designs for continuous flow and flow-injection analyses and of detection systems for miniaturized liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. New directions for the use of these sensors in molecular biology and chemical reactors and some directions for future development are outlined.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Types A and B Gelatin Methacryloyl for Bioink Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bae Hoon; Lum, Nathaniel; Seow, Li Yuan; Lim, Pei Qi; Tan, Lay Poh

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) has been increasingly considered as an important bioink material due to its tailorable mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and ability to be photopolymerized in situ as well as printability. GelMA can be classified into two types: type A GelMA (a product from acid treatment) and type B GelMA (a product from alkali treatment). In current literature, there is little research on the comparison of type A GelMA and type B GelMA in terms of synthesis, rheological properties, and printability for bioink applications. Here, we report the synthesis, rheological properties, and printability of types A and B GelMA. Types A and B GelMA samples with different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared in a controllable manner by a time-lapse loading method of methacrylic anhydride (MAA) and different feed ratios of MAA to gelatin. Type B GelMA tended to have a slightly higher DS compared to type A GelMA, especially in a lower feed ratio of MAA to gelatin. All the type A and type B GelMA solutions with different DS exhibited shear thinning behaviours at 37 °C. However, only GelMA with a high DS had an easy-to-extrude feature at room temperature. The cell-laden printed constructs of types A and B GelMA at 20% w/v showed around 75% cell viability. PMID:28773918

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Types A and B Gelatin Methacryloyl for Bioink Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Hoon Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA has been increasingly considered as an important bioink material due to its tailorable mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and ability to be photopolymerized in situ as well as printability. GelMA can be classified into two types: type A GelMA (a product from acid treatment and type B GelMA (a product from alkali treatment. In current literature, there is little research on the comparison of type A GelMA and type B GelMA in terms of synthesis, rheological properties, and printability for bioink applications. Here, we report the synthesis, rheological properties, and printability of types A and B GelMA. Types A and B GelMA samples with different degrees of substitution (DS were prepared in a controllable manner by a time-lapse loading method of methacrylic anhydride (MAA and different feed ratios of MAA to gelatin. Type B GelMA tended to have a slightly higher DS compared to type A GelMA, especially in a lower feed ratio of MAA to gelatin. All the type A and type B GelMA solutions with different DS exhibited shear thinning behaviours at 37 °C. However, only GelMA with a high DS had an easy-to-extrude feature at room temperature. The cell-laden printed constructs of types A and B GelMA at 20% w/v showed around 75% cell viability.

  13. Causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement: effects of type of achievement measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-12-01

    The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests, teacher ratings) affects the causal pattern found in these studies. The study aims at clarifying how the types of achievement measures and the way they are modelled can affect the results of causal ordering studies. In that sense, the study will yield recommendations for researchers in this domain and also provide some direction for practitioners seeking ways to enhance their students' achievement and/or academic self-concept. Repeated measures of academic self-concept and achievement (standardized tests and teacher ratings) were examined in a sample of 1,753 students in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 12. Structural equation modelling was used. Several models (with different types and numbers of achievement measures) were compared. Only small differences were found between models using one or two indicators of achievement. All models generally supported the reciprocal effects model. However, the final model, wherein tests and teacher ratings were used as separate latent variables, showed different developmental patterns in the causal relation between academic self-concept and achievement. Researchers should interpret the results of causal ordering studies discerningly because the type of measure chosen as an indicator of achievement might affect the causal pattern between academic self-concept and achievement.

  14. Measures of Causality in Complex Datasets with Application to Financial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaremba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the causality structure of financial time series. We concentrate on three main approaches to measuring causality: linear Granger causality, kernel generalisations of Granger causality (based on ridge regression and the Hilbert–Schmidt norm of the cross-covariance operator and transfer entropy, examining each method and comparing their theoretical properties, with special attention given to the ability to capture nonlinear causality. We also present the theoretical benefits of applying non-symmetrical measures rather than symmetrical measures of dependence. We apply the measures to a range of simulated and real data. The simulated data sets were generated with linear and several types of nonlinear dependence, using bivariate, as well as multivariate settings. An application to real-world financial data highlights the practical difficulties, as well as the potential of the methods. We use two real data sets: (1 U.S. inflation and one-month Libor; (2 S&P data and exchange rates for the following currencies: AUDJPY, CADJPY, NZDJPY, AUDCHF, CADCHF, NZDCHF. Overall, we reach the conclusion that no single method can be recognised as the best in all circumstances, and each of the methods has its domain of best applicability. We also highlight areas for improvement and future research.

  15. Verification of Dosimetry Measurements with Timepix Pixel Detectors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Idarraga-Munoz, J.; Hoang, S. M.; Semones, E.; Bahadori, A.; Stoffle, N.; Rios, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The current capabilities of modern pixel-detector technology has provided the possibility to design a new generation of radiation monitors. Timepix detectors are semiconductor pixel detectors based on a hybrid configuration. As such, the read-out chip can be used with different types and thicknesses of sensors. For space radiation dosimetry applications, Timepix devices with 300 and 500 microns thick silicon sensors have been used by a collaboration between NASA and University of Houston to explore their performance. For that purpose, an extensive evaluation of the response of Timepix for such applications has been performed. Timepix-based devices were tested in many different environments both at ground-based accelerator facilities such as HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan), and at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY), as well as in space on board of the International Space Station (ISS). These tests have included a wide range of the particle types and energies, from protons through iron nuclei. The results have been compared both with other devices and theoretical values. This effort has demonstrated that Timepix-based detectors are exceptionally capable at providing accurate dosimetry measurements in this application as verified by the confirming correspondence with the other accepted techniques.

  16. Measurement Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hui; Kim, Hyeong Cheol

    2001-08-15

    This book deals with conception of measurement such as measuring and test, instrument for measurement, and types and methods of measuring, general things for precision measurement like indicator, gauge standard and Abbe's principle, measuring instrument such as vernier calipers, micrometer calipers, each gage, an optical instrument, and 3D instrument, choice and using of measuring instrument on length measurement, angle measurement, and side measurement, application and calculation for measuring using trigonometrical function, sin law, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

  17. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  18. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Andrew Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (~ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  19. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  20. The iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory with applications to nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Dong; Yiming Long.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory for linear Hamiltonian systems with continuous periodic and symmetric coefficients is established. This formula yields a new method to determine the minimality of the period for solutions of nonlinear autonomous Hamiltonian systems via their Maslov-type indices. Applications of this formula give new results on the existence of periodic solutions with prescribed minimal period for such systems. (author). 40 refs

  1. Application of discriminant analysis and generalized distance measures to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.J.; Begovich, C.L.; Kane, V.E.; Wolf, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has as its goal the estimation of the nation's uranium resources. It is possile to use discriminant analysis methods on hydrogeochemical data collected in the NURE Program to aid in fomulating geochemical models that can be used to identify the anomalous areas used in resource estimation. Discriminant' analysis methods have been applied to data from the Plainview, Texas Quadrangle which has approximately 850 groundwater samples with more than 40 quantitative measurements per sample. Discriminant analysis topics involving estimation of misclassification probabilities, variable selection, and robust discrimination are applied. A method using generalized distance measures is given which enables the assignment of samples to a background population or a mineralized population whose parameters were estimated from separate studies. Each topic is related to its relevance in identifying areas of possible interest to uranium exploration. However, the methodology presented here is applicable to the identification of regions associated with other types of resources. 8 figures, 3 tables

  2. A Ramanujan-type measure for the Askey-Wilson polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakishiyev, Natig M.

    1995-01-01

    A Ramanujan-type representation for the Askey-Wilson q-beta integral, admitting the transformation q to q(exp -1), is obtained. Orthogonality of the Askey-Wilson polynomials with respect to a measure, entering into this representation, is proved. A simple way of evaluating the Askey-Wilson q-beta integral is also given.

  3. Contact-type displacement measuring mechanism for fuel assembly in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yoshio; Ko, Kuniaki.

    1995-01-01

    The measuring mechanism of the present invention, which is used in a lmfbr type reactor, is suspended by a gripper of a fuel handing machine, and it comprises a combination of a displacement amount measuring jig allowed to be inserted into a handling head of a fuel assembly and a displacement amount measuring ring disposed at the lower portion in the handling head. The displacement amount measuring jig has a structure comprising a releasable handle and a columnar or cylindrical measuring portion allowable to be inserted into the handling head formed at the lower portion of the handle, which are connected with each other. When an interference (contact) occurred between the displacement amount measuring jig and the stepwise displacement amount measuring ring during the measurement, change of load and a phenomenon that the fuel handing machine can not be lowered are recognized, so that core displacement amount can be recognized based on the stroke of the gripper portion. Then, remote measurement is possible for displacement and deformation of the fuel assembly in the reactor container, and the measurement can be conducted by the same procedures and in the same period of time as in a case of ordinary fuel exchange operation. A flow channel for coolants passing through the fuel assembly can be ensured, thereby enabling to measure the amount of core displacement which is closer to an actual value in the reactor. (N.H.)

  4. The Effect of a Finite Measurement Volume on Power Spectra from a Burst Type LDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; K. George, William

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the effects of a finite size measurement volume on the power spectrum computed fromdata acquired with a burst-type laser Doppler anemometer. The finite measurement volume causes temporal distortions in acquisition of the data resulting in phenomena such as finite processing time and dead...... time.We compare analytical expressions for the bias and distortion of the velocity power spectrum computed from computer-generated data. We then compare the spectrum from the computer-generated data and a power spectrum from a measurement on a free turbulent jet in air and conclude that we have a valid...

  5. Application research of tune measurement system in Hefei light source

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bao Gen; Xu Hong Liang; Lu Ping; Wang Jun; Gao Yun Feng; Wang Li; LiuJinYing

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the measurement and research of some beam parameters using tune measurement system for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which include the betatron tune, beta function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, and central frequency. Additionally, it also describes the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift and gives some measurement results. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and they are in good agreement

  6. Comparison of the Data Products from Different Instrument Types with Application to Induced Seismic Monitoring Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenier, E.; Baturan, D.; Karimi, S.; Moores, A. O.; Spriggs, N.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes may be induced by man-made activity in the vicinity of critically-stressed fault segments. A number of earthquakes characterized as induced with magnitudes M>3 were recorded in British Columbia, Alberta, Oklahoma and Ohio, since 2013. In response to growing induced seismicity in North America, many jurisdictions have mandated near real-time seismic monitoring around operation sites. The data products from monitoring networks are used as drivers of operational traffic light systems designed to mitigate risks associated with induced seismicity. Most traffic light protocols developed to date use staged thresholds of earthquake magnitudes. Additionally, ground motions, which are used to estimate the impact of earthquakes and specify seismic hazard, have been proposed as an enhancement to the existing protocols. There are several challenges and options to consider at the time of planning and designing a monitoring network, the most important of which is the choice of ground motion sensing technology. In order to accurately estimate event source parameters and ground motions, monitoring instruments have to record and image the low-frequency plateau and the corner frequency of the anticipated event spectrum. A flat response over a wide frequency range with a wide dynamic range is desired for a maximum benefit from ground motion products. This study evaluates the performance of three types of instruments in terms of their suitability for induced seismic monitoring (ISM): broadband seismometers, accelerometers and geophones. Each instrument type is assessed in terms of self-noise, frequency response and clip level using instrument specifications and real-world ISM application data. The impact of each sensing technology on key ISM network performance criteria, event magnitude estimations and ground motion measurements are examined.

  7. A T-Type Capacitive Sensor Capable of Measuring5-DOF Error Motions of Precision Spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kui; Wang, Wen; Qiu, Rongbo; Mei, Deqing; Chen, Zichen

    2017-08-28

    The precision spindle is a core component of high-precision machine tools, and the accurate measurement of its error motions is important for improving its rotation accuracy as well as the work performance of the machine. This paper presents a T-type capacitive sensor (T-type CS) with an integrated structure. The proposed sensor can measure the 5-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF) error motions of a spindle in-situ and simultaneously by integrating electrode groups in the cylindrical bore of the stator and the outer end face of its flange, respectively. Simulation analysis and experimental results show that the sensing electrode groups with differential measurement configuration have near-linear output for the different types of rotor displacements. What's more, the additional capacitance generated by fringe effects has been reduced about 90% with the sensing electrode groups fabricated based on flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) and related processing technologies. The improved signal processing circuit has also been increased one times in the measuring performance and makes the measured differential output capacitance up to 93% of the theoretical values.

  8. Metabolomics and Type 2 Diabetes: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias S. Klein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D and its comorbidities have reached epidemic proportions, with more than half a billion cases expected by 2030. Metabolomics is a fairly new approach for studying metabolic changes connected to disease development and progression and for finding predictive biomarkers to enable early interventions, which are most effective against T2D and its comorbidities. In metabolomics, the abundance of a comprehensive set of small biomolecules (metabolites is measured, thus giving insight into disease-related metabolic alterations. This review shall give an overview of basic metabolomics methods and will highlight current metabolomics research successes in the prediction and diagnosis of T2D. We summarized key metabolites changing in response to T2D. Despite large variations in predictive biomarkers, many studies have replicated elevated plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids and their derivatives, aromatic amino acids and α-hydroxybutyrate ahead of T2D manifestation. In contrast, glycine levels and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 are depressed in both predictive studies and with overt disease. The use of metabolomics for predicting T2D comorbidities is gaining momentum, as are our approaches for translating basic metabolomics research into clinical applications. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to enable informed decision-making in the realm of personalized medicine.

  9. The development of a Spanish language instrument to measure genetic knowledge of diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Gia T

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Spanish-language measure of genetic knowledge relevant to type 2 diabetes for use with members of the ethnically heterogeneous U.S. Latino community. Review of the literature and expert content analysis guided initial instrument development. The instrument was pretested in three cognitive interview waves with 36 Latinos representative of Mexican, Central and South American, and Cuban heritage. Interview analysis indicated potential sources of response error and guided an iterative process of instrument refinement. Difficulties associated with item interpretation, grammatical structure, and comprehension were identified. Analysis indicated that revisions improved item quality and enhanced cultural and linguistic appropriateness of the instrument. Field testing suggested initial validity of a Spanish-language instrument to measure genetic knowledge relative to type 2 diabetes. A Spanish-language measure of genetic knowledge can guide nursing interventions that support culturally appropriate integration of genetics into health care.

  10. Development of Tetrapolar Conductivity Cell for Liquid Measurement Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Anas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a liquid measuring instrumentation using the popular tetrapolar electrode configuration. The system consists of four-electrode ring shape using Cromium metal plate and a small measurement. The developed instrument is calibrated with the help of prepared saline solution prepared in lab. A liquid of known parameter is placed inside the measurement cell and current is injected through excitation electrode with certain frequency and voltage drop is measured across electrode potential terminals. From this voltages and cell constant value, the conductivity, resistivity and impedance of the measured liquid could be determined with acceptable accuracy with more than 96 % compared to the standard measurement.

  11. Multi-electrode circular position-sensitive device (PSD) and its application to angular measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Shikai, Masahiro; Takashima, Kazuo; Usami, Teruo

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductor position sensitive devices (PSD) enable to measure the position of a light spot using simple construction. A circular PSD, which has a circular photosensitive region, can be used for angular measurement. This paper presents a new type of circular PSD called Multi Electrode Circular PSD (ME-CPSD) and demonstrates its application for angular measurement. This device, constructed on Si substrate, has a photosensitive region, a resistor line and 16 output electrodes. The photosensitive region has the shape of a ring which is formed by a radial arrangement of long and narrow photodiodes. The outer end of the photodiodes are connected to the continuous resistor line. Photoexcited carriers which are generated in the photodiode by the incident light flow to the resistor line and are extracted by the multioutput electrode which divides the resistor into 16 equal parts. To measure the position of the light spot, a pair of electrodes is selected by switches connected to every electrode and the position of the light spot is calculated from the output current of the selected electrodes. Compared to conventional circular PSDs, the reliability of the angular measurement is improved, because the ME-CPSD does not have an undetectable region caused by the unavoidable discontinuity in the structure of conventional circular PSDs. This device can change its measuring range by selecting the pair of electrodes, making it not only capable of measuring any absolute angular position, but allows also a more precise angular measurement by selecting narrower electrode intervals. This device has the capability to realize a high precision noncontact angular measurement system with simple construction.

  12. Reads2Type: a web application for rapid microbial taxonomy identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2015-01-01

    genome of microbial isolates. Therefore we have developed Reads2Type, a web-based tool for taxonomy identification based on whole bacterial genome sequence data. Raw sequencing data provided by the user are mapped against a set of marker probes that are derived from currently available bacteria complete......, as the entire computational analysis is done on the computer of whom utilizes the web application. This also prevents data privacy issues to arise. The Reads2Type tool is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/~dhany/reads2type.html ....... genomes. Using a dataset of 1003 whole genome sequenced bacteria from various sequencing platforms, Reads2Type was able to identify the species with 99.5 % accuracy and on the minutes time scale. In comparison with other tools, Reads2Type offers the advantage of not needing to transfer sequencing files...

  13. Multi-type particle layer improved light trapping for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Christin

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses regular particle arrays as nanostructured front layers for possible application in photovoltaic devices yielding strongly increased forward scattering. I used a rigorous plane-wave method to investigate multi-type particle layers combining different radii and configurations...

  14. Microhardness characteristics values of root canal dentin after application with different types of EDTA

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2016-01-01

    The Result Show there arae differences in dentin microhardness decrease significantly in all treatment group EDTA solution, Amountingto 13 667kg/mm2. This study aim to determine the charactheristics of the microhardness impairment root canal dentin after application with different types of EDTA.

  15. Construction and use of an applicator of the afterloading type for treatment of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, U.J.; Vizeu, D.M.; Moura, A.M.S.; Petito, J.W.

    The construction of an afterloading type applicator for treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix is described. The technique of intercavitary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix used in the Osvaldo Cruz Institute of Radiotherapy (Brazil) is also discribed [pt

  16. Nonlinear Delay Discrete Inequalities and Their Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay discrete inequalities with more than one nonlinear term are discussed, which generalize some known results and can be used in the analysis of various problems in the theory of certain classes of discrete equations. Application examples to show boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a Volterra type difference equation are also given.

  17. Design and application of new type of oxygen supplier for water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... Design and application of new type of oxygen supplier for water and wastewater .... All the data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS. Windows Version 6.12 (SAS Institute, 1996). Statistical significance was tested using the ..... This might be a big advantage of the apparatus ...

  18. Application Of Bias Randomization In Evaluation Of Measuring Instrument Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Fotowicz Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of bias randomization in evaluation of the measuring instrument capability. The bias plays a significant role in assessment of the measuring instrument quality. Because the measurement uncertainty is a comfortable parameter for evaluation in metrology, the bias may be treated as a component of the uncertainty associated with the measuring instrument. The basic method for calculation of the uncertainty in modern metrology is propagation of distributions. Any co...

  19. Recent Developments of Hilbert-Type Discrete and Integral Inequalities with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokenath Debnath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with recent developments of Hilbert-type discrete and integral inequalities by introducing kernels, weight functions, and multiparameters. Included are numerous generalizations, extensions, and refinements of Hilbert-type inequalities involving many special functions such as beta, gamma, logarithm, trigonometric, hyper-bolic, Bernoulli's functions and Bernoulli's numbers, Euler's constant, zeta function, and hypergeometric functions with many applications. Special attention is given to many equivalent inequalities and to conditions under which the constant factors involved in inequalities are the best possible. Many particular cases of Hilbert-type inequalities are presented with numerous applications. A large number of major books and recent research papers published during 2009–2012 are included to stimulate new interest in future study and research.

  20. Subjective Quality Measurement of Speech Its Evaluation, Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming crucial to accurately estimate and monitor speech quality in various ambient environments to guarantee high quality speech communication. This practical hands-on book shows speech intelligibility measurement methods so that the readers can start measuring or estimating speech intelligibility of their own system. The book also introduces subjective and objective speech quality measures, and describes in detail speech intelligibility measurement methods. It introduces a diagnostic rhyme test which uses rhyming word-pairs, and includes: An investigation into the effect of word familiarity on speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility measurement of localized speech in virtual 3-D acoustic space using the rhyme test. Estimation of speech intelligibility using objective measures, including the ITU standard PESQ measures, and automatic speech recognizers.

  1. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    required for the Higgs boson mass measurement can only be achieved using the particle flow approach to reconstruction. The particle flow approach requires highly-granular calorimeters and a highly efficient tracking system. The CALICE collaboration is developing highly-granular calorimeters for such applications. One of the challenges in the development of such calorimeters with millions of read-out channels is their Data Acquisition System (DAQ) system. The second part of this thesis involves contributions to development of a new DAQ system for the CALICE scintillator calorimeters. The new DAQ system fulfills the requirements for the prototypes tests while being scalable to larger systems. The requirements and general architecture of the DAQ system is outlined in this thesis. The new DAQ system has been commissioned and tested with particle beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam facility in 2014,results of which are presented here.

  2. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-15

    jet energy resolution required for the Higgs boson mass measurement can only be achieved using the particle flow approach to reconstruction. The particle flow approach requires highly-granular calorimeters and a highly efficient tracking system. The CALICE collaboration is developing highly-granular calorimeters for such applications. One of the challenges in the development of such calorimeters with millions of read-out channels is their Data Acquisition System (DAQ) system. The second part of this thesis involves contributions to development of a new DAQ system for the CALICE scintillator calorimeters. The new DAQ system fulfills the requirements for the prototypes tests while being scalable to larger systems. The requirements and general architecture of the DAQ system is outlined in this thesis. The new DAQ system has been commissioned and tested with particle beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam facility in 2014,results of which are presented here.

  3. Use of importance measures in risk-informed regulatory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheok, Michael C.; Parry, Gareth W.; Sherry, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of importance measures to analyze PRA results is discussed. Commonly used importance measures are defined. Some issues that have been identified as potentially limiting their usefulness are addressed, namely: there is no simple relationship between importance measures evaluated at the single component level and those evaluated at the level of a group of components, and, as a result, some of the commonly used importance measures are not realistic measures of the sensitivity of the overall risk to parameter value changes; and, importance measures do not typically take into account parameter uncertainties which raises the question of the robustness of conclusions drawn from importance analyses. The issues are explored in the context of both ranking and categorization of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) with respect to risk-significance and safety-significance for use in risk-informed regulatory analyses

  4. The application of the PSA important measures in risk-informed administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Fu Zhiwei; Jing Jianping; Zhang Chunming; Liu Hongquan

    2012-01-01

    The importance measures analyses of PSA are main approaches during the risk-informed administrations. This paper reviews kinds of importance measures, mainly researches the meaning of the FV and RAW importance measures, and introduces the applications of importance measures in the in-service testing and categorization of SSCs, finally, discusses the limitations of the importance measures analyses. (authors)

  5. Validation of Am-241 measurement in ion chamber type smoke detector by using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2005-01-01

    Smoke detectors are useful devices in modern days that able to save many lives. Even though, the use of ion chamber type smoke detector (usually contain Americium-241) was exempted in Malaysia, but the trading of this device was controlled by regulation, under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304). The activity of the Am-241 can be measured by using the Gamma Spectrometry System since it was much easier, compared to Alpha Spectrometry System. To do so, the system was first need to be calibrated using the standard reference source to find the efficiency of the germanium detector. The method used for the measurement was first validated for several relevant parameters, which include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, working range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness to ensure it was fit for the purpose. The measured Am-241 activity inside the smoke detector will be reported together with a reasonable expanded uncertainty arise from the measurement. (Author)

  6. Pulsed floating-type Langmuir probe for measurements of electron energy distribution function in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikjin; Kim, Aram; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    A floating type Langmuir probe was studied to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in plasmas. This method measures the current (I)-voltage (V) curve with rising and falling variations based on a floating potential by using charge-discharge characteristics of the series capacitor when a square-pulse voltage is applied. In addition, this method measures the EEDF by using the alternating current (ac) superposition method. The measured EEDFs were in good agreement with results from a conventional single Langmuir probe. This technique could be applied as a plasma diagnostic method in the capacitively coupled plasma where the plasma potential is extremely high or the processing plasma where the deposition gas is used.

  7. Application of digital holography in temperature distribution measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Dayong; Zhao, Jie

    2010-11-01

    A reflection heat source including a radiator as well as an aluminum plate is designed, and the temperature field of the aluminum plate is used as the tested object. The reflection lensless Fourier transform (LFT) digital holography is performed to measure the temperature field distribution. For the comparison, the temperature measurement system within the radiator is used to measure the temperature distributions. The results obtained by these two methods are in good agreement, which demonstrates that the digital holography method is valid for the measurement of the temperature distribution.

  8. Alfalfa Responses to Gypsum Application Measured Using Undisturbed Soil Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado-Corbalá, Rebecca; Slater, Brian K.; Dick, Warren A.; Barker, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gypsum is an excellent source of Ca and S, both of which are required for crop growth. Large amounts of by-product gypsum [Flue gas desulfurization gypsum-(FGDG)] are produced from coal combustion in the United States, but only 4% is used for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1) untreated, (2) short-term (4-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 6720 kg ha−1), and (3) long-term (12-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 20,200 kg ha−1...

  9. Pressurizer level measurement inside PWR nuclear plant using resistance type heat sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussaoui, Ahmed.

    1982-06-01

    The accident that occured in 1979 to the PWR type nuclear reactor, Three-Mile Island 2, has drawn attention to the maladjustement of the differentiel pressure level detector installed in nuclear plants on the market. A system is presented here for measuring the level in pressurizers based on measurements of the heat resistance of the boundary layer existing between the heated sensor and the fluid mass in the vessel. The sensor consists of a 3 cm diameter cylindrical insulator support around which a 0.1 mm diameter platinum filament is wound. This filament simultaneously fulfills heating and transducer functions. To verify the feasibility of the resistant type heat sensor a test system, which provides water and steam under pressure was realised. Static and dynamic tests have shown that the principle of the resistant heat sensor is viable and can be used to obtain level informations [fr

  10. Measurement of radioactive gases. Study of SACM type CD2 differential chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benezech, G.

    1963-01-01

    This study aims at precising practical conditions of use of a circulation chamber to measure the activity of beta- and gamma-emitting radioactive gases. Results more particularly concern the SACM type CD 2 differential chamber but can easily be adapted to any other chamber type. Calibration calculations allow the definition of the field of use of this chamber. It appears that this apparatus will not generally allow a fine dosimetry of radioactive gases as the method is not selective and requires the knowledge of the gas nature. The author presents the operation principle, describes the experimental assembly, and discusses its performance in the case of a linear assembly and of a logarithmic assembly. He reports the calibration process and calculations (calculation of the ionization current with respect to gas activity, experimental measurement of this ionization current with respect to activity) [fr

  11. Passive measurement of flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Chimenti, D.E.; Huebener, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Flux-tube nucleation rates have been measured in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconducting In films between 1.5 and 2.0 K by a completely passive technique. Indication of periodic nucleation is observed only in narrow regions of sample voltage drop, whose position is a sensitive function of temperature. Frequency bandwidth measurements of the nucleation rate yield a spectral purity of one part in 10 4 within the narrow regions where an experimental signal can be detected. (orig.) [de

  12. Research and Application of New Type of High Performance Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Zhishou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous extension of the application quantity and range for titanium alloy in the fields of national aviation, space, weaponry, marine and chemical industry, etc., even more critical requirements to the comprehensive mechanical properties, low cost and process technological properties of titanium alloy have been raised. Through the alloying based on the microstructure parameters design, and the comprehensive strengthening and toughening technologies of fine grain strengthening, phase transformation and process control of high toughening, the new type of high performance titanium alloy which has good comprehensive properties of high strength and toughness, anti-fatigue, failure resistance and anti-impact has been researched and manufactured. The new titanium alloy has extended the application quantity and application level in the high end field, realized the industrial upgrading and reforming, and met the application requirements of next generation equipment.

  13. Charge collection measurements in single-type column 3D sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringella, M.; Polyakov, A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Bruzzi, M.; Tosi, C.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2007-01-01

    We report on charge collection studies on 3D silicon detectors of single-type column n-diffusions in p-substrate, configured either as strip or as pad detectors. The charge is generated by penetrating beta particles from a 90 Sr source which, together with a scintillation counter, serves as an electron telescope. The charge collection as a function of bias voltage is compared with the depletion thickness derived from the measured C-V characteristics

  14. P-type hole mobility measurement in Na-doped BaSnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungyun; Jang, Yeaju; Park, Jisung; Char, Kookrin

    P-type doping in oxide materials has been a difficult task because of the oxygen vacancies. Taking advantage of the excellent oxygen stability in BaSnO3 (BSO), we replaced Ba with Na in BSO to achieve p-type doping. Ba1-xNaxSnO3 (BNSO) films with varying dopant ratios were epitaxially grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique. We confirmed that the BNSO films were properly grown and determined their lattice constants with respect to the dopant ratio by x-ray diffraction. Due to the high resistance of the films at room temperature, we measured the transport properties of the BNSO films at temperatures ranging from 200 C to 400 C. Hall resistance measurements in a +/- 5 kG magnetic field were performed to confirm that the films are indeed p-type. As the temperature increased, the hole carrier concentration of the films increased while the film resistance decreased. The hole mobility values, in the tens of cm2/Vsec range, were found to decrease with the temperature. We will present the complete doping rate and temperature dependence of the hole mobility and compare their behavior with those of n-type La-doped BSO. Samsung science and technology foundation.

  15. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  16. Theory and Application of an Economic Performance Measure of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Niu (Cuizhen); X. Guo (Xu); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHomm and Pigorsch (2012a) use the Aumann and Serrano index to develop a new economic performance measure (EPM), which is well known to have advantages over other measures. In this paper, we extend the theory by constructing a one-sample confidence interval of EPM, and construct

  17. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  18. Sparse Measurement Systems: Applications, Analysis, Algorithms and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with "large-scale" detection problems that arise in many real world applications such as sensor networks, mapping with mobile robots and group testing for biological screening and drug discovery. These are problems where the values of a large number of inputs need to be inferred from noisy observations and where the…

  19. Multiuser MIMO: Principle, Performance in Measured Channels and Applicable Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Tejera, Pedro; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    world channels in a large office environment. Finally, video streaming is used as a potential application with high data rate and low latency demands. It is shown that the proposed method has the potential to exploit multiuser diversity while still providing stable video streams even though Qo...

  20. Application of Intelligent Measurement and Control Technology in Grain Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoai Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It’s of strategic importance that China takes the grain as the reserve material. The final quality of the grain is directly related to its storage process. Proper storage measures and methods can extend the shelf life of the grain. In the process of grain storage, the technical indicators, such as temperature and humidity of the stored grain, indoor temperature and air humidity, should be strictly controlled. The intelligent network-based measurement and control system composed by the PCI bus- based intelligent network interface card, the measurement nodes with the neuron chip as the core and LON bus is used to perform real-time measurement on various condition parameters of the grain bin, and transmit the measurement results to the server over the network for controlling and regulating the device after the server processes the results to ensure the safety of grain storage.

  1. Applicability of the modified neutron source multiplication method to subcriticality measurement of AGN-201 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok-Kyun Yoon; Win Naing; Myung-Hyun Kim

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Applicability of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with extraction of the fundamental mode to subcriticality measurement of Aerojet General Nucleonics (AGN)-201 reactor has been investigated. Actually, this method was a new neutron multiplication method to be proposed for an accurate measurement of subcriticality and it was based on two correction processes: (1) extraction of the fundamental mode from measuring neutron count rate data that contains not only fundamental mode but also higher modes in real situation and (2) spatial corrections for perturbation induced by a reactivity addition in the distributions of the fundamental mode and a neutron importance field. In the previous studies with numerical analyses, feasibility of the proposed method has been firstly verified for the subcriticality measurement of a water moderated critical assembly of Kyoto University Criticality Assembly (KUCA) at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute in Japan. Then, for a future application, its feasibility to subcriticality measurement of commercial PWRs during criticality approach with a digital reactivity has also been proved using plant data. Based on some guidelines obtained from these studies, a mockup experiment of subcriticality measurement of AGN-201 reactor was carried out. AGN reactor-201 is a graphite moderated homogeneous type research reactor that located at Kyung Hee University in Korea and it is used for reactor physics experiments such as control rod worth measurement, neutron activation analysis and so on. Therefore, it is easy to obtain the neutron flux distributions. In the use of the modified NSM method, only three correction factors that are extraction correction factor, spatial correction factor and importance field correction factor are basically needed for two correction processes aforementioned. Even though the gamma correction factor was additionally taken into account for subcriticality

  2. An Integrative Review of Self-Efficacy Measurement Instruments in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, Lisa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the extant literature on instruments used to measure self-efficacy in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their caregivers and to critically evaluate these measurements. Methods An integrative review (2003–2013) was conducted searching PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and U.S. National Library of Medicine PubMed service (PubMed) databases using key words diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and self-efficacy. The authors reviewed the resulting294 references for inclusion criteria of (a) sample of youth with T1DM or sample of caregivers of youth with T1DM, (b) description of the self-efficacy instrument as primary research, and (c) the instrument measured self-efficacy specifically related to diabetes management. Forty-five articles out of the initial 294 met criteria. Results Of the 45 articles, 10 different self-efficacy instruments were identified. The primary theoretical framework used was Bandura’s social cognitive theory and model of self-efficacy. Most participants were white middle class T1DM youth. Evaluations to assess validity often were not reported; however, a majority of studies reported high internal consistency of the instruments. Conclusions Sample homogeneity could limit the applicability of results to certain patient populations. Further psychometric analysis, including validity assessments, should be conducted in more diverse samples. Development of valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-efficacy that are sensitive to change across a wider caregiver base over time is necessary. While this review examined reliable and valid instruments used in research, future opportunities include evaluation of measuring self-efficacy in T1DM youth exposed to recent advances in diabetes management technologies. PMID:25216655

  3. Uncoiling mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 pili measured by using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jung; Chan, Chia-Han; Liu, Kuo-Liang; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Yew, Tri-Rung; Hsu, Ken Y.; Hsu, Long

    2007-09-01

    Pili are bacterial appendages that play many important roles in bacterial behaviors, physiology and interaction with hosts. Via pili, bacteria are able to adhere to, migrate onto, and colonize on host cells, mechanically. Different from the most studied type 1 and P type pili, which are rigid and thick with an average of 6~7 nm in diameter, type 3 pili are relatively tiny (3-5 nm in diameter) and flexible, and their biophysical properties remains unclear. By using optical tweezers, we found that the elongation processes of type 3 pili are divided into three phases: (1) elastic elongation, (2) uncoiling elongation, and (3) intrinsic elongation, separately. Besides, the uncoiling force of the recombinant pili displayed on the surface of E. coli [pmrkABCD V1F] is measured 20 pN in average stronger than that of E. coli [pmrkABCD V1]. This suggests that pilin MrkF is involved in determining the mechanical properties of the type 3 pili.

  4. Control measures in industrial and medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment; additionally the use of human made radiation is widespread. Sources of radiation are essential to modern health care, disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease, radiology is a vital diagnostic tool and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Nuclear techniques are in growing use in industry, agriculture, medicine and many fields of research, benefiting hundreds of millions of people and giving employment to millions of people in the related occupations, Irradiation is used around the world to preserve and reduce wastage and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds and detect cracks and help prevent the failure of engineered structures. It is also known that exposure to ionizing radiation can result to injuries that manifest themselves in the individual and his descendants. It is therefore imperative that the use of radiation sources be accompanied with the methods necessary for the prevention of the harmful effects of the radiation. These methods are referred to as control measures. Control measures that have been applied in establishments can be classified into physical control measures and administrative control measures. Physical control measures involve the technical aspects while administrative control measures augment physical measures. The guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials are provided through legislative and regulatory controls

  5. Criteria Comparison for Classifying Peatland Vegetation Types Using In Situ Hyperspectral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Erudel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate three classes of methods to discriminate between 13 peatland vegetation types using reflectance data. These vegetation types were empirically defined according to their composition, strata and biodiversity richness. On one hand, it is assumed that the same vegetation type spectral signatures have similarities. Consequently, they can be compared to a reference spectral database. To catch those similarities, several similarities criteria (related to distances (Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance, Canberra distance or spectral shapes (Spectral Angle Mapper or probabilistic behaviour (Spectral Information Divergence and several mathematical transformations of spectral signatures enhancing absorption features (such as the first derivative or the second derivative, the normalized spectral signature, the continuum removal, the continuum removal derivative reflectance, the log transformation were investigated. Furthermore, those similarity measures were applied on spectral ranges which characterize specific biophysical properties. On the other hand, we suppose that specific biophysical properties/components may help to discriminate between vegetation types applying supervised classification such as Random Forest (RF, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Regularized Logistic Regression (RLR, Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. Biophysical components can be used in a local way considering vegetation spectral indices or in a global way considering spectral ranges and transformed spectral signatures, as explained above. RLR classifier applied on spectral vegetation indices (training size = 25% was able to achieve 77.21% overall accuracy in discriminating peatland vegetation types. It was also able to discriminate between 83.95% vegetation types considering specific spectral range [[range-phrase = –]3501350 n m ], first derivative of spectral signatures and training size = 25%. Conversely, similarity criterion was

  6. Application of Σ-ΔADC in fluorescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yan; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the measurement system of fluorescence intensity, the Σ-ΔADC used as its core components. The system consisted of ADS1255, microcontrollers LPC2368 devices, etc. LPC2368 is used as the control, data process and communication interface. Diagram of the system is given. The linear response experiments, frequency response experiments, measurement accuracy experiments and long-time stability experiments were carried out. Experiments show that the system reaches a good linear response, and the measurement accuracy reaches up to 0.01%. (authors)

  7. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2005-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. (author). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Measurement of Beam Lifetime and Applications for SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    Beam lifetime studies for the SPEAR3 storage ring are presented. The three lifetime components are separated with lifetime measurements under various combinations of beam currents and fill patterns and vertical scraper scans. Touschek lifetime is studied with rf voltage scans and with the horizontal or vertical scrapers inserted. The measurements are explained with calculations based on the calibrated lattice model. Quantum lifetime measurements are performed with reduced longitudinal and horizontal apertures, respectively, from which we deduce the radiation energy loss down to a few keV per revolution and the horizontal beam size.

  9. Applicability of viscosity measurement to the detection of irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Kohyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    Starch is degraded by ionising radiation, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The viscosities of black and white peppers which contain large amounts of starch are reduced by irradiation so, therefore, viscosity measurement has been proposed as a method to detect the irradiation treatment of these food products. Although detection of irradiated spices by thermoluminescence measurement has been established, it is useful to establish the viscosity measuring technique for detecting irradiated peppers, as this method is carried out widely in the laboratories of food controlling authorities and food processing companies. (author)

  10. Application of digital beam position processor Libera on tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunhui; Sun Baogen; Cao Yong; Lu Ping; Li Jihao

    2006-01-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) is widely used in the field of beam diagnostics. Especially, DSP achieves very good performance in beam position signal analysis and betatron tune measurement. In Hefei light source, when beam was excited by narrow-band Gaussian white nose, Libera, a digital beam position processor, was used to process the signals from beam position monitor (BPM), which contained betatron oscillation. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied to finding out betatron resonance frequency, from which the decimal part of betatron oscillation tune was calculated. By this means, the measure of horizontal tune was 3.5352 and the measure of vertical tune is 2.6299. (authors)

  11. Application Of Bias Randomization In Evaluation Of Measuring Instrument Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotowicz Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of bias randomization in evaluation of the measuring instrument capability. The bias plays a significant role in assessment of the measuring instrument quality. Because the measurement uncertainty is a comfortable parameter for evaluation in metrology, the bias may be treated as a component of the uncertainty associated with the measuring instrument. The basic method for calculation of the uncertainty in modern metrology is propagation of distributions. Any component of the uncertainty budget should be expressed as a distribution. Usually, in the case of a systematic effect being a bias, the rectangular distribution is assumed. In the paper an alternative randomization method using the Flatten-Gaussian distribution is proposed.

  12. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  13. Applications of the first digit law to measure correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramm, R; Yost, J; Su, Q; Grobe, R

    2017-04-01

    The quasiempirical Benford law predicts that the distribution of the first significant digit of random numbers obtained from mixed probability distributions is surprisingly meaningful and reveals some universal behavior. We generalize this finding to examine the joint first-digit probability of a pair of two random numbers and show that undetectable correlations by means of the usual covariance-based measure can be identified in the statistics of the corresponding first digits. We illustrate this new measure by analyzing the correlations and anticorrelations of the positions of two interacting particles in their quantum mechanical ground state. This suggests that by using this measure, the presence or absence of correlations can be determined even if only the first digit of noisy experimental data can be measured accurately.

  14. Applications of the Indicator Template for Measurement and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goethert, Wolfhart; Siviy, Jeannine

    2004-01-01

    ...) has developed to precisely describe an indicator including its construction, correct interpretation, and how it can be utilized to direct data collection and presentation and measurement and analysis processes...

  15. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  16. Development and Applications of Residual Stress Measurements Using Neutron Beams

    OpenAIRE

    ABRIOLA S. A.; BALAGUROV A.; BASHIR J.; DAS A.; EDWARDS L.; GNAEUPEL-HEROLD T.; GOH B.; IONITA I.; MIKULA P.; OHMS Carsten; PELD N.; SCHNEIDER Rainer; SUTIARSO S.; TOROK G.; VENTER A.

    2012-01-01

    The deep penetration and selective absorption of neutrons make them a powerful tool in nondestructive testing of materials with large samples or objects. Residual stress formed in a material during manufacturing, welding, utilization or repairs can be measured by means of neutron diffraction. In fact, neutron diffraction is the only non-destructive testing method, which can facilitate 3-D mapping of residual stress in a bulk component. Stress measurement using neutron beams is a technique ...

  17. A Fiber-Optic Current Sensor for Lightning Measurement Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2015-01-01

    An optical-fiber sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed for measuring total lightning electric current. It has many unique capabilities not possible with traditional current sensors. Designed for aircraft installation, the sensor is lightweight, non-conducting, structure-conforming, and is immune to electromagnetic interference, hysteresis and saturation. It can also be used on windmills, lightning towers, and can help validate lightning detection network measurements. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation yields the total current enclosed. The broadband, dual-detector, reflective polarimetric scheme allows measurement of both DC component and AC waveforms with about 60 dB dynamic range. Three sensor systems were built with different sensitivities from different laser wavelengths. Operating at 850nm, the first system uses twisted single-mode fiber and has a 150 A - 150 KA range. The second system operates at 1550nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure 400 A - 400 KA. Both systems were validated with rocket-triggered lightning measurements and achieved excellent results when compared to a resistive shunt. The third system operates at 1310nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure approximately 300 A - 300 KA. High current measurements up to 200 KA were demonstrated at a commercial lightning test facility. The system was recently installed on an aircraft and flown near icing weather conditions.

  18. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  19. Design and Testing of Boost Type DC/DC Converter for DC Motor Control Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Samman, Faizal Arya; Akil, Yusri Syam; Noor, Nirwan A.

    2017-01-01

    in The Proceeding of The 2nd International Symposium on Smart Material and Mechatronics 2015 This paper presents the design and testing of a boost type DC/DC converter circuit, which can be used for DC motor control applications. The Boost converter is designed using DC chopper and DC chopper cascade configurations. The experimental setup was made by connecting the boost converter circuit with four types of DC motor, i.e. self-excited DC motor shunt, series, compound and separately exci...

  20. Application of acoustic doppler velocimeters for streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) principally has used Price AA and Price pygmy mechanical current meters for measurement of discharge. New technologies have resulted in the introduction of alternatives to the Price meters. One alternative, the FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter, was designed by SonTek/YSI to make streamflow measurements in wadeable conditions. The device measures a point velocity and can be used with standard midsection method algorithms to compute streamflow. The USGS collected 55 quality-assurance measurements with the FlowTracker at 43 different USGS streamflow-gaging stations across the United States, with mean depths from 0.05to0.67m, mean velocities from 13 to 60 cm/s, and discharges from 0.02 to 12.4m3/s. These measurements were compared with Price mechanical current meter measurements. Analysis of the comparisons shows that the FlowTracker discharges were not statistically different from the Price meter discharges at a 95% confidence level. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  1. Risk Measurement and Risk Modelling Using Applications of Vine Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite financial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in financial applications, but is usually applied to pairs of securities. By contrast, Vine copulas provide greater flexibility and permit the modelling of complex dependency patterns using the rich variety of bivariate copulas which may be arranged and analysed in a tree structure to explore multiple dependencies. The paper features the use of Regular Vine copulas in an analysis of the co-dependencies of 10 major European Stock Markets, as represented by individual market indices and the composite STOXX 50 index. The sample runs from 2005 to the end of 2013 to permit an exploration of how correlations change indifferent economic circumstances using three different sample periods: pre-GFC (January 2005–July 2007, GFC (July 2007– September 2009, and post-GFC periods (September 2009–December 2013. The empirical results suggest that the dependencies change in a complex manner, and are subject to change in different economic circumstances. One of the attractions of this approach to risk modelling is the flexibility in the choice of distributions used to model co-dependencies. The practical application of Regular Vine metrics is demonstrated via an example of the calculation of the VaR of a portfolio made up of the indices.

  2. Fundamental measurement by in-line typed high-precision polarization lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Umaki, Dai; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2008-12-01

    An in-line typed new concept lidar system for high precision polarization measurement was developed. A specially designed polarization-independent optical circulator, which was composed by Gran laser prisms and highly transparent Faraday rotators, was developed. Its isolation between the orthogonal polarizations was improved up to more than 30 dB. It is sufficient to detect small rotation of the polarization plane of the propagating beam caused by lightning discharges due to the Faraday effect. The rotation angle of the polarization plane is estimated by the differential detection between the orthogonal polarization components of the lidar echoes. The in-line optics enables near range measurement from the near range of >30 m with the narrow field of view of 0.17 mrad. The fundamental measurements of lidar echoes in near and far fields, and low cloud activities were examined.

  3. Characteristics of a new type of spectrometer for measuring intermediate neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, K.; Takeda, N.; Fukuda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A new type of spectrometer for measuring intermediate energy neutrons has been designed for exclude contributions by unwanted γ-rays. The detector assembly consists of a H 2 gas proportional counter surrounded by six 3 He gas proportional counters. The spectrometer is operated in principle by using successive double pulses produced by a proton recoil in the inner H 2 counter at first and then by a neutron capture in one of the outer counters. The response function, the energy distribution of scattered neutrons coming into the 3 He counters and the time distribution between the proton recoil and the neutron capture were calculated by using the modified NRESP Monte Carlo code. The results showed that the response has a characteristic peak corresponding to the incident neutron energy. The double pulse measuring technique will provide excellent features relevant to the measurement of intermediate neutrons existing together with γ-rays

  4. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Sagun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance, hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95, and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53, respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist

  5. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwashote, B.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I.R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (???3 ??C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day-1 or cm3 cm-2 day-1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ???7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media (R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Geraghty Type Generalized F-Contractions and Related Applications in Partial b-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce new concepts of (α,β-admissible Geraghty type generalized F-contraction and to prove that some fixed point results for such mappings are in the perspective of partial b-metric space. As an application, we inaugurate new fixed point results for Geraghty type generalized graphic F-contraction defined on partial metric space endowed with a directed graph. On the other hand, one more application to the existence and uniqueness of a solution for the first-order periodic boundary value problem is also provided. Our findings encompass various generalizations of the Banach contraction principle on metric space, partial metric space, and partial b-metric space. Moreover, some examples are presented to illustrate the usability of the new theory.

  7. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung Chieh Cheng; Chao Kai Yang; I Lin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately main...

  8. Statistical weighted A-summability with application to Korovkin’s type approximation theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Mohiuddine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We introduce the notion of statistical weighted A-summability of a sequence and establish its relation with weighted A-statistical convergence. We also define weighted regular matrix and obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the matrix A to be weighted regular. As an application, we prove the Korovkin type approximation theorem through statistical weighted A-summability and using the BBH operator to construct an illustrative example in support of our result.

  9. Evaluating Major Electrode Types for Idle Biological Signal Measurements for Modern Medical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Albulbul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG and electromyography (EMG that can be measured at home can reveal vital information about the patient’s health. In today modern technology, the measured ECG or EMG signals at home can be monitored by medical staff from long distance through the use of internet. Biopotential electrodes are crucial in monitoring ECG, EMG, etc., signals. Applying the right type of electrode that lasts for a long time and assists in recording high signal quality is desirable in medical devices industry. Three types of electrodes (Silver/Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl electrodes, Orbital electrodes and Stainless steel electrodes were tested to identify the most appropriate one for recording biological signals. The evaluation was based on determining the electrode circuit model components and having high capacitance value or high capacitor value of electrode circuit model (Cd and low electrode-skin impedance value or low resistor value of electrode circuit model (Rd. The results revealed that Ag/AgCl is the best type of electrodes, followed by Orbital electrodes. Stainless steel electrodes had performed poorly. However, Orbital electrodes material can last longer than Ag/AgCl and hence perform similar to Ag/AgCl electrodes, which can be idle for monitoring biological signals at home without the need for medical staff to replace the electrodes in a short period of time.

  10. A robust sub-pixel subdivision algorithm for image-type angular displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Wan, Qiuhua; Lu, Xinran; Zhao, Changhai; Du, Yingcai

    2018-01-01

    The use of an image detector to receive grating images and measure angle displacement via image processing is a relatively new technique, which yields higher resolution and better precision than the traditional moiré fringe method. To improve the robustness of image-type angle measurement, this paper proposes a robust sub-pixel subdivision algorithm based on the least square method. Firstly, by analyzing the characteristic of grating image, a new subdivision algorithm is established based on the least square method. Secondly, the simulations of robustness are completed to prove the performance in theoretically. Lastly, the proposed algorithm is used in a typical image-type angle sensor to test the performance in real case. By test, the proposed method is shown to be more accurate and with better robust than the traditional algorithm (centroid algorithm). In a typical image-type angle sensor, it successfully achieves a resolution of 0.62″ (21-bit), 213-fold subdivision resolution, and precision of 12.85″. The results presented here may provide a theoretical and technological foundation for further research on small-size, high-resolution photographic rotary encoders.

  11. Offline analysis in SNLS: measurement of type-Ia supernovae explosion rate and cosmological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusset, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The Supernova Legacy Survey is a second generation experiment for the measurement of cosmological parameters using type-la supernovae. Il follows the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, attributed to an unknown 'dark energy'. This thesis presents a type-la supernovae search using an offline analysis of SNLS data. It makes it possible to detect the supernovae that were missed online and to study possible selection biases. One of its principal characteristics is that it uses entirely automatic selection criteria. This type of automated offline analysis had never been carried out before for data reaching this redshift. This analysis enabled us to discover 73 additional SNIa candidates compared to those identified in the real time analysis on the same data, representing an increase of more than 50% of the number of supernovae. The final Hubble diagram contains 262 SNIa which gives us, for a flat ACDM model, the following values for the cosmological parameters: Ω M = 0,31 ± 0,028 (stat) ± 0,036 (syst) et Ω A = 0,69. This offline analysis of SNLS data opens new horizons, both by checking for possible biases in current measurements of cosmological parameters by supernovae experiments and by preparing the third generation experiments, on the ground or in space, which will detect thousands of SNIa. (author) [fr

  12. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  13. Measurement of resilience and its application to enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. W.; Gao, F.; Ip, W. H.

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we present a measure for resilience in the context of enterprise information systems or service systems in a more general sense. Resilience of the system is a property of the system, which focuses on the recovery ability of the system after a partial damage of the system. Enterprise information systems such as enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, customer relationship management, manufacturing execution system, etc. play a critical role in the daily operation of modern enterprises by timely and sustainable delivery of information. Therefore, resilience is especially important for the enterprise information systems. The proposed measure for resilience is based on the recovery ability of the system, which departs from the existing approaches in literature and presents a unique contribution. An example is given to illustrate how the proposed measure works.

  14. Application of laser tracker technology for measuring optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Tom L.

    The pages of this dissertation detail the development of an advanced metrology instrument for measuring large optical surfaces. The system is designed to accurately guide the fabrication of the Giant Magellan Telescope and future telescopes through loose-abrasive grinding. The instrument couples a commercial laser tracker with an advanced calibration technique and a set of external references to mitigate a number of error sources. The system is also required to work as a verification test for the GMT principal optical interferometric test of the polished mirror segment to corroborate the measurements in several low-order aberrations. A set of system performance goals were developed to ensure that the system will achieve these purposes. The design, analysis, calibration results, and measurement performance of the Laser Tracker Plus system are presented in this dissertation.

  15. Portable diffusion battery. It's application to measuring aerosol size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature portable cluster-tube diffusion battery for measurement of the size and size distribution of submicron aerosols (1-100 nm) is described. A series of commercially available Collimated Holes Structures are mounted in sleeves with O-rings so that aerosol penetration can be measured at a number of outlets along the series. The CHS are stainless-steel discs of several different diameters and thicknesses, containing a large number of nearly circular holes. The actual length of the apparatus is about 2 ft but the equivalent length is 3.25 mi. Calculated curves of penetration versus particle size are used to evaluate size distribution and show that the equivalent size frequently reported from one measurement with a rectangular diffusion battery is practically meaningless. The value depends as much on the characteristics and mode of the operation of the diffusion battery as on the aerosol; the longer the battery and the lower the air flow, the greater the equivalent size will appear to be. Graphical plots of the cumulative size distribution of room aerosol and silver aerosol are illustrated for large battery and miniature battery measurements and appear to be in close agreement. Measurements on radon daughters in uranium mines with the miniature batteries show activity median diameters from 0.1 to 0.17 micron, with standard deviations from 2 to 4. Two similar measurements made in the laboratory on room air tagged with about 50 pCi/l radon daughters show activity median diameters of 0.15 and 0.17 micron, with geometric standard deviations of 2.2 and 2.6, respectively

  16. Measurement uncertainty in pharmaceutical analysis and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Augusto Lyrio Traple

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement uncertainty provides complete information about an analytical result. This is very important because several decisions of compliance or non-compliance are based on analytical results in pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate and discuss the estimation of uncertainty in pharmaceutical analysis. The uncertainty is a useful tool in the assessment of compliance or non-compliance of in-process and final pharmaceutical products as well as in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence and stability study of drug products. Keywords: Measurement uncertainty, Method validation, Pharmaceutical analysis, Quality control

  17. Dipole location using SQUID based measurements: Application to magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyappa, N.; Parasakthi, C.; Sengottuvel, S.; Gireesan, K.; Patel, Rajesh; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    2012-07-01

    We report a method of inferring the dipole location using iterative nonlinear least square optimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, wherein, we use different sets of pseudo-random numbers as initial parameter values. The method has been applied to (i) the simulated data representing the calculated magnetic field distribution produced by a point dipole placed at a known position, (ii) the experimental data from SQUID based measurements of the magnetic field distribution produced by a source coil carrying current, and (iii) the actual experimentally measured magnetocardiograms of human subjects using a SQUID based system.

  18. On the differential structure of metric measure spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gigli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The main goals of this paper are: (i) To develop an abstract differential calculus on metric measure spaces by investigating the duality relations between differentials and gradients of Sobolev functions. This will be achieved without calling into play any sort of analysis in charts, our assumptions being: the metric space is complete and separable and the measure is Radon and non-negative. (ii) To employ these notions of calculus to provide, via integration by parts, a general definition of distributional Laplacian, thus giving a meaning to an expression like \\Delta g=\\mu, where g is a functi

  19. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, J.

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  20. Intra- and Inter-Examiner Reliability in Angular Measurements of the Knee with a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derhon Viviane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Goniometric smartphone applications to measure joint angles offer greater practicality and accessibility, which makes them potential alternatives to a conventional goniometer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner reliability in measuring the angles of the range of motion of the knee with the use of the ROM© goniometric smartphone application.

  1. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  2. Lidar Measurements of Methane and Applications for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Abshire, James; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but observations since 2007 show that levels may be increasing. This trend may be caused by increased fossil fuel production, rice farming, livestock and landfills, but the underlying causes are quite uncertain. One hypothesis is that reservoirs of carbon trapped in the permafrost regions of northern Canada, Europe, and Siberia thaw as global temperatures rise and are releasing increasing amounts of methane. Another hypothesis points to increased production of methane by microbes as the permafrost warms. Currently most observations of greenhouse gases are limited to in-situ (surface and tower sites) and limited airborne in-situ measurements. Space column density measurements are starting to become available from the GOSAT mission. Although methane survives for a shorter time in the atmosphere than CO2, its impact on climate change per molecule is about 23 times than that of CO2. Accurate global observations of several greenhouse gases, including methane, are urgently needed in order to better understand climate change processes and to reduce the uncertainty in the carbon budget. Differential absorption lidar is a well-established technique to measure atmospheric gases, and methane has optical absorption bands near 1.65, 2.2, 3.4 and 7.8 μm. The near infrared overtones lines of CH4 near 1650 nm are relatively free of interference from other species. There are absorption lines near 1651 nm which are both temperature insensitive and have line strengths well suited for lidar measurements. We have developed a laser and demonstrated lidar measurements of CH4 using lines in this band. Our laser uses a narrow linewidth 1064 nm laser pulse passing through a nonlinear crystal. We generate the tunable laser signals near 1651 nm by using the optical parametric amplification (OPA) process. Inside the crystal the 1064 nm beam overlaps with an injection seed

  3. Research of the types of applicable people and the statistical characteristics of hand vein image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haifeng; Yang, Xiaoping; Xu, Wuchao; Yao, Shuyu; Wei, Chongchong; Qu, Huinan; Qu, Bingguang

    2014-11-01

    Hand vein image has been widely used in biological recognition, auxiliary medical and other fields. People with age, height, weight, gender differences have distinction in fat thickness of the back of hand, so the contrast and sharpness of their hand vein images are different too, which may affect the results of applications. In this paper, a hand vein image acquisition system is given and the hand vein images of people from the age of 3 to 60 are obtained in various conditions. The effect on the images caused by ages, genders, BMI (body mass index) and FMI (fat mass index) are researched and the statistical characteristics of the images are analyzed. The types of applicable people are also proposed for applications.

  4. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...... or locations but was significantly increased by autumn N, spring N and their interaction. The application of 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn increased seed yield, but this increase was lower than that for a single spring application, provided that the N applied in spring was 100 kg ha-1 or greater. Shoot N...... content varied considerably among years but not cultivars. Correlation analysis of N content, yield components and seed yield revealed that autumn N application resulted in an increasing N content in shoots, fertile tiller number and seed weight. However, these two components were negatively correlated...

  5. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex…

  6. Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gupta et al. (2014) was also used Entropy Measurement method for optimizing the process parameters of friction stir welding of aluminium alloy. In the present ..... FY. F-ratio of parameter of Y. SY. ' Pure sum of square. CY. Percentage (%) of contribution of parameter Y. Ce. Percentage (%) of contribution of error term. C.F.

  7. The development and application of a fabric objective measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A programme has been initiated with the objective to develop an advanced Fabric Objective Measurement (FOM) based technology, knowledge and data system which is relevant to, and can be implemented in, the South African apparel industry to benchmark and improve the quality of locally produced woven apparel ...

  8. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  9. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  10. Application of the Stochastic Production Frontier to the Measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the existing technology of the fish producers, proper management that bears in mind the use of improved fish species, maintenance of number of ponds and increased education of the fish producers on current techniques of production are policy measures that could help improve on the technical efficiency of fish ...

  11. An application of attractiveness measures to evaluate the optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent remarks in the media suggest that the Currie Cup competition, the premier rugby union competition in South Africa, is in need of a revamp. This paper uses new measures of the attractiveness of rugby union matches to argue that the Currie Cup has become one of the less attractive competitions in the rugby-playing ...

  12. Application of coincidence techniques to fusion product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    Measurement of two products of a fusion reaction in coincidence is proposed. Possible detector arrays and sample count rates have been evaluated for reactions in the TFR and TEXT tokamaks and in the TFTR neutral beamlines. The count rates indicate that this method is feasible on existing devices

  13. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  14. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  15. Application of torsion vacuum microbalance to sputtering yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Kenya; Miyahara, Akira; Sukenobu, Satoru; Komizo, Mutsuo.

    1977-01-01

    The torsion vacuum microbalance technique useful for the determination of the sputtering yield of wall materials for fusion reactors was developed. In order to measure the rate of weight change of the samples during sputtering continuously, it is very important to keep the null point drift of the microbalance as small as possible. The deflection angle of the balance beam was detected and amplified by optical lever, and was transformed to electrical output by linear photopotentiometer. The null point drift wave mainly caused by temperature change in the laboratory, which induced relative displacement by thermal expansion between the balance system and the optical measuring system. The drift was reduced less than the equivalent weight of 4 x 10 -7 g/hr when the balance system wosset in the thermostat kept at 20 +- 0.5 0 C. The sensitivity of the balance was 8.3 x 10 -7 g/mV. The microbalance technique developed was applied to the measurement of sputtering yield of Cu by Ar + . The measurement was carried out with Ar + ion energy of 0.2 -- 2 keV, beam current of 0.5 -- 1.5 μA, and sputtering time of 2 hrs. The initial weight of Cu sample was 0.4g (15 mm x 15 mm sheet) and the sample temperature during sputtering was about 120 0 C. The sputtering yields obtained show good agreement with the results reported by Wehner et al. (auth.)

  16. New applications of corrosion measurements by titration (CMT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1998-01-01

    . It is shown that when aluminium dissolves in alkali, CMT measurements can also be applied, but in this case requiring titration with alkali. Titration with alkali is also required in a special situation, where corrosion of nickel in an acid solution and subsequent formation of a nickel complex results...

  17. Applications of air ion measurement in environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the methods employing the measuring of naturally created air ions. The amount and mobility distribution of these ions offer hidden information about air pollution. On the other hand, the natural air ions are active in some environmental processes and they should be considered as an immediate environmental factor

  18. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this paper ..... its impact on the number of PMU placements is explained. Initially, we ... estimations. These procedures will enable PMUs to report, with each measurement, the quality of the estimated phasor.

  19. Clinical measures of balance in people with type two diabetes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C J; Knight, T; Binns, E; Ihaka, B; O'Brien, D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 422 million people have diabetes mellitus worldwide, with the majority diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinopathy, both of which can lead to balance impairments. Balance assessment is therefore an integral component of the clinical assessment of a person with T2DM. Although there are a variety of balance measures available, it is uncertain which measures are the most appropriate for this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on clinical balance measures used with people with T2DM and DPN. Databases searched included: CINAHL plus, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Dentistry and Oral Sciences source, and SCOPUS. Key terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to identify appropriate studies. Identified studies were critiqued using the Downs and Black appraisal tool. Eight studies were included, these studies incorporated a total of ten different clinical balance measures. The balance measures identified included the Dynamic Balance Test, balance walk, tandem and unipedal stance, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Numerous clinical balance measures were used for people with T2DM. However, the identified balance measures did not assess all of the systems of balance, and most had not been validated in a T2DM population. Therefore, future research is needed to identify the validity of a balance measure that assesses these systems in people with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring LEED–NC applicability in design for hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marie Cracknell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting awareness of climate change in recent years has led the construction industry to initiate new approaches toward sustainable building design, yet stakeholders in hospitality development still hesitate to build green. This reluctance is due to perceived high guest expectations of comfort levels and amenity access among these properties. Research was conducted to determine precisely which green building innovations present the most significant barriers to incorporating sustainability into design for hospitality. Average LEED credit implementation rates among 28 existing LEED hotel projects were calculated and compared with average credits employed among common commercial building projects. 15 of those projects’ designers also offered survey opinions on which sustainable innovations were most commonly avoided in their approaches for hospitality. The results indicate that certain credits do experience decreased popularity among hospitality projects, yet guest comfort was not the only barrier identified. Cost of implementation and local applicability affected by climate and local bylaws were also found as major role players in the selection of credits specific to hospitality design. Conclusions are presented according to the data and recommendations made to support further growth and success in future applications of LEED sustainable design in hospitality.

  1. Applicant versus employee scores on self-report emotional intelligence measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lievens, Filip; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Libbrecht, Nele

    2011-01-01

    There exists growing interest to assess applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI) via self-report trait-based measures of EI as part of the selection process. However, some studies that experimentally manipulated applicant conditions have cautioned that in these conditions use of self-report measures for assessing EI might lead to considerably higher scores than current norm scores suggest. So far, no studies have scrutinized self-reported EI scores among a sample of actual job applicants. Ther...

  2. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  3. Influence of the type of measuring device in determining the static modulus of elasticity of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Araújo

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the results obtained in static modulus of elasticity tests of plain concrete cylindrical specimens. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the influence of several factors involved in modulus of elasticity tests such as the strain measurement device used (dial indicators, electrical surface bonded strain gages, externally fixed strain gages and linear variation displacement transducer - LVDT, the type of concrete (Class C30 and Class C60 and cylindrical specimen size (100 mm x 200 mm and 150 mm x 300 mm. The modulus tests were done in two different laboratories in the Goiânia, GO region and were performed according to code ABNT NBR 8522:2008, which describes the initial tangent modulus test, characterized by strains measured at tension values of 0.5 MPa and 30% of the ultimate load. One hundred and sixty specimens were tested with statistically satisfactory results. It was concluded that the type of strain measurement device greatly influenced the modulus of elasticity results. Tests in specimens 100 mm x 200 mm showed highest statistical variation.

  4. Measurement of specific [3H]-ouabain binding to different types of human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Arnold; Oh, V M; Taylor, John E.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to intact mononuclear leucocytes (82% lymphocytes) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In both types of cells [3H]-ouabain binding was saturable, confined to a single site of high affinity, slow to reach equilibrium, slow to reverse, temperature......-dependent, competitively antagonized by potassium, and facilitated by the presence of divalent cations. The equilibrium dissociation constants were 2.4 +/- 0.7 nmol/l (polymorphs) and 2.4 +/- 0.4 nmol/l (mononuclear cells) (NS). The values of maximal specific ouabain binding, measured by Scatchard analysis...... were expressed per square micron of cell surface area the difference between the two cell types was proportionately greater (83 and 186 sites per micron 2 respectively). We conclude that the [3H]-ouabain binding sites on mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leucocytes are similar in nature, but different...

  5. Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Martínez Rosendo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC. The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. Methods Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico. Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. Results Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1% and negative predictive value (82.2%, the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58 and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16. Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4% and positive predictive value (40.1% as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8 and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39. Conclusion Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher

  6. Physician personality types in physical medicine and rehabilitation as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, J A; Shade-Zeldow, Y

    1994-01-01

    Personality is one variable that correlates with specialty selection and practice type. To test our hypothesis that there has been a change in the personality type of those entering Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) and to identify the academic potential of those in rehabilitation, we invited all residents and graduates of our training program to participate in a study of personality types within PM&R by completing a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Thirty residents and 48 graduates completed the questionnaire. A wide range of personality types were represented in our sample. The most common types are shared by a number of other people-oriented, primary care specialties. There was a statistically significant difference between residents and graduates on two of the four MBTI indexes, with graduates more introverted (P < 0.05) and judging (P < 0.001) than the present residents. Intuition, previously correlated with research and academic practice, was the dominant process for the majority of graduates and residents. This would confirm, according to type theory, the academic potential of both graduates and residents in our training program.

  7. Clinical application of antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin

    2015-04-02

    Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families.

  8. Research on the application of vortex tube type of cooling jacket in coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaojie

    2017-08-01

    The problem of heat damage in high temperature mine has been attached more and more concern to. In addition, the existing solutions also have problems which are large initial investment and poor safety performance. Vortex tube type of mine cooling jacket, studied in this paper, using vortex tube refrigeration principle. It used compressed exhaust gas as the gas source, which can solve the problem of the large-scale cooling equipment which rely on electricity, and may not emit toxic gases at the same time. Thereby, by using the method of observation and questionnaire survey, the parameters of the vortex tube were optimized for optimal cooling effect. In conclusion, the features of security, reliability, energy saving and environmental protection can be realized by the vortex tube type of cooling jacket. What's more important, we had investigated the feasibility of the application of vortex tube type of mine cooling jacket.

  9. Fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Shin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the existence, uniqueness and iterative approximations of fixed points for contractive mappings of integral type in complete metric spaces are established. As applications, the existence, uniqueness and iterative approximations of solutions for a class of functional equations arising in dynamic programming are discussed. The results presented in this paper extend and improve essentially the results of Branciari (A fixed point theorem for mappings satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 29, 531-536, 2002, Kannan (Some results on fixed points. Bull. Calcutta Math. Soc. 60, 71-76, 1968 and several known results. Four concrete examples involving the contractive mappings of integral type with uncountably many points are constructed. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classfication: 54H25, 47H10, 49L20, 49L99, 90C39

  10. Measurement of soil lead bioavailability and influence of soil types and properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kaihong; Dong, Zhaomin; Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Semple, Kirk

    2017-10-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widespread heavy metal which is harmful to human health, especially to young children. To provide a human health risk assessment that is more relevant to real conditions, Pb bioavailability in soils is increasingly employed in the assessment procedure. Both in vivo and in vitro measurements for lead bioavailability are available. In vivo models are time- consuming and expensive, while in vitro models are rapid, economic, reproducible, and reliable while involving more uncertainties. Uncertainties in various measurements create difficulties in accurately predicting Pb bioavailability, resulting in the unnecessary remediation of sites. In this critical review, we utilised available data from in vivo and in vitro studies to identify the key parameters influencing the in vitro measurements, and presented uncertainties existing in Pb bioavailability measurements. Soil type, properties and metal content are reported to influence lead bioavailability; however, the differences in methods for assessing bioavailability and the differences in Pb source limit one's ability to conduct statistical analyses on influences of soil factors on Pb bioavailability. The information provided in the review is fundamentally useful for the measurement of bioavailability and risk assessment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Degeneracy-Preserving Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of Parity-Type Observables for Cat Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Smith, W. Clarke; Devoret, Michel H.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar

    2017-08-01

    A central requirement for any quantum error correction scheme is the ability to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of an error syndrome, corresponding to a special symmetry property of the encoding scheme. It is in particular important that such a measurement does not introduce extra error mechanisms, not included in the error model of the correction scheme. In this Letter, we ensure such a robustness by designing an interaction with a measurement device that preserves the degeneracy of the measured observable. More precisely, we propose a scheme to perform continuous and quantum nondemolition measurement of photon-number parity in a microwave cavity. This corresponds to the error syndrome in a class of error correcting codes called the cat codes, which have recently proven to be efficient and versatile for quantum information processing. In our design, we exploit the strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian of a high-impedance Josephson circuit, coupling a high-Q cavity storage cavity mode to a low-Q readout one. By driving the readout resonator at its resonance, the phase of the reflected or transmitted signal carries directly exploitable information on parity-type observables for encoded cat qubits of the high-Q mode.

  12. Modified AC Wheatstone Bridge Network for Accurate Measurement of Pressure Using Strain Gauge Type Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve high quality of products at lesser cost, accurate measurement of different process variables is of vital importance in any industry. There are different well-established techniques of measurement and control instrumentations of these variables. In the resistive transducer like strain gauge, the small resistance generally changes linearly with a process variable like pressure but their measurement by usual AC Wheatstone bridge circuit may suffer from errors due to the effect of stray capacitance between bridge nodal points and ground and stray inductance on the strain gauge grid respectively. Though the conventional Wagner-Earth technique may be used to reduced the error but not suitable for continuous measurement. In the present paper, a modified operational amplifier based AC Wheatstone bridge measurement technique has been proposed in which the effect of stray capacitance and inductance is minimized. This bridge performance has been studied experimentally with the strain gauge type pressure transducer. The linear characteristics over a wide range of pressure with good repeatability, linearity and variable sensitivity have been described.

  13. Concept for a MEMS-type vacuum sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Giebel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the micro-structured vacuum sensor presented in this article is the measurement of the electrical conductivity of thinned gases in order to develop a small, economical and quite a simple type of vacuum sensor. There are already some approaches for small vacuum sensors. Most of them are based on conservative measurement principles similar to those used in macroscopic vacuum gauges. Ionization gauges use additional sources of energy, like hot cathodes, ultraviolet radiation or high voltage for example, for ionizing gas molecules and thereby increasing the number of charge carriers for measuring low pressures. In contrast, the concept discussed here cannot be found in macroscopic sensor systems because it depends on the microscopic dimension of a gas volume defined by two electrodes. Here we present the concept and the production of a micro-structured vacuum sensor chip, followed by the electrical characterization. Reference measurements with electrodes at a distance of about 1 mm showed currents in the size of picoampere and a conductivity depending on ambient pressure. In comparison with these preliminary measurements, fundamental differences regarding pressure dependence of the conductivity are monitored in the electrical characterization of the micro-structured sensor chip. Finally the future perspectives of this sensor concept are discussed.

  14. Association Between Obstetric Conjugate Diameter Measured by Transabdominal Ultrasonography During Pregnancy and the Type of Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Ranjkesh, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Normal morphological features of the maternal pelvis are an important prerequisite to vaginal delivery. We aimed to evaluate the association between obstetric conjugate diameter (OCD) measured by ultrasonography and the type of delivery, vaginally (V) or by cesarean (C) section. Pelvimetry was performed in 200 primigravid women for fetal cephalic presentation. The OCD was measured twice by transabdominal ultrasonography during 25-30 weeks and 30-35 weeks of pregnancy. The mean OCD of both sonographies in groups V and C was 125.51± 8.35 mm (105-144.5) and 112.99 ± 8.53 mm (96-134.5), respectively, which was significantly lower in group C (P<0.001). The values of OCD between the first and second measurements were not different significantly (P=0.065). C-section was indicated in 65 (32.5%) mothers. The optimal cut-off point for the OCD in the prediction of vaginal delivery was ≥ 119.75 mm, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 78.5%, respectively. The US measurement of OCD might be an accurate method that almost always remains constant during late pregnancy; it is easy to measure and might be confidentially employed for predicting C-section, but needs more precise studies to be used widely

  15. Enrichment measurement in TRIGA type fuels; Medicion de enriquecimiento en combustibles tipo Triga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Mazon R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-05-15

    The Department of Energy of the United States of North America, through the program 'Idaho Operations Nuclear Spent Fuel Program' of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), in Idaho Falls; Idaho USA, hires to Global Technologies Inc. (GTI) to develop a prototype device of detection enrichment uranium (DEU Detection of Enrichment of Uranium) to determine quantitatively the enrichment in remainder U-235 in a TRIGA fuel element at the end of it useful life. The characteristics of the prototype developed by GTI are the following ones: It allows to carry out no-destructive measurements of TRIGA type fuel. Easily transportable due to that reduced of it size. The determination of the enrichment (in grams of U-235) it is obtained with a precision of 5%. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), in its facilities of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, it has TRIGA type fuel of high and low enrichment (standard and FLIP) fresh and with burnt, it also has the infrastructure (hot cells, armor-plating of transport, etc) and qualified personnel to carry out the necessary maneuvers to prove the operation of the DEU prototype. For this its would be used standard type fuel elements and FLIP, so much fresh as with certain burnt one. In the case of the fresh fuels the measurement doesn't represent any risk, the fuels before and after the measurement its don't contain a quantity of fission products that its represent a radiological risk in its manipulation; but in the case of the fuels with burnt the handling of the same ones represents an important radiological risk reason why for its manipulation it was used the transport armor-plating and the hot cells. (Author)

  16. Application of nuclear resonance scattering for in vivo measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Cohn, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear resonance scattering is applied in our laboratory to measure hepatic and cardiac iron overload. For iron analysis, a gaseous source of 4 mg MnCl 2 is introduced into an evacuated quartz vial. Following irradiation in a nuclear reactor, 56 Mn decays by beta emission to the 847-keV level of 56 Fe, which subsequently decays to the ground state of 56 Fe with a 7 ps half-life. The principal aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of the iron chelation therapy. Serial measurements over a time period of 6 to 12 months of a given patient will enable us to see how the iron is removed from the critical organs

  17. The application of Raman laser in gravity measurement and metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Ning; Zhang, Li [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P.R. China and Key Laboratory for Metrology, Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM), Beijing 100095, P.R. (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: wangyu@cimm.com.cn [Key Laboratory for Metrology, Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM), Beijing 100095, P.R. (China); Fan, Shangchun [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P.R. (China)

    2014-05-27

    Atom Interferometry is proved to be a potential method for measuring the acceleration of atoms due to Gravity, we are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter, it is based on the atom interferometry technology by coherently manipulating the cold atoms in a fountain (with a height of 1m) with specific Raman lasers, the cold atom wave packet is splitted, combined, and then re-splitted in the process. Then the atomic wave packet will acquire different phase because of the different evolution path. The precise acceleration can be deduced through the precision measurement of atomic interference fringes phase, and this will be a high precision standard of acceleration. At present, the preparation of Raman laser and the precise control of the laser Frequency have been finished, and they have been proved to meet the requirements of the experiment.

  18. The application of coronal scattering measurements to solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interpretation of ground based observations of solar 'plasma frequency' radio bursts has been hampered in the past by an insufficient knowledge of coronal scattering by density inhomogeneities close to the Sun. Calculations based on measuurements of the angular broadening of natural radio sources, and Woo's 1975 measurement of the angular broadening of the telemetry carrier by Helios I near occultation (Woo, 1978), indicate that plasma frequency solar bursts should undergo considerable scattering, at least near the maximum of the sunspot cycle. The calculated displacements of the apparent positions of the bursts are about equal to the observed displacements which have been attributed to the bursts occurring in dense streamers. In order to obtain more scattering data close to the Sun, interferometer measurements of the angular broadening of spacecraft signals are planned, and the important contribution which could be made with large dishes is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. High temperature elastic constant measurements: application to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, J.M.

    1969-03-01

    We present an apparatus with which we have measured the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of several compounds from the resonance frequency of cylinders in the temperature range 0 deg. C-700 deg. C. We especially studied the elastic constants of plutonium and measured for the first time to our knowledge the Young's modulus of Pu δ and Pu ε . E δ 360 deg. C = 1.6 10 11 dy/cm 2 ; E ε 490 deg. C = 1.1 10 11 dy/cm 2 , σ ε = 0.25 ± 0.03 Using our results, we have calculated the compressibility, the Debye temperature, the Grueneisen constant and the electronic specific heat of Pu ε . (author) [fr

  20. Application of ion chemistry to tropospheric VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    The main interest in tropospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from biogenic sources such as forests and anthropogenic sources such as cities is because these reactive trace gases can have a significant impact on levels of oxidants such as ozone (O 3 ) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). The proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique developed by Werner Lindingers Laboratory, utilizes positive ion chemistry to measure trace neutral concentrations in air. It has been applied in food research, medicine and environmental studies to gain gas phase information about VOCs at parts per trillion (pptv) levels.The real-time method relies on proton transfer reactions between H 3 O + primary ions and VOCs which have a higher proton affinity than water molecules. Organic trace gases such as hydrocarbons, carbonyls, alcohols, acetonitrile, and others can be monitored on-line.Results on tropospheric VOCs measurements in tropical regions and in cities are discussed. (nevyjel)

  1. Application of SQUID for NDE and Biomagnetism measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ki; Kim, In Seon; Lee, Yong Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Kim, Jin Mok; Kim, Ki Woong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    SQUID is the most sensitive magnetic sensor known. It is able to detect the magnetic field as small as few femto Tesla (fT), which is equivalent to one of 10 billionth of earth magnetic field (about 50 muT). SQUID can be applied in the various fields and its need will be increased greatly in the future. If SQUID is applied in the medical technology, there will be important in accurate diagnosis of brain and heart by supplying more information about the functions of such human organs. The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of deep-lying flaws in the inner layer of lab jointed structures of aircraft, which is very difficult with the existing method became possible using high T{sub c} SQIUD. In this paper, the current status of SQUID application in both medical and NDE fields will be reviewed.

  2. Application of SQUID for NDE and biomagnetism measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ki; Kim, In Seon; Lee, Yong Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Kim, Jin Mok; Kim, Ki Woong [Kore Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-15

    SQUID is the most sensitive magnetic sensor known. It is able to detect the magnetic field as small as few femto Tesla (fT), which is equivalent to one of 10 billionth of earth magnetic field (about 50μT). SQUID can be applied in the various fields and its need will be increased greatly in the future. If SQUID is applied in the medical technology, there will be improvement in accurate diagnosis of brain and heart by supplying more information about the functions of such human organs. The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of deep-lying flaws in the inner layer of lab jointed structures of aircraft, which is very difficult with the existing method became possible using high T{sub c}. SQUID. In this paper, the current status of SQUID applications in both medical and NDE fields will be reviewed.

  3. Application of CAMAC in low-level activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the measuring and data processing facilities designed for use in the bioassay laboratory which is now under construction in the SAAS. The detector units, especially alpha and quantum spectrometers, are linked to a PDP11/34 based CAMAC system enabling fully-automatic data acquisition and processing operations to be made by making use of an event-driven technique via CAMAC interrupts. (author)

  4. Measurements and hydrological applications of 3H and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauert, W.

    1980-08-01

    A survey is given on the occurence of T and C 14 in the environment and pertinent low-level measuring techniques. T is used as artificial tracer for flow studies in laboratory and field tests. Examples are presented for the use of environmental T and C 14 to investigate shallow and deep groundwater and brines, and their interrelation with precipitation and surface water. Problems of sampling of deep groundwater are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  5. RFDR with Adiabatic Inversion Pulses: Application to Internuclear Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the structural characterisation of biomolecular systems via MAS solid state NMR, the potential utility of homonuclear dipolar recoupling with adiabatic inversion pulses has been assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of internuclear distances via an analysis of the initial cross-peak intensity buildup curves generated from two-dimensional adiabatic inversion pulse driven longitudinal magnetisation exchange experiments

  6. Nuclear Measurements, Evaluations and Applications - NEMEA-6. Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    NEMEA-6 brought together nuclear scientists from the new member states that joined the European Union since 2000, scientists from the 'old' member states and colleagues from Russia and Israel. About 30 papers were presented. Topics addressed during the workshop involved nuclear data needs and impact, nuclear data validation and benchmarks, the ANDES - Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability project, detectors and facilities, and measurements of nuclear data

  7. Importance of measuring Non-HDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, N.; Hashmi, F.; Jabbar, A

    2014-01-01

    .05). Conclusion: The study showed a correlation between Non-high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. As measuring Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Type 2 DM patients is simple, cost-effective and convenient because it does not require 12-hour fasting which may be a risk for hypoglycaemia in these patients, clinicians may choose Non-high-density lipoprotein as a routine measure in everyday practice. (author)

  8. Application of terahertz radiation to soil measurements: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future.

  9. Measurement of the partial widths of the Z into up- and down-type quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Using the entire OPAL LEP1 on-peak Z hadronic decay sample, Z -> qbarq gamma decays were selected by tagging hadronic final states with isolated photon candidates in the electromagnetic calorimeter. Combining the measured rates of Z -> qbarq gamma decays with the total rate of hadronic Z decays permits the simultaneous determination of the widths of the Z into up- and down-type quarks. The values obtained, with total errors, were Gamma u = 300 ^{+19}_{-18} MeV and Gamma d = 381 ^{+12}_{-12} MeV. The results are in good agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  10. A comparison of three different types of temperature measurement in HITU fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J.; Jenderka, K.-V.; Seifert, F.; Klepsch, T.; Martin, E.; Shaw, A.; Durando, G.; Guglielmone, C.; Girard, F.

    2012-10-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of the temperature elevation caused by high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) in a tissue-mimicking material (TMM) has been determined with magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry, infrared (IR) thermometry and a thermal test object with an integrated thin-film thermocouple at three different National Metrological Institutes (PTB/Germany, NPL/UK, INRIM/Italy). Results obtained from the different types of measurement are compared and some general aspects of the methods are discussed, particularly with regard to their suitability for the in vitro characterization of transducers for treatment planning.

  11. N-type compensated silicon: resistivity, crystal growth, carrier lifetime, and relevant application for HIT solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Gao, Wenxiu; Li, Zhen; Cheng, Haoran; Lin, Jinxia; Cheng, Qijin

    2017-05-01

    N-type compensated silicon shows unusual distribution of resistivity as crystal grows compared to the n-type uncompensated silicon. In this paper, evolutions of resistivities with varied concentrations of boron and varied starting resistivities of the n-type silicon are intensively calculated. Moreover, reduction of carrier mobility is taken into account by Schindler’s modified model of carrier mobility for the calculation of resistivity of the compensated silicon. As for substrates of solar cells, optimized starting resistivity and corresponding concentration of boron are suggested for better uniformity of resistivity and higher yield (fraction with ρ >0.5 ~ Ω \\centerdot \\text{cm} ) of the n-type compensated Cz crystal rod. A two-step growth method is investigated to obtain better uniformity of resistivity of crystal rod, and this method is very practical especially for the n-type compensated silicon. Regarding the carrier lifetime, the recombination by shallow energy-level dopants is taken into account for the compensated silicon, and evolution of carrier lifetime is simulated by considering all main recombination centers which agrees well with our measured carrier lifetimes as crystal grows. The n-type compensated silicon shows a larger reduction of carrier lifetime compared to the uncompensated silicon at the beginning of crystal growth, and recombination with a oxygen-related deep defect is sufficient to describe the reduction of degraded lifetime. Finally, standard heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer (HIT) solar cells are made with substrates from the n-type compensated silicon rod, and a high efficiency of 22.1% is obtained with a high concentration (0.8× {{10}16}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} ) of boron in the n-type compensated silicon feedstock. However, experimental efficiencies of HIT solar cells based on the n-type compensated silicon show an average reduction of 4% along with the crystal length compared to the uncompensated silicon. The

  12. Assessing Psychological Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: a Critical Comparison of Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Truscott, E; Pouwer, F; Speight, J

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures. Assessment of PIR should focus on the identification of negative and positive attitudes towards insulin use. Actual or hypothetical insulin refusal may be better conceptualised as a potential consequence of PIR, as its assessment overlooks the attitudes that may prevent insulin use. This paper provides guidance on the selection of questionnaires for clinical or research purpose and the development of new, or improvement of existing, questionnaires.

  13. Visualization and measurement of refrigerant flow in compression-type refrigerator by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Shibata, Y.; Ebisu, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The refrigerant two-phase flows in a capillary tube and a distributor used in a compression-type refrigerator were visualized by real-time neutron radiography. The thermal neutron radiography system of JRR-3M at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. In the visualization experiments of the two-phase flow in the capillary tube of 2 mm I.D., a cooled CCD camera was used, and the axial one-dimensional distributions of void fraction were measured. For the distributor, a high sensitivity video camera with a silicone intensified target tube was used. From the visualized images, the refrigerant behaviors in the distributor were clearly shown, and the liquid fraction in each tube was measured. As a result, it was shown that the refrigerant behaviors in the distributor effected the distributing performance of the refrigerant flow

  14. Pelvic reference selection in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH for measuring leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Chang, Fei; Wang, Chenyu; Yang, Modi; Wang, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    We identified the presence of deformities in the affected pelvis of unilateral Crowe type IV DDH patients, and if present, whether the teardrop and ischial lines were parallel with the sacral base line. We also verified whether the sacral base line provided a better pelvic landmark than the teardrop line for determining leg length inequality (LLI). After leveling the pelvis by using a block to lift the short leg, standard anterior-posterior full-length radiography was performed on 10 patients and 10 healthy volunteers as controls. The ratio of pelvic heights on each side of the pelvis, the angles formed by the sacral base line and the other 2 lines between 2 groups were measured. LLI were measured by sacral base line and teardrop line respectively. The ratio between the pelvic heights was lower in the patient group than in the control group (0.95 versus 0.99). The angles between the teardrop and ischial lines and the sacral base line in the patient group were both greater than in the control group (6.08° versus 0.92° and 7.13° versus 0.97°). LLI measured from the sacral base line was larger than from the teardrop line in the patient group (5.55 cm versus 4.36 cm). There was pelvic asymmetry and the sacral base line was not parallel with the other 2 lines in unilateral Crowe type IV DDH. The leveled sacral base line was perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and may be a better choice for accurate LLI measurement in this situation.

  15. Sella turcica measurements on lateral cephalograms of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure line segments and areas of sella turcica on lateral cephalograms with respect to the clinical diagnosis of facial phenotype of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Special attention was given to correlate the measured values with certain tumour types that are typical for this disease.Material and methods: Lateral cephalograms of 194 individuals were investigated. Patients with NF1 were further divided according to the detection and topography of facial plexiform neurofibromas (PNF taking into account the distribution pattern of the trigeminal nerve. All patients with PNF showed unilateral tumour localisation. Patients without any facial PNF constituted a separate group. Healthy volunteers with ideal occlusion and no history of any intervention in the maxillofacial region served as a control group. The following items were determined on the radiographs: sella entrance, sella width, sella depths, sella diagonal, and sella area.Results: Patients with PNF of the first and second trigeminal nerve branch or affected in all branches showed highly statistically significant enlarged sella tucica measurement values. On the other hand, patients with PNF restricted to one branch only or simultaneously in the second and third branches showed measurement values that were not different to those obtained in NF1 patients devoid of facial PNF. The latter group also showed no difference of sella turcica parameters obtained in the control group.Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the association of a certain NF1 phenotype with distinct skeletal alterations of the skull base, shown here using the example of the representation of the sella turcica in the lateral radiograph. These findings are also relevant in the discussion of NF1 as a disease of bones and in the assessment of brain development in NF1. Both items are discussed in relationship to a facial plexiform neurofibroma. Furthermore, the knowledge of this

  16. Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hershberger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    This book examines how individuals behave across time and to what degree that behavior changes, fluctuates, or remains stable.It features the most current methods on modeling repeated measures data as reported by a distinguished group of experts in the field. The goal is to make the latest techniques used to assess intraindividual variability accessible to a wide range of researchers. Each chapter is written in a ""user-friendly"" style such that even the ""novice"" data analyst can easily apply the techniques.Each chapter features:a minimum discussion of mathematical detail;an empirical examp

  17. Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band - Calibration, measurements and data applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. A.; Thome, K.; Herman, B.; Gall, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods and presents results for sensing the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 0.94-micron water-vapor absorption band. Calibration and measurement techniques are presented for obtaining the water vapor transmission from the radiometer measurements. Models are also presented for retrieving the columnar water vapor amount from the estimated transmission. Example retrievals are presented for radiometer measurements made during the 1986 Arizona Monsoon Season to track temporal variations in columnar water vapor amount.

  18. Stochastic measures of network resilience: applications to waterway commodity flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroud, Hiba; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E; Barker, Kash; Rocco, Claudio M

    2014-07-01

    Given the ubiquitous nature of infrastructure networks in today's society, there is a global need to understand, quantify, and plan for the resilience of these networks to disruptions. This work defines network resilience along dimensions of reliability, vulnerability, survivability, and recoverability, and quantifies network resilience as a function of component and network performance. The treatment of vulnerability and recoverability as random variables leads to stochastic measures of resilience, including time to total system restoration, time to full system service resilience, and time to a specific α% resilience. Ultimately, a means to optimize network resilience strategies is discussed, primarily through an adaption of the Copeland Score for nonparametric stochastic ranking. The measures of resilience and optimization techniques are applied to inland waterway networks, an important mode in the larger multimodal transportation network upon which we rely for the flow of commodities. We provide a case study analyzing and planning for the resilience of commodity flows along the Mississippi River Navigation System to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed metrics. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Ohta, T.; Nishida, M.; Rakowski, A.; Ikeda, A.; Oda, H.; Kojima, S.

    2007-01-01

    14 C variations of atmospheric CO 2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14 C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14 C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14 C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14 C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C and 14 C/ 12 C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14 C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14 C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

  20. Knowledge Management Application in Measurement of Organizational Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Rezaeemanesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational maturity is the ability of retain or development of performance during the long-term and it is the result of the continued satisfaction of organization’s stakeholders during the time. Organizational maturity will occur through identification of environmental changes and upgrading of organization’s strategic plans and visions. Organizations shall be able to predict the environment and adapt their planning to it. Therefore, for achieving maturity, organizations shall monitor its environmental factors changes continuously. On the other hand, today knowledge is the only confidential source for creating the sustainable competitive advantage in organizations. In addition, knowledge is a tool for capture and retain of sustainable competitive advantage for organizations and they find the importance of knowledge as a strategic source, more and more. In this research, organization’s maturity and knowledge management models have been introduced and a model for measurement of maturity level of organizations has been presented. This research approach was to use knowledge management activities for managing of environmental changes knowledge to creating of organizational maturity .To proving of the presented model, maturity level of 112 automotive part producers has evaluated. Finally, the results showed that the researchers' hypotheses were true and knowledge management activities and organization’s maturity were correlated. For hypotheses test and measuring the questionnaires validity Pearson correlation coefficient has used.

  1. Development of Autonomous Boat-Type Robot for Automated Velocity Measurement in Straight Natural River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjou, Michio; Nagasaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The present study describes an automated system to measure the river flow velocity. A combination of the camera-tracking system and the Proportional/Integral/Derivative (PID) control could enable the boat-type robot to remain in position against the mainstream; this results in reasonable evaluation of the mean velocity by a duty ratio which corresponds to rotation speed of the screw propeller. A laser range finder module was installed to measure the local water depth. Reliable laboratory experiments with the prototype boat robot and electromagnetic velocimetry were conducted to obtain a calibration curve that connects the duty ratio and mean current velocity. The remaining accuracy in the target point was also examined quantitatively. The fluctuation in the spanwise direction is within half of the robot length. It was therefore found that the robot remains well within the target region. We used two-dimensional navigation tests to guarantee that the prototype moved smoothly to the target points and successfully measured the streamwise velocity profiles across the mainstream. Moreover, the present robot was found to move successfully not only in the laboratory flume but also in a small natural river. The robot could move smoothly from the starting point near the operator's site toward the target point where the velocity is measured, and it could evaluate the cross-sectional discharge.

  2. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  3. The application of wavelet shrinkage denoising to magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, James [American Stress Technologies, Inc., 540 Alpha Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The application of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a non-destructive method of defect detection has proliferated throughout the manufacturing community. Instrument technology and measurement methodology have matured commensurately as applications have moved from the R and D labs to the fully automated manufacturing environment. These new applications present a new set of challenges including a bevy of error sources. A significant obstacle in many industrial applications is a decrease in signal to noise ratio due to (i) environmental EMI and (II) compromises in sensor design for the purposes of automation. The stochastic nature of MBN presents a challenge to any method of noise reduction. An application of wavelet shrinkage denoising is proposed as a method of decreasing extraneous noise in MBN measurements. The method is tested and yields marked improvement on measurements subject to EMI, grounding noise, and even measurements in ideal conditions.

  4. Concurrent validity of self-report measures of eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Emden, Helen; Holden, Libby; McDermott, Brett; Harris, Mark; Gibbons, Kristen; Gledhill, Anne; Cotterill, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Eating disorder screening tools have not been adequately validated for use with adolescents with type 1 diabetes. This study compared the Youth Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (YEDE-Q) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 Risk Composite (EDI-3RC) against the child Eating Disorder Examination (chEDE). These screening tools were chosen because they broadly assess eating disorder psychopathology and have subscales helpful for clinical management. In this cross-sectional study, 124 adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 13-18 years completed two self-administered questionnaires, the YEDE-Q and the EDI-3RC. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency of the tools. Fifty-one adolescents, randomly selected, participated in the chEDE. Intraclass correlations and Spearman's correlations were used to measure concordance of the chEDE with the YEDE-Q and EDI-3RC. The YEDE-Q and EDI-3RC demonstrated good subscale internal consistency; Cronbach's alpha for YEDE-Q (0.78-0.95) and EDI-3RC (0.79-0.94). High levels of concurrent validity with the chEDE were seen with both tools. Preliminary evidence is provided for the validation of the YEDE-Q and EDI-3RC for use in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The YEDE-Q also defines individual disturbed eating behaviours with frequency ratings which can be helpful for tailoring early intervention. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. Measurement of electron beams profile of pierce type electron source using sensor of used Tv tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Suhartono; Suprapto; Elin Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of an electron beam profile has been performed using electron beam monitor based on method of phosphorescent materials. The main components of the electron beam monitor consists of a fluorescent sensor using a used Tv tube, CCTV camera to record images on a Tv screen, video adapter as interface between CCTV and laptop, and the laptop as a viewer and data processing. Two Pierce-type electron sources diode and triode was measured the shape of electron beam profile in real time. Results of the experiments showed that the triode electron source of Pierce type gave the shape of electron beam profiles better than that of the diode electron source .The anode voltage is not so influential on the beam profile shape. The focused voltage in the triode electron source is so influence to the shape of the electron beam profile, but above 5 kV no great effect. It can be concluded that the electron beam monitor can provide real time observations and drawings shape of the electron beam profile displayed on the used Tv tube glass screen which is the real picture of the shape of the electron beam profile. Triode electron source produces a better electron beam profile than that of the diode electron source. (author)

  6. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  7. Pavement type and wear condition classification from tire cavity acoustic measurements with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Johannes; Foitzik, Michael-Jan; Frey, Michael; Gauterin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation. The classifier, an artificial neural network, correctly predicts three pavement types, whereas there are few bidirectional mis-classifications for two pavements, which have similar physical characteristics. The performance measures of the classifier to predict a new or worn out condition are over 94.6%. One could create a digital map with the output of the presented method. On the basis of these digital maps, road segments with a strong impact on tire road noise could be automatically identified. Furthermore, the method can estimate the road macro-texture, which has an impact on the tire road friction especially on wet conditions. Overall, this digital map would have a great benefit for civil engineering departments, road infrastructure operators, and for advanced driver assistance systems.

  8. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  9. Signal Morphing techniques and possible application to Higgs properties measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Katharina Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One way of describing deviations from the Standard Model is via Effective Field Theories or pseudo-observables, where higher order operators modify the couplings and the kinematics of the interaction of the Standard Model particles. Generating Monte Carlo events for every testable set of parameters for such a theory would require computing resources beyond the ones currently available in ATLAS. Up to now, Matrix-Element based reweighting techniques have been often used to model Beyond Standard Model process starting from Standard Model simulated events. In this talk, we review the advantages and the limitations of morphing techniques to construct continuous probability model for signal parameters, interpolating between a finite number of distributions obtained from the simulation chain. The technique will be exemplified by searching for deviations from the Standard Model predictions in Higgs properties measurements.

  10. Application of backpack Lidar to geological cross-section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Wang, Ran; Xiao, Zhouxuan; Li, Lu; Yao, Weihua; Han, Wei; Zhao, Baolin

    2017-11-01

    As the traditional geological cross section measurement, the artificial traverse method was recently substituted by using point coordinates data. However, it is still the crux of the matter that how to acquire the high-precision point coordinates data quickly and economically. Thereby, the backpack Lidar is presented on the premise of the principle of using point coordinates in this issue. Undoubtedly, Lidar technique, one of booming and international active remote sensing techniques, is a powerful tool in obtaining precise topographic information, high-precision 3-D coordinates and building a real 3-D model. With field practice and date processing indoors, it is essentially accomplished that geological sections maps could be generated simply, accurately and automatically in the support of relevant software such as ArcGIS and LiDAR360.

  11. Quantum entangle photon and applications in communication and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Chiangga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a single photon entangled state to secure the transmission data via a wireless communication link and a biological tissue study where the encrypted data/qubit is prepared and formed by using a simple optical system. The encrypted data can transmit securely i.e. without cloning to theintended recipient via a public wireless link. We have shown that the result of the entangled states has good visibility for the use of data quantum encryption. The generated entangled photon for up-link via wireless communication is proposed and the problem of quantum cloning described. The biological tissue characterizations using such a short pulse can be realize by using a simple optical arrangement and components. Such an implemented system has the advantage of that the ultra-short pulse of a single photon with its quantum state identification can be used to provide the required measured data.

  12. Application Of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Measure Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazila Said; Mohd Amirul Shafiq Shafiee; Nurul Hasanah Mohd Abd Basir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to measure service quality performance and identify critical service quality characteristics as perceived by the customers. An integrated results survey that conducted by seven service centers that certified with Quality Management System (QMS) in Nuclear Malaysia are analysed. This is followed by constructing House of Quality (HoQ) and identifying other parameters for the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix. HoQ is a simple and attractive service innovation tool which can be used to directly show comprehensive information which contained the voice of customer (VOC), technical response, technical correlation and matrix relationship. This study revealed that the information's from HoQ with further discussion on planning part which can be used to assist management in knowing the overall detail information of service center achievement and recognizes the solution for unsatisfied customer through priority improvement activity to enhance the customer satisfaction in future. (author)

  13. Anterior chamber volume. Its measurement and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, R L; Lloyd-Jones, D; Hitchings, R A

    1979-04-01

    Measurement of anterior chamber volume is discussed and attention drawn to a new, convenient slit-image method, which was used to study anterior chamber depth and volume before and after prophylactic peripheral iridectomy in the fellow eyes of patients presenting with unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma. There was no significant change in depth after iridectomy but the mean anterior chamber volume increased significantly (P less than 0.01), by nearly 3 per cent. This increase was due to elimination of peripheral iris bombé which was not present in two control groups of normal eyes, one matched for anterior chamber depth and the other for age and refraction. Peripheral iris bombé may be a quantifiable factor predisposing to the development of acute angle-closure glaucoma.

  14. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Selection of fiber-optical components for temperature measurement for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.; Koch, A. W.; Hurni, A.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Lemke, N. M. K.

    2017-11-01

    The Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) is a modular system for housekeeping measurements for space applications. The focus here is the fiber-optical module and the used fiber-Bragg gratings (FBGs) for temperature measurements at up to 100 measuring points. The fiber-optial module uses a tunable diode laser to scan through the wavelength spectrum and a passive optical network for reading back the reflections from the FBG sensors. The sensors are based on FBGs which show a temperature dependent shift in wavelength, allowing a high accuracy of measurement. The temperature at each sensor is derivated from the sensors Bragg wavelength shift by evaluating the measured spectrum with an FBG peak detection algorithm and by computing the corresponding temperature difference with regard to the calibration value. It is crucial to eliminate unwanted influence on the measurement accuracy through FBG wavelength shifts caused by other reasons than the temperature change. The paper presents gamma radiation test results up to 25 Mrad for standard UV-written FBGs in a bare fiber and in a mechanically housed version. This high total ionizing dose (TID) load comes from a possible location of the fiber outside the satellite's housing, like e.g. on the panels or directly embedded into the satellites structure. Due to the high shift in wavelength of the standard written gratings also the femto-second infrared (fs- IR) writing technique is investigated in more detail. Special focus is given to the deployed fibers for the external sensor network. These fibers have to be mechanically robust and the radiation induced attenuation must be low in order not to influence the system's performance. For this reason different fiber types have been considered and tested to high dose gamma radiation. Dedicated tests proved the absence of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS). Once the fiber has been finally selected, the fs-IR grating will be written to these fibers and the FBGs will be tested in order to

  16. Measured Hydrologic Storage Characteristics of Three Major Ice Wedge Polygon Types, Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, A. J.; Liljedahl, A.; Wilson, C. J.; Cable, W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations have suggested that the hydrologic fluxes and stores of Arctic wetlands are constrained by the micro-topographical features of ice wedge polygons, which are abundant in lowland tundra landscapes. Recently observed changes in ice wedge polygon landscapes - in particular, ice wedge degradation and trough formation - emphasize the need to better understand how differing ice wedge polygon morphologies affect the larger hydrologic system. Here we present three seasons of measured end-of-winter snow accumulation, continuous soil moisture and water table elevations, and repeated frost table mapping. Together, these describe the hydrologic characteristics of three main ice wedge polygon types: low centered polygons with limited trough development (representative of a ~500 year old vegetated drained thaw lake basin), and low- and high-centered polygons with well-defined troughs. Dramatic spatiotemporal variability exists both between polygon types and between the features of an individual polygon (e.g. troughs, centers, rims). Landscape-scale end-of-winter snow water equivalent is similar between polygon types, while the sub-polygon scale distribution of the surface water differs, both as snow and as ponded water. Some sub-polygon features appear buffered against large variations in water levels, while others display periods of prolonged recessions and large responses to rain events. Frost table elevations in general mimic the ground surface topography, but with spatiotemporal variability in thaw rate. The studied thaw seasons represented above long-term average rainfall, and in 2014, record high June precipitation. Differing ice wedge polygon types express dramatically different local hydrology, despite nearly identical climate forcing and landscape-scale snow accumulation, making ice wedge polygons an important component when describing the Arctic water, nutrient and energy system.

  17. Evolution characteristics and application of diamondoids in coal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As diamondoids have been used to evaluate petroleum and source rocks widely; their origin, evolution, and distribution in petroleum as well as source rocks have attracted ever more attention. Having finished the pyrolysis simulation experiment of the coal measure mudrocks from Xujiahe Formation, Sichuan Basin, results indicated that with the equivalent vitrinite reflectance (EasyRo increasing, diamondoids experience generation (1.0%  1.5%. Throughout the simulation experiment, diamondoid parameters MAI, EAI, and TMAI-1 kept good relationships with maturity within the range of EasyRo 1.5%–2.5%, 1.0%–2.5%, and 1.5%–2.5% respectively, with all of the correlation coefficient (R2 being above 0.7844, this indicated that these parameters can be used to evaluate maturity at these ranges. In addition, the yield ratios A/D, MA/MD, DMA/DMD, and As/Ds also kept good relationships with maturity at the range of EasyRo 1.2%–2.5%, with all of the R2 above 0.9236, this indicated that these ratios can be used to evaluate maturity index at this range.

  18. Measurement of risk of sensitisation and its application to Kathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, S; Spiro, J

    1987-11-01

    The prevalences of patch test reactions to 27 common allergens including Kathon 100 ppm, were calculated in a standard test battery applied to 2 consecutive cohorts of 656 and 653 patients seen in 1985/6 and 1986/7. The overall prevalence of Kathon sensitivity was 0.9% for 1985-87. The prevalence for 1985/6 and 1986/7 was 0.8% and 1.1% (difference not significant). The rate of sensitisation to Kathon was measured in 212 patients with negative patch tests by retesting after 6-15 months (mean 10.8 months +/- 0.2 SE), and gave a mean rate of sensitisation of 1/2280 patient months or 0.5%/patient population. Retesting 45 negative reactors after 4 weeks gave no new reactors, showing that the rate of sensitisation by patch testing with 100 ppm Kathon is low. It is concluded that the low and stable prevalence of Kathon sensitivity and the low rate of new sensitisation is in keeping with a low potential for sensitisation. Used on a larger scale, the present method would rapidly define risk from potential new allergens.

  19. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  20. Comparison of measurement accuracy between two types of wrist goniometer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, P; Johnson, P W

    2001-12-01

    Studies have shown that wrist goniometers are prone to measurement errors, particularly due to crosstalk. This study compared two wrist goniometer systems: a commonly used biaxial, single transducer (System A) and a biaxial, two-transducer (System B). Wrist angles, range of movement and crosstalk results were compared. With the wrist in 90 degrees of pronation, eight subjects were placed in 20 different wrist postures between -40 degrees and 40 degrees of flexion/extension and between -10 degrees and 20 degrees of deviation. Relative to System B, System A had larger measurement errors and was more prone to crosstalk. There may be two sources of crosstalk: (1) intrinsic crosstalk associated with the design, application and twisting of the goniometer transducer when on the wrist, and (2) extrinsic crosstalk associated with the anatomy and complex movement of the wrist joint. It appears that the majority of the radial/ulnar crosstalk measured with System A was intrinsic crosstalk due to the twisting of the goniometer transducer.

  1. An Extended Phenacene-type Molecule, [8]Phenacene: Synthesis and Transistor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hideki; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Hamao, Shino; Goto, Hidenori; Gotoh, Kazuma; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Takaguchi, Yutaka; Gohda, Shin; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A new phenacene-type molecule, [8]phenacene, which is an extended zigzag chain of coplanar fused benzene rings, has been synthesised for use in an organic field-effect transistor (FET). The molecule consists of a phenacene core of eight benzene rings, which has a lengthy π-conjugated system. The structure was verified by elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, absorption spectrum and photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS). This type of molecule is quite interesting, not only as pure chemistry but also for its potential electronics applications. Here we report the physical properties of [8]phenacene and its FET application. An [8]phenacene thin-film FET fabricated with an SiO2 gate dielectric showed clear p-channel characteristics. The highest μ achieved in an [8]phenacene thin-film FET with an SiO2 gate dielectric is 1.74 cm2 V−1 s−1, demonstrating excellent FET characteristics; the average μ was evaluated as 1.2(3) cm2 V−1 s−1. The μ value in the [8]phenacene electric-double-layer FET reached 16.4 cm2 V−1 s−1, which is the highest reported in EDL FETs based on phenacene-type molecules; the average μ was evaluated as 8(5) cm2 V−1 s−1. The μ values recorded in this study show that [8]phenacene is a promising molecule for transistor applications. PMID:24936854

  2. Linear and angular measurements of the foot of modern humans: a test of Morton's foot types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautzenheiser, Steven G; Kramer, Patricia Ann

    2013-10-01

    In his classic research, Morton established two functionally different configurations of the bipedal and non-bipedal primate foot: one optimized for stability, with a stiff longitudinal arch and adducted first metatarsal, and the other for compliance. Modern human feet were seen as conforming to the bipedal norm and variation from it as pathology, even though clinical evidence has been clear that variation from the norm of a stiff longitudinal arch or adducted first metatarsal exists. This study aims to document the variation in linear and angular measurements of the foot, using weight-bearing radiographs of 50 randomly selected people (25 men) from an urban US Level 1 trauma center. The radiographs were obtained to "rule-out" a foot fracture after trauma or as comparison films for a contralateral foot injury. Measurements were made using Osirix and correlations among the angular and length measurements were determined using Stata with P types. Whether or not this variation in modern humans is linked to functionally important consequences remains to be determined in future research. With the new evidence of a more variable foot structure in fossil hominins, understanding the relationship between foot morphology and function becomes more urgent. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Measurement of casting shrinkage with U-type tungsten die (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, A; Nakamura, K; Seki, S; Kakuta, K; Kawashima, J

    1980-04-01

    A simple method was developed for the accurate measurement of casting shrinkage using a U-type tungsten die. A wax pattern was prepared on the die and both were invested together in phosphate bonded investment. Cobalt-chromium alloy, Regalloy shot 2, was cast and its shrinkage was calculated from the distance of the gap created between the die and the cast piece. In order to evaluate the effects of some manipulative variables on the cast shrinkage value of the alloy, mold temperature, kind of liquid for the investment and powder/liquid ratio were varied and shrinkage values were obtained. The results showed that the shrinkage value was not affected by the kind of liquid and the power/liquid ratio, but significantly decreased as the mold temperature raised up to 600 degree C. However, this effect was eliminated by means of substractive correction of the thermal expansion of the tungsten die. Thus, the casting shrinkage of the cobalt-chromium alloy, Regalloy shot 2, was calculated to be 2.08 +/- 0.02%. The casting shrinkage of pure gold was also measured with the same procedure. The casting shrinkage was calculated to be 1.73 +/- 0.04% and highly consistent with the value (1.74%) reported by R. Earnshaw. This suggested that the developed method was sufficiently effective for the accurate measurement of casting shrinkage.

  4. Aboriginal research coalition externalities associated with energy production: Types, measures and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, I.

    1992-01-01

    A system that has evolved to determine the environmental externalities associated with energy generation is described. The system involves identification and understanding of the activity being considered (power generation from a specific type of plant), effects such as air pollution, measures such as pollution control that can influence the levels of the preceding effects, the resources affected, impacts on human resource uses, and the values humans place on the use of the resources. Considerations in estimating external costs are then discussed. These include property rights, air emissions, electromagnetic fields, pollution control effectiveness and costs, valuation of air emissions, water quality and quantity, effects on fisheries and recreational activities, and effects of dams and inundation. A least-cost, or integrated management process, selects the combination of electricity supply and demand sources that have the least social cost. Total externality costs are estimated, based on emissions or effects from each source multiplied by unit costs, and control measures selected. The external costs are combined with the usual fixed and variable cost calculations to provide a total social cost measure. This monetization procedure allows a complete accounting of all costs to society on an equal basis. 53 refs., 4 figs

  5. Measurement of cooling detection thresholds for identification of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Lysy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to recently-studied novel morphological measures, conventional small nerve fiber functional tests have not been systematically studied for identification of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP. We aimed to determine and compare the diagnostic performance of cooling detection thresholds (CDT in a cross-sectional type 1 diabetes cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 136 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 52 healthy volunteers underwent clinical and electrophysiological examination for DSP classification concomitantly with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS and three small fiber function tests: CDT, heart rate variability (HRV, and laser doppler imaging of axon-mediated neurogenic flare responses to cutaneous heating (LDIFLARE. Area under the curve (AUC and optimal thresholds were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves in the type 1 diabetes cohort. RESULTS: Type 1 diabetes subjects were 42±17 years of age with mean HbA1c 7.9±1.7%. Fifty-nine (45% met the case definition for DSP. CDT values were lowest in cases with DSP (18.3±8.4°C compared to controls without DSP (28.4±3.5°C and to healthy volunteers (29.6±1.8°C; p-value for both comparisons<0.0001. AUCCDT was 0.863 which was similar to AUCTCNS (0.858, p = 0.24 and AUCHRV (0.788, p = 0.05, but exceeded AUCLDIFLARE (0.750, p = 0.001. The threshold of <25.1°C was equivalent to the lower bound of the healthy volunteer 95% distribution [25.1, 30.8°C] and performed with 83% sensitivity and 82% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Akin to novel small fiber morphological measures, CDT is a functional test that identifies DSP with very good diagnostic performance. These findings support further research that revisits the role of CDT in early DSP detection.

  6. Azaisoindigo conjugated polymers for high performance n-type and ambipolar thin film transistor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2016-09-28

    Two new alternating copolymers, PAIIDBT and PAIIDSe have been prepared by incorporating a highly electron deficient azaisoindigo core. The molecular structure and packing of the monomer is determined from the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both polymers exhibit high EAs and highly planar polymer backbones. When polymers are used as the semiconducting channel for solution-processed thin film transistor application, good properties are observed. A–A type PAIIDBT exhibits unipolar electron mobility as high as 1.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, D–A type PAIIDSe exhibits ambipolar charge transport behavior with predominately electron mobility up to 0.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 and hole mobility to 0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1. The robustness of the extracted mobility values are also commented on in detail. Molecular orientation, thin film morphology and energetic disorder of both polymers are systematically investigated.

  7. Automatic Nephelometer of an Open Type for science atmosphere researches and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razenkov, I. A.; Rostov, A. P.; Park, W. K.; Burkov, V. V.

    1997-01-01

    Intellectual nephelometer of open type designed by the authors for in situ studies of the atmosphere are described. The nephlometer operate in near IR wavelength range. The construction and concept of the devices allow them either to work independently during several hours or to be operated remotely at a distance up to 500 m from the central host computer. The results and their analysis of two weeks test at Kumkang Hu-Tech Co. are represented. This Nephelometer is a new class of intellectual instruments intended for long-term application on open air and allowing to receive qualitative and the quantitative information about a scattering coefficient in situ.

  8. Hybrid Approximation of Solutions of Nonlinear Operator Equations and Application to Equation of Hammerstein-Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoedu, Eric U.; Malonza, David M.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study the hybrid iterative scheme to find a common element of a set of solutions of generalized mixed equilibrium problem, a set of common fixed points of finite family of weak relatively nonexpansive mapping, and null spaces of finite family of γ-inverse strongly monotone mappings in a 2-uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space. Our results extend, improve and generalize the results of several authors which were announced recently. An application of our theorem to the solution of equations of Hammerstein-type is of independent interest. (author)

  9. Development and application of W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components at ASIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhao, S. X.; Sun, Z. X.; Xu, Y.; Li, B.; Wei, R.; Wang, W. J.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Xie, C. Y.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Missirlian, M.; Guilhem, D.; Liu, G. H.; Yang, Z. S.; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-12-01

    W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components (PFCs) were widely used in divertor of fusion device because of its advantages, such as low cost, light in weight and good machinability. However, it is very difficult to manufacture them due to the large mismatch between the thermo-mechanical properties of W and Cu. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) has successfully developed W/Cu flat-type PFCs for EAST W/Cu divertor project by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology. This paper presents the development and application of W/Cu flat-type PFCs at ASIPP. The optimized manufacturing process is to cast pure copper onto the rear side of W tiles at temperature of 1200 °C firstly, and then to HIP the W/Cu tiles onto CuCrZr heat sink at temperature of 600 °C, pressure of 150 MPa and duration of 3 h. W/Cu flat-type testing mock-up for EAST survived 1000 cycles at heat load of 5 MW m-2 in high heat flux tests. And then ASIPP prepared two mock-ups for CEA’s tungsten environment in steady-state tokamak (WEST) project. One mock-up withstood successfully 302 cycles of 20 MW m-2, which are far beyond the design requirement. Since 2014, W/Cu flat-type PFCs were wildly used in EAST upper divertor as baffle and dome components which showed excellent performance in 2015 and 2016 campaigns. Given the success in EAST upper divertor, W/Cu flat-type concept is as well applied in the design of actively cooled Langmuir probes which will be mounted onto EAST divertor targets soon.

  10. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  11. The application of informal measures in juvenile Criminal Law of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The new juvenile criminal justice system of the Republic of Serbia completely follows the goals of criminal policy - i.e. education and re-education of juvenile perpetrators of criminal offences. In that way, the preventive character of this branch of law is particularly emphasized. In theory, it is pointed out that juvenile criminal sanctions are primarily measures of assistance and socialization, with a minimal amount of coercion, limitations of rights and freedoms or repression and a high level of assistance, care, supervision and prevention, designed to remove the obstacles for normal and regular development and maturation of juveniles. Such concept is in accordance with a series of international and European standards on the treatment of juveniles in conflict with the law. However, along with and instead of juvenile criminal sanctions, modern criminal legislations are also familiar with different informal measures, application of which is recommended whenever it is possible to avoid the regular course of criminal procedure. These measures include educational orders, guidelines, bans or recommendations the aim of which is to avoid or postpone the conduct of criminal procedure against juvenile offenders. The application of these measures in supposed to replace the criminal procedure against juvenile offenders with procedures prescribed in other branches of law such as family law or social welfare law. The most significant innovation in the field of juvenile criminal justice system is the introduction informal or alternative measures, defined in the form of educational orders (recommendations or guidelines. Perceived and defined in such manner, the replacement of criminal procedure refers to various means, measures and procedures that are intended to protect juvenile offenders from harmful effects of court and criminal sanctions. Educational orders represent specific measures that do not have the character of criminal sanctions. One or more

  12. A theoretical and experimental study on no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Yu, Xin; Jiang, Chengzhi; Wang, Baoguang

    2003-04-01

    A novel no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system with three sets of position sensitive devices (PSDs) to realize intersection converge imaging is introduced. It is called as the light pen type measurement system, because the measuring head is shaped as a pen with several light sources on it. The structure design, measurement principle and experimental results are presented. The theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that this system has advanced features of simple structure, high automation, and high accuracy, and can be used in the measurement fields of mechanical manufacture, robot, auto, aviation and medicine effectively.

  13. Nanoindentation measurements of a highly oriented wurtzite-type boron nitride bulk crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deura, Momoko; Kutsukake, Kentaro; Ohno, Yutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We succeeded in synthesizing a bulk crystal of wurtzite-type boron nitride (w-BN) by the direct conversion method. The synthesized crystal was approximately 2 mm wide and 350 µm thick, and highly oriented to the c-axis. We performed nanoindentation measurements on the c-plane of the w-BN crystal at room temperature to evaluate the mechanical properties of w-BN. The hardness and Young’s modulus of w-BN from the obtained curves were simultaneously determined to be 54 ± 2 and 860 ± 40 GPa, respectively. The underlying physical mechanism that dominates the mechanical properties of group-III nitride semiconductors is also examined.

  14. Validity of Actigraphy in Measurement of Sleep in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Quinn, Lauretta; Carley, David W

    2017-05-15

    Accurate objective measurement of sleep, an important health behavior, is needed. Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have altered sleep architecture and reduced sleep quality in comparison with healthy controls. The aim of this investigation was to compare a commonly used actigraphy device, Actiwatch2, with polysomnography (PSG)-based measures of sleep in young adults with T1DM, and to determine which Actiwatch2 threshold setting provides the best correspondence. Subjects age 18-30 years with T1DM wore the Actiwatch2 while simultaneously undergoing in-laboratory PSG. Sleep parameters were derived from the Actiwatch2 using the three different sensitivity thresholds (low, medium, and high) provided by the manufacturer and compared with sleep parameters from PSG. Statistical analysis included intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots for comparison of sleep parameters. Cohen kappa and the prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) were calculated to determine agreement between epoch-by-epoch sleep and wake data measured by the PSG versus Actiwatch2. Twenty-seven subjects were included in the analysis. The low threshold setting provided the greatest agreement and least bias in comparison with PSG for sleep parameters (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.38 to 0.77). Mean differences between the low setting and PSG were nonsignificant ( P > .65) for all sleep parameters except sleep onset latency ( P = .04). All three settings provided approximately equivalent and moderate epoch-by-epoch agreement with the PSG (PABAK coefficients ranging from 0.56 to 0.63). When measuring sleep with the Actiwatch2 in young adults with T1DM, the low threshold setting provides the most accurate estimates of sleep parameters in comparison with PSG. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  15. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Ding

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8 or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (n = 8 via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  16. Dosimetric characterization of a brachytherapy applicator using MCNP5 modelisation and in-phantom measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardy, I. [Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles, 150, Rue Royale, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: gerardy@isib.be; Rodenas, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Dycke, M. van [Clinique Saint Jean, Bld du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gallardo, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ceccolini, Elisa [Facolta di ingegneria, Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    A gynaecological applicator consisting of a metallic intra-uterine tube with a plastic vaginal applicator and an HDR Ir-192 source have been simulated with MCNP5 (Monte Carlo code). A solid phantom has been designed to perform measurements around the applicator with radiochromic films. The isodose curves obtained are compared with curves calculated with the F4MESH tally of MCNP5 with a good agreement. A pinpoint ionization chamber has been used to evaluate dose at some reference points.

  17. First Ramsey-type mass measurements with ISOLTRAP and design studies of the new PENTATRAP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Sebastian

    2009-07-09

    The application of Penning traps for mass spectrometry has led to a major step in the mass precision. Consequently, atomic masses became more and more important as input parameters in different research fields. This exploitation is still ongoing in line with a steady development of Penning trap mass spectrometers to even higher accuracies. Penning trap mass spectrometry is based on the determination of the free cyclotron frequency {nu}{sub c}=qB/(2{pi}m) of an ion confined in a homogeneous magnetic field B. In principle two different measurement techniques are available: By applying the destructive time-of-flight detection method (TOF-ICR) the trap content is lost after the measurement. Since it is a fast measurement method it is usually used for mass determinations of short-lived radionuclides, whereas a relative mass uncertainty {delta}m/m of a few parts in 10{sup -9} is routinely reached even for nuclides with half-lives well below 500 ms. This has been achieved by the implementation of the Ramsey method in Penning trap mass spectrometry within this work. By contrast the non-destructive Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance detection method (FT-ICR) determines the frequency of the image current introduced in the trap electrodes by the ion motion. Thus, the ion remains in the trap and can be used for further measurement cycles. This method is often applied for measurements of stable nuclides reaching a relative mass uncertainty of less than {delta}m/m=10{sup -11}. One part of this thesis was the application of time-separated oscillatory fields, called Ramsey method, for resonant ion motion excitation in order to improve the time-of-flight detection method. It was used to measure the nuclides {sup 26,27}Al and {sup 38,39}Ca with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The mass values have been included in the ''Atomic Mass Evaluation'' (AME). Furthermore, the nuclides {sup 26}Al and {sup 38}Ca serve as input parameters for stringent

  18. Optimum Combination of Pickup Coil Type and Magnetically Shielded Room for Maximum SNR to Measure Biomagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, J. M.; Park, Y. K. [Biosignal Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    We have investigated the optimum combination of the environmental noise condition and type of SQUID pickup coil in order to obtain maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measurement probe consists of 1st order gradiometer with pickup coils of 100 mm, 70 mm, and 50 mm baseline length, a 2nd order gradiometer with 50 mm baseline, and a magnetometer. The pickup coils are fabricated by winding Nb wire on a bobbin with 200 mm diameter. Noise and heart signal of a healthy male were measured by various SQUID sensors with different types of pickup coils in various magnetically shielded rooms (MSR), and compared to each other. The shielding factors were found to be 43 dB, 35 dB and 25 dB at 0.1 Hz for MSR-AS, MSR-BS, MSR-CS, respectively. White noises were 3.5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, 4.5 fT/Hz {sup 1/2} and 3 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} for the 1st order gradiometers, the 2nd order gradiometers, and magnetometer for all MSRs. SNR of the magnetometer was up to 56 dB in MSR-AS, while the 1st order axial gradiometer with 70 mm baseline length was up to 54 dB in MSR-BS. The 2nd order axial gradiometer with 50 mm baseline length of pickup coil was found to be up to 40 dB in MSR-CS.

  19. Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particleserosion. Particular attention is paid to how the creation of a new trail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.

  20. Improvement of a mediator-type biochemical oxygen demand sensor for on-site measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Hoashi, J; Morita, T; McNiven, S J; Nakamura, H; Karube, I

    2001-07-12

    We characterized a mediator-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor with a three-electrode system using potassium ferricyanide (FC) and Pseudomonas fluorescens in our previous study. In the present study, we have utilized the advantages of a mediator-type biosensor, which does not require air-supply equipment for on-site measurements, and made a fully disposable sensor tip for a portable device. The tip consists of a two-electrode system with P. fluorescens immobilized on a cellulose acetate membrane and is packaged in polyester film to prevent it from drying out. By aeration with a 0.1 M NaCl solution of P. fluorescens (after growth), the sensor responses as well as their reproducibility and stability have been successfully improved. The responses increased more than seven times, and the calibration curve from 15 to 260 mg l(-1) also remained linear although the response decreased approximately half the original after at least 35 days in storage. The reproducibility of the sensor responses improved to 12.7% (average of relative standard deviations (RSDs)) in the calibration curve obtained by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development synthetic sewage. Examination of real samples from three different sources showed that the BOD as determined by the sensor correlates well with the conventional 5-day BOD method (r(2)=0.982, 0.823, and 0.809). Consequently, the aeration process makes it possible to realize rapid, and in situ measurements without the long conditioning process that is generally required to activate the microorganisms immobilized on bio-films before use. Finally, we have designed a portable device that utilizes our disposable sensor tip.

  1. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  2. [Clinical study of glycated albumin measurement by enzymatic method in type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Jian-Ming; Dou, Jing-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Ma, Fang-Ling; Zhai, Huai-Wei; Zou, Xiao-Man; Mu, Yi-Ming; Lu, Ju-Ming

    2009-06-09

    To evaluate the clinical significance of glycated albumin (GA) measured by enzymatic method and to compare its effect with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). 128 type 2 DM patients and 84 normal subjects from the Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled for the study. The levels of GA, HbA1c, FBG, PBG in DM patient were detected at baseline and followed visit at 2, 4, 8 weeks after blood glucose management. The levels of GA, HbA1c, FBG, PBG and 75 g OGTT were also detected in above normal subjects. Intra CV and inter CV of enzymatic were (0.74-0.9)% and (0.94-1.49)% respectively. In normal subjects GA was in the range of (9-14)%. At baseline, the GA level was significantly correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.8326, P PBG. After 2, 4, 8 weeks treatment, GA level in DM patients was concomitantly decreased with the improvement of FBG, PBG and HbA1c. At early 2 weeks visit, GA, but not HbA1c, showed significant decrease from its baseline (P PBG during the 8 weeks treatment. GA was more sensitive than HbA1c for short-term variations of glycemic control during treatment of diabetic patients. GA can be used as a better index of short term mean level of blood glucose in diabetic patients.

  3. The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jason L; Labbé, Elise; Arke, Brooke; Capeless, Kirsten; Cooksey, Bret; Steadman, Angel; Gonzales, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress were evaluated. Sixty undergraduate psychology students, 31 males and 29 females, rated their level of relaxation and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after they were told that they would be taking a stressful, mental test. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to different types of music or silence while skin temperature, frontalis muscle activity, and heart rate were recorded. Participants rated their relaxation and anxiety levels after listening to music or silence and completed the Mental Rotations Task Test. MANOVA's resulted in significant differences between groups for trait anxiety, F(57, 3) = 3.058, p =.036, and postmusic phase heart rate, F(57, 3) = 3.522, p =.021. Significant differences were also found between groups on state anxiety when trait anxiety was used as a covariate, F(57, 3) = 3.95, p =.024. The results of the research suggest that music may have an effect on the cognitive component of the stress response.

  4. Measuring Self-Care in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Jiayun; Zhao, Weigang; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines the characteristics and psychometric properties of the instruments used to assess self-care behaviors among persons with type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published in English within the past 20 years. Thirty different instruments were identified in 75 articles: 18 original instruments on type 2 diabetes mellitus self-care, 8 translated or revised version, and 4 not specific but relevant to diabetes. Twenty-one instruments were multidimensional and addressed multiple dimensions of self-care behavior. Nine were unidimensional: three focusing exclusively on medication taking, three on diet, one on physical activity, one on self-monitoring of blood glucose, and one on oral care. Most instruments (22 of 30) were developed during the last decade. Only 10 were repeated more than once. Nineteen of the 30 instruments reported both reliability and validity information but with varying degrees of rigor. In conclusion, most instruments used to measure self-care were relatively new and had been applied to only a limited number of studies with incomplete psychometric profiles. Rigorous psychometric testing, operational definition of self-care, and sufficient explanation of scoring need to be considered for further instrument development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Written Type and Token Frequency Measures of Fifty Spanish Derivational Morphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Miguel; Acha, Joana; Illera, Víctor; Sainz, Javier S

    2016-11-08

    Several databases of written language exist in Spanish that manage important information on the lexical and sublexical characteristics of words. However, there is no database with information on the productivity and frequency of use of derivational suffixes: sublexical units with an essential role in the formation of orthographic representations and lexical access. This work examines these two measures, known as type and token frequencies, for a series of 50 derivational suffixes and their corresponding orthographic endings. Derivational suffixes are differentiated from orthographic endings by eliminating pseudoaffixed words from the list of orthographic endings (cerveza [beer] is a simple word despite its ending in -eza). We provide separate data for child and adult populations, using two databases commonly accessed by psycholinguists conducting research in Spanish. We describe the filtering process used to obtain descriptive data that will provide information for future research on token and type frequencies of morphemes. This database is an important development for researchers focusing on the role of morphology in lexical acquisition and access.

  6. MEASURING RESULTS NUMERAL TREATMENT OF IMPULSIVE CURRENTS BY MEANS OF ROGOVSKY BELT APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of numerical processing of measurement results of pulse currents by means of Rogovsky belt application is offered in the given work. It is shown that at measurement of signals by digital oscillographs and further numerical transformation of target signals, the possibilities of Rogovsky belt without the application of additional devices that in turn allows to define parameters of pulse currents with any peak-time characteristics essentially expand.

  7. A new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer bars as both reinforcements and sensors for civil engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Gang; Shen, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) bar is developed and their sensing performance is investigated by using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensing technique. The industrial manufacturing process is first addressed, followed by an experimental study on the strain, temperature and fundamental mechanical properties of the BFRP bars. The results confirm the superior sensing properties, in particular the measuring accuracy, repeatability and linearity through comparing with bare optical fibers. Results on the mechanical properties show stable elastic modulus and high ultimate strength. Therefore, the smart BFRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as strengthening and upgrading structures. Moreover the coefficient of thermal expansion for smart BFRP bars is similar to the value for concrete

  8. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  9. Validation of an efficiency calibration procedure for a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector used for the measurement of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera-Gómez, Yasser, E-mail: ymore24@gamail.com [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba); Departamento de Química y Edafología, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, Pamplona 31009, Navarra (Spain); Cartas-Aguila, Héctor A.; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Nuñez-Duartes, Carlos [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2016-05-11

    To obtain reliable measurements of the environmental radionuclide activity using HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detectors, the knowledge of the absolute peak efficiency is required. This work presents a practical procedure for efficiency calibration of a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The method was performed in an energy range from 40 to 1460 keV and it can be used for both, solid and liquid environmental samples. The calibration was initially verified measuring several reference materials provided by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Finally, through the participation in two Proficiency Tests organized by IAEA for the members of the ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed. The validation also showed that measurement of {sup 226}Ra should be conducted using coaxial n-type HPGe detector in order to minimize the true coincidence summing effect. - Highlights: • An efficiency calibration for a coaxial and a well-type HPGe detector was performed. • The calibration was made using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. • The procedure was verified measuring several reference materials provided by IAEA. • Calibrations were validated through the participation in 2 ALMERA Proficiency Tests.

  10. The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, Ariel; Dhawan, Suhail; Scolnic, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmological model based on BAO and CMB results, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03± 0.01 {(stat)} mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the ΛCDM model anchored by supernovae at z measurements can be modeled with a cosmic dust density Ω _IGM^dust = 8 \\cdot 10^{-5} (1+z)^{-1}, corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 . 10-5 mag Mpc-1 in V-band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  11. Characterization of a reservoir-type capillary optical microsensor for pCO(2) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Klimant, Ingo; Neurauter, Gerhard; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2003-02-06

    A reservoir type of capillary microsensor for pCO(2) measurements is presented. The sensor is based on the measurement of the fluorescence intensity of the anionic form of the pH indicator 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonate in the form of its ion pair with a quaternary ammonium base in an ethyl cellulose matrix. The glass capillary containing the reservoir sensor was prepared by immersing the tip of the optical fiber into the sensing agent very close to the sensor tip thus providing a very small volume for the sensing reaction. The purpose of the sensing approach is to regenerate the dye/buffer system by diffusion, which may be poisoned by interfering acids, or bleach by photolysis. The fresh cocktail from the reservoir takes the place of protonated form of the dye. The internal buffer system also makes the protonation-deprotonation equilibria reversible. The distal tip of the internal buffer containing reservoir is coated with a gas-permeable but ion-impermeable teflon membrane. The dynamic range for the detection of pCO(2) is between 1 and 20 hPa, which corresponds to the range of dissolved CO(2) in water. The response time is 15 s and the detection limit is 1 hPa of pCO(2.) The recovery performance of this sensor can be improved by means of mechanical adjustment of the sensor tip in a micrometric scale.

  12. Thermomechanical history measurements on Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Turpin, R.; West, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal and strain histories were recorded for three 40-cm-diameter (16 inch), Type 304L stainless steel (SS), schedule 40 (1.27 cm thickness) pipe girth welds. Two weld groove preparations were standard V grooves while the third was a narrow groove configuration. The welding parameters for the three pipe welds simulated expected field practice as closely as possible. The narrow gap weld was completed in four continuous passes while the other two welds required six and nine (discontinuous) passes, due to the use of different weld wire diameters. Thermomechanical history measurements were taken on the inner counterbore surface, encompassing the weld centerline and heat-affected zone (HAZ), as well as 10 cm of inner counterbore surface on either side of the weld centerline; a total of 47 data acquisition instruments were used for each weld. These instruments monitored: (1) weld shrinkages parallel to the pipe axis; (2) surface temperatures; (3) surface strains parallel to weld centerline; and (4) radial deformations. Results show that the weld and HAZ experienced cyclic deformation in the radial direction during welding, indicating that the final residual stress distribution in multi-pass pipe weldments is not axisymmetric. Measured radial and axial deformations were smaller for the narrow gap groove than for the standard V grooves, suggesting that the narrow gap groove weldment may have lower residual stress levels than the standard V groove weldments. This study provides the experimental database and a guideline for further computational modeling work

  13. Design and measured performances of a plane reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    2001-06-01

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a plane-reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker are presented. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminum plate absorber painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially-available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not in use. Provision is made for four cooking vessels each capable of holding up to 1 kg of water. Results of thermal performance tests show stagnation absorber plate temperatures of 138 deg. C and 119 deg. C for the cooker with and without the plane reflector in place, respectively. Boiling times of 60 minutes (3600 seconds) and 70 minutes (4200 seconds) for 1 kg of water, for the cooker with and without the reflector in place, respectively, were recorded. The solar cooker performance has been rated using the first figure of merit (F 1 ) on the no-load test and the second figure of merit (F 2 ) on the sensible heat tests. Predicted water boiling times using the two figures of merit compared favourable with measured values. The performance of the cooker with the plane reflector in place was improved tremendously compared to that without the reflector in place. (author)

  14. Measurement of Salivary Resistin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum resistin was initially hypothesized as a link between obesity and insulin resistance in mice. The latest evidence suggests that serum resistin is proinflammatory cytokines. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Many reports have previously identified changed serum resistin levels in patients with T2DM, but little is known of the levels of resistin in saliva. In our study, saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM at each time point of OGTT and 35 nondiabetic controls at fasting state. Resistin concentrations were measured using ELISA. We have demonstrated the presence of resistin in saliva of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects. Saliva resistin levels of T2DM are significantly higher than those of nondiabetic controls. Resistin levels in saliva are not affected by eating activity and correlated with serum resistin levels at any time points of OGTT. A positive correlation of serum and salivary resistin with BMI and HOMA-IR existed in T2DM. Measurement of resistin in saliva is a simple, noninvasive and may be an acceptable alternative to blood sampling for evaluatinginflammation/obesity/insulin resistance state.

  15. Measuring the Growth Rate of Structure with Type IA Supernovae from LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Cullan; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the peculiar motions of galaxies up to z = 0.5 using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and predict the subsequent constraints on the growth rate of structure. We consider two cases. Our first is based on measurements of the volumetric SNe Ia rate and assumes we can obtain spectroscopic redshifts and light curves for varying fractions of objects that are detected pre-peak luminosity by LSST (some of which may be obtained by LSST itself, and others that would require additional follow-up observations). We find that these measurements could produce growth rate constraints at zIa rate as a function of stellar mass and star-formation rate to predict the number of LSST SNe IA whose host redshifts may already have been obtained with the Taipan+WALLABY surveys or with a future multi-object spectroscopic survey. We find ˜18,000 and ˜160,000 SNe Ia with host redshifts for these cases, respectively. While this is only a fraction of the total LSST-detected SNe Ia, they could be used to significantly augment and improve the growth rate constraints compared to only RSD. Ultimately, we find that combining LSST SNe Ia with large numbers of galaxy redshifts will provide the most powerful probe of large-scale gravity in the z< 0.5 regime over the coming decades.

  16. Positron annihilation measurements in high-energy alpha-irradiated n-type gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Sandip; Mandal, Arunava; SenGupta, Asmita [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Roychowdhury, Anirban [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-07-15

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening annihilation line-shape measurements have been carried out in 40-MeV alpha-irradiated n-type GaAs. After irradiation, the sample has been subjected to an isochronal annealing over temperature region of 25-800 C with an annealing time of 30 min at each set temperature. After each annealing, the positron measurements are taken at room temperature. Formation of radiation-induced defects and their recovery with annealing temperature are investigated. The lifetime spectra of the irradiated sample have been fitted with two lifetimes. The average positron lifetime τ{sub avg} = 244 ps at room temperature after irradiation indicates the presence of defects, and the value of τ{sub 2} (262 ps) at room temperature suggests that the probable defects are mono-vacancies. Two distinct annealing stages in τ{sub avg} at 400-600 C and at 650-800 C are observed. The variations in line-shape parameter (S) and defect-specific parameter (R) during annealing in the temperature region 25-800 C resemble the behaviour of τ{sub avg} indicating the migration of vacancies, formation of vacancy clusters and the disappearance of defects between 400 and 800 C. (orig.)

  17. TSC measurements on proton-irradiated p-type Si-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra [University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Thin n{sup +}p Si sensors are potential candidates for coping with neutron equivalent fluences up to 2.10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and an ionizing dose in the order of a few MGy, which are expected e.g. for the HL-LHC upgrade. The aim of the present work is to provide experimental data on radiation-induced defects in order to: firstly, get a deeper understanding of the properties of hadron induced defects, and secondly develop a radiation damage model based on microscopic measurements. Therefore, the outcomes of Thermally Stimulated Current measurements on 200 μm thick Float-Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) diodes will be shown, as a results of irradiation with 23 MeV protons and isothermal annealing. The samples were irradiated in the fluence range (0.3-1).10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, so that the maximal temperature at which the TSC signal is still sharply distinguishable from the dark current is 200 K. In particular, special focus will be given to the defect introduction rate and to the issue of boron removal in p-type silicon. Annealing studies allow to distinguish which defects mainly contribute to the leakage current and which to the space charge, and thus correlate microscopic defects properties with macroscopic sensor properties.

  18. Energy response corrections for profile measurements using a combination of different detector types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Sonja; Sauer, Otto A

    2018-02-01

    to require the smallest correction. The corrections typically became larger for higher energies and for smaller field sizes. With a combination of two detectors, experimentally derived correction factors can be obtained. Application of those factors leads to improved agreement between the measured profiles and those recorded on EBT3 film. The results also complement so far only Monte Carlo-simulated values for the off-axis response of different detectors. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Measurement of temperature elevation in tissue for the optimum and safe use of scalpel-type ultrasonic surgery devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C; Nuernberger, H; Reimann, H P

    2004-01-01

    Using temperature sensors of specific design, the temperature elevation during application of a Harmonic Scalpel was determined in liver tissue. The influence of different treatment techniques and application parameters on the heat produced was determined. The measurements can be used to assess the risk of harmful bioeffects and to optimise performance and treatment techniques with respect to minimum thermal load

  20. Application potential of sequence stratigraphy to prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposit in continental depositional basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengxiang; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Xiang Weidong; Cai Yuqi

    2001-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and development, and great achievements have been achieved. However, its application to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits is just beginning. The metallogenic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those of oil and gas are compared, and the relationship between sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis and the system tracts of sequence stratigraphy is studied. The authors propose that highest and system tracts are the main targets for prospecting interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and the incised valleys of low stand system tracts are favourable places for phreatic oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and transgressive system tracts are generally unfavorable to the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Finally, the authors look ahead the application potential of sequence stratigraphy to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits in continental depositional basins

  1. The innovative therapeutic application of botulinum toxin type A in urology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Belai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of medical science the use of botulinum toxin was impressive. In the early 18th century it was defined as the neurotoxin implicated in the deadly disease botulism. Today, despite the toxic action finds application in the treatment of various diseases in a wide range of Medicine. Its use in urology was revolutionary in the treatment of neurogenic bladder, refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity and other painful syndromes. The purpose of this review was to describe the treatment option of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin, in diseases of the urinary tract. The review showed that after many test applications under the experimental studies, the botulinum toxin type A has already established itself as the new treatment of choice after failure of conservative drug dealing in patients with neuro-urological symptoms of lower urinary tract. Cases of application of botulinum toxin in Urology are related to overactive bladder, neurogenic or idiopathic etiology, as bladder pain syndrome and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. According to the guidelines of the European Union directives Urology, the intravesical botulinum toxin injections are the most effective, minimally invasive treatment which results in reducing neurogenic hyperactivity of detrusor. In conclusion, this is a safe, easy and effective method that can be applied by health professionals, helping improve patients’ quality of life with neuro-urological diseases.

  2. Type 1 diabetes self-management: developing a web-based telemedicine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Hasannezhad, Mostafa; Fard, Hedieh Saneei; Haghighi, Mehran Kamkar

    2016-04-01

    Self-management skills are essential for patients with diabetes mellitus to minimise the risks of complications from their condition. The aim of this research was to develop a web-based application for self-management of type 1 diabetes, suitable for use by patients, their carers and physicians. The study was comprised of two phases, the first being analysis of the kind of information and capabilities required by potential users of the system. Based on the results derived from the first phase of the study, the system prototype was designed and then evaluated using the 'think aloud' method and a standard questionnaire. The application was designed for use by patients, their carers and physicians. Patients could enter the level of blood glucose, insulin and activities on a daily basis, and physicians were able to supervise a patient's health status from a distance. Users were generally satisfied with the final version of the system. People with a wide range of literacy skills were able to use the system effectively. Patients or their carers could use the web-based application as a log book by entering the level of blood glucose and insulin doses on a regular basis, and as an educational resource to improve self-management skills. Physicians could use the system at any time convenient to them to support patients by giving medical advice. Further research is needed to report the effectiveness of the system in practice.

  3. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  4. Laser distance measurement using a newly developed composite-type optical fiberscope for fetoscopic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takeshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Naganawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a condition of twins disproportionately sharing blood by the communicating vessels in the shared placenta and resulting in the significantly high fetal and perinatal mortality rate. Fetoscopic laser surgery is performed to block these communicating vessels. It is difficult, however, to perceive the distance from the tip of the fetoscope to the placental surface with only a two-dimensional fetoscopic view. When the distance is too short it causes excessive irradiation and even the risk of inadvertent damage to the placenta. On the other hand, not only target vessels but also adjacent tissues can be irradiated when it is too long. We have developed a composite-type optical fiberscope (COF) that was able to observe the target area and also to perform laser irradiation at the same time. In this paper, we studied a method to estimate the distance from the tip of the COF to the target area. We combined the COF with a laser blood-flow meter. Using laser light from the meter, we measured the total amount of light received ("REFLEX") and estimated the relation between the "REFLEX" value and the laser irradiation distance. Further in vivo experiments were subsequently carried out using porcine mesenteric blood vessels. The results showed that the distance and the "REFLEX" value were inversely proportional, irrespective of the experimental environment (e.g. in air, water and amniotic fluid-like solution) and the target object. In the in vivo experiments, we quantitatively measured the distance within an accuracy of ±1 mm (approximately 10%). In conclusion, our new system was able to measure the distance in vivo enabling a surgeon to safely and effectively perform laser irradiation at a suitable distance. The system can be used not only for fetoscopic surgery but also for general endoscopic surgery.

  5. Measuring the Hubble constant with Type Ia supernovae as near-infrared standard candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Suhail; Jha, Saurabh W.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    The most precise local measurements of H0 rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) coupled with Cepheid distances to SN Ia host galaxies. Recent results have shown tension comparing H0 to the value inferred from CMB observations assuming ΛCDM, making it important to check for potential systematic uncertainties in either approach. To date, precise local H0 measurements have used SN Ia distances based on optical photometry, with corrections for light curve shape and colour. Here, we analyse SNe Ia as standard candles in the near-infrared (NIR), where luminosity variations in the supernovae and extinction by dust are both reduced relative to the optical. From a combined fit to 9 nearby calibrator SNe with host Cepheid distances from Riess et al. (2016) and 27 SNe in the Hubble flow, we estimate the absolute peak J magnitude MJ = -18.524 ± 0.041 mag and H0 = 72.8 ± 1.6 (statistical) ±2.7 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1. The 2.2% statistical uncertainty demonstrates that the NIR provides a compelling avenue to measuring SN Ia distances, and for our sample the intrinsic (unmodeled) peak J magnitude scatter is just 0.10 mag, even without light curve shape or colour corrections. Our results do not vary significantly with different sample selection criteria, though photometric calibration in the NIR may be a dominant systematic uncertainty. Our findings suggest that tension in the competing H0 distance ladders is likely not a result of supernova systematics that could be expected to vary between optical and NIR wavelengths, like dust extinction. We anticipate further improvements in H0 with a larger calibrator sample of SNe Ia with Cepheid distances, more Hubble flow SNe Ia with NIR light curves, and better use of the full NIR photometric data set beyond simply the peak J-band magnitude.

  6. Arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes: results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Feseke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inorganic arsenic and its metabolites are considered dangerous to human health. Although several studies have reported associations between low-level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in the United States and Mexico, this association has not been studied in the Canadian population. We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, as measured by total arsenic concentration in urine, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in 3151 adult participants in Cycle 1 (2007–2009 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS. Methods: All participants were tested to determine blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Urine analysis was also performed to measure total arsenic. In addition, participants answered a detailed questionnaire about their lifestyle and medical history. We assessed the association between urinary arsenic levels and T2D and prediabetes using multivariate logistic regression while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Total urinary arsenic concentration was positively associated with the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.12–2.95 and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.03–4.05, respectively, when comparing the highest (fourth urinary arsenic concentration quartile with the lowest (first quartile. Total urinary arsenic was also associated with glycated hemoglobin levels in people with untreated diabetes. Conclusion: We found significant associations between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes in the Canadian population. Causal inference is limited due to the cross-sectional design of the study and the absence of long-term exposure assessment.

  7. A transparent look at the measurement and application of colour rendering in the use of LED light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, F. W.; Van Der Westhuyzen, J. G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The technology for the measurement of colour rendering and colour quality is not new, but many parameters related to this issue are currently changing. A number of standard methods were developed and are used by different specialty areas of the lighting industry. CIE 13.3 has been the accepted standard implemented by many users and used for many years. Light-emitting Diode (LED) technology moves at a rapid pace and, as this lighting source finds wider acceptance, it appears that traditional colour-rendering measurement methods produce inconsistent results. Practical application of various types of LEDs yielded results that challenged conventional thinking regarding colour measurement of light sources. Recent studies have shown that the anatomy and physiology of the human eye is more complex than formerly accepted. Therefore, the development of updated measurement methodology also forces a fresh look at functioning and colour perception of the human eye, especially with regard to LEDs. This paper includes a short description of the history and need for the measurement of colour rendering. Some of the traditional measurement methods are presented and inadequacies are discussed. The latest discoveries regarding the functioning of the human eye and the perception of colour, especially when LEDs are used as light sources, are discussed. The unique properties of LEDs when used in practical applications such as luminaires are highlighted.

  8. The distributing law on product measuring dimension and its application in reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J F; Liu, Q P; Hu, Q P; Shen, J Y

    2005-01-01

    As some measuring errors exist generally, there are mis-acceptance and mis-rejection that come from random measuring error. A new method which lowers mis-acceptance rate and mis-rejection rate of products is presented in this paper. By analyzing the relationship between measuring error and measuring value, the distributing law on measuring value of over-tolerance and in-tolerance products is obtained under the condition of steady process and measurement. The calculating formulae and the data table of mis-acceptance rate and mis-rejection rate are given also. Finally, the reliability of manufacture products is analyzed based on the data table for actual application

  9. Some companions of Ostrowski type inequality for functions whose second derivatives are convex and concave with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin Özdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some companions of Ostrowski type inequality for absolutely continuous functions whose second derivatives absolute values are convex and concave. Finally, we give some applications for special means.

  10. A statistical model for measurement error that incorporates variation over time in the target measure, with application to nutritional epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W; Carroll, Raymond J; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-11-30

    Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for measurement error assume that the target exposure T is a fixed quantity for each individual. However, in many applications, the value of T for an individual varies with time. We develop a model that accounts for such variation, describing the model within the framework of a meta-analysis of validation studies of dietary self-report instruments, where the reference instruments are biomarkers. We demonstrate that in this application, the estimates of the attenuation factor and correlation with true intake, key parameters quantifying the accuracy of the self-report instrument, are sometimes substantially modified under the time-varying exposure model compared with estimates obtained under a traditional fixed-exposure model. We conclude that accounting for the time element in measurement error problems is potentially important. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Applicant versus employee scores on self-report emotional intelligence measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, F.; Klehe, U.-C.; Libbrecht, N.

    2011-01-01

    There exists growing interest to assess applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI) via self-report trait-based measures of EI as part of the selection process. However, some studies that experimentally manipulated applicant conditions have cautioned that in these conditions use of self-report measures

  12. Toward a Set of Internationally Applicable Indicators for Measuring University Internationalization Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This article emphasizes the urgent demand for measurements of university internationalization and proposes a new approach to develop a set of internationally applicable indicators for measuring university internationalization performance. The article looks into existing instruments developed for assessing university internationalization,…

  13. Power mobility skill progression for children and adolescents: a systematic review of measures and their clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Debra A; Livingstone, Roslyn W

    2018-03-14

    To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms. Studies included at least one child with a disability, and a detailed description of the measure of power mobility skill. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed with inclusion criteria set a priori. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Of 96 titles, 24 articles met inclusion criteria, describing nine measures of power mobility skill. The Wheelchair Skills Checklist, the Powered Mobility Program (PMP), and the Power Mobility Training Tool were augmented by three adaptations of the PMP. Two additional measures were further developed to create a third, the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use. Validity evidence related primarily to content development while reliability evidence was reported on only two measures. All measures are in the initial stages of development and testing. Research investigating the measures' appropriateness for different types of learners and environments is warranted. There are four distinct measures of paediatric power mobility skill: three task-based, one process-based. Power mobility learners may be divided into three groups: exploratory, operational, and functional. Application of measures of power mobility skill differs for these three groups. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Type testing of a head band dosemeter for measuring eye lens dose in terms of H(P)(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilvin, P J; Baker, S T; Gibbens, N J; Roberts, G H; Tanner, R J; Eakins, J S; Hager, L G; Daniels, T J

    2013-12-01

    A new head band dosemeter, for the measurement of eye lens dose in terms of Hp(3), has been type tested by Public Health England's Centre for Radiation, Environmental and Chemical Hazards [formerly part of the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA)]. The type tests were based on the International Standard ISO 12794, drawing also upon earlier work at HPA. The results show that, unlike many existing dosemeters, the new head band dosemeter correctly measures Hp(3) for beta radiations as well as photons.

  15. Main types of environmental pollution the contributory causes, the effects on environment and the suggested remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the main types of environmental pollution, the contributory causes, the effects on environment and suggested remedial measures have been described. The fundamental types of environmental pollution are land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Many artificial and natural factors contribute towards land pollution. Several remedial measures have suggested in this article, some of them are provision of clean water by municipal agencies, toxic wastes or nuclear wastes should not disposed off in the sea. (A.B.)

  16. Use of micrometers and calipers to measure various components of delayed-type hypersensitivity ear swelling reactions in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren, H. van; Kato, K.; Ratzlaff, R.E.; Meade, R.; Ptak, W.; Askenase, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    The choice of the type of instrument to measure delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice, as assayed by ear swelling reactions, influences the experimental results. When a caliper that applies little pressure to the ears is employed, DTH reactions in ears of mice sensitized to picryl chloride

  17. Decreased optical coherence tomography-measured pericentral retinal thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 with minimal diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biallosterski, Carine; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; Michels, Robert P. J.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; DeVries, J. Hans; Verbraak, Frank D.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: A comparison of retinal thickness (RT) measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and no or minimal diabetic retinopathy (DR) versus healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with type 1 DM with no or minimal DR underwent full

  18. Measurements of auroral particles by means of sounding rockets of mother-daughter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, A.

    1985-11-01

    The scientific objective of the S17 payloads was to study the ionosphere during auroral situations and especially with regards to the local fine structure and a possible separation of spatial and temporal variations of auroral phenomena. The intensities of 8 keV and 2 keV electrons have been measured from one sounding rocket launched into a breakup aurora of moderate activity and from another rocket launched into a very active substorm situation. Both the rockets were of mother-daughter type i.e. had two separated payloads. The general features in the data of different particle energies were very similar over the whole flight time of the rockets. Special events and gradients and well identifiable shapes in the particle intensities were studied to see if the intensity fluctuations obtained from two detectors in one payload or from detectors into separate payloads were time delayed. Such time delays in the particle flux intensities were obvious in both of the rocket measurements and most of these time shifts could be understood as caused by spatial variations in the particle precipitation. In parts of the rocket flights the particle intensity variations were true temporal changes. The time lags between 8 keV and 2 keV electron intensities detected in the same payload, which could be observed and were obtained by crosscorrelation analyses, were in the range less than 0.3 s and most of them less than 0.1 s. If the time differences are assumed to be caused by the velocity dispersion of the particles, the particle data reported here placed the modulation source at a distance of less than 10 000 km from the rocket position. Measurements at the S17-1 mother payload of the electric field have been compared with data of precipitating electrons and low-light-level-TV-recording of the auroral situation. An inverted-V precipitation event was observed and was associated with auroral arcs and with reversals of the measured electric field components implicating the possibility of

  19. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  20. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  1. Application of patent BR102013018500-0 in well type ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the radioactive sample position in a well type ionization chamber is the largest source of uncertainty in the measurement of quantity activity. The determination of this parameter in two activimeter helped to improve their accuracies, from 2.62 and 2.59% to 3.87 and 1.74%, with and without the use of the positioning device, concluding, that with their use has reached an uncertainty of U = 0.2276 and 0.2677 % (k = 2) 95.45%. (author)

  2. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X

    2017-02-01

    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  3. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  4. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  5. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current......-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance...... was improved by up to a factor of 3.5 and the measurement reproducibility by up to a factor of 17, thanks to our improved position correction technique....

  6. Some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two variables and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Run; Ma, Xiangting

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two independent variables, and we present the applications to research the boundedness of solutions to retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral equations.

  7. Material properties of LPCVD processed n-type polysilicon passivating contacts and its application in PERPoly industrial bifacial solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stodolny, Maciej K.; Anker, John; Geerligs, Bart L.J.; Janssen, Gaby J.M.; van de Loo, Bas W.H.; Melskens, Jimmy; Santbergen, Rudi; Isabella, Olindo; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Lenes, Martijn; Luchies, Jan Marc; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.; Romijn, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed material study of n+-type polysilicon (polySi) and its application as a carrier selective rear contact in a bifacial n-type solar cell comprising fire-through screen-printed metallization and 6" Cz wafers. The cells were manufactured with low-cost industrial process steps

  8. Power Measurement and Data Logger with High-Resolution for Industrial DC-Grid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apse-Apsitis Peteris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy measurement and monitoring is a key factor for many industries in terms of energy and cost efficiency evaluation. Due to trends of Smart Grid concept application in industrial environment, including decentralized DC-Grid implementation, for precise evaluation – faster and low-cost measurement equipment is needed. Manufacturing industry widely uses industrial robots that have dynamic load characteristics for which faster measurement equipment is needed.

  9. A new S-type eigenvalue inclusion set for tensors and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Ge; Wang, Li-Gong; Xu, Zhong; Cui, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new S -type eigenvalue localization set for a tensor is derived by dividing [Formula: see text] into disjoint subsets S and its complement. It is proved that this new set is sharper than those presented by Qi (J. Symb. Comput. 40:1302-1324, 2005), Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and Li et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015). As applications of the results, new bounds for the spectral radius of nonnegative tensors and the minimum H -eigenvalue of strong M -tensors are established, and we prove that these bounds are tighter than those obtained by Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and He and Huang (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:114, 2014).

  10. The Use of Mobile Applications among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trawley, Steven; Browne, Jessica L.; Hagger, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile applications ("apps") for diabetes management is a rapidly developing area and has relevance to adolescents who tend to be early technology adopters. Apps may be useful for supporting self-management or connecting young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D...... that apps could not help. App usage was associated significantly with shorter T1D duration, higher socioeconomic status, and at least seven daily blood glucose checks. Conclusions: Only one in five respondents were using apps to support their diabetes management; most apps used were not diabetes specific......) with their peers. However, outside controlled trials testing the effectiveness of apps, little is known about app usage in this population. Our aim was to explore app usage among adolescents with T1D. Methods: Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia is a national, online cross-sectional survey focused on behavioral...

  11. A survey of kernel-type estimators for copula and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarjaya, I. W.

    2017-10-01

    Copulas have been widely used to model nonlinear dependence structure. Main applications of copulas include areas such as finance, insurance, hydrology, rainfall to name but a few. The flexibility of copula allows researchers to model dependence structure beyond Gaussian distribution. Basically, a copula is a function that couples multivariate distribution functions to their one-dimensional marginal distribution functions. In general, there are three methods to estimate copula. These are parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric method. In this article we survey kernel-type estimators for copula such as mirror reflection kernel, beta kernel, transformation method and local likelihood transformation method. Then, we apply these kernel methods to three stock indexes in Asia. The results of our analysis suggest that, albeit variation in information criterion values, the local likelihood transformation method performs better than the other kernel methods.

  12. A magnetically levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontact measurement type

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    2002-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber with levitated electrode has been developed. In this ionization chamber, an ion-collection electrode levitates in the air without getting any physical support from the insulator. The electrode is charged by an electrostatic charger without physical contact. The charge of the electrode is read out at a Faraday cage periodically at a given time interval without physical contact. Because its electrode levitates, the ionization chamber produces no background current caused by leaks or piezo current. In addition, as the charging of its electrode and the read-out of its charge are carried out without physical contact, no irregular charge or contact potential difference due to the chattering between electrode and contact point occurs. Through experiments, it was found that this ionization chamber was able to measure the gamma-ray dose such as the environmental radiation with a high degree of sensitivity. The minimum detectable value of ionization current when accumulated for 1 h is a...

  13. Inverse Design of p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Arpun Ramaiah

    The Inverse Design approach to materials discovery was applied to developing materials that exhibit simultaneous p-type conductivity and optical transparency. Theoretical calculations predicted that Rh2ZnO4 and Cr2MnO4, well-known compounds with the spinel crystal structure, had the potential to be p-type transparent conducting oxides (p-TCOs). Bulk samples of these materials were synthesized, and their structural, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. Theory predicted that Rh2ZnO4 was largely a line compound, with slight deviations toward Zn-excess at higher temperatures. This off-stoichiometry was predicted to be the source of excess holes and thus p-type conductivity in Rh2ZnO4. Additionally, new methods in density functional theory predicted that hole conduction in Rh 2ZnO4 occurred via band transport, instead of small polaron hopping. In this work, experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that Rh2ZnO4 exhibits small off-stoichiometry toward Zn-rich compositions at 975°C. High temperature electrical measurements confirmed p-type conductivity, and room temperature Hall effect measurements yielded a hole mobility of 0.18 cm2/Vs for a bulk polycrystalline sample. In order to distinguish between band and polaron conduction, a revised analysis for high temperature electrical data was developed. This new analysis combines conductivity and thermopower data with theoretical calculations of the effective density of states in order to determine the behavior of the mobility with temperature. This method can be applied in the absence of a direct measurement of the temperature-dependence of the mobility. The results of this new method indicate that the behavior of Rh2ZnO4 is consistent with band conduction. Although intrinsic Cr2MnO4 is electrically insulating, lithium was predicted to be an effective p-type dopant, occupying the tetrahedral (Mn) site. Combined neutron/X-ray measurements of a doped specimen confirmed the predicted site

  14. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawronek Pelagia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface. The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement.

  15. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronek, Pelagia; Makuch, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

  16. Synthesis of Reabsorption-Suppressed Type-II/Type-I ZnSe/CdS/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots and Their Application for Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Jin Jie; Lv, Yanbing; Wu, Ruili; Xing, Ming; Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Hongzhe; Li, Lin Song; Chen, Xia

    2017-06-01

    We report a phosphine-free one-pot method to synthesize ZnSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with composite type-II/type-I structures and consequent reabsorption suppression properties. The as-synthesized QDs possess high efficient red emission (with quantum yield of 82%) and high optical stability. Compared to type-I QDs, the ZnSe/CdS/ZnS QDs show larger Stokes shift and lower reabsorption which can reduce the emission loss and improve the level of fluorescence output. The ZnSe/CdS/ZnS QDs are used as fluorescent labels to exploit their application in fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for the first time in the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.85 ng/mL, which is more sensitive than that of CdSe/ZnS type-I QDs based FLISA (1.00 ng/mL). The results indicate that the ZnSe/CdS/ZnS type-II/type-I QDs may be good candidates for applications in biomedical information detection.

  17. Determination of a non-measurable quantity using information from calculations and experimental measurements: application to the damage rate determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourganel, Stéphane; Nimal, Jean-Claude

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a method dedicated to the determination of the best value of a required quantity which is estimated by calculation, using information closely related, obtained by measurements and calculations. This best value, called thereafter the "target", is not measurable in most cases. DPA and high energy neutron fluence (typically higher than 1 MeV) involved in vessel surveillance programs, using measurements of dosimeters, are some examples of application of this methodology. This methodology is applied without spectrum adjustment, but the spectrum shape is implicitly taken into account. In this article, an example is presented based on the FLUOLE-2 experimental program, which is developed and conducted by CEA. Neutron information is derived from a set of different kinds of neutron dosimeters. The objective is to estimate the best value of reaction rate values for each kind of dosimeters. All calculations are carried out using TRIPOLI-4 3D pointwise Monte Carlo code, and DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code.

  18. Criterion of applicable models for planar type Cherenkov laser based on quantum mechanical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fares, Hesham, E-mail: fares_fares4@yahoo.com [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2013-05-01

    A generalized theoretical analysis for amplification mechanism in the planar-type Cherenkov laser is given. An electron is represented to be a material wave having temporal and spatial varying phases with finite spreading length. Interaction between the electrons and the electromagnetic (EM) wave is analyzed by counting the quantum statistical properties. The interaction mechanism is classified into the Velocity and Density Modulation (VDM) model and the Energy Level Transition (ELT) model basing on the relation between the wavelength of the EM wave and the electron spreading length. The VDM model is applicable when the wavelength of the EM wave is longer than the electron spreading length as in the microwave region. The dynamic equation of the electron, which is popularly used in the classical Newtonian mechanics, has been derived from the quantum mechanical Schrödinger equation. The amplification of the EM wave can be explained basing on the bunching effect of the electron density in the electron beam. The amplification gain and whose dispersion relation with respect to the electron velocity is given in this paper. On the other hand, the ELT model is applicable for the case that the wavelength of the EM wave is shorter than the electron spreading length as in the optical region. The dynamics of the electron is explained to be caused by the electron transition between different energy levels. The amplification gain and whose dispersion relation with respect to the electron acceleration voltage was derived on the basis of the quantum mechanical density matrix.

  19. Combined application of OGTT, IRT and CPRT for diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun; Yang Xiaoli; Tian Zhufang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of combined clinical application of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test (IRT) and C-peptide release test (CPRT) for the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods: Retrospect analysis of the data of the results of these three tests in 217 subjects examined was performed. Results: (1) Among the 217 subjects, 71 of them were not diagnosed as diabetics. However, upon further scrutinization of the data, 49 (69%) should be classified as diabetics. Fasting blood sugar (FPG) levels were normal in 53% of the 49, but 2h PG levels were mostly elevated with the exception of only 4 (4/49, 8%), Therefore, 2h PG levels were much more useful for screening of diabetes than FPG levels were. (2) Treatment result in these patients was not very satisfactory: only 24% of the patients (35/146) had their disease well-controlled. Conclusion: Combined clinical application of OGTT, ITR and CPRT would enhance the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes with fewer cases missed. (authors)

  20. Status of development of plate type heat exchangers for heavy duty applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinulescu, Mircea [APEX International Holding (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Plate-type heat exchangers with enhanced heat transfer geometries have been used for over 60 years in industry. Over the last 30 years, exchangers with flat, smooth surfaces have proven their merits and have undergone exponential growth in major fields of application, such as the oil and gas and power industries, and in DENOX installations. The flat-smooth concept has several strong points. The of temperature and velocity fields are uniform, making it possible to maximize the metal temperature at the cold end. The metal temperature remains above condensation point, preventing plugging and corrosion. Flow layout close to pure countercurrent, strong benefit from CFD flow distribution simulations, and optimization of the metallic structures by FEM also become possible. Future directions for this flat-smooth geometry include the development of very large glass-coated exchangers and high effectiveness units making use of the near-pure countercurrent plug-flow pattern, and applications in new fields like environmental projects, bio-mass energy projects, and subterranean CO2 storage.