WorldWideScience

Sample records for type conditions modeled

  1. Modeling of acetate-type fermentation of sugar-containing wastewater under acidic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Pan, Xin-Rong; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Li, Chen-Xuan; Chen, Chang-Bin; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to provide insights into the directed production of acetate and methane from sugar-containing wastewater under low pH conditions. The model sufficiently described the dynamics of liquid-phase and gaseous products in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor by comprehensively considering the syntrophic bioconversion steps of sucrose hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis under acidic pH conditions. The modeling results revealed a significant pH-dependency of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and ethanol-producing processes that govern the sucrose fermentative pathway through changing the hydrogen yield. The reaction thermodynamics of such acetate-type fermentation were evaluated, and the implications for process optimization by adjusting the hydraulic retention time were discussed. This work sheds light on the acid-stimulated acetate-type fermentation process and may lay a foundation for optimization of resource-oriented processes for treatment of food wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, P; Karač, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivanković, A

    2014-09-01

    Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  4. Conditional Correlation Models of Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity with Nonstationary GARCH Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amado, Cristina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    -run and the short-run dynamic behaviour of the volatilities. The structure of the conditional correlation matrix is assumed to be either time independent or to vary over time. We apply our model to pairs of seven daily stock returns belonging to the S&P 500 composite index and traded at the New York Stock Exchange......In this paper we investigate the effects of careful modelling the long-run dynamics of the volatilities of stock market returns on the conditional correlation structure. To this end we allow the individual unconditional variances in Conditional Correlation GARCH models to change smoothly over time...... by incorporating a nonstationary component in the variance equations. The modelling technique to determine the parametric structure of this time-varying component is based on a sequence of specification Lagrange multiplier-type tests derived in Amado and Teräsvirta (2011). The variance equations combine the long...

  5. Local Stability Conditions for Two Types of Monetary Models with Recursive Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores local stability conditions for money-in-utility-function (MIUF) and transaction-costs (TC) models with recursive utility.A monetary variant of the Brock-Gale condition provides a theoretical justification of the comparative statics analysis. One of sufficient conditions for local stability is increasing marginal impatience (IMI) in consumption and money. However, this does not deny the possibility of decreasing marginal impatience (DMI). The local stability with DMI is mor...

  6. Finite element modelling of different CANDU fuel bundle types in various refuelling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M. R.; Ionescu, D. V.; Olteanu, G.; Florea, S.; Radut, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for static strength analysis of the CANDU standard with 37 elements fuel bundle and the SEU43 with 43 elements fuel bundle design for various refuelling conditions. The computer code, ANSYS7.1, is used to simulate the axial compression in CANDU type fuel bundles subject to hydraulic drag loads, deflection of fuel elements, stresses and displacements in the end plates. Two possible situations for the fuelling machine side stops are considered in our analyses, as follows: the last fuel bundle is supported by the two side stops and a side stop can be blocked therefore, the last fuel bundle is supported by only one side stop. The results of the analyses performed are briefly presented and also illustrated in a graphical form. The finite element model developed in present study is verified against test results for endplate displacement and element bowing obtained from strength tests with fuel bundle string and fuelling machine side-stop simulators. Comparison of ANSYS model predictions with these experimental results led to a very good agreement. Despite the difference in hydraulic load between SEU43 and CANDU standard fuel bundles strings, the maximum stress in the SEU43 endplate is about the same with the maximum stress in the CANDU standard endplate. The comparative assessment reveals that SEU43 fuel bundle is able to withstand high flow rate without showing a significant geometric instability. (authors)

  7. MULTITEMPORAL CROP TYPE CLASSIFICATION USING CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS AND RAPIDEYE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hoberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The task of crop type classification with multitemporal imagery is nowadays often done applying classifiers that are originally developed for single images like support vector machines (SVM. These approaches do not model temporal dependencies in an explicit way. Existing approaches that make use of temporal dependencies are in most cases quite simple and based on rules. Approaches that integrate temporal dependencies to statistical models are very rare and at an early stage of development. Here our approach CRFmulti, based on conditional random fields (CRF, should make a contribution. Conditional random fields consider context knowledge among neighboring primitives in the same way as Markov random fields (MRF do. Furthermore conditional random fields handle the feature vectors of the neighboring primitives and not only the class labels. Additional to taking spatial context into account, we present an approach for multitemporal data processing where a temporal association potential has been integrated to the common CRF approach to model temporal dependencies. The classification works on pixel ‐level using spectral image features, whereas all available single images are taken separately. For our experiments a high resolution RapidEye satellite data set of 2010 consisting of 4 images made during the whole vegetation period from April to October is taken. Six crop type categories are distinguished, namely grassland, corn, winter crop, rapeseed, root crops and other crops. To evaluate the potential of the new conditional random field approach the classification result is compared to a manual reference on pixel‐ and on object‐level. Additional a SVM approach is applied under the same conditions and should serve as a benchmark.

  8. Modelling Conditional and Unconditional Heteroskedasticity with Smoothly Time-Varying Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amado, Christina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    multiplier type misspecification tests. Finite-sample properties of these procedures and tests are examined by simulation. An empirical application to daily stock returns and another one to daily exchange rate returns illustrate the functioning and properties of our modelling strategy in practice......In this paper, we propose two parametric alternatives to the standard GARCH model. They allow the conditional variance to have a smooth time-varying structure of either ad- ditive or multiplicative type. The suggested parameterizations describe both nonlinearity and structural change...... in the conditional and unconditional variances where the transition between regimes over time is smooth. A modelling strategy for these new time-varying parameter GARCH models is developed. It relies on a sequence of Lagrange multiplier tests, and the adequacy of the estimated models is investigated by Lagrange...

  9. Closedness type regularity conditions in convex optimization and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Mihai Grad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The closedness type regularity conditions have proven during the last decade to be viable alternatives to their more restrictive interiority type counterparts, in both convex optimization and different areas where it was successfully applied. In this review article we de- and reconstruct some closedness type regularity conditions formulated by means of epigraphs and subdifferentials, respectively, for general optimization problems in order to stress that they arise naturally when dealing with such problems. The results are then specialized for constrained and unconstrained convex optimization problems. We also hint towards other classes of optimization problems where closedness type regularity conditions were successfully employed and discuss other possible applications of them.

  10. Algebraic Specifications, Higher-order Types and Set-theoretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Hélène; Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    , and power-sets. This paper presents a simple framework for algebraic specifications with higher-order types and set-theoretic models. It may be regarded as the basis for a Horn-clause approximation to the Z framework, and has the advantage of being amenable to prototyping and automated reasoning. Standard......In most algebraic  specification frameworks, the type system is restricted to sorts, subsorts, and first-order function types. This is in marked contrast to the so-called model-oriented frameworks, which provide higer-order types, interpreted set-theoretically as Cartesian products, function spaces...... set-theoretic models are considered, and conditions are given for the existence of initial reduct's of such models. Algebraic specifications for various set-theoretic concepts are considered....

  11. Types of electric field distribution and corresponding types of convection in the polar ionosphere. Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.; Barashkov, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    All types of distributions, known due to the experiment, for Ee-m electric field evening-morning component along morning-evening meridian are reproduced and corresponding types of convection in polar ionosphere are calculated on the basis of model of continuous distribution of E large-scale electric fields. Two-, three- and four-whirl types of convection are realized depending on conditions in interplanetary medium

  12. Discrete Boltzmann Method with Maxwell-Type Boundary Condition for Slip Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Chen, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The rarefied effect of gas flow in microchannel is significant and cannot be well described by traditional hydrodynamic models. It has been known that discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) has the potential to investigate flows in a relatively wider range of Knudsen number because of its intrinsic kinetic nature inherited from Boltzmann equation. It is crucial to have a proper kinetic boundary condition for DBM to capture the velocity slip and the flow characteristics in the Knudsen layer. In this paper, we present a DBM combined with Maxwell-type boundary condition model for slip flow. The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient is introduced to implement a gas-surface interaction model. Both the velocity slip and the Knudsen layer under various Knudsen numbers and accommodation coefficients can be well described. Two kinds of slip flows, including Couette flow and Poiseuille flow, are simulated to verify the model. To dynamically compare results from different models, the relation between the definition of Knudsen number in hard sphere model and that in BGK model is clarified. Support of National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11475028, 11772064, and 11502117 Science Challenge Project under Grant Nos. JCKY2016212A501 and TZ2016002

  13. Evaluation of Haney-Type Surface Thermal Boundary Conditions Using a Coupled Atmosphere and Ocean Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    2001-01-01

    ... (Russell et al,, 1995) was used to verify the validity of Haney-type surface thermal boundary condition, which linearly connects net downward surface heat flux Q to air / sea temperature difference DeltaT by a relaxation coefficient K...

  14. A simplified treatment of the boundary conditions of the k- ε model in coarse-mesh CFD-type codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.; Andreani, M.

    1999-01-01

    In coarse-mesh, CFD-type codes such as the containment analysis code GOTHIC, one of the options that can be used for modelling of turbulence is the k - ε model. However, in contrast to most other CFD codes which are designed to perform detailed CFD calculations with a large number of spatial meshes, codes such as GOTHIC are primarily aimed at simplified calculation of transients in large spaces (e.g., reactor containments), and generally use coarse meshes. The solution of the two parabolic equations for the k - ε model requires the definition of boundary conditions at physical boundaries and this, in turn, requires very small spatial meshes near these boundaries. Hence, while in codes like CFX this is done in a rigorous and consistent manner, codes like GOTHIC adopt an indirect and heuristic approach, due to the fact that the spatial meshes are usually large. This can have adverse consequences during the calculation of a transient and in this work, we shall give some examples of this and outline a method by which this problem can be avoided. (author)

  15. Influence of Boundary Conditions on the Simulation of a Diamond-Type Lattice Structure: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Terriault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent additive manufacturing processes allow the use of metallic porous structures in various industrial applications. Because these structures comprise a large number of ordered unit cells, their design using conventional modeling approaches, such as finite elements, becomes a real challenge. A homogenization technique, in which the lattice structure is simulated as a fully dense volume having equivalent material properties, can then be employed. To determine these equivalent material properties, numerical simulations can be performed on a single unit cell of the lattice structure. However, a critical aspect to consider is the boundary conditions applied to the external faces of the unit cell. In the literature, different types of boundary conditions are used, but a comparative study is definitely lacking. In this publication, a diamond-type unit cell is studied in compression by applying different boundary conditions. If the porous structure’s boundaries are free to deform, then the periodic boundary condition is found to be the most representative, but constraint equations must be introduced in the model. If, instead, the porous structure is inserted in a rigid enclosure, it is then better to use frictionless boundary conditions. These preliminary results remain to be validated for other types of unit cells loaded beyond the yield limit of the material.

  16. 76 FR 71865 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Windshield Coating in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...; Special Conditions No. 25-452-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane... Aerospace Corporation Model GVI airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s..., Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) applied for an FAA type certificate for its new Model GVI passenger...

  17. Conditioning 3D object-based models to dense well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin C.; Pyrcz, Michael J.; Catuneanu, Octavian; Boisvert, Jeff B.

    2018-06-01

    Object-based stochastic simulation models are used to generate categorical variable models with a realistic representation of complicated reservoir heterogeneity. A limitation of object-based modeling is the difficulty of conditioning to dense data. One method to achieve data conditioning is to apply optimization techniques. Optimization algorithms can utilize an objective function measuring the conditioning level of each object while also considering the geological realism of the object. Here, an objective function is optimized with implicit filtering which considers constraints on object parameters. Thousands of objects conditioned to data are generated and stored in a database. A set of objects are selected with linear integer programming to generate the final realization and honor all well data, proportions and other desirable geological features. Although any parameterizable object can be considered, objects from fluvial reservoirs are used to illustrate the ability to simultaneously condition multiple types of geologic features. Channels, levees, crevasse splays and oxbow lakes are parameterized based on location, path, orientation and profile shapes. Functions mimicking natural river sinuosity are used for the centerline model. Channel stacking pattern constraints are also included to enhance the geological realism of object interactions. Spatial layout correlations between different types of objects are modeled. Three case studies demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed optimization-simulation method. These examples include multiple channels with high sinuosity, as well as fragmented channels affected by limited preservation. In all cases the proposed method reproduces input parameters for the object geometries and matches the dense well constraints. The proposed methodology expands the applicability of object-based simulation to complex and heterogeneous geological environments with dense sampling.

  18. Stochastic epidemic-type model with enhanced connectivity: exact solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H T; Mazilu, I; Mazilu, D A

    2012-01-01

    We present an exact analytical solution to a one-dimensional model of the susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) epidemic type, with infection rates dependent on nearest-neighbor occupations. We use a quantum mechanical approach, transforming the master equation via a quantum spin operator formulation. We calculate exactly the time-dependent density of infected, recovered and susceptible populations for random initial conditions. Our results compare well with those of previous work, validating the model as a useful tool for additional and extended studies in this important area. Our model also provides exact solutions for the n-point correlation functions, and can be extended to more complex epidemic-type models

  19. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 3. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general ... In this paper, we have investigated a tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model filled with dust of perfect fluid in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition  ...

  20. Implementation of IEC Generic Models of Type 1 Wind Turbine Generator in DIgSILENT PowerFactory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoran ZHAO; Qiuwei WU; Ioannis MARGARIS; Poul S(O)RENSEN

    2013-01-01

    The implementation method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) generic models of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented.The following items are described,i.e.model structure,model blocks and how to implement these blocks in the PowerFactory environment.Case studies under both normal and fault conditions are done with the implemented IEC generic models of Type 1 WTG,and dynamic responses are captured and analyzed.The case study results show that the IEC generic models of Type 1 WTG can correctly represent the performances of Type 1 WTG under both normal and fault conditions.

  1. Applying reaction condition index to predict sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongxin; Liu Jinhui; Cheng Hai

    2002-01-01

    On the basic of the explanation of reaction condition index, the deduction of reaction condition index calculation principle, the hydrogeological setting in Gongpoquan basin in Baishan, Gansu province and the study of reaction condition index of its water source point, the north Luotuoquan area in Gongpoquan basin seems to be a favourable place for sandstone type uranium deposit, and the prospect area for sandstone type uranium deposit is delimitated

  2. Selection Criteria in Regime Switching Conditional Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chuffart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of nonlinear conditional heteroskedastic models have been proposed in the literature. Model selection is crucial to any statistical data analysis. In this article, we investigate whether the most commonly used selection criteria lead to choice of the right specification in a regime switching framework. We focus on two types of models: the Logistic Smooth Transition GARCH and the Markov-Switching GARCH models. Simulation experiments reveal that information criteria and loss functions can lead to misspecification ; BIC sometimes indicates the wrong regime switching framework. Depending on the Data Generating Process used in the experiments, great care is needed when choosing a criterion.

  3. Discrete transparent boundary conditions for Schroedinger-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Yevick, D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a general technique for constructing nonlocal transparent boundary conditions for one-dimensional Schroedinger-type equations. Our method supplies boundary conditions for the θ-family of implicit one-step discretizations of Schroedinger's equation in time. The use of Mikusinski's operator approach in time avoids direct and inverse transforms between time and frequency domains and thus implements the boundary conditions in a direct manner. 14 refs., 9 figs

  4. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...

  5. Desensitization and Modeling Treatments of Spider Fear Using Two Types of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R.; Sullivan, Bernard J.

    1976-01-01

    Three types of therapy were combined with two types of scenes. Spider-phobic subjects were assigned to one of the six treatment conditions or to an untreated control group. In general, (a) Desensitization and modeling therapies were equally effective; (b) modeling alone was more effective than mere exposure to the phobic object. (Author)

  6. Relative efficiency of joint-model and full-conditional-specification multiple imputation when conditional models are compatible: The general location model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Shaun R; Hughes, Rachael A

    2018-06-01

    Estimating the parameters of a regression model of interest is complicated by missing data on the variables in that model. Multiple imputation is commonly used to handle these missing data. Joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation are known to yield imputed data with the same asymptotic distribution when the conditional models of full-conditional specification are compatible with that joint model. We show that this asymptotic equivalence of imputation distributions does not imply that joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation will also yield asymptotically equally efficient inference about the parameters of the model of interest, nor that they will be equally robust to misspecification of the joint model. When the conditional models used by full-conditional specification multiple imputation are linear, logistic and multinomial regressions, these are compatible with a restricted general location joint model. We show that multiple imputation using the restricted general location joint model can be substantially more asymptotically efficient than full-conditional specification multiple imputation, but this typically requires very strong associations between variables. When associations are weaker, the efficiency gain is small. Moreover, full-conditional specification multiple imputation is shown to be potentially much more robust than joint model multiple imputation using the restricted general location model to mispecification of that model when there is substantial missingness in the outcome variable.

  7. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H G; Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain; Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Ayers, Paul W

    2016-07-21

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, Nα and Nβ, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, Nα + Nβ, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, Nα - Nβ, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare-we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested-but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  8. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions for people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Cleal, Bryan; Willaing, Ingrid

    Background The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges work force capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work related consequences such as increased risk of sickness absence and early retirement. Laws and guidelines of most high income countries, including Denmark, require...... implementation. Aim To examine Danish workers' willingness to pay (WTP) for five workplace initiatives that help individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work and to examine how background characteristics influence the WTP. Method Employed participants between 25 and 67 years from an online......’ and ‘without pay’. The WTP in Euro=€ for the five workplace initiatives was estimated by conditional logits models. Bootstrapping was used to estimate p- values examining significant differences (p type...

  9. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H. G.; González-Espinoza, Cristina E.; Ayers, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Laboratory of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Havana (Cuba); Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Molecular Modeling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2016-07-21

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, N{sub α} and N{sub β}, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, N{sub α} + N{sub β}, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, N{sub α} – N{sub β}, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare—we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested—but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  10. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  11. Modelling Multivariate Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity with the Double Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a multivariate GARCH model with a time-varying conditional correlation structure. The new Double Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH model extends the Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH model of Silvennoinen and Ter¨asvirta (2005) by including...... another variable according to which the correlations change smoothly between states of constant correlations. A Lagrange multiplier test is derived to test the constancy of correlations against the DSTCC-GARCH model, and another one to test for another transition in the STCC-GARCH framework. In addition......, other specification tests, with the aim of aiding the model building procedure, are considered. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided. The model is applied to a selection of world stock indices, and it is found that time is an important factor affecting...

  12. "Isocrater" impacts: Conditions and mantle dynamical responses for different impactor types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedas, Thomas; Breuer, Doris

    2018-05-01

    Impactors of different types and sizes can produce a final crater of the same diameter on a planet under certain conditions. We derive the condition for such "isocrater impacts" from scaling laws, as well as relations that describe how the different impactors affect the interior of the target planet; these relations are also valid for impacts that are too small to affect the mantle. The analysis reveals that in a given isocrater impact, asteroidal impactors produce anomalies in the interior of smaller spatial extent than cometary or similar impactors. The differences in the interior could be useful for characterizing the projectile that formed a given crater on the basis of geophysical observations and potentially offer a possibility to help constrain the demographics of the ancient impactor population. A series of numerical models of basin-forming impacts on Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars illustrates the dynamical effects of the different impactor types on different planets. It shows that the signature of large impacts may be preserved to the present in Mars, the Moon, and Mercury, where convection is less vigorous and much of the anomaly merges with the growing lid. On the other hand, their signature will long have been destroyed in Venus, whose vigorous convection and recurring lithospheric instabilities obliterate larger coherent anomalies.

  13. Repairable-conditionally repairable damage model based on dual Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B K; Persson, L M; Edgren, M R; Hedlöf, I; Brahme, A

    2003-09-01

    The advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy makes it increasingly important to model the response accurately when large volumes of normal tissues are irradiated by controlled graded dose distributions aimed at maximizing tumor cure and minimizing normal tissue toxicity. The cell survival model proposed here is very useful and flexible for accurate description of the response of healthy tissues as well as tumors in classical and truly radiobiologically optimized radiation therapy. The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model distinguishes between two different types of damage, namely the potentially repairable, which may also be lethal, i.e. if unrepaired or misrepaired, and the conditionally repairable, which may be repaired or may lead to apoptosis if it has not been repaired correctly. When potentially repairable damage is being repaired, for example by nonhomologous end joining, conditionally repairable damage may require in addition a high-fidelity correction by homologous repair. The induction of both types of damage is assumed to be described by Poisson statistics. The resultant cell survival expression has the unique ability to fit most experimental data well at low doses (the initial hypersensitive range), intermediate doses (on the shoulder of the survival curve), and high doses (on the quasi-exponential region of the survival curve). The complete Poisson expression can be approximated well by a simple bi-exponential cell survival expression, S(D) = e(-aD) + bDe(-cD), where the first term describes the survival of undamaged cells and the last term represents survival after complete repair of sublethal damage. The bi-exponential expression makes it easy to derive D(0), D(q), n and alpha, beta values to facilitate comparison with classical cell survival models.

  14. Modelling the meteorological forest fire niche in heterogeneous pyrologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition.

  15. Response moderation models for conditional dependence between response time and response accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper; Molenaar, Dylan

    2017-05-01

    It is becoming more feasible and common to register response times in the application of psychometric tests. Researchers thus have the opportunity to jointly model response accuracy and response time, which provides users with more relevant information. The most common choice is to use the hierarchical model (van der Linden, 2007, Psychometrika, 72, 287), which assumes conditional independence between response time and accuracy, given a person's speed and ability. However, this assumption may be violated in practice if, for example, persons vary their speed or differ in their response strategies, leading to conditional dependence between response time and accuracy and confounding measurement. We propose six nested hierarchical models for response time and accuracy that allow for conditional dependence, and discuss their relationship to existing models. Unlike existing approaches, the proposed hierarchical models allow for various forms of conditional dependence in the model and allow the effect of continuous residual response time on response accuracy to be item-specific, person-specific, or both. Estimation procedures for the models are proposed, as well as two information criteria that can be used for model selection. Parameter recovery and usefulness of the information criteria are investigated using simulation, indicating that the procedure works well and is likely to select the appropriate model. Two empirical applications are discussed to illustrate the different types of conditional dependence that may occur in practice and how these can be captured using the proposed hierarchical models. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. TESTING GARCH-X TYPE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present novel theory for testing for reduction of GARCH-X type models with an exogenous (X) covariate to standard GARCH type models. To deal with the problems of potential nuisance parameters on the boundary of the parameter space as well as lack of identification under the null, we exploit...... a noticeable property of specific zero-entries in the inverse information of the GARCH-X type models. Specifically, we consider sequential testing based on two likelihood ratio tests and as demonstrated the structure of the inverse information implies that the proposed test neither depends on whether...... the nuisance parameters lie on the boundary of the parameter space, nor on lack of identification. Our general results on GARCH-X type models are applied to Gaussian based GARCH-X models, GARCH-X models with Student's t-distributed innovations as well as the integer-valued GARCH-X (PAR-X) models....

  17. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions in Greenland (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquet, Olivier; Namar, Rabah; Siegel, Pascal; Jansson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Within the framework of the GAP project, this second phase of geosphere modelling has enabled the development of an improved regional model that has led to a better representation of groundwater flow conditions likely to occur under ice sheet conditions. New data in relation to talik geometry and elevation, as well as to deformation zones were integrated in the geosphere model. In addition, more realistic hydraulic properties were considered for geosphere modelling; they were taken from the Laxemar site in Sweden. The geological medium with conductive deformation zones was modelled as a 3D continuum with stochastically hydraulic properties. Surface and basal glacial meltwater rates provided by a dynamic ice sheet model were assimilated into the groundwater flow model using mixed boundary conditions. The groundwater flow system is considered to be governed by infiltration of glacial meltwater in heterogeneous faulted crystalline rocks in the presence of permafrost and taliks. The characterisation of the permafrost-depth distribution was achieved using a coupled description of flow and heat transfer under steady state conditions. Using glaciological concepts and satellite data, an improved stochastic model was developed for the description at regional scale for the subglacial permafrost distribution in correlation with ice velocity and bed elevation data. Finally, the production of glacial meltwater by the ice sheet was traced for the determination of its depth and lateral extent. The major improvements are related to the type and handling of the subglacial boundary conditions. The use of meltwater rates provided by an ice sheet model applied as input to a mixed boundary condition enables to produce a more plausible flow field in the Eastern part of the domain, in comparison to previous modelling results (Jaquet et al. 2010). In addition, the integration of all potential taliks within the modelled domain provides a better characterisation of the likely groundwater

  18. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions in Greenland (phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, Olivier; Namar, Rabah; Siegel, Pascal [In2Earth Modelling Ltd, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Within the framework of the GAP project, this second phase of geosphere modelling has enabled the development of an improved regional model that has led to a better representation of groundwater flow conditions likely to occur under ice sheet conditions. New data in relation to talik geometry and elevation, as well as to deformation zones were integrated in the geosphere model. In addition, more realistic hydraulic properties were considered for geosphere modelling; they were taken from the Laxemar site in Sweden. The geological medium with conductive deformation zones was modelled as a 3D continuum with stochastically hydraulic properties. Surface and basal glacial meltwater rates provided by a dynamic ice sheet model were assimilated into the groundwater flow model using mixed boundary conditions. The groundwater flow system is considered to be governed by infiltration of glacial meltwater in heterogeneous faulted crystalline rocks in the presence of permafrost and taliks. The characterisation of the permafrost-depth distribution was achieved using a coupled description of flow and heat transfer under steady state conditions. Using glaciological concepts and satellite data, an improved stochastic model was developed for the description at regional scale for the subglacial permafrost distribution in correlation with ice velocity and bed elevation data. Finally, the production of glacial meltwater by the ice sheet was traced for the determination of its depth and lateral extent. The major improvements are related to the type and handling of the subglacial boundary conditions. The use of meltwater rates provided by an ice sheet model applied as input to a mixed boundary condition enables to produce a more plausible flow field in the Eastern part of the domain, in comparison to previous modelling results (Jaquet et al. 2010). In addition, the integration of all potential taliks within the modelled domain provides a better characterisation of the likely groundwater

  19. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  20. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  1. 78 FR 11089 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Airplanes; Sidestick...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...; Special Conditions No. 25-477-SC] Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500... special conditions. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Bombardier Aerospace Model BD-500...: Background On December 10, 2009, Bombardier Aerospace applied for a type certificate for their new Model BD...

  2. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Fengyun

    2017-05-18

    The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD). Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features' information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  3. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD. Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features’ information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  4. Model for calculating the boron concentration in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Martins Junior, L.L. dos; Vanni, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A PWR boron concentration model has been developed for use with RETRAN code. The concentration model calculates the boron mass balance in the primary circuit as the injected boron mixes and is transported through the same circuit. RETRAN control blocks are used to calculate the boron concentration in fluid volumes during steady-state and transient conditions. The boron reactivity worth is obtained from the core concentration and used in RETRAN point kinetics model. A FSAR type analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident in Angra I plant was selected to test the model and the results obtained indicate a sucessfull performance. (Author) [pt

  5. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.

  6. Types of electric-field distribution and corresponding types of convection in the polar ionosphere - A model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, V. M.; Barashkov, P. D.

    1989-08-01

    A model for the continuous distribution of large-scale electric fields is used to reproduce all the experimentally known types of distributions of the evening-morning electric field component along the morning-evening meridian. The corresponding convection patterns are then calculated, which are shown to diverge significantly from previous theoretical considerations. Depending on conditions in the interplanetary medium, two-, three-, or four-vortex convection patterns occur.

  7. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  9. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  10. New Normative Standards of Conditional Reasoning and the Dual-Source Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eSingmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning towards Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998 for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer & Kleiter, 2005, 2010 exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer, Beller, & Hütter, 2010 is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  11. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-10-15

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets for WWTP model calibration, and propose optimal choice of 1-D SST models under different flow and settling boundary conditions. Additionally, the hydraulic parameters in the second-order SST model are found significant under dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. These results highlight the importance of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Mehu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 'Hygiene, Health and Environment' of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, 'runoff' and 'stagnation', and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO 2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials

  13. On conditions and parameters important to model sensitivity for unsaturated flow through layered, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindle, R.W.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1990-10-01

    The Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Project (HYDROCOIN) was formed to evaluate hydrogeologic models and computer codes and their use in performance assessment for high-level radioactive-waste repositories. This report describes the results of a study for HYDROCOIN of model sensitivity for isothermal, unsaturated flow through layered, fractured tuffs. We investigated both the types of flow behavior that dominate the performance measures and the conditions and model parameters that control flow behavior. We also examined the effect of different conceptual models and modeling approaches on our understanding of system behavior. The analyses included single- and multiple-parameter variations about base cases in one-dimensional steady and transient flow and in two-dimensional steady flow. The flow behavior is complex even for the highly simplified and constrained system modeled here. The response of the performance measures is both nonlinear and nonmonotonic. System behavior is dominated by abrupt transitions from matrix to fracture flow and by lateral diversion of flow. The observed behaviors are strongly influenced by the imposed boundary conditions and model constraints. Applied flux plays a critical role in determining the flow type but interacts strongly with the composite-conductivity curves of individual hydrologic units and with the stratigraphy. One-dimensional modeling yields conservative estimates of distributions of groundwater travel time only under very limited conditions. This study demonstrates that it is wrong to equate the shortest possible water-travel path with the fastest path from the repository to the water table. 20 refs., 234 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Effect of sample type, centrifugation and storage conditions on vitamin D concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Ayfer; Toprak, Burak; Dogan, Nese; Ustuner, Fusun

    2013-01-01

    Studies about vitamin D [25(OH)D] stability in plasma are limited and preanalytical variables such as tube type may affect results. We aimed to evaluate effect of storage conditions, sample type and some preanalytical variables on vitamin D concentration. Blood samples from 15 healthy subjects were centrifuged at different temperatures and stored under different conditions. Serum and plasma 25(OH)D difference, effect of centrifugation temperature and common storage conditions were investigated. There was no difference between serum and plasma vitamin D concentration. Centrifugation temperature had no impact on vitamin D concentration. 25(OH)D is stable under common storage conditions: 4 hours at room temperature, 24 hours at 2-8 degrees C, 7 days at -20 degrees C, 3 months at -80 degrees C. Vitamin D does not require any special storage conditions and refrigeration. Both serum and plasma can be used for measurement.

  15. Disparities in chronic conditions and health status by type of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2013-10-01

    Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Photo-3 model: A Python-based model for C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis coupled with environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S. R.; Bartlett, M. S., Jr.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to depict all three photosynthetic types (C3, C4, and CAM) has important implications for the study of both natural and agroecosystems. Currently no model exists which covers all types of photosynthesis in a consistent way and which can be fully integrated with environmental conditions. This is partially because, despite the fact that Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis is prevalent in many plants in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where it may comprise nearly 50% of all plant biomass, CAM modelling remains understudied. The Photo-3 model takes advantage of recent advances in mechanistic modeling of CAM photosynthesis to provide a direct comparison of CAM functioning with C3 and C4 functioning under a wide range of soil and atmospheric conditions. The model is based on a core Farquhar photosynthetic model with additional functions to represent the spatial and temporal separations of carbon uptake and assimilation in the case of C4 and CAM photosynthesis. We have parameterized the model for one representative species of each photosynthetic type: Opuntia ficus-indica (CAM), Sorghum bicolor (C4), and Triticum aestivum (C3). Results agree well with experimental data on carbon assimilation and water use for the three species. Model runs using climate data from Temple, TX; Sicily, Italy; Zacatecas, Mexico; Pernambuco, Brazil and Adias Ababa, Ethiopia illustrate the high water use efficiency of CAM plants and its cumulative effects on long-term productivity in water-limited environments. The Photo-3 model, which is written in Python, will be made publicly available on GitHub and its outputs may be coupled to existing models of plant growth and phenology. The model may be used to evaluate potential productivity and water use for C3, C4, and CAM plants, and to devise optimal strategies for cropping systems and irrigation in water-limited environments.

  17. Cayley-type conditions for billiards within k quadrics in Rd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Vladimir; Radnovic, Milena

    2004-01-01

    The notions of reflection from outside, reflection from inside and signature of a billiard trajectory within a quadric are introduced. Cayley-type conditions for periodical trajectories for the billiard in the region bounded by k quadrics in R d and for the billiard ordered game within k ellipsoids in R d are derived. In a limit, the condition describing periodic trajectories of billiard systems on a quadric in R d is obtained

  18. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  19. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ali Ewadh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7 software. The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type

  20. Effect of Age, Hair Type and Body Condition Score on Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of age, hair type and body condition score on body weight and body conformation traits using 62 Yankasa rams. The ages of the rams were categorized into three; 12-18, 19-24 and 25-36 months. The hair types which were determined through touching and feeling were ...

  1. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type – II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-01-01

    take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage–current characteristic. On the whole, the non-isothermal stability conditions expand the existence of allowable stable superconducting states. The non-isothermal approximation permits also to link the theories of the losses, the magnetic instability and the thermal stabilization of superconductors, which are independently developed

  2. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  3. Crack propagation rate modelling for 316SS exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Martens, B.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-01-01

    The crack propagation rate of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions was modelled. A film rupture/dissolution/repassivation mechanism is assumed and extended to cold worked materials by including a stress-dependent bare metal dissolution current density. The chemical and electrochemical conditions within the crack are calculated by finite element calculations, an analytical expression is used for the crack-tip strain rate and the crack-tip stress is assumed equal to 2.5 times the yield stress (plane-strain). First the model was calibrated against a literature published data set. Afterwards, the influence of various variables - dissolved hydrogen, boric acid and lithium hydroxide content, stress intensity, crack length, temperature, flow rate - was studied. Finally, other published crack growth rate tests were modelled and the calculated crack growth rates were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported ones

  4. Nonlinear models for autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teräsvirta, Timo

    This paper contains a brief survey of nonlinear models of autore- gressive conditional heteroskedasticity. The models in question are parametric nonlinear extensions of the original model by Engle (1982). After presenting the individual models, linearity testing and parameter estimation are discu...

  5. A simulation Model of the Reactor Hall Ventilation and air Conditioning Systems of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Although the conceptual design for any system differs from one designer to another. each of them aims to achieve the function of the system required. the ventilation and air conditioning system of reactors hall is one of those systems that really differs but always dose its function for which it is designed. thus, ventilation and air conditioning in some reactor hall constitute only one system whereas in some other ones, they are separate systems. the Egypt Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2)represents the second type. most studies conducted on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models either in traditional building or for research rectors show that those models were not designed similarly to the model of the hall of ETRR-2 in which ventilation and air conditioning constitute two separate systems.besides, those studies experimented on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models of reactor building predict the temperature and humidity inside these buildings at certain outside condition and it is difficult to predict when the outside conditions are changed . also those studies do not discuss the influences of reactor power changes. therefore, the present work deals with a computational study backed by infield experimental measurements of the performance of the ventilation and air conditioning systems of reactor hall during normal operation at different outside conditions as well as at different levels of reactor power

  6. Development of plant condition measurement - The Jimah Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy F.; Syuhaimi, Mohd; Mazli, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Nurliyana; Maniza Othman, Faiz

    2012-05-01

    The Jimah Model is an information management model. The model has been designed to facilitate analysis of machine condition by integrating diagnostic data with quantitative and qualitative information. The model treats data as a single strand of information - metaphorically a 'genome' of data. The 'Genome' is structured to be representative of plant function and identifies the condition of selected components (or genes) in each machine. To date in industry, computer aided work processes used with traditional industrial practices, have been unable to consistently deliver a standard of information suitable for holistic evaluation of machine condition and change. Significantly the reengineered site strategies necessary for implementation of this "data genome concept" have resulted in enhanced knowledge and management of plant condition. In large plant with high initial equipment cost and subsequent high maintenance costs, accurate measurement of major component condition becomes central to whole of life management and replacement decisions. A case study following implementation of the model at a major power station site in Malaysia (Jimah) shows that modeling of plant condition and wear (in real time) can be made a practical reality.

  7. Development of plant condition measurement - The Jimah Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Roy F; Syuhaimi, Mohd; Mazli, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Nurliyana; Othman, Faiz Maniza

    2012-01-01

    The Jimah Model is an information management model. The model has been designed to facilitate analysis of machine condition by integrating diagnostic data with quantitative and qualitative information. The model treats data as a single strand of information - metaphorically a 'genome' of data. The 'Genome' is structured to be representative of plant function and identifies the condition of selected components (or genes) in each machine. To date in industry, computer aided work processes used with traditional industrial practices, have been unable to consistently deliver a standard of information suitable for holistic evaluation of machine condition and change. Significantly the reengineered site strategies necessary for implementation of this 'data genome concept' have resulted in enhanced knowledge and management of plant condition. In large plant with high initial equipment cost and subsequent high maintenance costs, accurate measurement of major component condition becomes central to whole of life management and replacement decisions. A case study following implementation of the model at a major power station site in Malaysia (Jimah) shows that modeling of plant condition and wear (in real time) can be made a practical reality.

  8. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks...... (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D...... of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets...

  9. Bayesian informative dropout model for longitudinal binary data with random effects using conditional and joint modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jennifer S K

    2016-05-01

    Dropouts are common in longitudinal study. If the dropout probability depends on the missing observations at or after dropout, this type of dropout is called informative (or nonignorable) dropout (ID). Failure to accommodate such dropout mechanism into the model will bias the parameter estimates. We propose a conditional autoregressive model for longitudinal binary data with an ID model such that the probabilities of positive outcomes as well as the drop-out indicator in each occasion are logit linear in some covariates and outcomes. This model adopting a marginal model for outcomes and a conditional model for dropouts is called a selection model. To allow for the heterogeneity and clustering effects, the outcome model is extended to incorporate mixture and random effects. Lastly, the model is further extended to a novel model that models the outcome and dropout jointly such that their dependency is formulated through an odds ratio function. Parameters are estimated by a Bayesian approach implemented using the user-friendly Bayesian software WinBUGS. A methadone clinic dataset is analyzed to illustrate the proposed models. Result shows that the treatment time effect is still significant but weaker after allowing for an ID process in the data. Finally the effect of drop-out on parameter estimates is evaluated through simulation studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Modeling and analysis on ring-type piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shine-Tzong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an electromechanical model for a ring-type piezoelectric transformer (PT). To establish this model, vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric ring with free boundary conditions are analyzed in advance. Based on the vibration analysis of the piezoelectric ring, the operating frequency and vibration mode of the PT are chosen. Then, electromechanical equations of motion for the PT are derived based on Hamilton's principle, which can be used to simulate the coupled electromechanical system for the transformer. Such as voltage stepup ratio, input impedance, output impedance, input power, output power, and efficiency are calculated by the equations. The optimal load resistance and the maximum efficiency for the PT will be presented in this paper. Experiments also were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis, and a good agreement was obtained.

  11. Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.

    2013-03-01

    The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.

  12. Modeling conditional correlations of asset returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM-test is d......In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of five...

  13. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor......This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors...

  14. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  15. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  16. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space

  17. Independencies Induced from a Graphical Markov Model After Marginalization and Conditioning: The R Package ggm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Marchetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe some functions in the R package ggm to derive from a given Markov model, represented by a directed acyclic graph, different types of graphs induced after marginalizing over and conditioning on some of the variables. The package has a few basic functions that find the essential graph, the induced concentration and covariance graphs, and several types of chain graphs implied by the directed acyclic graph (DAG after grouping and reordering the variables. These functions can be useful to explore the impact of latent variables or of selection effects on a chosen data generating model.

  18. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  19. Formation conditions and prospecting criteria for sandstone uranium deposit of interlayer oxidation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprehensively analyses the geotectonic setting and favourable conditions, such as structure of the basin, sedimentary facies and paleogeography, geomorphology and climate, hydrodynamics and hydrogeochemistry, the development of interlayered oxidation etc, necessary for the formation of sandstone uranium deposit of interlayered oxidation type. The following prospecting criteria is proposed, namely: abundant uranium source, arid climate, stable big basin, flat-lying sandstone bed, big alluvial fan, little change in sedimentary facies, intercalation of sandstone and mudstone beds, shallow burying of sandstone bed, well-aquiferous sandstone bed, high permeability of sandstone bed, development of interlayered oxidation, and high content of reductant in sandstone. In addition, the 6 in 1 hydrogenic genetic model is proposed

  20. Algebraic Traveling Wave Solutions of a Non-local Hydrodynamic-type Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiyong; Zhu, Wenjing; Qiao, Zhijun; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the algebraic traveling wave solutions of a non-local hydrodynamic-type model. It is shown that algebraic traveling wave solutions exist if and only if an associated first order ordinary differential system has invariant algebraic curve. The dynamical behavior of the associated ordinary differential system is analyzed. Phase portraits of the associated ordinary differential system is provided under various parameter conditions. Moreover, we classify algebraic traveling wave solutions of the model. Some explicit formulas of smooth solitary wave and cuspon solutions are obtained

  1. Metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guihua

    1998-01-01

    A metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits has been established on the basis of analysis of occurrence features and ore-forming mechanism of some continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits in the world. The model proposes that uranium-enriched granite or granitic basement is the foundation, premetallogenic polycyclic and multistage volcanic eruptions are prerequisites, intense tectonic-extensional environment is the key for the ore formation, and relatively enclosed geologic setting is the reliable protection condition of the deposit. By using the model the author explains the occurrence regularities of some rich and large/super large uranium deposits such as Strelichof uranium deposit in Russia, Dornot uranium deposit in Mongolia, Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-REE deposit in Australia, uranium deposit No.460 and Zhoujiashan uranium deposit in China, and then compares the above deposits with a large poor uranium deposit No.661 as well

  2. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  4. Rule-based Mamdani-type fuzzy modelling of thermal performance of fintube evaporator under frost conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozen Dilek Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost formation brings about insulating effects over the surface of a heat exchanger and thereby deteriorating total heat transfer of the heat exchanger. In this study, a fin-tube evaporator is modeled by making use of Rule-based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF logic where total heat transfer, air inlet temperature of 2 °C to 7 °C and four different fluid speed groups (ua1=1; 1.44; 1.88 m s-1, ua2=2.32; 2.76 m s-1, ua3=3.2; 3.64 m s-1, ua4=4.08; 4.52; 4.96 m s-1 for the evaporator were taken into consideration. In the developed RBMTF system, outlet parameter UA was determined using inlet parameters Ta and ua. The RBMTF was trained and tested by using MATLAB® fuzzy logic toolbox. R2 (% for the training data and test data were found to be 99.91%. With this study, it has been shown that RBMTF model can be reliably used in determination of a total heat transfer of a fin-tube evaporator.

  5. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  6. Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D...... at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D...... include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that engagement in muscle...

  7. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  8. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  10. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  11. 27 CFR 72.23 - Type and conditions of cost bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.23 Type and conditions of cost bond. The cost bond delivered by a claimant to effect removal of the forfeiture status of the property or carrier claimed to the jurisdiction... individual sureties the claimant may deposit collateral as provided in § 72.25. The cost bond shall be...

  12. Investigation of time and weather effects on crash types using full Bayesian multivariate Poisson lognormal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Barua, Sudip; Islam, Md Tazul

    2014-12-01

    Previous research shows that various weather elements have significant effects on crash occurrence and risk; however, little is known about how these elements affect different crash types. Consequently, this study investigates the impact of weather elements and sudden extreme snow or rain weather changes on crash type. Multivariate models were used for seven crash types using five years of daily weather and crash data collected for the entire City of Edmonton. In addition, the yearly trend and random variation of parameters across the years were analyzed by using four different modeling formulations. The proposed models were estimated in a full Bayesian context via Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The multivariate Poisson lognormal model with yearly varying coefficients provided the best fit for the data according to Deviance Information Criteria. Overall, results showed that temperature and snowfall were statistically significant with intuitive signs (crashes decrease with increasing temperature; crashes increase as snowfall intensity increases) for all crash types, while rainfall was mostly insignificant. Previous snow showed mixed results, being statistically significant and positively related to certain crash types, while negatively related or insignificant in other cases. Maximum wind gust speed was found mostly insignificant with a few exceptions that were positively related to crash type. Major snow or rain events following a dry weather condition were highly significant and positively related to three crash types: Follow-Too-Close, Stop-Sign-Violation, and Ran-Off-Road crashes. The day-of-the-week dummy variables were statistically significant, indicating a possible weekly variation in exposure. Transportation authorities might use the above results to improve road safety by providing drivers with information regarding the risk of certain crash types for a particular weather condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China)

    1999-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed.

  14. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed

  15. Modeling and experimental study of a corrugated wick type solar still: Comparative study with a simple basin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Alosaimy, A.S.; Mahrous, A.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of corrugated wick type solar still is compared with simple type. • Corrugated porous surface contributes by about 75% of the total productivity. • Productivity of corrugated solar still was 34% more than that for simple type. - Abstract: In the present work, the productivity of a solar still is modified by forming the evaporative surface as a corrugated shape as well as by decreasing the heat capacity with the use of a porous material. This target has been achieved by using black clothes in a corrugated shape that are immersed in water where the clothes absorbs water and get saturated by capillary effect. Along with the proposed corrugated wick type solar still, a simple basin still type was fabricated and tested to compare the enhancement accomplished by the developed solar still. Inclined reflectors were used to augment the solar radiation incident on the plane of the developed solar stills. The energy balance in the developed mathematical models takes into consideration the glass covers, the porous material, along with the portion of water exposed to the transmitted solar radiation as well as the portion of water shaded by the corrugated surface. The developed mathematical model was validated by fabricating and testing two models for the proposed and simple basin solar stills under the same conditions. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results has been detected. It has been found that an improvement of about 34% in the productivity for the proposed wick type solar still is gained as compared to the simple basin case. Also, the best tilt angle for the inclined reflector has been found to be about 30° with respect to the vertical direction of the setup under consideration.

  16. Modelling of Performance of Caisson Type Breakwaters under Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney Doǧan, Gözde; Özyurt Tarakcıoǧlu, Gülizar; Baykal, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal structures are designed without considering loads of tsunami-like waves or long waves although they are constructed in areas prone to encounter these waves. Performance of caisson type breakwaters under extreme swells is tested in Middle East Technical University (METU) Coastal and Ocean Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the comparison of pressure measurements taken along the surface of caisson type breakwaters and obtained from numerical modelling of them using IH2VOF as well as damage behavior of the breakwater under the same extreme swells tested in a wave flume at METU. Experiments are conducted in the 1.5 m wide wave flume, which is divided into two parallel sections (0.74 m wide each). A piston type of wave maker is used to generate the long wave conditions located at one end of the wave basin. Water depth is determined as 0.4m and kept constant during the experiments. A caisson type breakwater is constructed to one side of the divided flume. The model scale, based on the Froude similitude law, is chosen as 1:50. 7 different wave conditions are applied in the tests as the wave period ranging from 14.6 s to 34.7 s, wave heights from 3.5 m to 7.5 m and steepness from 0.002 to 0.015 in prototype scale. The design wave parameters for the breakwater were 5m wave height and 9.5s wave period in prototype. To determine the damage of the breakwater which were designed according to this wave but tested under swell waves, video and photo analysis as well as breakwater profile measurements before and after each test are performed. Further investigations are carried out about the acting wave forces on the concrete blocks of the caisson structures via pressure measurements on the surfaces of these structures where the structures are fixed to the channel bottom minimizing. Finally, these pressure measurements will be compared with the results obtained from the numerical study using IH2VOF which is one of the RANS models that can be applied to simulate

  17. Exact Solutions of a High-Order Nonlinear Wave Equation of Korteweg-de Vries Type under Newly Solvable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Rui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the integral bifurcation method together with factoring technique, we study a water wave model, a high-order nonlinear wave equation of KdV type under some newly solvable conditions. Based on our previous research works, some exact traveling wave solutions such as broken-soliton solutions, periodic wave solutions of blow-up type, smooth solitary wave solutions, and nonsmooth peakon solutions within more extensive parameter ranges are obtained. In particular, a series of smooth solitary wave solutions and nonsmooth peakon solutions are obtained. In order to show the properties of these exact solutions visually, we plot the graphs of some representative traveling wave solutions.

  18. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare, Volume II

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James G.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive treatist on Lanchester-type models of warfare, i.e. differential-equation models of attrition in force-on-force combat operations. Its goal is to provide both an introduction to and current-state-of-the-art overview of Lanchester-type models of warfare as well as a comprehensive and unified in-depth treatment of them. Both deterministic as well as stochastic models are considered. Such models have been widely used in the United States and elsewhere for the...

  19. Model Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeeva; Kumar, Aditya; Dai, Dan; Seenumani, Gayathri; Down, John; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-12-31

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a general model-based sensor network design methodology and tools to address key issues in the design of an optimal sensor network configuration: the type, location and number of sensors used in a network, for online condition monitoring. In particular, the focus in this work is to develop software tools for optimal sensor placement (OSP) and use these tools to design optimal sensor network configuration for online condition monitoring of gasifier refractory wear and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) fouling. The methodology developed will be applicable to sensing system design for online condition monitoring for broad range of applications. The overall approach consists of (i) defining condition monitoring requirement in terms of OSP and mapping these requirements in mathematical terms for OSP algorithm, (ii) analyzing trade-off of alternate OSP algorithms, down selecting the most relevant ones and developing them for IGCC applications (iii) enhancing the gasifier and RSC models as required by OSP algorithms, (iv) applying the developed OSP algorithm to design the optimal sensor network required for the condition monitoring of an IGCC gasifier refractory and RSC fouling. Two key requirements for OSP for condition monitoring are desired precision for the monitoring variables (e.g. refractory wear) and reliability of the proposed sensor network in the presence of expected sensor failures. The OSP problem is naturally posed within a Kalman filtering approach as an integer programming problem where the key requirements of precision and reliability are imposed as constraints. The optimization is performed over the overall network cost. Based on extensive literature survey two formulations were identified as being relevant to OSP for condition monitoring; one based on LMI formulation and the other being standard INLP formulation. Various algorithms to solve

  20. A Realizability Model for Impredicative Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Lerchedal; Birkedal, Lars; Nanevski, Alexandar

    2008-01-01

    We present a denotational model of impredicative Hoare Type Theory, a very expressive dependent type theory in which one can specify and reason about mutable abstract data types. The model ensures soundness of the extension of Hoare Type Theory with impredicative polymorphism; makes the connections...... to separation logic clear, and provides a basis for investigation of further sound extensions of the theory, in particular equations between computations and types....

  1. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  2. Internal Universes in Models of Homotopy Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licata, Daniel R.; Orton, Ian; Pitts, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    We show that universes of fibrations in various models of homotopy type theory have an essentially global character: they cannot be described in the internal language of the presheaf topos from which the model is constructed. We get around this problem by extending the internal language with a mo...... that the interval in cubical sets does indeed have. This leads to a completely internal development of models of homotopy type theory within what we call crisp type theory.......We show that universes of fibrations in various models of homotopy type theory have an essentially global character: they cannot be described in the internal language of the presheaf topos from which the model is constructed. We get around this problem by extending the internal language...

  3. Influence of column type and chromatographic conditions on the ion-exchange chromatography of immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Harrison, K

    1996-08-30

    Immunoglobulins are often purified by affinity chromatography. However, this technique is costly, can result in poor resolution for subclasses (or is only group specific), and leads to possible leaching of contaminants into the purified products. Ion-exchange chromatography has shown great potential and has found an increased usage in the purification of immunoglobulins. The aim of this study is to further understand the separation mechanism with emphasis on the influence of column type and chromatographic conditions on the peak shape, selectivity and changes in the elution patterns. Included are strong cation-exchange, strong anion-exchange and weak anion-exchange columns. Five immunoglobulin G antibodies were used as test probes. Some sera and ascites were also used in the study. Among the chromatographic conditions examined were mobile phase pH, buffer type, buffer concentration, gradient rate, and column temperature. Significant differences in the chromatographic behavior (elution pattern, peak shape and selectivity) of the test samples are discussed in regard to the column type and the chromatographic conditions.

  4. A study of ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold traps are studied. It is known that the temperature profile along axial direction (x) of the trap must follow the condition (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 , in order to avoid crystals deposition on the wall and the consequent premature plugging. In the present work it is showed that (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 condition is necessary but not sufficient. A temperature profile which satisfies both conditions is found and its practical obtention is presented. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. A lumped parameter core dynamics model for MTR type research reactors under natural convection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Zaferanlouei, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model is presented to simulate the reactivity insertion transient in MTR reactors. ► Transient dynamics of IAEA 10 MW MTR type research reactor are evaluated. ► Maximum unprotected reactivity insertion for safe condition is calculated. ► The model predictions are validated with corresponding results in the literature. - Abstract: On the basis of lumped parameter modeling of both the kinetic and thermal–hydraulic effects, a reasonably accurate simplified model has been developed to predict the dynamic response of MTR reactors following to an unprotected reactivity insertion under natural convection regime. By this model the reactor transient behavior at a given initial steady-state can be solved by a set of ordinary differential equations. The model predictions have an acceptable consent with corresponding results of reactivity insertion transients analyzed in the literature. The inherent safety characteristics of MTR research reactors utilizing natural convection is clearly demonstrated by the expanded model. The safety margin of reactor operating is selected ONB condition and thereby the proposed model determines that any slight increase in the value of $0.73 for inserted reactivity will cause the maximum cladding surface temperature to exceed the ONB condition

  6. VALIDITY OF GARBER MODEL IN PREDICTING PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT IN KERBALA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Ewadh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavement Condition Index (PCI is one of the important basics in pavement maintenance management system (PMMS, and it is used to evaluate the current and future pavement condition. This importantance in decision making to limit the maintenance needs, types of treatment, and maintenance priority. The aim of this research is to estimate the PCI value for flexible pavement urban roads in the study area (kerbala city by using Garber et al. developed model. Based on previous researches, data are collected for variables that have a significant impact on pavement condition. Data for pavement age (AGE, average daily traffic (ADT, and structural number (SN were collected for 44 sections in the network roads. A field survey (destructive test (core test and laboratory test (Marshall Test were used to determine the capacity of structure layer of pavement (SN. The condition index (CI output from a developed model was compared with the PCI output of PAVER 6.5.7 by using statistical analysis test. The developed model overestimates value of CI rather than PCI estimated from PAVER 6.5.7 due to statistical test to a 95% degree of confidence, (R = 0.771 for 44 sections (arterial and collector.

  7. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  8. Effects of suspension of air-conditioning on airtight-type racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, M; Fujieda, M; Furukawa, T

    2001-10-01

    Although isolation racks are superior to open-type racks in terms of securing breeding conditions for laboratory animals, the contingency-proofing capability of the former has yet to be determined. Therefore, from the view of risk management, we studied the environmental change in isolation racks by forcibly suspending ventilation and air-conditioning and confirming the maximal time length for complete recovery to the original condition after restarting their operations. The isolation racks were placed in a room that was equipped with an independent air-conditioning system. When the inside condition of the racks reached 22-24 degrees C and 59-64% of relative humidity, the air-conditioning and ventilation were forcibly suspended and the subsequent temperature, relative humidity, ammonium and CO2 concentrations in the racks were measured over time. We found that after suspending the air-conditioning and ventilation, it took 40-60 min for temperature, and about 10 min for relative humidity to exceed the maximum values (temperature and relative humidity) referred to in the Showa 58 Nenban Guideline Jikken Doubutsu Shisetsu no Kenchiku oyobi Setsubi (Guidelines of buildings and facilities for experimental animals in Japan; Year 1983 edition). After 17 hr 25 min of the suspension of air-conditioning and ventilation, two rats were found dead. Then, the air-conditioning and ventilation were restarted. It took about 2 hr for temperature, and 50 min for relative humidity to regain the guideline values. The ammonium concentration stayed within the guideline value with a maximum concentration of 2 ppm in the experimental period, whereas the CO2 concentration was found to exceed 9% at the time of animal death.

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Torkzaban, Saeed; Leij, Feike; Simunek, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and kinetic, and two-site kinetic models were developed to describe various rates of colloid release. These models were subsequently applied to experimental colloid release datasets to investigate the influence of variations in ionic strength (IS), pH, cation exchange, colloid size, and water velocity on release. Various combinations of equilibrium and/or kinetic release models were needed to describe the experimental data depending on the transient conditions and colloid type. Release of Escherichia coli D21g was promoted by a decrease in solution IS and an increase in pH, similar to expected trends for a reduction in the secondary minimum and nanoscale chemical heterogeneity. The retention and release of 20nm carboxyl modified latex nanoparticles (NPs) were demonstrated to be more sensitive to the presence of Ca(2+) than D21g. Specifically, retention of NPs was greater than D21g in the presence of 2mM CaCl2 solution, and release of NPs only occurred after exchange of Ca(2+) by Na(+) and then a reduction in the solution IS. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional interaction energy calculations to describe colloid retention and release, and point to the need to consider other interactions (e.g., Born, steric, and/or hydration forces) and/or nanoscale heterogeneity. Temporal changes in the water velocity did not have a large influence on the release of D21g for the examined conditions. This insensitivity was likely due to factors that reduce the applied hydrodynamic torque and/or increase the resisting adhesive torque; e.g., macroscopic roughness and grain-grain contacts. Our analysis and models improve our understanding and ability to describe the amounts

  10. Types of distribution of electric fields and the types of convection corresponding to them in the polar ionosphere. A model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, V. M.; Barashkov, P. D.

    1989-06-01

    All types of distributions known from experiment of the evening-morning component of the electric field Ee-m along the morning-evening meridian are reproduced on the basis of a model of the continuous distribution of largescale electric fields E, and the convection patterns corresponding to them, which differ appreciably from the known speculative concepts, are calculated. Two-, three-, and four-vortex convection patterns are realized, depending on the conditions in the interplanetary medium.

  11. Development of systematic models for aerosol agglomeration and spray removal under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide behavior during various severe accident conditions has been addressed as one of the important issues to discuss environmental safety in nuclear power plants. The present paper deals with the development of analytical models and their validations for the agglomeration of multiple-component aerosol and spray removal that controls source terms to the environment of both aerosols and gaseous radionuclides during recirculation mode operation in a containment system for a light water reactor. As for aerosol agglomeration, the single collision kernel model that can cover all types of two-body collision of aerosol was developed. In addition, the dynamic model that can treat aerosol and vapor transfer leading to the equilibrium condition under the containment spray operation was developed. The validations of the present models for multiple-component aerosol growth by agglomeration were performed by comparisons with Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and AB experiments at Hanford Engineering National Laboratory (HEDL). In addition, the spray removal models were applied to the analysis of containment spray experiment (CSE) at HEDL. The results calculated by the models showed good agreements with experimental results. (author)

  12. Comparison of US/FRG accident condition models for HTGR fuel failure and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.

    1991-03-01

    The objective was to compare calculation models used in safety analyses in the US and FRG which describe fission product release behavior from TRISO coated fuel particles under core heatup accident conditions. The frist step performed is the qualitative comparison of both sides' fuel failure and release models in order to identify differences and similarities in modeling assumptions and inputs. Assumptions of possible particle failure mechanisms under accident conditions (SiC degradation, pressure vessel) are principally the same on both sides though they are used in different modeling approaches. The characterization of a standard (= intact) coated particle to be of non-releasing (GA) or possibly releasing (KFA/ISF) type is one of the major qualitative differences. Similar models are used regarding radionuclide release from exposed particle kernels. In a second step, a quantitative comparison of the calculation models was made by assessing a benchmark problem predicting particle failure and radionuclide release under MHTGR conduction cooldown accident conditions. Calculations with each side's reference method have come to almost the same failure fractions after 250 hours for the core region with maximum core heatup temperature despite the different modeling approaches of SORS and PANAMA-I. The comparison of the results of particle failure obtained with the Integrated Failure and Release Model for Standard Particles and its revision provides a 'verification' of these models in this sense that the codes (SORS and PANAMA-II, and -III, respectively) which were independently developed lead to very good agreement in the predictions. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radius stabilization and brane running in the Randall-Sundrum type 1 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We study the effective potential of a scalar field based on the 5D gauged supergravity for the Randall-Sundrum type one brane model in terms of the brane running method. The scalar couples to the brane such that the Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield conditions are satisfied for the bulk configuration. The resulting effective potential implies that the interbrane distance is undetermined in this case, and we need a small Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield breaking term on the brane to stabilize the interbrane distance at a finite length. We also discuss the relationship to the Goldberger-Wise model

  14. Modelling of motorway tunnels scenario for utilization of conditionally released radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Considerable amount of solid radioactive waste with radioactivity slightly above the limits for unconditional release is generated during the decommissioning of the nuclear installations. Conditional release deals with precisely this type of materials with activity slightly above limits in order to save considerable financial resources, which would be otherwise spend on treatment, conditioning and disposal of these materials at appropriate repository. The basic principles of conditional release as well as possibilities of reusing of the conditionally released materials are described. One of these possibilities of the reusing was chosen and application proposal of conditional release of metal waste - steel reinforcement in the concrete, which could be used for construction of motorway tunnels, was created. The computer code Visiplan 4.0 3D ALARA planning tool software was used for the calculation of effective individual dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for critical group related to scenario. Particular models for individual scenarios of conditional release have been developed within the scope of this software code. The aim of the paper is to determine a level of the radioactivity of conditional released materials to avoid over exceeding the value of annual individual effective dose 10μSv/year established by international recommendations. (author)

  15. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada

  16. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  17. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R.

    2011-01-01

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis

  18. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R. [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis.

  19. Impact of Fuel Type on the Internal Combustion Engine Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Schauperl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the influence of liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuel on the condition of the internal combustion engine. The traffic, energy, economic and ecological influence as well as the types of fuel are studied and analyzed in an unbiased manner, objectively, and in detail, and the obtained results are compared with the condition of the engine of a vehicle powered by the stipulated fuel, petrol Eurosuper 95. The study was carried out on two identical passenger cars with one being fitted with gas installation. The obtained results show that properly installed gas installations in vehicles and the usage of LPG have no significant influence on the driving performances, but they affect significantly the ecological and economic parameters of using passenger cars.

  20. Assessment of slip factor models at off-design condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Baek, Je Hyun

    2000-01-01

    Slip factor is defined as an empirical factor being multiplied to theoretical energy transfer for the estimation of real work input of a centrifugal compressor. Researchers have tried to develop a simple empirical model, for a century, to predict a slip factor. However most these models were developed on the condition of design point assuming inviscid flow. So these models often fail to predict a correct slip factor at off-design condition. In this study, we summarized various slip factor models and compared these models with experimental and numerical data at off-design condition. As a result of this study, Wiesner's and Paeng and Chung's models are applicable for radial impeller, but all the models are not suitable for backswept impeller. Finally, the essential avenues for future study is discussed

  1. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SOIL CEMENT ELEMENTS WHEN STABILIZING ROADBED MODEL IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D Petrenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Experimental studies allow determining th estress-strain state or bearing capacity of the tested soil body. A preliminary study of the results of model testing and experimental research allows us to find the optimal solutions and to justify the parameters of the chosen technology. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of soil cement elements when stabilizing the roadbed on a weak subgrade using the soil tests in laboratory conditions. Methodology. During the development of measures for the reconstruction and consolidation of soil bodies, their strength is tested using many methods. In all cases, we take into account the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils obtained as a result of research, as well as the existing regulatory documents. We performed the experimental studies by model testing in laboratory conditions. The model testing was based on the corresponding relationships between geometric sizes, mechanical properties of materials, loads and other factors on which the stress-strain state depends. During testing, the model was loaded gradually. We maintained each load level up to conditional stabilization of the soil deformation. We took the readings from measuring devices at each stage of loading after achievement of stabilization of soil mass deformations. We fixed the readings in the test journal. Findings. During stabilization with soil cement piles there is an improvement in mechanical properties, which leads to a decrease in deformations by 2…3.5 times. Each test is accompanied with graphs of relative deformations-stress dependence, as well as deformation curves and compression curves. According to the results of experimental stu-dies, it can be seen that when testing a model with cement piles, compared with a model without soil cement piles, the relative deformations of the samples taken prior to the experiment and after the experiment almost coincide, indicating a decrease in deformability under

  2. Singular Spectrum Near a Singular Point of Friedrichs Model Operators of Absolute Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, Serguei I.

    2006-01-01

    In L 2 (R) we consider a family of self adjoint operators of the Friedrichs model: A m =|t| m +V. Here |t| m is the operator of multiplication by the corresponding function of the independent variable t element of R, and (perturbation) is a trace-class integral operator with a continuous Hermitian kernel ν(t,x) satisfying some smoothness condition. These absolute type operators have one singular point of order m>0. Conditions on the kernel ν(t,x) are found guaranteeing the absence of the point spectrum and the singular continuous one of such operators near the origin. These conditions are actually necessary and sufficient. They depend on the finiteness of the rank of a perturbation operator and on the order of singularity. The sharpness of these conditions is confirmed by counterexamples

  3. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  4. EARLY DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PINNING DOWN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NICE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, the 'Nice' model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the solar system by evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration. Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial configuration from which the solar system started out. Recent work has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. In this paper, we use analytical arguments, as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully resonant initial conditions, whose dynamical evolution is characterized by an eccentric phase of the ice giants, as well as planetary scattering. We find a total of eight such initial conditions. Four of these primordial states are compatible with the canonical 'Nice' model, while the others imply slightly different evolutions. The results presented here should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  5. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  6. On a Boltzmann-type price formation model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis A.; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which is motivated by a parabolic free boundary model for the evolution of price presented by Lasry and Lions in 2007. We discuss the mathematical analysis of the Boltzmann-type model and show that its solutions converge to solutions of the model by Lasry and Lions as the transaction rate tends to infinity. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the initial layer on the fast time scale and illustrate the price dynamics with various numerical experiments. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. On a Boltzmann-type price formation model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-06-26

    In this paper, we present a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which is motivated by a parabolic free boundary model for the evolution of price presented by Lasry and Lions in 2007. We discuss the mathematical analysis of the Boltzmann-type model and show that its solutions converge to solutions of the model by Lasry and Lions as the transaction rate tends to infinity. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the initial layer on the fast time scale and illustrate the price dynamics with various numerical experiments. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear parabolic problems with Neumann-type boundary conditions and L^1-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane El Hachimi

    2007-11-01

    $$ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t}-\\triangle_{p}u+\\alpha(u=f \\quad \\text{in } ]0,\\ T[\\times\\Omega, $$ with Neumann-type boundary conditions and initial data in $L^1$. Our approach is based essentially on the time discretization technique by Euler forward scheme.

  9. Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco

    The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...

  10. The Accuracy of RADIANCE Software in Modelling Overcast Sky Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the sky models of RADIANCE simulation software against the overcast sky condition has been carried out in order to test the accuracy of sky model of RADIANCE for modeling the overcast sky condition in Hong Kong. Two sets of data have been analysed. Firstly, data collected from a set of experiments using a physical scale model. In this experiment, the illuminance of four points inside the model was measured under real sky conditions. Secondly, the RADIANCE simulation has ...

  11. Multivariate poisson lognormal modeling of crashes by type and severity on rural two lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Jackson, Eric

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to improve traffic safety, there has been considerable interest in estimating crash prediction models and identifying factors contributing to crashes. To account for crash frequency variations among crash types and severities, crash prediction models have been estimated by type and severity. The univariate crash count models have been used by researchers to estimate crashes by crash type or severity, in which the crash counts by type or severity are assumed to be independent of one another and modelled separately. When considering crash types and severities simultaneously, this may neglect the potential correlations between crash counts due to the presence of shared unobserved factors across crash types or severities for a specific roadway intersection or segment, and might lead to biased parameter estimation and reduce model accuracy. The focus on this study is to estimate crashes by both crash type and crash severity using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MVPLN) model, and identify the different effects of contributing factors on different crash type and severity counts on rural two-lane highways. The INLA MVPLN model can simultaneously model crash counts by crash type and crash severity by accounting for the potential correlations among them and significantly decreases the computational time compared with a fully Bayesian fitting of the MVPLN model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper describes estimation of MVPLN models for three-way stop controlled (3ST) intersections, four-way stop controlled (4ST) intersections, four-way signalized (4SG) intersections, and roadway segments on rural two-lane highways. Annual Average Daily traffic (AADT) and variables describing roadway conditions (including presence of lighting, presence of left-turn/right-turn lane, lane width and shoulder width) were used as predictors. A Univariate Poisson Lognormal (UPLN) was estimated by crash type and

  12. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  13. Conditional Tests of Factor Augmented Asset Pricing Models with Human Capital and Housing: Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Klinkowska

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I develop the asset pricing model in which the wealth portfolio is enriched with human capital and housing capital. These two types of capital account for a significant portion of the total wealth. Additionally I introduce dynamics into the model and represent conditioning information by common factors estimated with dynamic factor methodology. In this way I can use more accurate representative of the unobservable information set of the investors. Obtained results prove that ind...

  14. Modeling Types of Pedal Applications Using a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variations in drivers' foot behavior and identify factors associated with pedal misapplications. Few studies have focused on the foot behavior while in the vehicle and the mishaps that a driver can encounter during a potentially hazardous situation. A driving simulation study was used to understand how drivers move their right foot toward the pedals. The study included data from 43 drivers as they responded to a series of rapid traffic signal phase changes. Pedal application types were classified as (a) direct hit, (b) hesitated, (c) corrected trajectory, and (d) pedal errors (incorrect trajectories, misses, slips, or pressed both pedals). A mixed-effects multinomial logit model was used to predict the likelihood of one of these pedal applications, and linear mixed models with repeated measures were used to examine the response time and pedal duration given the various experimental conditions (stimuli color and location). Younger drivers had higher probabilities of direct hits when compared to other age groups. Participants tended to have more pedal errors when responding to a red signal or when the signal appeared to be closer. Traffic signal phases and locations were associated with pedal response time and duration. The response time and pedal duration affected the likelihood of being in one of the four pedal application types. Findings from this study suggest that age-related and situational factors may play a role in pedal errors, and the stimuli locations could affect the type of pedal application. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Fault condition stress analysis of NET 16 TF coil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the design process of the NET/ITER toroidal field coils (TFCs), the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in some detail. Under fault conditions, either electrical or mechanical, the magnetic loading of the coils becomes extreme and further mechanical failure of parts of the overall structure might occur (e.g. failure of the coil, gravitational support, intercoil structure). The mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has been analysed with a finite element model of the complete TFC system. The analysed fault conditions consist of: a thermal fault, electrical faults and mechanical faults. The mechanical faults have been applied simultaneously with an electrical fault. This report described the work carried out to create the finite element model of 16 TFCs and contains an extensive presentation of the results, obtained with this model, of a normal operating condition analysis and 9 fault condition analyses. Chapter 2-5 contains a detailed description of the finite element model, boundary conditions and loading conditions of the analyses made. Chapters 2-4 can be skipped if the reader is only interested in results. To understand the results presented chapter 6 is recommended, which contains a detailed description of all analysed fault conditions. The dimensions and geometry of the model correspond to the status of the NET/ITER TFC design of May 1990. Compared with previous models of the complete magnetic system, the finite element model of 16 TFCs is 'detailed', and can be used for linear elastic analysis with faulted loads. (author). 8 refs.; 204 figs.; 134 tabs

  16. Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens

    2013-01-01

    At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....

  17. Modelling sulfamethoxazole degradation under different redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rodriguez-Escales, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a low adsorptive, polar, sulfonamide antibiotic, widely present in aquatic environments. Degradation of SMX in subsurface porous media is spatially and temporally variable, depending on various environmental factors such as in situ redox potential, availability of nutrients, local soil characteristics, and temperature. It has been reported that SMX is better degraded under anoxic conditions and by co-metabolism processes. In this work, we first develop a conceptual model of degradation of SMX under different redox conditions (denitrification and iron reducing conditions), and second, we construct a mathematical model that allows reproducing different experiments of SMX degradation reported in the literature. The conceptual model focuses on the molecular behavior and contemplates the formation of different metabolites. The model was validated using the experimental data from Barbieri et al. (2012) and Mohatt et al. (2011). It adequately reproduces the reversible degradation of SMX under the presence of nitrite as an intermediate product of denitrification. In those experiments degradation was mediated by the transient formation of a diazonium cation, which was considered responsible of the substitution of the amine radical by a nitro radical, forming the 4-nitro-SMX. The formation of this metabolite is a reversible process, so that once the concentration of nitrite was back to zero due to further advancement of denitrification, the concentration of SMX was fully recovered. The forward reaction, formation of 4-nitro SMX, was modeled considering a kinetic of second order, whereas the backward reaction, dissociation of 4-nitro-SMX back to the original compound, could be modeled with a first order degradation reaction. Regarding the iron conditions, SMX was degraded due to the oxidation of iron (Fe2+), which was previously oxidized from goethite due to the degradation of a pool of labile organic carbon. As the oxidation of iron occurred on the

  18. Type-2 fuzzy logic uncertain systems’ modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Antão, Rómulo

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a particular domain of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic, related to process modeling and control applications. It deepens readers’understanding of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic with regard to the following three topics: using simpler methods to train a Type-2 Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model; using the principles of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic to reduce the influence of modeling uncertainties on a locally linear n-step ahead predictor; and developing model-based control algorithms according to the Generalized Predictive Control principles using Type-2 Fuzzy Sets. Throughout the book, theory is always complemented with practical applications and readers are invited to take their learning process one step farther and implement their own applications using the algorithms’ source codes (provided). As such, the book offers avaluable referenceguide for allengineers and researchers in the field ofcomputer science who are interested in intelligent systems, rule-based systems and modeling uncertainty.

  19. A model of PCF in guarded type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about element...... adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy...... of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it computationally...

  20. A Model of PCF in Guarded Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about element...... adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy....... of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it computationally...

  1. A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading {alpha}'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

  2. Fault Diagnosis in Condition of Sample Type Incompleteness Using Support Vector Data Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Faulty samples are much harder to acquire than normal samples, especially in complicated systems. This leads to incompleteness for training sample types and furthermore a decrease of diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, the relationship between sample-type incompleteness and the classifier-based diagnostic accuracy is discussed first. Then, a support vector data description-based approach, which has taken the effects of sample-type incompleteness into consideration, is proposed to refine the construction of fault regions and increase the diagnostic accuracy for the condition of incomplete sample types. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated on both a Gaussian distributed dataset and a practical dataset. Satisfactory results have been obtained.

  3. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of nitrogen-alloyed type 347 stainless under operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki Deuk; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Dae Whan; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jin [Hanyang University, Division of materials science and engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Type 347 (S347) and Type 347N (S347N) stainless steel was evaluated under the operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These two materials showed different fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) according to the changes in dissolved oxygen content and frequency. Under the simulated PWR conditions for normal operation, the FCGR of S347N was lower than that of S347 and insensitive to the changes in PWR water conditions. The higher yield strength and better corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-alloyed Type 347 stainless steel might be a main cause of slower FCGR and more stable properties against changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Theoretical models to predict the transient heat transfer performance of HIFAR fuel elements under non-forced convective conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    Simple theoretical models have been developed which are suitable for predicting the thermal responses of irradiated research fuel elements of markedly different geometries when they are subjected to loss-of-coolant accident conditions. These models have been used to calculate temperature responses corresponding to various non-forced convective conditions. Comparisons between experimentally observed temperatures and calculated values have shown that a suitable value for surface thermal emissivity is 0.35; modelling of the fuel element beyond the region of the fuel plate needs to be included since these areas account for approximately 25 per cent of the thermal power dissipated; general agreement between calculated and experimental temperatures for both transient and steady-state conditions is good - the maximum discrepancy between calculated and experimental temperatures for a HIFAR Mark IV/V fuel element is ∼ 70 deg C, and for an Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) box-type fuel element ∼ 30 deg C; and axial power distribution does not significantly affect thermal responses for the conditions investigated. Overall, the comparisons have shown that the models evolved can reproduce experimental data to a level of accuracy that provides confidence in the modelling technique and the postulated heat dissipation mechanisms, and that these models can be used to predict thermal responses of fuel elements in accident conditions that are not easily investigated experimentally

  5. Towards an Existential Types Model for Java with Wildcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Wildcards extend Java generics by softening the mismatch between subtype and parametric polymorphism. Although they are a key part of the Java 5.0 programming language, a type system including wildcards has never been proven type sound. Wildcards have previously been formalised as existential types....... In this paper we extend FGJ, a featherweight formalisation of Java with generics, with existential types. We prove that this calculus, ExistsJ, is type sound, and illustrate how it models wildcards in the Java Programming Language. ExistsJ is not a full model for Java wildcards, because it does not support...... lower bounds for wildcards. We discuss why ExistsJ can not be easily extended with lower bounds, and how full Java wildcards could be modelled in a type sound way....

  6. Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.

  7. Type I supernova models vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Axelrod, T.S.; Woosley, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper explores tHe observational consequences of models for Type I supernovae based on the detonation (or deflagration) of the degenerate cores of white dwarfs or intermediate mass (approx. = 9 M/sub sun/) stars. Such nuclear burning can be initiated either at the center of the core or near its edge. The model examined in most detail is that of a 0.5M/sub sun/ C/O white dwarf which undergoes an edge-lit He/C/O detonation after accreting 0.62 M/sub sun/ of he at 10 -8 M/sub sun//yr. The light curve resulting from this model is found to be in excellent agreement with those observed for Type I supernovae, particularly those in the fast subclass. The physical processes involved in the detailed numerical calculations which lead to this conclusion are quantitatively elucidated by simple analytic models, and effects of uncertainties in the input physics are explored

  8. Monazite-type ceramics for conditioning of minor actinides. Structural characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, Carole

    2013-01-01

    and morphological characteristics (using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)) combined with physical and thermal properties of samples (using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and dilatometry) are realized in order to study the behavior of monazite-type powder and pellets. The access to short-range-order spectroscopy (time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) permits to understand the structure of ceramic waste forms at the molecular level. La-monazite matrices being doped with Eu (III) (as a non-radioactive chemical homologue for Am (III)) and Cm (III), TRLFS is used to explore the local structural environment of Eu and Cm within the monazite crystal structure. Eu (III) and Cm (III) are substituted on the La site of LaPO 4 . The single site of Cm (III) is found in four slightly different environments which is assumed to be due to a difference in the four La sites within a LaPO4 unit cell. Structural parameters of the Eu (III) species were also analyzed by EXAFS. The nearest neighbors of Eu (III) are modeled as 9.5 oxygen atoms (N O1 = 4 at r(EuO1) = 2.37 Aa, N O2 = 4 at r(Eu-O2) = 2.53 Aa, and N O3 = 1.5 at r(Eu-O3) = 2.83 Aa). An essential parameter that describes the stability of the host phases is their dissolution rate obtained under conditions of relevance for final repositories. In this context, a set-up is developed and tested on crushed pellets. Normalized weight losses of lanthanumphosphates and europium-doped lanthanum-phosphates, measured in acidic media at 90 C, are interpreted and compared against the previous findings from the literature. The normalized dissolution rate for La and Eu within (La, Eu)PO 4 is between 1.10 -5 and 1.10 -4 g.m -2 .d -1 , whereas the rate of Na, Cs and Sr in phosphate glass at room temperature in deionized water is about 1.10 -2 g.m -2 .d -1 . Another essential parameter is their resistance to radiation. The

  9. Type of activity and order of experimental conditions affect noise annoyance by identifiable and unidentifiable transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W; Meeter, Martijn

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that identifiability of sound sources influence noise annoyance levels. The aim of the present experiment was to additionally study the effects of actively performing a task versus a less active pastime on noise annoyance. This was done by asking participants to perform a task (task condition) or read a magazine of their choice (no-task condition), while listening to identifiable and unidentifiable samples of transportation noise at varying sound exposure levels (55-85 ASEL). Annoyance was higher for identifiable samples (recordings) than for unidentifiable transformed samples (with equal spectral energy and envelope). Although there was no main effect of activity type on noise annoyance, for the transformed samples, an interaction was found between activity type and sound exposure levels: annoyance started lower in the no-task condition, but rose more steeply with ascending exposure levels than was the case during task performance (large effect). When assessing order effects, it was found that annoyance was higher when the task condition came first, especially for lower sound exposure levels (large effects). It is therefore concluded that the type of activity and the condition order do influence noise annoyance but in interaction with exposure levels, the type of noise and habituation.

  10. Influence of model boundary conditions on blood flow patterns in a patient specific stenotic right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biyue; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Tang, Dalin

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effect of the inflow boundary condition was investigated by examining the impact of the waveform and the shape of the spatial profile of the inlet velocity on the cardiac hemodynamics. However, not much work has been reported on comparing the effect of the different combinations of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions on the quantification of the pressure field and flow distribution patterns in stenotic right coronary arteries. Non-Newtonian models were used to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific stenotic right coronary artery and investigate the influence of different boundary conditions on the phasic variation and the spatial distribution patterns of blood flow. The 3D geometry of a diseased artery segment was reconstructed from a series of IVUS slices. Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared. The temporal distribution patterns and the magnitudes of the velocity, the wall shear stress (WSS), the pressure, the pressure drop (PD), and the spatial gradient of wall pressure (WPG) were different when boundary conditions were imposed using different pressure/velocity combinations at inlet/outlet. The maximum velocity magnitude in a cardiac cycle at the center of the inlet from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% lower than that from models using fully developed inlet velocity data. Due to the fact that models with imposed pressure conditions led to blunt velocity profile, the maximum wall shear stress at inlet in a cardiac cycle from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% higher than that from models with imposed inlet velocity boundary conditions. When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure. On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the

  11. A Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Single Motor of Latch Type Control Element Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bae Jeong

    2016-01-01

    A modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) for a single motor of latch type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) is described herein. The CEDM has complicated dynamic characteristics including electrical, mechanical, and magnetic effects. The previous control system has utilized a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, and the control performance is limited according to nonlinear dynamic characteristics and environmental conditions. The modified MRAC using system identification (ID) technique improves the control performance in the operating condition such as model parameter variation and environmental condition change. The modified MRAC using the identified reference model with feed-forward gain and 180Hz noise reduction filter presents better performance under normal and/or abnormal condition. The simplified reference model can make H/W implementation more practical on the viewpoint of less computation and good performance. Actually, the CEDM controller shall be capable of controlling 101 control element assemblies (CEAs) individually in the nuclear power plant. Because the load conditions and the environmental condition around the 101 CEAs are all different minutely, the proposed modified MRAC can be a good practice. The modified MRAC controller will be applied in the real nuclear power plant later and this will overcome some weak point of PI controller

  12. Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, Coert; Baka, Nora; Kirisli, Hortense

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic...

  13. Conditional dissipation of scalars in homogeneous turbulence: Closure for MMC modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Andrew P.

    2013-08-01

    While the mean and unconditional variance are to be predicted well by any reasonable turbulent combustion model, these are generally not sufficient for the accurate modelling of complex phenomena such as extinction/reignition. An additional criterion has been recently introduced: accurate modelling of the dissipation timescales associated with fluctuations of scalars about their conditional mean (conditional dissipation timescales). Analysis of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results for a passive scalar shows that the conditional dissipation timescale is of the order of the integral timescale and smaller than the unconditional dissipation timescale. A model is proposed: the conditional dissipation timescale is proportional to the integral timescale. This model is used in Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) modelling for a passive scalar case and a reactive scalar case, comparing to DNS results for both. The results show that this model improves the accuracy of MMC predictions so as to match the DNS results more closely using a relatively-coarse spatial resolution compared to other turbulent combustion models.

  14. Ideal versus real conditions for type 2 diabetes care : diabetes specialty nurses’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jutterström, Lena; Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla; Isaksson, Ulf; Hörnsten, Åsa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since diabetes specialty nurses are the professionals who spend the most time with patients living with diabetes, they probably have the greatest influence on the quality of diabetes care. Therefore, their personal perceptions about what constitutes “good care” in type 2 diabetes care are important to explore. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe conditions for “good care” in type 2-diabetes as perceived by diabetes specialty nurses. Method: Twenty-one experienced diabetes s...

  15. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  16. VERIFICATION OF GEAR DYNAMIC MODEL IN DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz PERUŃ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of verification of the drive system dynamic model with gear. Tests were carried out on the real object in different operating conditions. For the same assumed conditions were also carried out simulation studies. Comparison of the results obtained from those two series of tests helped determine the suitability of the model and verify the possibility of replacing experimental research by simulations with use of dynamic model.

  17. On the malfunction of disk-type induction relay under seismic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Shibata, H.; Koizumi, T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the malfunction of disk-type induction relay. Equations of motion for rotational movement of induction relay was formulated and the dynamic behavior was simulated under various kind of exciting conditions. Experimental verification was also performed using two dimensional shaker table for some actual relays. Sufficient agreement was recognized between experimental and analytical results and consequently the most critical reason to cause the malfunction was pointed out. (orig.)

  18. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech...... subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation...... suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved....

  19. Photophysiological variability of microphytobenthic diatoms after growth in different types of culture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for

  20. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate

  1. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, J.P.; Wood, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Overall, the results illustrate the sensitivity of Penman-Monteith type models to model structure, parameterization choice and biome type. A particular challenge in flux estimation relates to developing robust and broadly applicable model formulations. With many choices available for use, providing guidance on the most appropriate scheme to employ is required to advance approaches for routine global scale flux estimates, undertake hydrometeorological assessments or develop hydrological forecasting tools, amongst many other applications. In such cases, a multi-model ensemble or biome-specific tiled evaporation product may be an appropriate solution, given the inherent variability in model and parameterization choice that is observed within single product estimates.

  2. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  3. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  4. FIDIC Conditions of Subcontract as a Model for General Conditions of Subcontract in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umer Zubair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair allocation of risks in conditions of contract is pivotal for coordination, unhindered execution, dispute resolution and maintenance of positive relationship among the parties executing the contract. Pakistani construction industry despite subcontracting a large percentage of construction projects lacks standard conditions of subcontract and they are primarily based on the will of the prime contractor that is onerous for the subcontractor. Therefore in order to develop a model for the general conditions of subcontract in Pakistan the conditions proposed by Associated General Contractors of California, FIDIC in 1994 and 2011, Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia, American Institute of Architects and by the Government of Hong Kong were compared to determine the similarities and differences among them. Afterwards a questionnaire based on the significant provisions of these subcontracts was conducted in the construction industry of Pakistan to determine the appropriate conditions for model subcontract. The results of the survey were further subjected to discussions with the legal experts. Out of 35 suggestions made for the general conditions of subcontract 23 originated from FIDIC in which 20 are recommended by its 2011’s version. It can therefore be implemented in Pakistan with certain amendments and additions as proposed in light of conditions of other subcontracts and the results of the survey and discussions with legal experts.

  5. Modelling conditional heteroscedasticity in nonstationary series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, P.; Cizek, P.; Härdle, W.K.; Weron, R.

    2011-01-01

    A vast amount of econometrical and statistical research deals with modeling financial time series and their volatility, which measures the dispersion of a series at a point in time (i.e., conditional variance). Although financial markets have been experiencing many shorter and longer periods of

  6. A model to predict the permeation of type IV hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, Julien; Perreux, Dominique; Chapelle, David; Thiebaud, Frederic [MaHyTec, Dole (France); Nardin, Philippe [Franche Comte Univ. (France)

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the certification process of the type IV hydrogen storage tanks MaHyTec aims to manufacture, this innovative SME is developing a numerical model dedicated to the study of permeation issues. Such an approach aims at avoiding complicated, time-consuming and expensive testing. Experimental results obtained under real conditions can moreover be significantly influenced by the scattering of material properties and liner dimensions. From simple testing on small-size flat membranes, the model allows to predict the gas diffusion flow through the whole structure by means of numerous parameters. On every step, theory can be compared with the results obtained from the samples. This document presents a brief review of the mathematical theory describing gas diffusion and the different aspects of the study for better understanding the proposed approach. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of a lateral flow-based technology card for blood typing using a simplified protocol in a model of extreme blood sampling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Benoît; Pouget, Thomas; Sailliol, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Life-threatening situations requiring blood transfusion under extreme conditions or in remote and austere locations, such as the battlefield or in traffic accidents, would benefit from reliable blood typing practices that are easily understood by a nonscientist or nonlaboratory technician and provide quick results. A simplified protocol was developed for the lateral flow-based device MDmulticard ABO-D-Rh subgroups-K. Its performance was compared to a reference method (PK7300, Beckman Coulter) in native blood samples from donors. The method was tested on blood samples stressed in vitro as a model of hemorrhage cases (through hemodilution using physiologic serum) and dehydration (through hemoconcentration by removing an aliquot of plasma after centrifugation), respectively. A total of 146 tests were performed on 52 samples; 126 in the hemodilution group (42 for each native, diluted 1/2, and diluted 1/4 samples) and 20 in the hemoconcentration group (10 for each native and 10% concentrated samples). Hematocrit in the tested samples ranged from 9.8% to 57.6% while hemoglobin levels ranged from 3.2 to 20.1 g/dL. The phenotype profile detected with the MDmulticard using the simplified protocol resulted in 22 A, seven B, 20 O, and three AB, of which nine were D- and five were Kell positive. No discrepancies were found with respect to the results obtained with the reference method. The simplified protocol for MDmulticard use could be considered a reliable method for blood typing in extreme environment or emergency situations, worsened by red blood cell dilution or concentration. © 2017 AABB.

  8. A Budyko-type Model for Human Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X.; Zhao, J.; Wang, D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the expansion of human water footprint, water crisis is no longer only a conflict or competition for water between different economic sectors, but also increasingly between human and the environment. In order to describe the emergent dynamics and patterns of the interaction, a theoretical framework that encapsulates the physical and societal controls impacting human water consumption is needed. In traditional hydrology, Budyko-type models are simple but efficient descriptions of vegetation-mediated hydrologic cycle in catchments, i.e., the partitioning of mean annual precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration. Plant water consumption plays a crucial role in the process. Hypothesized similarities between human-water and vegetation-water interactions, including water demand, constraints and system functioning, give the idea of corresponding Budyko-type framework for human water consumption at the catchment scale. Analogous to variables of Budyko-type models for hydrologic cycle, water demand, water consumption, environmental water use and available water are corresponding to potential evaporation, actual evaporation, runoff and precipitation respectively. Human water consumption data, economic and hydro-meteorological data for 51 human-impacted catchments and 10 major river basins in China are assembled to look for the existence of a Budyko-type relationship for human water consumption, and to seek explanations for the spread in the observed relationship. Guided by this, a Budyko-type analytical model is derived based on application of an optimality principle, that of maximum water benefit. The model derived has the same functional form and mathematical features as those that apply for the original Budyko model. Parameters of the new Budyko-type model for human consumption are linked to economic and social factors. The results of this paper suggest that the functioning of both social and hydrologic subsystems within catchment systems can be explored within

  9. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  10. Classically integrable boundary conditions for symmetric-space sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, N.J.; Young, C.A.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate boundary conditions for the non-linear sigma model on the compact symmetric space G/H. The Poisson brackets and the classical local conserved charges necessary for integrability are preserved by boundary conditions which correspond to involutions which commute with the involution defining H. Applied to SO(3)/SO(2), the non-linear sigma model on S 2 , these yield the great circles as boundary submanifolds. Applied to GxG/G, they reproduce known results for the principal chiral model

  11. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Naji, Raid Kamel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  12. Adapting AIC to conditional model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ommen (Thijs)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn statistical settings such as regression and time series, we can condition on observed information when predicting the data of interest. For example, a regression model explains the dependent variables $y_1, \\ldots, y_n$ in terms of the independent variables $x_1, \\ldots, x_n$.

  13. A multi-attribute preference model for optimal irrigated crop planning under water scarcity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazar, A.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-11-01

    Water resources sustainability has a key role in the existence and durability of irrigated farming systems and strongly depends on the crop planning. The decision process is complex due to a number of constraints and the desire to secure crop diversification and the involvement of affected various parameters. The objective of the present study was to develop a comprehensive multi-criteria model for selecting adequate cropping pattern in an irrigation district under water scarcity condition. Eleven and nine attribute decisions were considered in ranking the type of crop and determination of the percentage of crop cultivation area as an optimal irrigated crop planning system, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed multi-attribute preference approach can synthesize various sets of criteria in the preference elicitation of the crop type and cultivated area. The predictive validity analysis shows that the preferences acquired by the proposed model are evidently in reasonable accordance with those of the conjunctive water use model. Consequently, the model may be used to aggregate preferences in order to obtain a group decision, improve understanding of the choice problem, accommodate multiple objectives and increase transparency and credibility in decision making by actively involving relevant criteria in the crop planning. (Author) 27 refs.

  14. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java

  15. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the model-checking problem of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with respect to conditional logic. To the end, we extend Continuous Stochastic Logic introduced in Aziz et al. (2000) [1] to Conditional Continuous Stochastic Logic (CCSL) by introducing a conditional...

  16. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangang, Li; Hangshou, Tong; Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage.

  17. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiangang; Tong Hangshou; Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage

  18. Models for dose assessments. Modules for various biosphere types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.; Aggeryd, I. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide a basis for illustrations of yearly dose rates to the most exposed individual from hypothetical leakages of radionuclides from a deep bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste. The results of this study will be used in the safety assessment SR 97 and in a study on the design and long-term safety for a repository planned to contain long-lived low and intermediate level waste. The repositories will be designed to isolate the radionuclides for several hundred thousands of years. In the SR 97 study, however, hypothetical scenarios for leakage are postulated. Radionuclides are hence assumed to be transported in the geosphere by groundwater, and probably discharge into the biosphere. This may occur in several types of ecosystems. A number of categories of such ecosystems were identified, and turnover of radionuclides was modelled separately for each ecosystem. Previous studies had focused on generic models for wells, lakes and coastal areas. These models were, in this study, developed further to use site-specific data. In addition, flows of groundwater, containing radionuclides, to agricultural land and peat bogs were considered. All these categories are referred to as modules in this report. The forest ecosystems were not included, due to a general lack of knowledge of biospheric processes in connection with discharge of groundwater in forested areas. Examples of each type of module were run with the assumption of a continuous annual release into the biosphere of 1 Bq for each radionuclide during 10 000 years. The results are presented as ecosystem specific dose conversion factors (EDFs) for each nuclide at the year 10 000, assuming stationary ecosystems and prevailing living conditions and habits. All calculations were performed with uncertainty analyses included. Simplifications and assumptions in the modelling of biospheric processes are discussed. The use of modules may be seen as a step

  19. Models for dose assessments. Modules for various biosphere types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.; Aggeryd, I.

    1999-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide a basis for illustrations of yearly dose rates to the most exposed individual from hypothetical leakages of radionuclides from a deep bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste. The results of this study will be used in the safety assessment SR 97 and in a study on the design and long-term safety for a repository planned to contain long-lived low and intermediate level waste. The repositories will be designed to isolate the radionuclides for several hundred thousands of years. In the SR 97 study, however, hypothetical scenarios for leakage are postulated. Radionuclides are hence assumed to be transported in the geosphere by groundwater, and probably discharge into the biosphere. This may occur in several types of ecosystems. A number of categories of such ecosystems were identified, and turnover of radionuclides was modelled separately for each ecosystem. Previous studies had focused on generic models for wells, lakes and coastal areas. These models were, in this study, developed further to use site-specific data. In addition, flows of groundwater, containing radionuclides, to agricultural land and peat bogs were considered. All these categories are referred to as modules in this report. The forest ecosystems were not included, due to a general lack of knowledge of biospheric processes in connection with discharge of groundwater in forested areas. Examples of each type of module were run with the assumption of a continuous annual release into the biosphere of 1 Bq for each radionuclide during 10 000 years. The results are presented as ecosystem specific dose conversion factors (EDFs) for each nuclide at the year 10 000, assuming stationary ecosystems and prevailing living conditions and habits. All calculations were performed with uncertainty analyses included. Simplifications and assumptions in the modelling of biospheric processes are discussed. The use of modules may be seen as a step

  20. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  1. OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -1 2 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model...Fulton, Natalie Myers, Scott Tweddale, Dick Gebhart, Ryan Busby, Anne Dain-Owens, and Heidi Howard August 2014 OPAL team measuring above and...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CERL TR-14-12

  2. Role of L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms in the extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Perrine; Hetzenauer, Alfred; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2008-05-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) antagonists, such as nifedipine, have been reported to impair the extinction of conditioned fear without interfering with its acquisition. Identification of the LTCC isoforms mediating this DHP effect is an essential basis to reveal their role as potential drug targets for the treatment of specific anxiety disorders. Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 are the predominant LTCCs in the mammalian brain. However, since no isoform-selective DHP blockers are available, their individual contribution to fear memory extinction is unknown. We used a novel mouse model expressing DHP-insensitive Ca(V)1.2 LTCCs (Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice) to address this question. In line with previous studies, wild-type (WT) mice treated with systemic nifedipine displayed markedly impaired fear extinction. This DHP effect was completely abolished in Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice, indicating that it is mediated by Ca(V)1.2, but not by Ca(V)1.3 LTCCs. Supporting this conclusion, Ca(V)1.3-deficient mice (Ca(V)1.3(-/-)) showed extinction identical to the respective WT mice. The inhibition of fear extinction was not observed after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) application of different doses of nifedipine, suggesting that this effect is secondary to inhibition of peripheral Ca(V)1.2 channels. The LTCC activator BayK, which lacks neurotoxic effects in Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice, did not influence the extinction time course. In summary, we demonstrate that LTCC signaling through the Ca(V)1.2 isoform of LTCCs interferes with fear memory extinction, presumably via a peripherally mediated mechanism. Activation of other LTCC isoforms (predominantly Ca(V)1.3) is not sufficient to accelerate extinction of conditioned fear in mice.

  3. Imprints of explosion conditions on late-time spectra of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Tiara R.

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a vital role in the discrimination of different cosmological models. These events have been shown to be standardizable based on properties of their light curves during the early-time photospheric phase. However, the distribution of types of progenitor system, the explosion trigger, and the physics of the explosion are still an active topic of discussion. The details of the progenitors and explosion may provide insight into the variation seen in Type Ia supernova light curves and spectra, and therefore, allow for additional methods of standardization among the group. Late-time near-infrared spectral observations for SNe Ia show numerous strong emission features of forbidden line transitions of cobalt and iron, tracing the central distribution of iron-group burning products. As the spectrum ages, the cobalt features fade as expected from the decay of 56Co to 56Fe. This work will show that the strong and isolated [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 mum provides a unique tool to analyze near-infrared spectra of SNe Ia. Several new methods of analysis will be demonstrated to determine some of the initial conditions of the system. The initial central density, rhoc, and the extent of mixing in the central regions of the explosion have signatures in the line profiles of late-time spectra. An embedded magnetic field, B, of the white dwarf can be determined using the evolution of the lines profiles. Currently magnetic field effects are not included in the hydrodynamics and radiation transport of simulations of SNe Ia. Normalization of spectra to the 1.644 mum line allows separation of features produced by stable versus unstable isotopes of iron group elements. Implications for potential progenitor systems, explosion mechanisms, and the origins and morphology of magnetic fields in SNe Ia, in addition to limitations of the method, are discussed. Observations of the late-time near-infrared emission spectrum at multiple epochs allow for the first ever

  4. Monazite-type ceramics for conditioning of minor actinides. Structural characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelot, Carole

    2013-07-01

    . Structural and morphological characteristics (using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)) combined with physical and thermal properties of samples (using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and dilatometry) are realized in order to study the behavior of monazite-type powder and pellets. The access to short-range-order spectroscopy (time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) permits to understand the structure of ceramic waste forms at the molecular level. La-monazite matrices being doped with Eu (III) (as a non-radioactive chemical homologue for Am (III)) and Cm (III), TRLFS is used to explore the local structural environment of Eu and Cm within the monazite crystal structure. Eu (III) and Cm (III) are substituted on the La site of LaPO{sub 4}. The single site of Cm (III) is found in four slightly different environments which is assumed to be due to a difference in the four La sites within a LaPO4 unit cell. Structural parameters of the Eu (III) species were also analyzed by EXAFS. The nearest neighbors of Eu (III) are modeled as 9.5 oxygen atoms (N{sub O1} = 4 at r(EuO1) = 2.37 Aa, N{sub O2} = 4 at r(Eu-O2) = 2.53 Aa, and N{sub O3} = 1.5 at r(Eu-O3) = 2.83 Aa). An essential parameter that describes the stability of the host phases is their dissolution rate obtained under conditions of relevance for final repositories. In this context, a set-up is developed and tested on crushed pellets. Normalized weight losses of lanthanumphosphates and europium-doped lanthanum-phosphates, measured in acidic media at 90 C, are interpreted and compared against the previous findings from the literature. The normalized dissolution rate for La and Eu within (La, Eu)PO{sub 4} is between 1.10{sup -5} and 1.10{sup -4} g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}, whereas the rate of Na, Cs and Sr in phosphate glass at room temperature in deionized water is about 1.10{sup -2} g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}. Another

  5. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mubaraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify the common types of distress that exist on the Jazan road network (JRN, either on main roads or secondary roads, and to evaluate the pavement condition based on network level inspection. The study was conducted by collecting pavement distress types from 227 sample units on main roads and 500 sample units from secondary roads. Data were examined through analysis of common types of distress identified in both main and secondary roads. Through these data, pavement condition index (PCI for each sample unit was then calculated. Through these calculations, average PCIs for the main and secondary roads were determined. Results indicated that the most common pavement distress types on main roads were patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, polished aggregate, weathering and raveling, and alligator cracking. The most common pavement distress types on secondary roads were weathering and raveling, patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, potholes, and alligator cracking. The results also indicated that 65% of Jazan's main road network has an average pavement condition rating of very good while only 30% of Jazan's secondary roads network has an average pavement condition.

  6. Modeling intelligent adversaries for terrorism risk assessment: some necessary conditions for adversary models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, Seth

    2012-07-01

    Intelligent adversary modeling has become increasingly important for risk analysis, and a number of different approaches have been proposed for incorporating intelligent adversaries in risk analysis models. However, these approaches are based on a range of often-implicit assumptions about the desirable properties of intelligent adversary models. This "Perspective" paper aims to further risk analysis for situations involving intelligent adversaries by fostering a discussion of the desirable properties for these models. A set of four basic necessary conditions for intelligent adversary models is proposed and discussed. These are: (1) behavioral accuracy to the degree possible, (2) computational tractability to support decision making, (3) explicit consideration of uncertainty, and (4) ability to gain confidence in the model. It is hoped that these suggested necessary conditions foster discussion about the goals and assumptions underlying intelligent adversary modeling in risk analysis. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. An Empirical Model for Vane-Type Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Julianne C.

    2005-01-01

    An empirical model which simulates the effects of vane-type vortex generators in ducts was incorporated into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code. The model enables the effects of the vortex generators to be simulated without defining the details of the geometry within the grid, and makes it practical for researchers to evaluate multiple combinations of vortex generator arrangements. The model determines the strength of each vortex based on the generator geometry and the local flow conditions. Validation results are presented for flow in a straight pipe with a counter-rotating vortex generator arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental data and computational simulations using a gridded vane generator. Results are also presented for vortex generator arrays in two S-duct diffusers, along with accompanying experimental data. The effects of grid resolution and turbulence model are also examined.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of an Impulsively Controlled Predator-Prey Model with Holling Type IV Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a predator-prey model with Holling type IV functional response is investigated with respect to impulsive control strategies. The model is analyzed to obtain the conditions under which the system is locally asymptotically stable and permanent. Existence of a positive periodic solution of the system and the boundedness of the system is also confirmed. Furthermore, numerical analysis is used to discover the influence of impulsive perturbations. The system is found to exhibit rich dynamics such as symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcation, chaos, and nonunique dynamics.

  9. Bianchi Type I Cosmological Models in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Harko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamics of a barotropic cosmological fluid in an anisotropic, Bianchi type I space-time in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld (EiBI gravity. By assuming isotropic pressure distribution, we obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form. The behavior of the geometric and thermodynamic parameters of the Bianchi type I Universe is studied, by using both analytical and numerical methods, for some classes of high density matter, described by the stiff causal, radiation, and pressureless fluid equations of state. In all cases the study of the models with different equations of state can be reduced to the integration of a highly nonlinear second order ordinary differential equation for the energy density. The time evolution of the anisotropic Bianchi type I Universe strongly depends on the initial values of the energy density and of the Hubble function. An important observational parameter, the mean anisotropy parameter, is also studied in detail, and we show that for the dust filled Universe the cosmological evolution always ends into isotropic phase, while for high density matter filled universes the isotropization of Bianchi type I universes is essentially determined by the initial conditions of the energy density.

  10. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.

    2015-04-12

    The impact of model structure and parameterization on the estimation of evaporation is investigated across a range of Penman-Monteith type models. To examine the role of model structure on flux retrievals, three different retrieval schemes are compared. The schemes include a traditional single-source Penman-Monteith model (Monteith, 1965), a two-layer model based on Shuttleworth and Wallace (1985) and a three-source model based on Mu et al. (2011). To assess the impact of parameterization choice on model performance, a number of commonly used formulations for aerodynamic and surface resistances were substituted into the different formulations. Model response to these changes was evaluated against data from twenty globally distributed FLUXNET towers, representing a cross-section of biomes that include grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. Scenarios based on 14 different combinations of model structure and parameterization were ranked based on their mean value of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Results illustrated considerable variability in model performance both within and between biome types. Indeed, no single model consistently outperformed any other when considered across all biomes. For instance, in grassland and shrubland sites, the single-source Penman-Monteith model performed the best. In croplands it was the three-source Mu model, while for evergreen needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests, the Shuttleworth-Wallace model rated highest. Interestingly, these top ranked scenarios all shared the simple lookup-table based surface resistance parameterization of Mu et al. (2011), while a more complex Jarvis multiplicative method for surface resistance produced lower ranked simulations. The highly ranked scenarios mostly employed a version of the Thom (1975) formulation for aerodynamic resistance that incorporated dynamic values of roughness parameters. This was true for all cases except over deciduous broadleaf

  11. Testing and modelling autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity of streamflow processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average models for seasonal streamflow series. However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences are found for the existence of autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (i.e. the ARCH (AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity effect, a nonlinear phenomenon of the variance behaviour, in the residual series from linear models fitted to daily and monthly streamflow processes of the upper Yellow River, China. It is shown that the major cause of the ARCH effect is the seasonal variation in variance of the residual series. However, while the seasonal variation in variance can fully explain the ARCH effect for monthly streamflow, it is only a partial explanation for daily flow. It is also shown that while the periodic autoregressive moving average model is adequate in modelling monthly flows, no model is adequate in modelling daily streamflow processes because none of the conventional time series models takes the seasonal variation in variance, as well as the ARCH effect in the residuals, into account. Therefore, an ARMA-GARCH (Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity error model is proposed to capture the ARCH effect present in daily streamflow series, as well as to preserve seasonal variation in variance in the residuals. The ARMA-GARCH error model combines an ARMA model for modelling the mean behaviour and a GARCH model for modelling the variance behaviour of the residuals from the ARMA model. Since the GARCH model is not followed widely in statistical hydrology, the work can be a useful addition in terms of statistical modelling of daily streamflow processes for the hydrological community.

  12. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompilio, L. M. [Syracuse University; DePaoli, D. W. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and

  13. 77 FR 69568 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Airplanes; Sidestick...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Airplanes; Sidestick Controllers AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions for the Bombardier Aerospace Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 airplanes. These airplanes will... on the comments we receive. Background On December 10, 2009, Bombardier Aerospace applied for a type...

  14. Correspondence of biological condition models of California streams at statewide and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Waite, Ian R.; Ode, Peter R; Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model stream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic completeness, the ratio of observed to expected (O/E) taxa. Models were developed with and without exclusion of rare taxa at a site. BRT models are robust, requiring few assumptions compared with traditional modeling techniques such as multiple linear regression. The BRT models were constructed to provide baseline support to stressor delineation by identifying natural physiographic and human land use gradients affecting stream biological condition statewide and for eight ecological regions within the state, as part of the development of numerical biological objectives for California’s wadeable streams. Regions were defined on the basis of ecological, hydrologic, and jurisdictional factors and roughly corresponded with ecoregions. Physiographic and land use variables were derived from geographic information system coverages. The model for the entire state (n = 1,386) identified a composite measure of anthropogenic disturbance (the sum of urban, agricultural, and unmanaged roadside vegetation land cover) within the local watershed as the most important variable, explaining 56 % of the variance in O/E values. Models for individual regions explained between 51 and 84 % of the variance in O/E values. Measures of human disturbance were important in the three coastal regions. In the South Coast and Coastal Chaparral, local watershed measures of urbanization were the most important variables related to biological condition, while in the North Coast the composite measure of human disturbance at the watershed scale was most important. In the two mountain regions, natural gradients were most important, including slope, precipitation, and temperature. The remaining three regions had relatively small sample sizes (n ≤ 75 sites) and had models that gave mixed results. Understanding the spatial scale at which land use and land cover affect

  15. Damage and failure modeling of lotus-type porous material subjected to low-cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kramberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of lotus-type porous material is presented in this paper. Porous materials exhibit some unique features which are useful for a number of various applications. This paper evaluates a numerical approach for determining of damage initiation and evolution of lotus-type porous material with computational simulations, where the considered computational models have different pore topology patterns. The low-cycle fatigue analysis was performed by using a damage evolution law. The damage state was calculated and updated based on the inelastic hysteresis energy for stabilized cycle. Degradation of the elastic stifness was modeled using scalar damage variable. In order to examine crack propagation path finite elements with severe damage were deleted and removed from the mesh during simulation. The direct cyclic analysis capability in Abaqus/Standard was used for low-cycle fatigue analysis to obtain the stabilized response of a model subjected to the periodic loading. The computational results show a qualitative understanding of pores topology influence on low-cycle fatigue under transversal loading conditions in relation to pore orientation.

  16. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melanie J; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Wright, Darryl; Redman, Sally

    2017-08-01

    Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing) and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. The majority (60%) of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage ("owned"). Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73) or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08). However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73). Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77). Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. The high prevalence of housing problems amongst study participants suggests that urban Aboriginal

  17. Continuum Gyrokinetic Simulations of Turbulence in a Helical Model SOL with NSTX-type parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, G. W.; Shi, E. L.; Hakim, A.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed the Gkeyll code to carry out 3D2V full- F gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in open-field-line geometries, using special versions of discontinuous-Galerkin algorithms to help with the computational challenges of the edge region. (Higher-order algorithms can also be helpful for exascale computing as they reduce the ratio of communications to computations.) Our first simulations with straight field lines were done for LAPD-type cases. Here we extend this to a helical model of an SOL plasma and show results for NSTX-type parameters. These simulations include the basic elements of a scrape-off layer: bad-curvature/interchange drive of instabilities, narrow sources to model plasma leaking from the core, and parallel losses with model sheath boundary conditions (our model allows currents to flow in and out of the walls). The formation of blobs is observed. By reducing the strength of the poloidal magnetic field, the heat flux at the divertor plate is observed to broaden. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Evaluation of type II thyroplasty on phonatory physiology in an excised canine larynx model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Type II thyroplasty is an alternative treatment for spasmodic dysphonia, addressing hyperadduction by incising and lateralizing the thyroid cartilage. We quantified the effect of lateralization width on phonatory physiology using excised canine larynges. Methods Normal closure, hyperadduction, and type II thyroplasty (lateralized up to 5mm at 1mm increments with hyperadducted arytenoids) were simulated in excised larynges (N=7). Aerodynamic, acoustic, and videokymographic data were recorded at three subglottal pressures relative to phonation threshold pressure (PTP). One-way repeated measures ANOVA assessed effect of condition on aerodynamic parameters. Random intercepts linear mixed effects models assessed effects of condition and subglottal pressure on acoustic and videokymographic parameters. Results PTP differed across conditions (p<0.001). Condition affected percent shimmer (p<0.005) but not percent jitter. Both pressure (p<0.03) and condition (p<0.001) affected fundamental frequency. Pressure affected vibratory amplitude (p<0.05) and intra-fold phase difference (p<0.05). Condition affected phase difference between the vocal folds (p<0.001). Conclusions Hyperadduction increased PTP and worsened perturbation compared to normal, with near normal physiology restored with 1mm lateralization. Further lateralization deteriorated voice quality and increased PTP. Acoustic and videokymographic results indicate that normal physiologic relationships between subglottal pressure and vibration are preserved at optimal lateralization width, but then degrade with further lateralization. The 1mm optimal width observed here is due to the small canine larynx size. Future human trials would likely demonstrate a greater optimal width, with patient-specific value potentially determined based on larynx size and symptom severity. PMID:27223665

  19. Heat conduction in a plate-type fuel element with time-dependent boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.J.G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the solution of boundary-value problems with variable boundary conditions is applied to solve a heat conduction problem in a plate-type fuel element with time dependent film coefficient. The numerical results show the feasibility of the method in the solution of this class of problems. (Author) [pt

  20. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  1. Bianchi type-I model with conformally invariant scalar and electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A Bianchi type-I exact solution of the Einstein theory representing the homogeneous anisotropic models with the electromagnetic field and the conformally invariant scalar field is studied. The solution contains Kasner model, pure electromagnetic and pure scalar models as special cases. It is found that the models evolve from an initial Kasner type to a final open Friedmann type universe. (Author) [pt

  2. Theoretical model for investigating the dynamic behaviour of the AST-500 type nuclear heating station reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.; Naumann, B.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on theoretical simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the AST-500 type reactor primary coolant system are summarized. The first version of a dynamic model in the form of the DYNAST code is described. The DYNAST code is based on a one-dimensional description of the primary coolant circuit including core, draught stack, and intermediate heat exchanger, a vapour dome model, and the point model of neutron kinetics. With the aid of the steady-state computational part of the DYNAST code, studies have been performed on different steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, some methodological investigations on generalization and improvement of the dynamic model are considered and results presented. (author)

  3. Stochastic analysis of a pulse-type prey-predator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Zhu, W. Q.

    2008-04-01

    A stochastic Lotka-Volterra model, a so-called pulse-type model, for the interaction between two species and their random natural environment is investigated. The effect of a random environment is modeled as random pulse trains in the birth rate of the prey and the death rate of the predator. The generalized cell mapping method is applied to calculate the probability distributions of the species populations at a state of statistical quasistationarity. The time evolution of the population densities is studied, and the probability of the near extinction time, from an initial state to a critical state, is obtained. The effects on the ecosystem behaviors of the prey self-competition term and of the pulse mean arrival rate are also discussed. Our results indicate that the proposed pulse-type model shows obviously distinguishable characteristics from a Gaussian-type model, and may confer a significant advantage for modeling the prey-predator system under discrete environmental fluctuations.

  4. Modeling air concentration over macro roughness conditions by Artificial Intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, T.; Pagliara, S.

    2018-05-01

    Aeration is improved in rivers by the turbulence created in the flow over macro and intermediate roughness conditions. Macro and intermediate roughness flow conditions are generated by flows over block ramps or rock chutes. The measurements are taken in uniform flow region. Efficacy of soft computing methods in modeling hydraulic parameters are not common so far. In this study, modeling efficiencies of MPMR model and FFNN model are found for estimating the air concentration over block ramps under macro roughness conditions. The experimental data are used for training and testing phases. Potential capability of MPMR and FFNN model in estimating air concentration are proved through this study.

  5. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr

    2013-12-21

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified.

  6. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified

  7. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 m s-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  8. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 ms-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  9. Propagation of cracks by stress corrosion in conditions of BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino C, F.J.; Fuentes C, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the obtained results when applying the Hydrogen Chemistry to a test tube type Compact Tension (CT), built in austenitic stainless steel 304l, simulating the conditions to those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa are presented. With the application of this water chemistry, seeks to be proven the diminution of the crack propagation speed. (Author)

  10. Pedestal Temperature Model for Type III ELMy H-mode Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buangam, W.; Suwanna, S.; Onjun, T.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.; Singhsomroje, W.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: It is widely known that the improved performance of H-mode plasma results mainly from a formation of the pedestal, which is a narrow region of strong pressure gradient near the edge of plasma. A predictive capability for the conditions at the top of the pedestal is important, especially for predictive simulations of future experiments. New models for predicting the temperature values at the top of the pedestal for type III ELMy H-mode plasma are developed by using two different approaches: a theory-based approaches and an empirical approach. For a theory-based approach, a model is developed based on the calculation of thermal energy in the pedestal region and on accepted scaling laws of energy confinement time. For an empirical model, a scaling law for pedestal temperature in terms of plasma controlled parameters, such as plasma current, magnetic field, heating power, is deduced from experimental data. Predictions from these models are compared with experimental data from the Pedestal International Database. Statistical quantities, such as Root-Mean Square Error (RMSE) and offset values, are computed to quantify the predictive capability of the models. It is found that the theory-based model predicts the pedestal temperature values moderately well yielding RMSE between 30% and 40%. The IPB98(y,3) scaling law yields with best agreement with RMSE of 30.4%. The empirical model predicts the pedestal temperature value with better agreement, yield RMSE of 25.9%

  11. Modelling the Thermomechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich

    Friction Stir Welding is a solid-state welding process invented by TWI in 1991. The FSW process is unique in the sense that joining of un-weldable alloys readily can be made. The thermomechanical conditions present in the workpiece during the welding process are of great interest since...... these control the properties of the weld. In the present work, a set of experimental, analytical and numerical analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the thermomechanical conditions descriptive for welding of aluminium, in this case AA2024-T3, under a specific set of welding parameters. Despite...... these specific data, the developed models can be applied for other alloys and welding parameters as well. A detailed experiment is carried out which constitutes the basis for the development and validation of the numerical and analytical models presented in this work. The contact condition at the tool...

  12. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Mattia; Ruiz-Calvo, Félix; Corberán, José M.; Montagud, Carla; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  13. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  14. An integrated model of multiple-condition ChIP-Seq data reveals predeterminants of Cdx2 binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory proteins can bind to different sets of genomic targets in various cell types or conditions. To reliably characterize such condition-specific regulatory binding we introduce MultiGPS, an integrated machine learning approach for the analysis of multiple related ChIP-seq experiments. MultiGPS is based on a generalized Expectation Maximization framework that shares information across multiple experiments for binding event discovery. We demonstrate that our framework enables the simultaneous modeling of sparse condition-specific binding changes, sequence dependence, and replicate-specific noise sources. MultiGPS encourages consistency in reported binding event locations across multiple-condition ChIP-seq datasets and provides accurate estimation of ChIP enrichment levels at each event. MultiGPS's multi-experiment modeling approach thus provides a reliable platform for detecting differential binding enrichment across experimental conditions. We demonstrate the advantages of MultiGPS with an analysis of Cdx2 binding in three distinct developmental contexts. By accurately characterizing condition-specific Cdx2 binding, MultiGPS enables novel insight into the mechanistic basis of Cdx2 site selectivity. Specifically, the condition-specific Cdx2 sites characterized by MultiGPS are highly associated with pre-existing genomic context, suggesting that such sites are pre-determined by cell-specific regulatory architecture. However, MultiGPS-defined condition-independent sites are not predicted by pre-existing regulatory signals, suggesting that Cdx2 can bind to a subset of locations regardless of genomic environment. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  15. Continuous-time interval model identification of blood glucose dynamics for type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; del Re, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    While good physiological models of the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients are well known, their parameterisation is difficult. The high intra-patient variability observed is a further major obstacle. This holds for data-based models too, so that no good patient-specific models are available. Against this background, this paper proposes the use of interval models to cover the different metabolic conditions. The control-oriented models contain a carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity factor to be used for insulin bolus calculators directly. Available clinical measurements were sampled on an irregular schedule which prompts the use of continuous-time identification, also for the direct estimation of the clinically interpretable factors mentioned above. An identification method is derived and applied to real data from 28 diabetic patients. Model estimation was done on a clinical data-set, whereas validation results shown were done on an out-of-clinic, everyday life data-set. The results show that the interval model approach allows a much more regular estimation of the parameters and avoids physiologically incompatible parameter estimates.

  16. Modelling radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhlopa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still has been investigated using two models with (model 1) and without (model 2) taking into account optical view factors. The coefficient of radiative heat exchange (h r,w-gc ) between the water and cover surfaces of a practical solar still was computed using the two models. Simulation results show that model 1 yields lower values of h r,w-gc and the root mean square error than model 2. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy of modelling the performance of a basin-type solar still can be improved by incorporating view factors. - Highlights: • Radiative heat transfer in a basin type solar still has been investigated. • Two models with and without view factors were used. • The model with view factors exhibits a lower magnitude of root mean square error. • View factors affect the accuracy of modelling the performance of the solar still

  17. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  18. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item…

  19. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bi, Yunlong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Pei, Yulong, E-mail: peiyulong1@163.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Cheng, Shukang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization. - Highlights: • The no-load magnetic field of poke-type motors is firstly calculated by analytical method. • The magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. • The analytical expression of each subdomain is derived.. • The proposed method can effectively reduce the predesign stages duration.

  20. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng; Bi, Yunlong; Pei, Yulong; Cheng, Shukang

    2016-01-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization. - Highlights: • The no-load magnetic field of poke-type motors is firstly calculated by analytical method. • The magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. • The analytical expression of each subdomain is derived.. • The proposed method can effectively reduce the predesign stages duration.

  1. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  2. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  3. Nonlinear $q$-fractional differential equations with nonlocal and sub-strip type boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with new boundary value problems of nonlinear $q$-fractional differential equations with nonlocal and sub-strip type boundary conditions. Our results are new in the present setting and rely on the contraction mapping principle and a fixed point theorem due to O'Regan. Some illustrative examples are also presented.

  4. On the Conditioning of Machine-Learning-Assisted Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlong; Sun, Rui; Wang, Qiqi; Xiao, Heng

    2017-11-01

    Recently, several researchers have demonstrated that machine learning techniques can be used to improve the RANS modeled Reynolds stress by training on available database of high fidelity simulations. However, obtaining improved mean velocity field remains an unsolved challenge, restricting the predictive capability of current machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling approaches. In this work we define a condition number to evaluate the model conditioning of data-driven turbulence modeling approaches, and propose a stability-oriented machine learning framework to model Reynolds stress. Two canonical flows, the flow in a square duct and the flow over periodic hills, are investigated to demonstrate the predictive capability of the proposed framework. The satisfactory prediction performance of mean velocity field for both flows demonstrates the predictive capability of the proposed framework for machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling. With showing the capability of improving the prediction of mean flow field, the proposed stability-oriented machine learning framework bridges the gap between the existing machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling approaches and the demand of predictive capability of turbulence models in real applications.

  5. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  6. Study of behavior of cermet fuel elements on IGR reactor under RIA type accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Vurim, A.D.; Koltyshev, S.M.; Pakhnits, V.A.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Popov, V.V.; Ryzhkov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 December in IGR reactor of Inst. of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakstan the second batch of in-pile testing of perspective cermet fuel elements under the condition, simulating RIA type accident was conducted. In the second batch of testing during eight start-ups 10 cermet fuel elements were examined. Among which 8 of monolith type and 2 fuel elements with false jacket beside cladding (FJF), as well as, 6 standard fuel elements of WWER-1000 type reactor with dioxide fuel were tested. 2 fuel elements - cermet and standard were placed into capsule filled with water. To measure energy release for the each start-up two fission monitor and inside core control gauge were placed. In all the start-ups operation mode of IGR was neutron pulse. Power of fuel element kept changing from 151 to 336 k W; energy release was 38-93 kJ/gr m 235 U; maximum temperature of cermet fuel was 1943-2173 K, of dioxide fuel - 1923-2843 K. The testing has demonstrated that operability of cermet fuel elements under reactivity accident condition with pulse width of 0,2 s is, at least, not less that operability of dioxide fuel elements, through advantages of cermet fuel under these conditions are revealed to the least extent

  7. Discriminating neutrino mass models using Type-II see-saw formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    though a fuller analysis needs the full matrix form when all terms are present. This is followed by the normal hierarchical model (Type [III]) and inverted hierarchical model with opposite CP phase (Type [IIB]). γ ≃ 10−2 for both of them. Our main results on neutrino masses and mixings in Type-II see-saw formula are presented ...

  8. Fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Shin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the existence, uniqueness and iterative approximations of fixed points for contractive mappings of integral type in complete metric spaces are established. As applications, the existence, uniqueness and iterative approximations of solutions for a class of functional equations arising in dynamic programming are discussed. The results presented in this paper extend and improve essentially the results of Branciari (A fixed point theorem for mappings satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 29, 531-536, 2002, Kannan (Some results on fixed points. Bull. Calcutta Math. Soc. 60, 71-76, 1968 and several known results. Four concrete examples involving the contractive mappings of integral type with uncountably many points are constructed. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classfication: 54H25, 47H10, 49L20, 49L99, 90C39

  9. On specification of initial conditions in turbulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has shown that initial conditions have a significant influence on the evolution of a flow towards turbulence. This important finding offers a unique opportunity for turbulence control, but also raises the question of how to properly specify initial conditions in turbulence models. We study this problem in the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an interfacial fluid instability that leads to turbulence and turbulent mixing. It occurs when a light fluid is accelerated in to a heavy fluid because of misalignment between density and pressure gradients. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability plays a key role in a wide variety of natural and man-made flows ranging from supernovae to the implosion phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Our approach consists of providing the turbulence models with a predicted profile of its key variables at the appropriate time in accordance to the initial conditions of the problem.

  10. A Poisson-lognormal conditional-autoregressive model for multivariate spatial analysis of pedestrian crash counts across neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyi; Kockelman, Kara M

    2013-11-01

    This work examines the relationship between 3-year pedestrian crash counts across Census tracts in Austin, Texas, and various land use, network, and demographic attributes, such as land use balance, residents' access to commercial land uses, sidewalk density, lane-mile densities (by roadway class), and population and employment densities (by type). The model specification allows for region-specific heterogeneity, correlation across response types, and spatial autocorrelation via a Poisson-based multivariate conditional auto-regressive (CAR) framework and is estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Least-squares regression estimates of walk-miles traveled per zone serve as the exposure measure. Here, the Poisson-lognormal multivariate CAR model outperforms an aspatial Poisson-lognormal multivariate model and a spatial model (without cross-severity correlation), both in terms of fit and inference. Positive spatial autocorrelation emerges across neighborhoods, as expected (due to latent heterogeneity or missing variables that trend in space, resulting in spatial clustering of crash counts). In comparison, the positive aspatial, bivariate cross correlation of severe (fatal or incapacitating) and non-severe crash rates reflects latent covariates that have impacts across severity levels but are more local in nature (such as lighting conditions and local sight obstructions), along with spatially lagged cross correlation. Results also suggest greater mixing of residences and commercial land uses is associated with higher pedestrian crash risk across different severity levels, ceteris paribus, presumably since such access produces more potential conflicts between pedestrian and vehicle movements. Interestingly, network densities show variable effects, and sidewalk provision is associated with lower severe-crash rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical model of compact type evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovička, Martin; Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, development of the mathematical model for evaporator used in heat pump circuits is covered, with focus on air dehumidification application. Main target of this ad-hoc numerical model is to simulate heat and mass transfer in evaporator for prescribed inlet conditions and different geometrical parameters. Simplified 2D mathematical model is developed in MATLAB SW. Solvers for multiple heat and mass transfer problems - plate surface temperature, condensate film temperature, local heat and mass transfer coefficients, refrigerant temperature distribution, humid air enthalpy change are included as subprocedures of this model. An automatic procedure of data transfer is developed in order to use results of MATLAB model in more complex simulation within commercial CFD code. In the end, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method is introduced and implemented into MATLAB model.

  12. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS, calving interval (CI, angularity (ANG, strength (FV and milk yield (MY on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits records. A multi-traits REML animal model was used to estimate (covariance components, with repeated observations. Heritability estimates for BCS, FV and ANG was 18%, 18% and 27%, respectively, while estimates for CI was very low (2%. Genetic correlations between CI and BCS was -0.44; between BCS and ANG was - 0.64; between BCS and MY was -0.35; between ANG and CI was 0.12. In conclusion, the selection for MY and ANG negatively affect fertility and average condition score of Brown cows. BCS recorded during lactation could be proposed as a useful trait for indirect selection aimed to improve fertility of cows.

  13. Physical and Theoretical Models of Heat Pollution Applied to Cramped Conditions Welding Taking into Account the Different Types of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, Y. I.; Koronchik, D. A.; Legkonogikh, A. N.; Zharkova, M. G.; Azimova, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    The standard k-epsilon turbulence model, adapted for welding workshops, equipped with fixed workstations with sources of pollution took into account only the convective component of heat transfer, which is quite reasonable for large-volume rooms (with low density distribution of sources of pollution) especially the results of model calculations taking into account only the convective component correlated well with experimental data. For the purposes of this study, when we are dealing with a small confined space where necessary to take account of the body heated to a high temperature (for welding), located next to each other as additional sources of heat, it can no longer be neglected radiative heat exchange. In the task - to experimentally investigate the various types of heat transfer in a limited closed space for welding and behavior of a mathematical model, describing the contribution of the various components of the heat exchange, including radiation, influencing the formation of fields of concentration, temperature, air movement and thermal stress in the test environment. Conducted field experiments to model cubic body, allowing you to configure and debug the model of heat and mass transfer processes with the help of the developed approaches, comparing the measurement results of air flow velocity and temperature with the calculated data showed qualitative and quantitative agreement between process parameters, that is an indicator of the adequacy of heat and mass transfer model.

  14. Model-Based Sensor Placement for Component Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobed, Parham [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Pednekar, Pratik [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Turton, Richard [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rengaswamy, Raghunathan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Design and operation of energy producing, near “zero-emission” coal plants has become a national imperative. This report on model-based sensor placement describes a transformative two-tier approach to identify the optimum placement, number, and type of sensors for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in fossil energy system operations. The algorithms are tested on a high fidelity model of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. For a condition monitoring network, whether equipment should be considered at a unit level or a systems level depends upon the criticality of the process equipment, its likeliness to fail, and the level of resolution desired for any specific failure. Because of the presence of a high fidelity model at the unit level, a sensor network can be designed to monitor the spatial profile of the states and estimate fault severity levels. In an IGCC plant, besides the gasifier, the sour water gas shift (WGS) reactor plays an important role. In view of this, condition monitoring of the sour WGS reactor is considered at the unit level, while a detailed plant-wide model of gasification island, including sour WGS reactor and the Selexol process, is considered for fault diagnosis at the system-level. Finally, the developed algorithms unify the two levels and identifies an optimal sensor network that maximizes the effectiveness of the overall system-level fault diagnosis and component-level condition monitoring. This work could have a major impact on the design and operation of future fossil energy plants, particularly at the grassroots level where the sensor network is yet to be identified. In addition, the same algorithms developed in this report can be further enhanced to be used in retrofits, where the objectives could be upgrade (addition of more sensors) and relocation of existing sensors.

  15. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng; Bi, Yunlong; Pei, Yulong; Cheng, Shukang

    2016-11-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization.

  16. Flow and mixing of liquid steel in multi-strand tundish delta type – physical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Merder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of liquid steel flow and mixing in tundish when applying different equipment to modernize the tundish working zone. The six-strand continuous casting tundish of a trough-type was studied. Such tundish is an object with geometry adjusted to the conditions of particular CC machine, which is installed in one of a polish steel plant. The problems suggested in research were solved basing on physical model experiment.

  17. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  18. Improvement of TNO type trailing edge noise models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    . It is computed by solving a Poisson equation which includes flow turbulence cross correlation terms. Previously published TNO type models used the assumption of Blake to simplify the Poisson equation. This paper shows that the simplification should not be used. We present a new model which fully models...

  19. Improvement of TNO type trailing edge noise models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2017-01-01

    . It is computed by solving a Poisson equation which includes flow turbulence cross correlation terms. Previously published TNO type models used the assumption of Blake to simplify the Poisson equation. This paper shows that the simplification should not be used. We present a new model which fully models...

  20. Modeling of behaviour of main type personnel in Kozloduy NPP during different operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this article is the personnel behavior and initiating events modeling, based on the operational experience in the NPP 'Kozloduy' initiating events reports. The development of models on qualitative information is much more difficult comparing the quantitative modeling. The modelling process is based on the artificial intelligence theory and methods including knowledge base and inference machine in the frame of logical models and semantic networks. (author)

  1. MENENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO OPTIMAL MENGGUNAKAN MODEL CONDITIONAL MEAN VARIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE ERY NISCAHYANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the returns of stock prices show the existence of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, then conditional mean variance models are suitable method to model the behavior of the stocks. In this thesis, the implementation of the conditional mean variance model to the autocorrelated and heteroscedastic return was discussed. The aim of this thesis was to assess the effect of the autocorrelated and heteroscedastic returns to the optimal solution of a portfolio. The margin of four stocks, Fortune Mate Indonesia Tbk (FMII.JK, Bank Permata Tbk (BNLI.JK, Suryamas Dutamakmur Tbk (SMDM.JK dan Semen Gresik Indonesia Tbk (SMGR.JK were estimated by GARCH(1,1 model with standard innovations following the standard normal distribution and the t-distribution.  The estimations were used to construct a portfolio. The portfolio optimal was found when the standard innovation used was t-distribution with the standard deviation of 1.4532 and the mean of 0.8023 consisting of 0.9429 (94% of FMII stock, 0.0473 (5% of  BNLI stock, 0% of SMDM stock, 1% of  SMGR stock.

  2. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  3. Integrated modeling for the cyclic behavior of high power Li-ion batteries under extended operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Á.G.; Hong, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Redefine the traditional concepts of state of charge modeling. • Accurate non-intrusive extraction method of an integrated battery model. • Indexes of performance can be employed to compare different types of batteries. • High power electrical battery model dependent on current and temperature effects. - Abstract: The dynamic thermal and electrical behavior of high power LiFePO 4 cathode-type Li-ion batteries is studied with extended considerations such as demanded current ranging from 12 to 30 A, battery temperatures ranging from 283 to 313 K and a redefinition of the concept of state of charge during cycling conditions. The equivalent electrical model, consisting of a series resistance, a parallel resistance–capacitor, a voltage source and state of charge calculators, can be improved with the addition of current and temperature gains for each element. In addition, a non-intrusively-obtained alternative thermal model extraction is proposed to uncouple from the experimental battery temperature based on electrochemical research found in the literature. This improved model extraction for high power cylindrical batteries can achieve a temperature and voltage relative runtime error in the range of 1% and 5% in average, respectively. The effects of lithium concentration in the anode and cathode are accurately predicted with state of charge accelerators, which vary linearly with temperature. Aiming for a power systems environment, the integrated battery model is built and validated experimentally to demonstrate its accurate prediction. This improved integrated battery model can be employed for battery stack simulations, improved state of charge algorithm testing and optimization of hybrid systems - with a light computational demand. Finally, a performance index radar plot is proposed to conveniently compare electrical and thermal properties of different types of batteries

  4. Stability of fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F.X., E-mail: zhangfx@umich.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Tracy, C.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lang, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States); Ewing, R.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The structural stability of fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} was studied at pressure up to ∼40 GPa and under hydrothermal conditions of ∼1 GPa and up to 350 °C, respectively, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering measurements. XRD measurements indicated that the fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} is not stable at pressures greater than 22.6 GPa and gradually transformed to a high-pressure phase. The high-pressure phase is not stable and changed back to the fluorite-type structure when pressure is released. The La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} fluorite is also not stable under hydrothermal conditions and began to react with water at 200–250 °C. Both Raman and XRD results suggest that lanthanum hydroxide La(OH){sub 3} and La{sup 3+}-doped CeO{sub 2} fluorite are the dominant products after hydrothermal treatment. - Graphical abstract: The fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} reacted with water at hydrothermal condition (1 GPa, and above 200 °C), and formed rare earth hydroxides. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms to a metastable phase at pressure higher than 21 GPa. • La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} reacts with water at ∼1 GPa and above 200 °C. • The pressure-induced phase transition is reversible.

  5. Integrating K-means Clustering with Kernel Density Estimation for the Development of a Conditional Weather Generation Downscaling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Ho, C.; Chang, L.

    2011-12-01

    In previous decades, the climate change caused by global warming increases the occurrence frequency of extreme hydrological events. Water supply shortages caused by extreme events create great challenges for water resource management. To evaluate future climate variations, general circulation models (GCMs) are the most wildly known tools which shows possible weather conditions under pre-defined CO2 emission scenarios announced by IPCC. Because the study area of GCMs is the entire earth, the grid sizes of GCMs are much larger than the basin scale. To overcome the gap, a statistic downscaling technique can transform the regional scale weather factors into basin scale precipitations. The statistic downscaling technique can be divided into three categories include transfer function, weather generator and weather type. The first two categories describe the relationships between the weather factors and precipitations respectively based on deterministic algorithms, such as linear or nonlinear regression and ANN, and stochastic approaches, such as Markov chain theory and statistical distributions. In the weather type, the method has ability to cluster weather factors, which are high dimensional and continuous variables, into weather types, which are limited number of discrete states. In this study, the proposed downscaling model integrates the weather type, using the K-means clustering algorithm, and the weather generator, using the kernel density estimation. The study area is Shihmen basin in northern of Taiwan. In this study, the research process contains two steps, a calibration step and a synthesis step. Three sub-steps were used in the calibration step. First, weather factors, such as pressures, humidities and wind speeds, obtained from NCEP and the precipitations observed from rainfall stations were collected for downscaling. Second, the K-means clustering grouped the weather factors into four weather types. Third, the Markov chain transition matrixes and the

  6. Modelling and Control of Ionic Electroactive Polymer Actuators under Varying Humidity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunjai Nakshatharan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of position control of ionic electroactive polymer soft actuators under varying relative humidity conditions. The impact of humidity on the actuation performance of ionic actuators is studied through frequency response and impedance spectroscopy analysis. Considering the uncertain performance of the actuator under varying humidity conditions, an adaptable model using the neural network method is developed. The model uses relative humidity magnitude as one of the model parameters, making it robust to different environmental conditions. Utilizing the model, a closed-loop controller based on the model predictive controller is developed for position control of the actuator. The developed model and controller are experimentally verified and found to be capable of predicting and controlling the actuators with excellent tracking accuracy under relative humidity conditions varying in the range of 10–90%.

  7. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions. Scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquet, O.; Namar, R.; Jansson, P.

    2010-10-01

    The potential impact of long-term climate changes has to be evaluated with respect to repository performance and safety. In particular, glacial periods of advancing and retreating ice sheet and prolonged permafrost conditions are likely to occur over the repository site. The growth and decay of ice sheets and the associated distribution of permafrost will affect the groundwater flow field and its composition. As large changes may take place, the understanding of groundwater flow patterns in connection to glaciations is an important issue for the geological disposal at long term. During a glacial period, the performance of the repository could be weakened by some of the following conditions and associated processes: - Maximum pressure at repository depth (canister failure). - Maximum permafrost depth (canister failure, buffer function). - Concentration of groundwater oxygen (canister corrosion). - Groundwater salinity (buffer stability). - Glacially induced earthquakes (canister failure). Therefore, the GAP project aims at understanding key hydrogeological issues as well as answering specific questions: - Regional groundwater flow system under ice sheet conditions. - Flow and infiltration conditions at the ice sheet bed. - Penetration depth of glacial meltwater into the bedrock. - Water chemical composition at repository depth in presence of glacial effects. - Role of the taliks, located in front of the ice sheet, likely to act as potential discharge zones of deep groundwater flow. - Influence of permafrost distribution on the groundwater flow system in relation to build-up and thawing periods. - Consequences of glacially induced earthquakes on the groundwater flow system. Some answers will be provided by the field data and investigations; the integration of the information and the dynamic characterisation of the key processes will be obtained using numerical modelling. Since most of the data are not yet available, some scoping calculations are performed using the

  8. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions. Scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, O.; Namar, R. (In2Earth Modelling Ltd (Switzerland)); Jansson, P. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    The potential impact of long-term climate changes has to be evaluated with respect to repository performance and safety. In particular, glacial periods of advancing and retreating ice sheet and prolonged permafrost conditions are likely to occur over the repository site. The growth and decay of ice sheets and the associated distribution of permafrost will affect the groundwater flow field and its composition. As large changes may take place, the understanding of groundwater flow patterns in connection to glaciations is an important issue for the geological disposal at long term. During a glacial period, the performance of the repository could be weakened by some of the following conditions and associated processes: - Maximum pressure at repository depth (canister failure). - Maximum permafrost depth (canister failure, buffer function). - Concentration of groundwater oxygen (canister corrosion). - Groundwater salinity (buffer stability). - Glacially induced earthquakes (canister failure). Therefore, the GAP project aims at understanding key hydrogeological issues as well as answering specific questions: - Regional groundwater flow system under ice sheet conditions. - Flow and infiltration conditions at the ice sheet bed. - Penetration depth of glacial meltwater into the bedrock. - Water chemical composition at repository depth in presence of glacial effects. - Role of the taliks, located in front of the ice sheet, likely to act as potential discharge zones of deep groundwater flow. - Influence of permafrost distribution on the groundwater flow system in relation to build-up and thawing periods. - Consequences of glacially induced earthquakes on the groundwater flow system. Some answers will be provided by the field data and investigations; the integration of the information and the dynamic characterisation of the key processes will be obtained using numerical modelling. Since most of the data are not yet available, some scoping calculations are performed using the

  9. A new model for friction under shock conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambakizi F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at the developpement of a new model for friction under shock conditions. Thanks to a subgrid model and a specific Coulomb friction law, it takes into account the interface temperature and deformation but also the influence of asperities when the contact pressure is relatively low (≤ 3 GPa.

  10. MAARGHA: A Prototype System for Road Condition and Surface Type Estimation by Fusing Multi-Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rajamohan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in countries like India is expanding at a rapid pace and is becoming increasingly difficult for authorities to identify and fix the bad roads in time. Current Geographical Information Systems (GIS lack information about on-road features like road surface type, speed breakers and dynamic attribute data like the road quality. Hence there is a need to build road monitoring systems capable of collecting such information periodically. Limitations of satellite imagery with respect to the resolution and availability, makes road monitoring primarily an on-field activity. Monitoring is currently performed using special vehicles that are fitted with expensive laser scanners and need skilled resource besides providing only very low coverage. Hence such systems are not suitable for continuous road monitoring. Cheaper alternative systems using sensors like accelerometer and GPS (Global Positioning System exists but they are not equipped to achieve higher information levels. This paper presents a prototype system MAARGHA (MAARGHA in Sanskrit language means an eternal path to solution, which demonstrates that it can overcome the disadvantages of the existing systems by fusing multi-sensory data like camera image, accelerometer data and GPS trajectory at an information level, apart from providing additional road information like road surface type. MAARGHA has been tested across different road conditions and sensor data characteristics to assess its potential applications in real world scenarios. The developed system achieves higher information levels when compared to state of the art road condition estimation systems like Roadroid. The system performance in road surface type classification is dependent on the local environmental conditions at the time of imaging. In our study, the road surface type classification accuracy reached 100% for datasets with near ideal environmental conditions and dropped down to 60% for datasets with shadows and

  11. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating index...

  12. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  13. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  14. A model to predict moisture conditions in concrete reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahs, M.; Nilsson, L.O.; Poyet, S.; L'Hostis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Moisture has an impact in many of the degradation mechanisms that appear in the structures of a nuclear power plant. Moisture conditions in a reactor containment wall have been simulated by using a hygro-thermal model of drying concrete. Methods to estimate the temperature dependency of the sorption isotherms and moisture transport properties is suggested and applied in the model. This temperature dependency is included as there is a temperature gradient present through the containment wall. The hygro-thermal model was applied on a full scale 3D model of a real reactor containment building and the concrete relative humidity has been computed at 4 different moments: 1, 10, 20 and 30 years. The results show that the major part of the concrete is not dried at all even after 30 years of operation. It is also clear that the temperature distribution inside the whole concrete volume is affected by the variable boundary conditions. It was concluded that the suggested hygro-thermal model was appropriate to use as a method to estimate the existing conditions in a PWR reactor containment wall

  15. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  16. Denotational semantics for guarded dependent type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2018-01-01

    We present a new model of Guarded Dependent Type Theory (GDTT), a type theory with guarded recursion and multiple clocks in which one can program with, and reason about coinductive types. Productivity of recursively defined coinductive programs and proofs is encoded in types using guarded recursion......, crucial for programming with coinductive types, types must be interpreted as presheaves orthogonal to the object of clocks. In the case of dependent types, this translates to a unique lifting condition similar to the one found in homotopy theoretic models of type theory. Since the universes defined...... by inclusions of clock variable contexts commute on the nose with type operations on the universes....

  17. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junfang; Zhang Chunmin; Yue Ruihong; Li Runling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the general boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K ± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  18. Type D Personality : a five-factor model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fruyt, F.; Denollet, J.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General

  19. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Methods Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0–17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH. Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results The majority (60% of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage (“owned”. Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73 or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08. However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73. Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77. Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. Conclusions The high prevalence of housing

  20. Implant-based oral rehabilitation of a variant model of type I dentinal dysplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Nettem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentin dysplasia is an exceptionally rare, autosomal-dominant, hereditary condition, primarily characterized by defective dentin formation affecting both the deciduous and permanent dentitions. The etiology remains imprecise to date, in spite of the numerous hypotheses put forward and the constant updates on this condition. This case report of type I dentin dysplasia exhibits radiographic findings that are unique and diverse from the classical findings of various subtypes of this disease reported to date. This article also depicts the implant-based oral rehabilitation of the young patient diagnosed with this variant model of dentin dysplasia type I. Early diagnosis and implementation of this preventive and curative therapy is vital for avoiding premature exfoliation of deciduous and permanent dentition and the associated residual ridge resorption, thereby overcoming functional and esthetic deficits and ensuring protection of the remaining dentition from further harm.

  1. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. APPLICABILITY OF SIMILARITY CONDITIONS TO ANALOGUE MODELLING OF TECTONIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Goncharov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at comparing concepts of V.V. Belousov and M.V. Gzovsky, outstanding researchers who established fundamentals of tectonophysics in Russia, specifically similarity conditions in application to tectonophysical modeling. Quotations from their publications illustrate differences in their views. In this respect, we can reckon V.V. Belousov as a «realist» as he supported «the liberal point of view» [Methods of modelling…, 1988, p. 21–22], whereas M.V. Gzovsky can be regarded as an «idealist» as he believed that similarity conditions should be mandatorily applied to ensure correctness of physical modeling of tectonic deformations and structures [Gzovsky, 1975, pp. 88 and 94].Objectives of the present publication are (1 to be another reminder about desirability of compliance with similarity conditions in experimental tectonics; (2 to point out difficulties in ensuring such compliance; (3 to give examples which bring out the fact that similarity conditions are often met per se, i.e. automatically observed; (4 to show that modeling can be simplified in some cases without compromising quantitative estimations of parameters of structure formation.(1 Physical modelling of tectonic deformations and structures should be conducted, if possible, in compliance with conditions of geometric and physical similarity between experimental models and corresponding natural objects. In any case, a researcher should have a clear vision of conditions applicable to each particular experiment.(2 Application of similarity conditions is often challenging due to unavoidable difficulties caused by the following: a Imperfection of experimental equipment and technologies (Fig. 1 to 3; b uncertainties in estimating parameters of formation of natural structures, including main ones: structure size (Fig. 4, time of formation (Fig. 5, deformation properties of the medium wherein such structures are formed, including, first of all, viscosity (Fig. 6

  3. Dissociation of learned helplessness and fear conditioning in mice: a mouse model of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Landgraf

    Full Text Available The state of being helpless is regarded as a central aspect of depression, and therefore the learned helplessness paradigm in rodents is commonly used as an animal model of depression. The term 'learned helplessness' refers to a deficit in escaping from an aversive situation after an animal is exposed to uncontrollable stress specifically, with a control/comparison group having been exposed to an equivalent amount of controllable stress. A key feature of learned helplessness is the transferability of helplessness to different situations, a phenomenon called 'trans-situationality'. However, most studies in mice use learned helplessness protocols in which training and testing occur in the same environment and with the same type of stressor. Consequently, failures to escape may reflect conditioned fear of a particular environment, not a general change of the helpless state of an animal. For mice, there is no established learned helplessness protocol that includes the trans-situationality feature. Here we describe a simple and reliable learned helplessness protocol for mice, in which training and testing are carried out in different environments and with different types of stressors. We show that with our protocol approximately 50% of mice develop learned helplessness that is not attributable to fear conditioning.

  4. Dissociation of learned helplessness and fear conditioning in mice: a mouse model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Streets, Margo; Welsh, David K

    2015-01-01

    The state of being helpless is regarded as a central aspect of depression, and therefore the learned helplessness paradigm in rodents is commonly used as an animal model of depression. The term 'learned helplessness' refers to a deficit in escaping from an aversive situation after an animal is exposed to uncontrollable stress specifically, with a control/comparison group having been exposed to an equivalent amount of controllable stress. A key feature of learned helplessness is the transferability of helplessness to different situations, a phenomenon called 'trans-situationality'. However, most studies in mice use learned helplessness protocols in which training and testing occur in the same environment and with the same type of stressor. Consequently, failures to escape may reflect conditioned fear of a particular environment, not a general change of the helpless state of an animal. For mice, there is no established learned helplessness protocol that includes the trans-situationality feature. Here we describe a simple and reliable learned helplessness protocol for mice, in which training and testing are carried out in different environments and with different types of stressors. We show that with our protocol approximately 50% of mice develop learned helplessness that is not attributable to fear conditioning.

  5. Chaos in long-term behavior of some Bianchi-type VIII models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, P

    1987-01-01

    The long-term behavior of Bianchi-type VIII models with three different types of stress-energy tensors are examined and compared. The vacuum model, a matter-filled model, and a model with an electromagnetic field are considered. In each case the existence of chaotic behavior and transitions to chaotic behavior are discussed.

  6. 'Duality twisted'boundary conditions in n-state Potts Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, G.

    1992-11-01

    We discuss a new class of toroidal boundary conditions for one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonian with S n symmetry which are related to two-dimensional n-state Potts models in the extreme anisotropic Hamiltonian limit. At their self-dual point (a point were a second-order phase transition occurs for n=2,3,4) the duality transformation is shown to be an additional symmetry giving rise to a new class of 'duality twisted' toroidal boundary conditions. This corresponding Hamiltonians are given in terms of generators of the periodic Temprely-Lieb algebra with an odd number of generators. We discuss as an example the critical Ising model. Here the complete spectrum for the new boundary conditions can be obtained from a projection mechanism in the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain. (author)

  7. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources was reflected through three factors: two Biomass Burning factors and a highly chemically processed Long Range Transport factor. The Biomass Burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were in part elucidated by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique

  8. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  9. Cell-autonomous progeroid changes in conditional mouse models for repair endonuclease XPG deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Barnhoorn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS, or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional Xpg-/- mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4-5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.

  10. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems.......In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell...

  11. The stomatogastric nervous system as a model for studying sensorimotor interactions in real-time closed-loop conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e. in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate the use of a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand-tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system.

  12. Vortex solutions in a Witten-type model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaya, Satoru; Sawado, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michitaka

    2014-01-01

    Straight line vortex solutions in a Witten's superconducting string model are studied. The model has many parameters and this is the main reason of the complexity. We argue the precise conditions of the parameters for finding the solutions of the model. We obtain the rotationally symmetric solutions for the winding numbers m = 1 - 4 with/without the gauge field. For the higher winding numbers, an energy minimization algorithm is used to investigate non-rotational solutions

  13. Reliability of complex systems under dynamic conditions: A Bayesian multivariate degradation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Weiwen; Li, Yan-Feng; Mi, Jinhua; Yu, Le; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Degradation analysis is critical to reliability assessment and operational management of complex systems. Two types of assumptions are often adopted for degradation analysis: (1) single degradation indicator and (2) constant external factors. However, modern complex systems are generally characterized as multiple functional and suffered from multiple failure modes due to dynamic operating conditions. In this paper, Bayesian degradation analysis of complex systems with multiple degradation indicators under dynamic conditions is investigated. Three practical engineering-driven issues are addressed: (1) to model various combinations of degradation indicators, a generalized multivariate hybrid degradation process model is proposed, which subsumes both monotonic and non-monotonic degradation processes models as special cases, (2) to study effects of external factors, two types of dynamic covariates are incorporated jointly, which include both environmental conditions and operating profiles, and (3) to facilitate degradation based reliability analysis, a serial of Bayesian strategy is constructed, which covers parameter estimation, factor-related degradation prediction, and unit-specific remaining useful life assessment. Finally, degradation analysis of a type of heavy machine tools is presented to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed method. A comparison of the proposed model with a traditional model is studied as well in the example. - Highlights: • A generalized multivariate hybrid degradation process model is introduced. • Various types of dependent degradation processes can be modeled coherently. • The effects of environmental conditions and operating profiles are investigated. • Unit-specific RUL assessment is implemented through a two-step Bayesian method.

  14. Some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in cone random metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja Gurucharan S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in the setting of cone random metric spaces. Our results unify, extend and generalize many known results from the current existing literature.

  15. Numerical model for mapping of complex hydrogeological conditions: the Chmielnik area (South Poland) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszta, Kamila; Szklarczyk, Tadeusz; Malina, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    the model boundary conditions of type: I, II and III were established. Data from of 36 groundwater observation points (hydrogeological boreholes and dug wells) measured in September 2015 were used to calibrate the model. The correlation coefficient of the model is 0,998. Two variants were simulated on the model: natural conditions (without water abstraction) and with groundwater exploitation (September 2015). The carried out analysis of hydrogeological conditions and developed numerical model will be the basis for assessing the impact of a drainage of an open limestone pit mine realized in this area on the soil-water system and for designing a sustainable distribution system of mine waters to protect groundwater depending ecosystems. This study is financially supported by AGH research grant no. 15.11.140.828.

  16. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  17. Modelling conditional correlations of asset returns: A smooth transition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM-test is d......In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of ve...

  18. Effect of aggregate type, casting, thickness and curing condition on restrained strain of mass concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Choktaweekarn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis is used for computing temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The model takes into account time, material properties, and mix proportion dependent behavior of concrete.The hydration heat and thermal properties used in the finite element analysis are obtained from our previously proposedadiabatic temperature rise model and are used as the input in the analysis. The analysis was done by varying size of massconcrete (especially thickness and the casting method in order to explain their effect on temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The casting methods used in the analysis are continuous and discontinuous casting. The discontinuouscasting consists of layer casting and block casting. Different types of aggregate were used in the analysis for studying theeffect of thermal properties of aggregate on temperature and restrained strain in mass concrete. Different conditions of curing(insulation and normal curing were also studied and compared. It was found from the analytical results that the maximumtemperature increases with the increase of the thickness of structure. The use of layer casting is more effective for thermalcracking control of mass concrete. The insulation curing method is preferable for mass concrete. Aggregate with low coefficientof thermal expansion is beneficial to reduce the restrained strain.

  19. Model of T-Type Fracture in Coal Fracturing and Analysis of Influence Factors of Fracture Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Special T-type fractures can be formed when coal is hydraulically fractured and there is currently no relevant theoretical model to calculate and describe them. This paper first establishes the height calculation model of vertical fractures in multi-layered formations and deduces the stress intensity factor (SIF at the upper and lower sides of the fracture in the process of vertical fracture extension. Combined with the fracture tip stress analysis method of fracture mechanics theory, the horizontal bedding is taken into account for tensile and shear failure, and the critical mechanical conditions for the formation of horizontal fracture in coal are obtained. Finally, the model of T-type fracture in coal fracturing is established, and it is verified by fracturing simulation experiments. The model calculation result shows that the increase of vertical fracture height facilitates the increase of horizontal fracture length. The fracture toughness of coal has a significant influence on the length of horizontal fracture and there is a threshold. When the fracture toughness is less than the threshold, the length of horizontal fracture remains unchanged, otherwise, the length of horizontal fracture increases rapidly with the increase of fracture toughness. When the shear strength of the interface between the coalbed and the interlayer increases, the length of the horizontal fracture of the T-type fracture rapidly decreases.

  20. Explaining dark matter and neutrino mass in the light of TYPE-II seesaw model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Shaw, Avirup

    2018-02-01

    With the motivation of simultaneously explaining dark matter and neutrino masses, mixing angles, we have invoked the Type-II seesaw model extended by an extra SU(2) doublet Φ. Moreover, we have imposed a Z2 parity on Φ which remains unbroken as the vacuum expectation value of Φ is zero. Consequently, the lightest neutral component of Φ becomes naturally stable and can be a viable dark matter candidate. On the other hand, light Majorana masses for neutrinos have been generated following usual Type-II seesaw mechanism. Further in this framework, for the first time we have derived the full set of vacuum stability and unitarity conditions, which must be satisfied to obtain a stable vacuum as well as to preserve the unitarity of the model respectively. Thereafter, we have performed extensive phenomenological studies of both dark matter and neutrino sectors considering all possible theoretical and current experimental constraints. Finally, we have also discussed a qualitative collider signatures of dark matter and associated odd particles at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Modeling the Conditional Covariance between Stock and Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Goeij (Peter); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo analyze the intertemporal interaction between the stock and bond market returns, we allow the conditional covariance matrix to vary over time according to a multivariate GARCH model similar to Bollerslev, Engle and Wooldridge (1988). We extend the model such that it allows for

  2. Implementation of Electrical Simulation Model for IEC Standard Type-3A Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Chandrasekaran; Casadei, Domenico; Tani, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of electrical simulation model for IEC 61400-27-1 standard Type-3A generator. A general overview of the different wind electric generators(WEG) types are given and the main focused on Type-3A WEG standard models, namely a model for a variable speed wind tur...

  3. URGAP: A gap conductance model for transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.; Pazdera, F.

    1983-01-01

    A gap conductance model, URGAP, has been developed with contributions from solid, fluid and radiation heat transfer components. Model parameters are easily available, independent of different combinations of material surfaces. The model parameters were fitted to 388 data points under reactor conditions. For model verification, another 274 data points of steel-steel and aluminium-aluminium interfaces, respectively, were used. For minor surface roughnesses normally prevailing in reactor fuel elements the model asymptotically yields Ross' and Stoute's model for the open gap, which is thus confirmed. Materials data were carefully checked over a wide range of temperatures. Special attention was paid to the contact term for high temperatures. Thus, the model can be applied to transients. The URGAP model is being used successfully in several codes (e.g. URANUS, SSYST). (author)

  4. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  5. Hydrological-niche models predict water plant functional group distributions in diverse wetland types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, David C; Nicol, Jason M; Gehrig, Susan L; Harding, Claire; Aldridge, Kane T; Goodman, Abigail M; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-06-01

    Human use of water resources threatens environmental water supplies. If resource managers are to develop policies that avoid unacceptable ecological impacts, some means to predict ecosystem response to changes in water availability is necessary. This is difficult to achieve at spatial scales relevant for water resource management because of the high natural variability in ecosystem hydrology and ecology. Water plant functional groups classify species with similar hydrological niche preferences together, allowing a qualitative means to generalize community responses to changes in hydrology. We tested the potential for functional groups in making quantitative prediction of water plant functional group distributions across diverse wetland types over a large geographical extent. We sampled wetlands covering a broad range of hydrogeomorphic and salinity conditions in South Australia, collecting both hydrological and floristic data from 687 quadrats across 28 wetland hydrological gradients. We built hydrological-niche models for eight water plant functional groups using a range of candidate models combining different surface inundation metrics. We then tested the predictive performance of top-ranked individual and averaged models for each functional group. Cross validation showed that models achieved acceptable predictive performance, with correct classification rates in the range 0.68-0.95. Model predictions can be made at any spatial scale that hydrological data are available and could be implemented in a geographical information system. We show the response of water plant functional groups to inundation is consistent enough across diverse wetland types to quantify the probability of hydrological impacts over regional spatial scales. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  7. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and conditional paths of consumption: data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana T.S. Massaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate nationally representative prevalence rates of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS use and to identify consumption-associated factors, proposing a conditional model of direct and indirect consumption paths. Method: Using data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, this cross-sectional study analyzed a subsample of 3,828 participants between 15 and 64 years old, gathering information on the use of psychoactive substances in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian household population. Results: Rates of lifetime and last-year ATS use were, respectively, 4.1 and 1.6%. Economically privileged individuals and users of other substances were more at risk for using ATS. The results suggest that higher education decreases the chances of ATS consumption. The conditional model showed that higher income increased ATS use, higher education lowered the odds of such an increase, and cocaine use cancelled that associative effect. Conclusion: Brazil presents high rates of ATS use. Prevention and treatment strategies should focus on the protective effect of higher education levels and should target polydrug use. Knowledge of ATS-associated factors and user profiles is the starting point for developing effective treatments and tailored prevention strategies.

  8. A Multivariate Asymmetric Long Memory Conditional Volatility Model with X, Regularity and Asymptotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe paper derives a Multivariate Asymmetric Long Memory conditional volatility model with Exogenous Variables (X), or the MALMX model, with dynamic conditional correlations, appropriate regularity conditions, and associated asymptotic theory. This enables checking of internal consistency

  9. General treatment of a non-linear gauge condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malleville, C.

    1982-06-01

    A non linear gauge condition is presented in the frame of a non abelian gauge theory broken with the Higgs mechanism. It is shown that this condition already introduced for the standard SU(2) x U(1) model can be generalized for any gauge model with the same type of simplification, namely the suppression of any coupling of the form: massless gauge boson, massive gauge boson, unphysical Higgs [fr

  10. Predicting birth weight with conditionally linear transformation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möst, Lisa; Schmid, Matthias; Faschingbauer, Florian; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    Low and high birth weight (BW) are important risk factors for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Gynecologists must therefore accurately predict BW before delivery. Most prediction formulas for BW are based on prenatal ultrasound measurements carried out within one week prior to birth. Although successfully used in clinical practice, these formulas focus on point predictions of BW but do not systematically quantify uncertainty of the predictions, i.e. they result in estimates of the conditional mean of BW but do not deliver prediction intervals. To overcome this problem, we introduce conditionally linear transformation models (CLTMs) to predict BW. Instead of focusing only on the conditional mean, CLTMs model the whole conditional distribution function of BW given prenatal ultrasound parameters. Consequently, the CLTM approach delivers both point predictions of BW and fetus-specific prediction intervals. Prediction intervals constitute an easy-to-interpret measure of prediction accuracy and allow identification of fetuses subject to high prediction uncertainty. Using a data set of 8712 deliveries at the Perinatal Centre at the University Clinic Erlangen (Germany), we analyzed variants of CLTMs and compared them to standard linear regression estimation techniques used in the past and to quantile regression approaches. The best-performing CLTM variant was competitive with quantile regression and linear regression approaches in terms of conditional coverage and average length of the prediction intervals. We propose that CLTMs be used because they are able to account for possible heteroscedasticity, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution of BWs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Tezpur University,Tezpur-784028 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2015-11-30

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  12. Sufficient conditions for optimality for a mathematical model of drug treatment with pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczyński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for a general mathematical model of drug treatment with a single agent. The control represents the concentration of the agent and its effect (pharmacodynamics is modelled by a Hill function (i.e., Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The aim is to minimize a cost functional consisting of a weighted average related to the state of the system (both at the end and during a fixed therapy horizon and to the total amount of drugs given. The latter is an indirect measure for the side effects of treatment. It is shown that optimal controls are continuous functions of time that change between full or no dose segments with connecting pieces that take values in the interior of the control set. Sufficient conditions for the strong local optimality of an extremal controlled trajectory in terms of the existence of a solution to a piecewise defined Riccati differential equation are given.

  13. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  14. THE DETONATION MECHANISM OF THE PULSATIONALLY ASSISTED GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, G. C. IV; Graziani, C.; Weide, K.; Norris, J.; Hudson, R.; Lamb, D. Q. [Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fisher, R. T. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Townsley, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Meakin, C. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Reid, L. B. [NTEC Environmental Technology, Subiaco WA 6008 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We describe the detonation mechanism composing the 'pulsationally assisted' gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae. This model is analogous to the previous GCD model reported in Jordan et al.; however, the chosen initial conditions produce a substantively different detonation mechanism, resulting from a larger energy release during the deflagration phase. The resulting final kinetic energy and {sup 56}Ni yields conform better to observational values than is the case for the 'classical' GCD models. In the present class of models, the ignition of a deflagration phase leads to a rising, burning plume of ash. The ash breaks out of the surface of the white dwarf, flows laterally around the star, and converges on the collision region at the antipodal point from where it broke out. The amount of energy released during the deflagration phase is enough to cause the star to rapidly expand, so that when the ash reaches the antipodal point, the surface density is too low to initiate a detonation. Instead, as the ash flows into the collision region (while mixing with surface fuel), the star reaches its maximally expanded state and then contracts. The stellar contraction acts to increase the density of the star, including the density in the collision region. This both raises the temperature and density of the fuel-ash mixture in the collision region and ultimately leads to thermodynamic conditions that are necessary for the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism to produce a detonation. We demonstrate feasibility of this scenario with three three-dimensional (3D), full star simulations of this model using the FLASH code. We characterized the simulations by the energy released during the deflagration phase, which ranged from 38% to 78% of the white dwarf's binding energy. We show that the necessary conditions for detonation are achieved in all three of the models.

  15. An integrated supply chain model for deteriorating items considering delay in payments, imperfect quality and inspection errors under inflationary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudinezhad, Mahvash; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Ghoreishi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    of the manufacturer is not perfect and makes inspection errors of Type 1 and Type 2. The second-stage inspection of the manufacturer is at the end of production period without inspection errors. Also, the demand is linear function of time. Once the retailer receives the lot, a 100% screening process of the lot......In this article, an integrated production–distribution model is presented for a manufacturer and retailer supply chain under inflationary conditions, permissible delay in payments, deterioration, imperfect production process and inspection errors. We assume that the first-stage inspection...

  16. Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Hamoen, A.; Jong, de G.

    2002-01-01

    Subjective visual assessment of animals by classifiers is undertaken for several different traits in farm livestock, e.g., linear type traits, body condition score, or carcass conformation. One of the difficulties in assessment is the effect of an individual classifier. To ensure that classifiers

  17. Type II pp-wave matrix models from point-like gravitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Yolanda; RodrIguez-Gomez, Diego

    2006-01-01

    The BMN Matrix model can be regarded as a theory of coincident M-theory gravitons, which expand by Myers dielectric effect into the 2-sphere and 5-sphere giant graviton vacua of the theory. In this note we show that, in the same fashion, Matrix String theory in Type IIA pp-wave backgrounds arises from the action for coincident Type IIA gravitons. In Type IIB, we show that the action for coincident gravitons in the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background gives rise to a Matrix model which supports fuzzy 3-sphere giant graviton vacua with the right behavior in the classical limit. We discuss the relation between our Matrix model and the Tiny Graviton Matrix theory

  18. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulation. 11 5. References 1. Attenborough K. Sound propagation in the atmosphere. In: Rossing TD, editor. Springer handbook of...ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound ...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice

  19. Exact simulation of conditioned Wright-Fisher models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lascoux, Martin; Waxman, David

    2014-12-21

    Forward and backward simulations play an increasing role in population genetics, in particular when inferring the relative importance of evolutionary forces. It is therefore important to develop fast and accurate simulation methods for general population genetics models. Here we present an exact simulation method that generates trajectories of an allele׳s frequency in a finite population, as described by a general Wright-Fisher model. The method generates conditioned trajectories that start from a known frequency at a known time, and which achieve a specific final frequency at a known final time. The simulation method applies irrespective of the smallness of the probability of the transition between the initial and final states, because it is not based on rejection of trajectories. We illustrate the method on several different populations where a Wright-Fisher model (or related) applies, namely (i) a locus with 2 alleles, that is subject to selection and mutation; (ii) a locus with 3 alleles, that is subject to selection; (iii) a locus in a metapopulation consisting of two subpopulations of finite size, that are subject to selection and migration. The simulation method allows the generation of conditioned trajectories that can be used for the purposes of visualisation, the estimation of summary statistics, and the development/testing of new inferential methods. The simulated trajectories provide a very simple approach to estimating quantities that cannot easily be expressed in terms of the transition matrix, and can be applied to finite Markov chains other than the Wright-Fisher model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis on metallogenetic conditions of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Minhe Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Minzhong; Wang Huaiwu

    2002-01-01

    Little uranium prospecting has been performed so far in Minhe basin. However, at the marginal areas of the basin uranium mineralizations and lots of aero-radioactive anomalies have been found before, and the basin shows some prospecting potential. Based on the regional geological setting, by means of interpretation of high-precision aero-magnetic, aero-radiometric and Bouguer gravimetric data, and combined with hydrodynamic, lithofacies-palaeographic and paleo-climatic analyses, authors make a comprehensive evaluation of metallogenic conditions for sandstone-type uranium deposits, and propose metallogenically favourable areas in the basin

  1. Modeling and simulation of a solar powered two bed adsorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sumathy, K.

    2004-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter model is established to investigate the performance of a solar powered adsorption air conditioning system driven by flat-type solar collectors with three different configurations of glazes: (i) single glazed cover; (ii) double glazed cover and (iii) transparent insulation material (TIM) cover. The dynamic performance of a continuous adsorption cycle using a double adsorber along with heat recovery is measured in terms of the temperature histories, gross solar coefficient of performance and specific cooling power. Also, the influences of some important design and operational parameters on the performance of the system are studied. It is found that the chosen three types of collector configurations make no big difference on the performance, but the adsorbent mass and lumped capacitance have significant effects on the system performance as well as on the system size. Simulation results indicate that the effect of overall heat transfer coefficient is not predominant if the cycle duration is longer. Also, there exists an optimum time to initiate the heating of the adsorbent bed in a day's operation

  2. Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I and Type-II Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Models Coupled with Zero Mass Scalar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, R.; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-06-01

    The LRS Bianchi type-I and type-II string cosmological models are studied when the source for the energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous stiff fluid containing one dimensional strings together with zero-mass scalar field. We have obtained the solutions of the field equations assuming a functional relationship between metric coefficients when the metric is Bianchi type-I and constant deceleration parameter in case of Bianchi type-II metric. The physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed in each case. The effects of Viscosity on the physical and kinematical properties are also studied.

  3. Geochemical modelling of Na-SO4 type groundwater at Palmottu using a mass balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The mass balance chemical modelling technique has been applied to the groundwaters at the Palmottu analogue study site (in southwestern Finland) for radioactive waste disposal. The geochemical modelling concentrates on the evolution of Na-SO 4 type groundwater, which is spatially connected to the uranium mineralization. The results calculated along an assumed flow path are consistent with available field data and thermodynamic constraints. The results show that essential production of sulphides is unrealistic in the prevailing conditions. The increasing concentrations of Na, SO 4 and Cl along the evolution trend seem to have the same source and they could originate mainly from the leakage of fluid inclusions. Some mixing of relict sea water is also possible

  4. Modeling of luminance distribution in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meironke, Michał; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    At present, one of the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) installations. Such systems are usually consisted of four, five or six projection screens and in case of six screens arranged in form of a cube. Providing the user with a high level of immersion feeling in such systems is largely dependent of optical properties of the system. The modeling of physical phenomena plays nowadays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to simulate work of device without a need to make any changes in the physical constructions. In this paper distribution of luminance in CAVE-type virtual reality systems were modelled. Calculations were performed for the model of 6-walled CAVE-type installation, based on Immersive 3D Visualization Laboratory, situated at the Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics at the Gdańsk University of Technology. Tests have been carried out for two different scattering distribution of the screen material in order to check how these characteristicinfluence on the luminance distribution of the whole CAVE. The basis assumption and simplification of modeled CAVE-type installation and results were presented. The brief discussion about the results and usefulness of developed model were also carried out.

  5. Analysis of the possibility of applying a condition-based maintenance model on an example of tank weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor J. Epler

    2013-12-01

    the safety degree on the observed sections. Comparing the actual level of safety with the projected level, we can decide on the action of maintenance to be implemented in order to prevent failure. The data from Table 1 and the methodology for the selection of maintenance strategies (Figure 1, in the case of a weakened or damaged magnets for electric firing on the tank 7.62 mm machine gun indicate the possibilities of the condition-based maintenance model with the control of reliability levels. Conclusion The introduction of the condition-based maintenance model would minimize overall costs because the “reliability reserve” of components or representative tank weapons would be used to the maximum. On the other hand, the current maintenance system of tank weapons would experience some changes. The intensity of preventive maintenance actions could be reduced and particular maintenance levels might be omitted  as well as specific types of maintenance (easy maintenance, medium maintenance. 

  6. Development of an analytical Lagrangian model for passive scalar dispersion in low-wind speed meandering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, M. B.; Degrazia, G. A.; Mortarini, L.; Buligon, L.; Maldaner, S.; Carvalho, J. C.; Acevedo, O. C.; Martins, L. G. N.; Anfossi, D.; Buriol, C.; Roberti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Describing the effects of wind meandering motions on the dispersion of scalars is a challenging task, since this type of flow represents a physical state characterized by multiple scales. In this study, a Lagrangian stochastic diffusion model is derived to describe scalar transport during the horizontal wind meandering phenomenon that occurs within a planetary boundary layer. The model is derived from the linearization of the Langevin equation, and it employs a heuristic functional form that represents the autocorrelation function of meandering motion. The new solutions, which describe the longitudinal and lateral wind components, were used to simulate tracer experiments that were performed in low-wind speed conditions. The results of the comparison indicate that the new model can effectively reproduce the observed concentrations of the contaminants, and therefore, it can satisfactorily describe enhanced dispersion effects due to the presence of meandering.

  7. Pavement type and wear condition classification from tire cavity acoustic measurements with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Johannes; Foitzik, Michael-Jan; Frey, Michael; Gauterin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation. The classifier, an artificial neural network, correctly predicts three pavement types, whereas there are few bidirectional mis-classifications for two pavements, which have similar physical characteristics. The performance measures of the classifier to predict a new or worn out condition are over 94.6%. One could create a digital map with the output of the presented method. On the basis of these digital maps, road segments with a strong impact on tire road noise could be automatically identified. Furthermore, the method can estimate the road macro-texture, which has an impact on the tire road friction especially on wet conditions. Overall, this digital map would have a great benefit for civil engineering departments, road infrastructure operators, and for advanced driver assistance systems.

  8. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  9. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.; Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Trombettoni, A.

    2009-01-01

    The scheme dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow has been investigated in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoretic models discussing the applicability of various functional RG methods in detail. It was shown that scheme-independent determination of such physical parameters is possible as the critical frequency (temperature) at which Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition takes place in the sine-Gordon and the layered sine-Gordon models, and the critical ratio characterizing the Ising-type phase transition of the massive sine-Gordon model. For the latter case, the Maxwell construction represents a strong constraint on the RG flow, which results in a scheme-independent infrared value for the critical ratio. For the massive sine-Gordon model also the shrinking of the domain of the phase with spontaneously broken periodicity is shown to take place due to the quantum fluctuations.

  10. The phasor type model of SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.; Chen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) compensates the dynamic power for the power system through regulating the active and reactive currents between the SMES and the power system. To analyze the influence of SMES on the operation characteristic of the power system, a second-order equivalent model of SMES is adopted in the electromagnetic transient analysis of power system, but the model makes considerable simplifications for the dynamic characteristic of SMES. This paper proposed the phasor type model of SMES. The phasor model has the following characteristics: (1) the model does not considers the switching state of the power electronic converter, which can save the computing time and improve the simulation efficiency; (2) the model considers the performance of the superconducting magnet, the converter and the DC side capacitor, which can accurately reflect the dynamic response characteristics of SMES; and (3) the model includes detailed control system of SMES, which can implement different control methods to the SMES system and evaluate the control effect. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the dynamic characteristic of the SMES phasor model is evaluated. Then, the phasor model is introduced into the power system stability analysis to analyze the application of SMES in damping out the power system.

  11. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctuations. Using the 3-variate time series of glucose level, insulin dose, and meal intake of an individual type 1 diabetic subject, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate time-varying coefficients of the patient-specific state-space model. We evaluate our empirical modeling using (1) the FDA-approved UVa/Padova simulator with 30 virtual patients and (2) clinical data of 5 type 1 diabetic patients under natural living conditions. Compared to a forgetting-factor-based recursive ARX model of the same order, the EKF model predictions have higher fit, and significantly better temporal gain and J index and thus are superior in early detection of upward and downward trends in glucose. The EKF based state-space model developed in this article is particularly suitable for model-based state-feedback control designs since the Kalman filter estimates the state variable of the glucose dynamics based on the measured glucose time series. In addition, since the model parameters are estimated in real time, this model is also suitable for adaptive control. PMID:24876585

  12. Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2010-01-01

    A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components of the fluc......A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...... of the fluctuating velocity signal. Both conventional k = 0 and dk/dy = 0 wall boundary conditions are considered. Results indicate that either condition can provide accurate solutions, for the bulk of the flow, over both smooth and rough beds. It is argued that the zero-gradient condition is more consistent...... with the near wall physics, however, as it allows direct integration through a viscous sublayer near smooth walls, while avoiding a viscous sublayer near rough walls. This is in contrast to the conventional k = 0 wall boundary condition, which forces resolution of a viscous sublayer in all circumstances...

  13. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity ... In this paper, we have investigated a tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model filled with dust of perfect fluid in general relativity. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News ...

  14. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  15. Determining the effect of worker exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss in noisy industrial workroom using Cox proportional hazard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Fereidan, Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam; Tajik, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In noisy workrooms, exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration and use of hearing protection devices are contributory factors to hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss using the Cox model. Seventy workers, employed in a press workshop, were selected to study their hearing threshold using an audiometric test. Their noise exposure histories also were analyzed. The results of the Cox model showed that the job type, smoking and the use of protection devices were effective to induce hearing loss. The relative risk of hearing loss in smokers was 1.1 times of non-smokers The relative risk of hearing loss in workers with the intermittent use of protection devices was 3.3 times those who used these devices continuously. The Cox model could analyze the effect of exposure conditions on hearing loss and provides useful information for managers in order to improve hearing conservation programs.

  16. Electric machines modeling, condition monitoring, and fault diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Toliyat, Hamid A; Choi, Seungdeog; Meshgin-Kelk, Homayoun

    2012-01-01

    With countless electric motors being used in daily life, in everything from transportation and medical treatment to military operation and communication, unexpected failures can lead to the loss of valuable human life or a costly standstill in industry. To prevent this, it is important to precisely detect or continuously monitor the working condition of a motor. Electric Machines: Modeling, Condition Monitoring, and Fault Diagnosis reviews diagnosis technologies and provides an application guide for readers who want to research, develop, and implement a more effective fault diagnosis and condi

  17. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John

    2003-01-01

    a known contact condition at the contact interface, e.g. either as pure sliding or sticking. The present model uses Coulomb’s law of friction for the sliding condition and the material yield shear stress for the sticking condition to model the contact forces. The model includes heat generation...

  18. Numerical study of inflow conditions on a turbulent isothermal or heated plane jet; Etude numerique des conditions d'emission sur un ecoulement de type jet plan turbulent isotherme ou chauffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiri, H.; Habli, S.; El Golli, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, G.; Bournot, Ph. [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille (France)

    1999-11-01

    We intend to solve equations governing turbulent plane-vertical isotherm and non isotherm jets by taking into account inflow conditions at the exit of the nozzle. The analysis is focused on the influence of these conditions on this type of flow. Two cases are considered (uniform and parabolic velocity and temperature profiles). A finite difference scheme is developed to solve the governing equations. This numeric model allows us to show that the region of fully developed regime begins much nearer the nozzle for the turbulent case than for the laminar flow case. Indeed, the turbulence increases the mixing between the incoming gas from the nozzle and the ambient fluid, and consequently the size of the potential core zone decreases. The results are compared to other works introducing mathematical variables based on the energy conservation for the case of the mixed convection and the momentum conservation for the forced convection, which allows the validation of our results. (authors)

  19. Models of multiparticle production of the eikonal type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, M.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of eikonal type models for multiparticle production is given. Empirical rules concerning the nature of multiparticle reactions are outlined. A discussion involving kinematics and cross sections for inclusive processes is presented. The constraints of multiparticle unitarity are considered to be of great importance in eikonal models for multiproduction at high energy. (HFdV)

  20. Modeling long period swell in Southern California: Practical boundary conditions from buoy observations and global wave model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S. C.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Guza, R. T.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate, unbiased, high-resolution (in space and time) nearshore wave predictions are needed to drive models of beach erosion, coastal flooding, and alongshore transport of sediment, biota and pollutants. On highly sheltered shorelines, wave predictions are sensitive to the directions of onshore propagating waves, and nearshore model prediction error is often dominated by uncertainty in offshore boundary conditions. Offshore islands and shoals, and coastline curvature, create complex sheltering patterns over the 250km span of southern California (SC) shoreline. Here, regional wave model skill in SC was compared for different offshore boundary conditions created using offshore buoy observations and global wave model hindcasts (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Watch 3, WW3). Spectral ray-tracing methods were used to transform incident offshore swell (0.04-0.09Hz) energy at high directional resolution (1-deg). Model skill is assessed for predictions (wave height, direction, and alongshore radiation stress) at 16 nearshore buoy sites between 2000 and 2009. Model skill using buoy-derived boundary conditions is higher than with WW3-derived boundary conditions. Buoy-driven nearshore model results are similar with various assumptions about the true offshore directional distribution (maximum entropy, Bayesian direct, and 2nd derivative smoothness). Two methods combining offshore buoy observations with WW3 predictions in the offshore boundary condition did not improve nearshore skill above buoy-only methods. A case example at Oceanside harbor shows strong sensitivity of alongshore sediment transport predictions to different offshore boundary conditions. Despite this uncertainty in alongshore transport magnitude, alongshore gradients in transport (e.g. the location of model accretion and erosion zones) are determined by the local bathymetry, and are similar for all predictions.

  1. Modeling neuropeptide transport in various types of nerve terminals containing en passant boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I A; Kuznetsov, A V

    2015-03-01

    We developed a mathematical model for simulating neuropeptide transport inside dense core vesicles (DCVs) in axon terminals containing en passant boutons. The motivation for this research is a recent experimental study by Levitan and colleagues (Bulgari et al., 2014) which described DCV transport in nerve terminals of type Ib and type III as well as in nerve terminals of type Ib with the transcription factor DIMM. The goal of our modeling is validating the proposition put forward by Levitan and colleagues that the dramatic difference in DCV number in type Ib and type III terminals can be explained by the difference in DCV capture in type Ib and type III boutons rather than by differences in DCV anterograde transport and half-life of resident DCVs. The developed model provides a tool for studying the dynamics of DCV transport in various types of nerve terminals. The model is also an important step in gaining a better mechanistic understanding of transport processes in axons and identifying directions for the development of new models in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of antecedent wetness conditions for flood modelling in northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tramblay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Morocco are located most of the dams and reservoirs of the country, while this region is affected by severe rainfall events causing floods. To improve the management of the water regulation structures, there is a need to develop rainfall–runoff models to both maximize the storage capacity and reduce the risks caused by floods. In this study, a model is developed to reproduce the flood events for a 655 km2 catchment located upstream of the 6th largest dam in Morocco. Constrained by data availability, a standard event-based model combining a SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service Curve Number loss model and a Clark unit hydrograph was developed for hourly discharge simulation using 16 flood events that occurred between 1984 and 2008. The model was found satisfactory to reproduce the runoff and the temporal evolution of floods, even with limited rainfall data. Several antecedent wetness conditions estimators for the catchment were compared with the initial condition of the model. Theses estimators include an antecedent discharge index, an antecedent precipitation index and a continuous daily soil moisture accounting model (SMA, based on precipitation and evapotranspiration. The SMA model performed the best to estimate the initial conditions of the event-based hydrological model (R2 = 0.9. Its daily output has been compared with ASCAT and AMSR-E remote sensing data products, which were both able to reproduce with accuracy the daily simulated soil moisture dynamics at the catchment scale. This same approach could be implemented in other catchments of this region for operational purposes. The results of this study suggest that remote sensing data are potentially useful to estimate the soil moisture conditions in the case of ungauged catchments in Northern Africa.

  3. Exponential synchronization of delayed neutral-type neural networks with Lévy noise under non-Lipschitz condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuo; Kang, Yanmei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the exponential synchronization of stochastic neutral-type neural networks with time-varying delay and Lévy noise under non-Lipschitz condition is investigated for the first time. Using the general Itô's formula and the nonnegative semi-martingale convergence theorem, we derive general sufficient conditions of two kinds of exponential synchronization for the drive system and the response system with adaptive control. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed criteria.

  4. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  5. Role of L-Type Ca[superscript 2+] Channel Isoforms in the Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Perrine; Hetzenauer, Alfred; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Striessnig, Jorg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type Ca[superscript 2+] channel (LTCC) antagonists, such as nifedipine, have been reported to impair the extinction of conditioned fear without interfering with its acquisition. Identification of the LTCC isoforms mediating this DHP effect is an essential basis to reveal their role as potential drug targets for the…

  6. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  7. Modeling variations in the cedi/dollar exchange rate in Ghana: an autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techie Quaicoe, Michael; Twenefour, Frank B K; Baah, Emmanuel M; Nortey, Ezekiel N N

    2015-01-01

    This research article aimed at modeling the variations in the dollar/cedi exchange rate. It examines the applicability of a range of ARCH/GARCH specifications for modeling volatility of the series. The variants considered include the ARMA, GARCH, IGARCH, EGARCH and M-GARCH specifications. The results show that the series was non stationary which resulted from the presence of a unit root in it. The ARMA (1, 1) was found to be the most suitable model for the conditional mean. From the Box-Ljung test statistics x-squared of 1476.338 with p value 0.00217 for squared returns and 16.918 with 0.0153 p values for squared residuals, the null hypothesis of no ARCH effect was rejected at 5% significance level indicating the presence of an ARCH effect in the series. ARMA (1, 1) + GARCH (1, 1) which has all parameters significant was found to be the most suitable model for the conditional mean with conditional variance, thus showing adequacy in describing the conditional mean with variance of the return series at 5% significant level. A 24 months forecast for the mean actual exchange rates and mean returns from January, 2013 to December, 2014 made also showed that the fitted model is appropriate for the data and a depreciating trend of the cedi against the dollar for forecasted period respectively.

  8. Diffusion modeling of fission product release during depressurized core conduction cooldown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model for diffusion through the silicon carbide layer of TRISO particles is applied to the data for accident condition testing of fuel spheres for the High-Temperature Reactor program of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Categorization of sphere release of 137 Cs based on fast neutron fluence permits predictions of release with an accuracy comparable to that of the US/FRG accident condition fuel performance model. Calculations are also performed for 85 Kr, 90 Sr, and 110m Ag. Diffusion of cesium through SiC suggests that models of fuel failure should consider fuel performance during repeated accident condition thermal cycling. Microstructural considerations in models of fission product release are discussed. The neutron-induced segregation of silicon within the SiC structure is postulated as a mechanism for enhanced fission product release during accident conditions. As oxygen-enhanced SiC decomposition mechanism is also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Learning strategies during fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Russ E.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model of fear learning, in which subjects have an option of behavioral responses to impending social defeat. The model generates two types of learning: social avoidance and classical conditioning, dependent upon 1) escape from or 2) social subordination to an aggressor. We hypothesized that social stress provides the impetus as well as the necessary information to stimulate dichotomous goal-oriented learning. Specialized tanks were constructed to subject rainbow trout t...

  10. Modeling the Process of Event Sequence Data Generated for Working Condition Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems are widely used to monitor the working condition of equipment, generating a vast amount and variety of telemetry data in the process. The main task of surveillance focuses on analyzing these routinely collected telemetry data to help analyze the working condition in the equipment. However, with the rapid increase in the volume of telemetry data, it is a nontrivial task to analyze all the telemetry data to understand the working condition of the equipment without any a priori knowledge. In this paper, we proposed a probabilistic generative model called working condition model (WCM, which is capable of simulating the process of event sequence data generated and depicting the working condition of equipment at runtime. With the help of WCM, we are able to analyze how the event sequence data behave in different working modes and meanwhile to detect the working mode of an event sequence (working condition diagnosis. Furthermore, we have applied WCM to illustrative applications like automated detection of an anomalous event sequence for the runtime of equipment. Our experimental results on the real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  11. Event-based computer simulation model of aspect-type experiments strictly satisfying Einstein's locality conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, Hans; De Raedt, Koen; Michielsen, Kristel; Keimpema, Koenraad; Miyashita, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohtn experiments with photons, we construct an event-based simulation model in which every essential element in the ideal experiment has a counterpart. The model satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and does not rely on concepts of quantum and

  12. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2012-02-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components.

  13. Partitioning uncertainty in streamflow projections under nonstationary model conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2018-02-01

    Assessing the impacts of Land Use (LU) and climate change on future streamflow projections is necessary for efficient management of water resources. However, model projections are burdened with significant uncertainty arising from various sources. Most of the previous studies have considered climate models and scenarios as major sources of uncertainty, but uncertainties introduced by land use change and hydrologic model assumptions are rarely investigated. In this paper an attempt is made to segregate the contribution from (i) general circulation models (GCMs), (ii) emission scenarios, (iii) land use scenarios, (iv) stationarity assumption of the hydrologic model, and (v) internal variability of the processes, to overall uncertainty in streamflow projections using analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach. Generally, most of the impact assessment studies are carried out with unchanging hydrologic model parameters in future. It is, however, necessary to address the nonstationarity in model parameters with changing land use and climate. In this paper, a regression based methodology is presented to obtain the hydrologic model parameters with changing land use and climate scenarios in future. The Upper Ganga Basin (UGB) in India is used as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. The semi-distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is set-up over the basin, under nonstationary conditions. Results indicate that model parameters vary with time, thereby invalidating the often-used assumption of model stationarity. The streamflow in UGB under the nonstationary model condition is found to reduce in future. The flows are also found to be sensitive to changes in land use. Segregation results suggest that model stationarity assumption and GCMs along with their interactions with emission scenarios, act as dominant sources of uncertainty. This paper provides a generalized framework for hydrologists to examine stationarity assumption of models before considering them

  14. Development of ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for full size CANDU primary heat transport pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.; Huynh, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for CANDU (Canadian Deuterium) reactor primary heat transport pumps is described in the present paper. The model was developed based on Ontario Hydro Technologies' full scale Darlington pump first quadrant test data. The functional form of the ANC model which is widely used was chosen to facilitate the implementation of the model into existing computer codes. The work is part of a bigger test program with the aims: (1) to produce high quality pump performance data under off-normal operating conditions using both full-size and model scale pumps; (2) to advance our basic understanding of the dominant mechanisms affecting pump performance based on more detailed local measurements; and (3) to develop a 'best-estimate' or improved pump model for use in reactor licensing and safety analyses. (author)

  15. Non-axisymmetric vibrations of a transversely isotropic piezoelectric cylinder with different types of electric boundary conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available with different types of electric boundary conditions Michael Y. Shatalov*, Arthur G. Every**, Alfred S. Yenwong –Fai*** *Sensor Science and Technology (SST) of CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, CSIR, South Africa...

  16. Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model with Veltman Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Using the renormalisation group framework we classify different extensions of the standard model according to their degree of naturality. A new relevant class of perturbative models involving elementary scalars is the one in which the theory simultaneously satisfies the Veltman conditions...... and is conformal at the classical level. We term these extensions perturbative natural conformal (PNC) theories. We show that PNC models are very constrained and thus highly predictive. Among the several PNC examples that we exhibit, we discover a remarkably simple PNC extension of the standard model in which...

  17. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...

  18. On the Local Type I Conditions for the 3D Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dongho; Wolf, Jörg

    2018-05-01

    We prove local non blow-up theorems for the 3D incompressible Euler equations under local Type I conditions. More specifically, for a classical solution {v\\in L^∞ (-1,0; L^2 ( B(x_0,r)))\\cap L^∞_{loc} (-1,0; W^{1, ∞} (B(x_0, r)))} of the 3D Euler equations, where {B(x_0,r)} is the ball with radius r and the center at x 0, if the limiting values of certain scale invariant quantities for a solution v(·, t) as {t\\to 0} are small enough, then { \

  19. Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Inference: Hierarchical Models for Nearby SN Ia in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, R. P.; Narayan, G.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Friedman, A. S.; Hicken, M.

    2010-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova light curves spanning optical through near infrared data simultaneously. The near infrared light curves are found to be excellent standard candles (sigma(MH) = 0.11 +/- 0.03 mag) that are less vulnerable to systematic error from dust extinction, a major confounding factor for cosmological studies. A hierarchical statistical framework incorporates coherently multiple sources of randomness and uncertainty, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances, for probabilistic inference with Type Ia SN light curves. Inferences are drawn from the full probability density over individual supernovae and the SN Ia and dust populations, conditioned on a dataset of SN Ia light curves and redshifts. To compute probabilistic inferences with hierarchical models, I have developed BayeSN, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm based on Gibbs sampling. This code explores and samples the global probability density of parameters describing individual supernovae and the population. I have applied this hierarchical model to optical and near infrared data of over 100 nearby Type Ia SN from PAIRITEL, the CfA3 sample, and the literature. Using this statistical model, I find that SN with optical and NIR data have a smaller residual scatter in the Hubble diagram than SN with only optical data. The continued study of Type Ia SN in the near infrared will be important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  20. Modelling cladding response to changing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulkki, Ville; Ikonen, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland ltd (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    The cladding of the nuclear fuel is subjected to varying conditions during fuel reactor life. Load drops and reversals can be modelled by taking cladding viscoelastic behaviour into account. Viscoelastic contribution to the deformation of metals is usually considered small enough to be ignored, and in many applications it merely contributes to the primary part of the creep curve. With nuclear fuel cladding the high temperature and irradiation as well as the need to analyse the variable load all emphasise the need to also inspect the viscoelasticity of the cladding.

  1. Oblique radiation lateral open boundary conditions for a regional climate atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabos Narvaez, William; De Frutos Redondo, Jose Antonio; Perez Sanz, Juan Ignacio; Sein, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The prescription of lateral boundary conditions in regional atmospheric models represent a very important issue for limited area models. The ill-posed nature of the open boundary conditions makes it necessary to devise schemes in order to filter spurious wave reflections at boundaries, being desirable to have one boundary condition per variable. On the other side, due to the essentially hyperbolic nature of the equations solved in state of the art atmospheric models, external data is required only for inward boundary fluxes. These circumstances make radiation lateral boundary conditions a good choice for the filtering of spurious wave reflections. Here we apply the adaptive oblique radiation modification proposed by Mikoyada and Roseti to each of the prognostic variables of the REMO regional atmospheric model and compare it to the more common normal radiation condition used in REMO. In the proposed scheme, special attention is paid to the estimation of the radiation phase speed, essential to detecting the direction of boundary fluxes. One of the differences with the classical scheme is that in case of outward propagation, the adaptive nudging imposed in the boundaries allows to minimize under and over specifications problems, adequately incorporating the external information.

  2. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixed problem with integral boundary condition for a high order mixed type partial differential equation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Denche; A. L. Marhoune

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  4. The content of mercury in various types of cereals that were grown in the model conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates throught the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Mercury affects CNS and causes its disorders. The high doses of mercury causes a lot of different changes of personality as well as increased agitation, memory lossorinsomnia. It can also affect other organ systems such as the kidney. The exposure level is reflected in the concentration of mercury in blood and urine. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added atvarious doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly copperand mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of mercury by seed follows wheat ˂ barley ˂ oat. Even though that the oat is characterized by the highest accumulation of mercuryin the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level sspecified by The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by mercury, that the high content of mercury in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  5. Variational analysis of anisotropic Schrödinger equations without Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz-type condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzi, G. A.; Mirzapour, M.; Rădulescu, Vicenţiu D.

    2018-02-01

    This article is concerned with the qualitative analysis of weak solutions to nonlinear stationary Schrödinger-type equations of the form - \\sum _{i=1}^Npartial _{x_i} a_i(x,partial _{x_i}u)+b(x)|u|^{P^+_+-2}u =λ f(x,u) &{}\\quad {in } Ω , u=0 &{}\\quad {on } partial Ω , without the Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz growth condition. Our arguments rely on the existence of a Cerami sequence by using a variant of the mountain-pass theorem due to Schechter.

  6. Modelling growth of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2010-06-15

    region of growth, showing that the assumption that mu is adopted instantaneously to the current temperature is concrete. In contrast, for scenarios with temperatures close or outside the growth region the models overestimated growth, indicating that fungi were stressed by this type of temperature shifts. The present study provides useful data for understanding the behavior of P. expansum and A. niger at dynamic temperature conditions while the developed models can be used as effective tools in assessing the risk of fungal spoilage and predicting shelf life of foods. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Feasibility study on large pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted from 1981 FY to 1983 FY, in order to evaluate the feasibility of a large pool-type LMFBR under the Japanese seismic design condition and safety design condition, etc. This study was aimed to establish an original reactor structure concept which meets those design conditions especially required in Japan. In the first year, preceding design concepts had been reviewed and several concepts were originated to be suitable to Japan. For typical two of them being selected by preliminary analysis, test programs were planned. In the second year, more than twenty tests with basic models had been conducted under severe conditions, concurrently analytical approaches were promoted. In the last year, larger model tests were conducted and analytical methods have been verified concerning hydrodynamic effects on structure vibration, thermo-hydraulic behaviours in reactor plena and so on. Finally the reactor structure concepts for a large pool-type LMFBR have been acknowledged to be feasible in Japan. (author)

  8. Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.

  9. Type-specific human papillomavirus biological features: validated model-based estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Baussano

    Full Text Available Infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV16 and 18 types, which are responsible of about 75% of cervical cancer worldwide, is expected to have a major global impact on cervical cancer occurrence. Valid estimates of the parameters that regulate the natural history of hrHPV infections are crucial to draw reliable projections of the impact of vaccination. We devised a mathematical model to estimate the probability of infection transmission, the rate of clearance, and the patterns of immune response following the clearance of infection of 13 hrHPV types. To test the validity of our estimates, we fitted the same transmission model to two large independent datasets from Italy and Sweden and assessed finding consistency. The two populations, both unvaccinated, differed substantially by sexual behaviour, age distribution, and study setting (screening for cervical cancer or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Estimated transmission probability of hrHPV types (80% for HPV16, 73%-82% for HPV18, and above 50% for most other types; clearance rates decreasing as a function of time since infection; and partial protection against re-infection with the same hrHPV type (approximately 20% for HPV16 and 50% for the other types were similar in the two countries. The model could accurately predict the HPV16 prevalence observed in Italy among women who were not infected three years before. In conclusion, our models inform on biological parameters that cannot at the moment be measured directly from any empirical data but are essential to forecast the impact of HPV vaccination programmes.

  10. Slarti: A boundary condition editor for a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, S. A.; Jacob, R. L.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2006-12-01

    One of the largest barriers to making climate models more flexible is the difficulty in creating new boundary conditions, especially for "deep time" paleoclimate cases where continents are in different positions. Climate models consist of several mutually-interacting component models and the boundary conditions must be consistent between them. We have developed a program called Slarti which uses a Graphical User Interface and a set of consistency rules to aid researchers in creating new, consistent, boundary condition files for the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM). Users can start from existing mask, topography, or bathymetry data or can build a "world" entirely from scratch (e.g. a single island continent). Once a case has been started, users can modify mask, vegetation, bathymetry, topography, and river flow fields by drawing new data through a "paint" interface. Users activate a synchronization button which goes through the fields to eliminate inconsistencies. When the changes are complete and save is selected, Slarti creates all the necessary files for an initial run of FOAM. The data is edited at the highest resolution (the ocean-land surface in FOAM) and then interpolated to the atmosphere resolution. Slarti was implemented in Java to maintain portability across platforms. We also relied heavily on Java Swing components to create the interface. This allowed us to create an object-oriented interface that could be used on many different systems. Since Slarti allows users to visualize their changes, they are able to see areas that may cause problems when the model is ran. Some examples would be lakes from the river flow field and narrow trenches within the bathymetry. Through different checks and options available through its interface, Slarti makes the process of creating new boundary conditions for FOAM easier and faster while reducing the chance for user errors.

  11. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  12. A hybrid prognostic model for multistep ahead prediction of machine condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulias, D.; Loutas, T. H.; Kostopoulos, V.

    2012-05-01

    Prognostics are the future trend in condition based maintenance. In the current framework a data driven prognostic model is developed. The typical procedure of developing such a model comprises a) the selection of features which correlate well with the gradual degradation of the machine and b) the training of a mathematical tool. In this work the data are taken from a laboratory scale single stage gearbox under multi-sensor monitoring. Tests monitoring the condition of the gear pair from healthy state until total brake down following several days of continuous operation were conducted. After basic pre-processing of the derived data, an indicator that correlated well with the gearbox condition was obtained. Consecutively the time series is split in few distinguishable time regions via an intelligent data clustering scheme. Each operating region is modelled with a feed-forward artificial neural network (FFANN) scheme. The performance of the proposed model is tested by applying the system to predict the machine degradation level on unseen data. The results show the plausibility and effectiveness of the model in following the trend of the timeseries even in the case that a sudden change occurs. Moreover the model shows ability to generalise for application in similar mechanical assets.

  13. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w_1(t),w_2(t),w_3(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a_0,a_2,a_4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  14. Type I Shell Galaxies as a Test of Gravity Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakili, Hajar; Rahvar, Sohrab [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: vakili@physics.sharif.edu [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-10-10

    Shell galaxies are understood to form through the collision of a dwarf galaxy with an elliptical galaxy. Shell structures and kinematics have been noted to be independent tools to measure the gravitational potential of the shell galaxies. We compare theoretically the formation of shells in Type I shell galaxies in different gravity theories in this work because this is so far missing in the literature. We include Newtonian plus dark halo gravity, and two non-Newtonian gravity models, MOG and MOND, in identical initial systems. We investigate the effect of dynamical friction, which by slowing down the dwarf galaxy in the dark halo models limits the range of shell radii to low values. Under the same initial conditions, shells appear on a shorter timescale and over a smaller range of distances in the presence of dark matter than in the corresponding non-Newtonian gravity models. If galaxies are embedded in a dark matter halo, then the merging time may be too rapid to allow multi-generation shell formation as required by observed systems because of the large dynamical friction effect. Starting from the same initial state, the observation of small bright shells in the dark halo model should be accompanied by large faint ones, while for the case of MOG, the next shell generation patterns iterate with a specific time delay. The first shell generation pattern shows a degeneracy with the age of the shells and in different theories, but the relative distance of the shells and the shell expansion velocity can break this degeneracy.

  15. Statistical models based on conditional probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.S.

    1991-10-01

    We present a formulation of statistical mechanics models based on conditional probability distribution rather than a Hamiltonian. We show that it is possible to realize critical phenomena through this procedure. Closely linked with this formulation is a Monte Carlo algorithm, in which a configuration generated is guaranteed to be statistically independent from any other configuration for all values of the parameters, in particular near the critical point. (orig.)

  16. Modelling of air-conditioned and heated spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehl, U

    1987-01-01

    A space represents a complex system involving numerous components, manipulated variables and disturbances which need to be described if dynamic behaviour of space air is to be determined. A justifiable amount of simulation input is determined by the application of adjusted modelling of the individual components. The determination of natural air exchange in heated spaces and of space-air flow in air-conditioned space are a primary source of uncertainties. (orig.).

  17. Effect of turbulent model closure and type of inlet boundary condition on a Large Eddy Simulation of a non-reacting jet with co-flow stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; López, J. Javier; Martí-Aldaraví, Pedro; Giraldo, Jhoan S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LES in a non-reacting jet with co-flow is performed with OpenFoam. • Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are compared. • A turbulent pipe is used to generate and map coherent inlet turbulence structure. • Fluctuating inlet boundary condition requires much less computational cost. - Abstract: In this paper, the behavior and turbulence structure of a non-reacting jet with a co-flow stream is described by means of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) carried out with the computational tool OpenFoam. In order to study the influence of the sub-grid scale (SGS) model on the main flow statistics, Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are used to model the smallest scales involved in the turbulence of the jet. The impact of cell size and turbulent inlet boundary condition in resulting velocity profiles is analyzed as well. Four different tasks have been performed to accomplish these objectives. Firstly, the simulation of a turbulent pipe, which is necessary to generate and map coherent turbulence structure into the inlet of the non-reacting jet domain. Secondly, a structured mesh based on hexahedrons has been built for the jet and its co-flow. The third task consists on performing four different simulations. In those, mapping statistics from the turbulent pipe is compared with the use of fluctuating inlet boundary condition available in OpenFoam; OEE and SMAG approaches are contrasted; and the effect of changing cell size is investigated. Finally, as forth task, the obtained results are compared with experimental data. As main conclusions of this comparison, it has been proved that the fluctuating boundary condition requires much less computational cost, but some inaccuracies were found close to the nozzle. Also, both SGS models are capable to simulate this kind of jets with a co-flow stream with exactitude.

  18. An Improved Matlab-Simulink Model of PV Module considering Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV model is proposed on Matlab/Simulink environment considering the real atmospheric conditions and this PV model is tested with different PV panels technologies (monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and thin film. The meteorological data of Istanbul—the location of the study—such as irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed are taken into account in the proposed model for each technology. Eventually, the power outputs of the PV module under real atmospheric conditions are measured for resistive loading and these powers are compared with the results of proposed PV model. As a result of the comparison, it is shown that the proposed model is more compatible for monocrystal silicon and thin-film modules; however, it does not show a good correlation with polycrystalline silicon PV module.

  19. MODELS OF AN-TYPE INNOVATIVE ENDOGENOUS GROWTH AND THEIR SUBSTANTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar A. Akaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of some classical models of economic growth of exogenous and endogenous type, based on the calculation of the motion of physical capital. It is shown that the simplest AN-type model, based on the calculation of population dynamics and endogenous technological progress, is more adequate for the description of the current economic development and provides a more accurate long-term forecast of economic dynamics.

  20. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models

  1. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna

    2018-05-23

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  2. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna; Ventrucci, Massimo; Rue, Haavard

    2018-01-01

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  3. Evaluating Outdoor Water Use Demand under Changing Climatic and Demographic Conditions: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.; Soh, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor water-use for landscape and irrigation constitutes a significant end-use in total residential water demand. In periods of water shortages, utilities may reduce garden demands by implementing irrigation system audits, rebate programs, local ordinances, and voluntary or mandatory water-use restrictions. Because utilities do not typically record outdoor and indoor water-uses separately, the effects of policies for reducing garden demands cannot be readily calculated. The volume of water required to meet garden demands depends on the housing density, lawn size, type of vegetation, climatic conditions, efficiency of garden irrigation systems, and consumer water-use behaviors. Many existing outdoor demand estimation methods are deterministic and do not include consumer responses to conservation campaigns. In addition, mandatory restrictions may have a substantial impact on reducing outdoor demands, but the effectiveness of mandatory restrictions depends on the timing and the frequency of restrictions, in addition to the distribution of housing density and consumer types within a community. This research investigates a garden end-use model by coupling an agent-based modeling approach and a mechanistic-stochastic water demand model to create a methodology for estimating garden demand and evaluating demand reduction policies. The garden demand model is developed for two water utilities, using a diverse data sets, including residential customer billing records, outdoor conservation programs, frequency and type of mandatory water-use restrictions, lot size distribution, population growth, and climatic data. A set of garden irrigation parameter values, which are based on the efficiency of irrigation systems and irrigation habits of consumers, are determined for a set of conservation ordinances and restrictions. The model parameters are then validated using customer water usage data from the participating water utilities. A sensitivity analysis is conducted for garden

  4. Satellite image simulations for model-supervised, dynamic retrieval of crop type and land use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Klug, P.; Ruf, T.; Migdall, S.; Schlenz, F.; Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2015-04-01

    To support food security, information products about the actual cropping area per crop type, the current status of agricultural production and estimated yields, as well as the sustainability of the agricultural management are necessary. Based on this information, well-targeted land management decisions can be made. Remote sensing is in a unique position to contribute to this task as it is globally available and provides a plethora of information about current crop status. M4Land is a comprehensive system in which a crop growth model (PROMET) and a reflectance model (SLC) are coupled in order to provide these information products by analyzing multi-temporal satellite images. SLC uses modelled surface state parameters from PROMET, such as leaf area index or phenology of different crops to simulate spatially distributed surface reflectance spectra. This is the basis for generating artificial satellite images considering sensor specific configurations (spectral bands, solar and observation geometries). Ensembles of model runs are used to represent different crop types, fertilization status, soil colour and soil moisture. By multi-temporal comparisons of simulated and real satellite images, the land cover/crop type can be classified in a dynamically, model-supervised way and without in-situ training data. The method is demonstrated in an agricultural test-site in Bavaria. Its transferability is studied by analysing PROMET model results for the rest of Germany. Especially the simulated phenological development can be verified on this scale in order to understand whether PROMET is able to adequately simulate spatial, as well as temporal (intra- and inter-season) crop growth conditions, a prerequisite for the model-supervised approach. This sophisticated new technology allows monitoring of management decisions on the field-level using high resolution optical data (presently RapidEye and Landsat). The M4Land analysis system is designed to integrate multi-mission data and is

  5. Water loss in table grapes: model development and validation under dynamic storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsem PEREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Water loss is a critical problem affecting the quality of table grapes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH are essential in this process. Although mathematical modelling can be applied to measure constant temperature and RH impacts, it is proved that variations in storage conditions are normally encountered in the cold chain. This study proposed a methodology to develop a weight loss model for table grapes and validate its predictions in non-constant conditions of a domestic refrigerator. Grapes were maintained under controlled conditions and the weight loss was measured to calibrate the model. The model described the water loss process adequately and the validation tests confirmed its predictive ability. Delayed cooling tests showed that estimated transpiration rates in subsequent continuous temperature treatment was not significantly influenced by prior exposure conditions, suggesting that this model may be useful to estimate the weight loss consequences of interruptions in the cold chain.

  6. Compositional models and conditional independence in evidence theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Radim; Vejnarová, Jiřina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-334 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Evidence theory * Conditional independence * multidimensional models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-0370515.pdf

  7. Illusory inferences from a disjunction of conditionals: a new mental models account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, P; Lecas, J F

    2000-08-14

    (Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Savary, F. (1999, Illusory inferences: a novel class of erroneous deductions. Cognition, 71, 191-229.) have recently presented a mental models account, based on the so-called principle of truth, for the occurrence of inferences that are compelling but invalid. This article presents an alternative account of the illusory inferences resulting from a disjunction of conditionals. In accordance with our modified theory of mental models of the conditional, we show that the way individuals represent conditionals leads them to misinterpret the locus of the disjunction and prevents them from drawing conclusions from a false conditional, thus accounting for the compelling character of the illusory inference.

  8. A simple model for cell type recognition using 2D-correlation analysis of FTIR images from breast cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed H.; Rakib, Fazle; Al-Saad, Khalid; Al-Saady, Rafif; Lyng, Fiona M.; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2018-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer after lung cancer. So far, in clinical practice, most cancer parameters originating from histopathology rely on the visualization by a pathologist of microscopic structures observed in stained tissue sections, including immunohistochemistry markers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a biochemical fingerprint of a biopsy sample and, together with advanced data analysis techniques, can accurately classify cell types. Yet, one of the challenges when dealing with FTIR imaging is the slow recording of the data. One cm2 tissue section requires several hours of image recording. We show in the present paper that 2D covariance analysis singles out only a few wavenumbers where both variance and covariance are large. Simple models could be built using 4 wavenumbers to identify the 4 main cell types present in breast cancer tissue sections. Decision trees provide particularly simple models to reach discrimination between the 4 cell types. The robustness of these simple decision-tree models were challenged with FTIR spectral data obtained using different recording conditions. One test set was recorded by transflection on tissue sections in the presence of paraffin while the training set was obtained on dewaxed tissue sections by transmission. Furthermore, the test set was collected with a different brand of FTIR microscope and a different pixel size. Despite the different recording conditions, separating extracellular matrix (ECM) from carcinoma spectra was 100% successful, underlying the robustness of this univariate model and the utility of covariance analysis for revealing efficient wavenumbers. We suggest that 2D covariance maps using the full spectral range could be most useful to select the interesting wavenumbers and achieve very fast data acquisition on quantum cascade laser infrared imaging microscopes.

  9. Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the complete determination of these quantities, we assume two extra conditions. First we assume that the space-time is conformally flat which leads to. 1008 .... Discussions. The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents.

  10. Condition Parameter Modeling for Anomaly Detection in Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system, used widely in wind farms to obtain operational and condition information about wind turbines (WTs, is of important significance for anomaly detection in wind turbines. The paper presents a novel model for wind turbine anomaly detection mainly based on SCADA data and a back-propagation neural network (BPNN for automatic selection of the condition parameters. The SCADA data sets are determined through analysis of the cumulative probability distribution of wind speed and the relationship between output power and wind speed. The automatic BPNN-based parameter selection is for reduction of redundant parameters for anomaly detection in wind turbines. Through investigation of cases of WT faults, the validity of the automatic parameter selection-based model for WT anomaly detection is verified.

  11. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions of people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Cleal, B; Hagelund, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges workforce capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work-related consequences, such as early retirement. Laws of most high-income countries require workplaces to provide accommodations to enable people with chronic...... disabilities to manage their condition at work. A barrier to successful implementation of such accommodations can be lack of co-workers' willingness to support people with T2D. This study aimed to examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of people with and without T2D for five workplace initiatives that help...... individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work. METHODS: Three samples with employed Danish participants were drawn from existing online panels: a general population sample (n = 600), a T2D sample (n = 693), and a matched sample of people without diabetes (n = 539). Participants completed...

  12. A Necessary Condition for Coexistence of Autocatalytic Replicators in a Prebiotic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Andres F.; Grover, Martha A.

    2013-01-01

    A necessary, but not sufficient, mathematical condition for the coexistence of short replicating species is presented here. The mathematical condition is obtained for a prebiotic environment, simulated as a fed-batch reactor, which combines monomer recycling, variable reaction order and a fixed monomer inlet flow with two replicator types and two monomer types. An extensive exploration of the parameter space in the model validates the robustness and efficiency of the mathematical condition, with nearly 1.7% of parameter sets meeting the condition and half of those exhibiting sustained coexistence. The results show that it is possible to generate a condition of coexistence, where two replicators sustain a linear growth simultaneously for a wide variety of chemistries, under an appropriate environment. The presence of multiple monomer types is critical to sustaining the coexistence of multiple replicator types. PMID:25369813

  13. Discounted cost model for condition-based maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weide, J.A.M. van der; Pandey, M.D.; Noortwijk, J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents methods to evaluate the reliability and optimize the maintenance of engineering systems that are damaged by shocks or transients arriving randomly in time and overall degradation is modeled as a cumulative stochastic point process. The paper presents a conceptually clear and comprehensive derivation of formulas for computing the discounted cost associated with a maintenance policy combining both condition-based and age-based criteria for preventive maintenance. The proposed discounted cost model provides a more realistic basis for optimizing the maintenance policies than those based on the asymptotic, non-discounted cost rate criterion.

  14. Impact of Diabetes Education Based on Type 1 Diabetes management model

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakçı, Ayşe Ferda

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes management is considered to be adversely affected when adolescent-specific education methods are not used. In this study, Type 1 Diabetes Management Model which ensures standardisation of the diabetes education and is based on the health promotion model and formed by applying health promotion model (HPM) according to the mastery-learning theory was used. The study was performed to determine effectiveness of diabetes education based on “Type 1 Diabetes Management Model” on adolesc...

  15. Lizimetric investigation of vertical transportation of Cs-137 in the different soil types for the different raining conditions: a new solution proposal and application for the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varinlioglu, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this Ph.D. thesis is to trace the vertical transportation of water in soil by using the Cs-137 as radiotracer. We have studied 3 different soil types clay, loamy and sandy and 3 different raining conditions. High, normal and low raining regimes that are typical especially for the Black Sea Region were selected for experimental parameters. These experiments have been realized in lizimetric conditions. As a result, the type of applications for the combinations of soil type and raining regime contain experimental originality. Humidity observation technique was also used. The result of the experiments show that in every raining regime the activities of different types of soils can be classified as sand, loam and clay in descending activity order. When the results of the experiments were evaluated according to the raining regime it can be seen that the relative activity for every type of soil is always towards higher to lower raining conditions. These results are what we already have expected and are related to the water permeability of the soil. The surface soil activities have also been measured. The surface soil activities were arranged as clayey, loamy and sandy in descending activity order for every laining regime. The surface soil activities were found to be higher in the soil types in which water could not penetrate deeper. When the relative activity values were compared with the results of the surface soil activities it was recognized that the order of soils changes upside down. This is an evident of harmony for the experimental results. For the evaluation of surface activity it can be seen that the relative activity values for every kind of soil type is always in the same order from the highest to the lowest raining regimes. As a result, it can be said that the all results have significant and have harmonies with each other. Experimental results were comparatively examined by using the s emi infinite convection dispersion model . All the conclusions

  16. Hopf and Bautin Bifurcation in a Tritrophic Food Chain Model with Holling Functional Response Types III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Víctor; Castillo-Santos, Francisco Eduardo; Dela-Rosa, Miguel Angel; Loreto-Hernández, Iván

    In this paper, we analyze the Hopf and Bautin bifurcation of a given system of differential equations, corresponding to a tritrophic food chain model with Holling functional response types III and IV for the predator and superpredator, respectively. We distinguish two cases, when the prey has linear or logistic growth. In both cases we guarantee the existence of a limit cycle bifurcating from an equilibrium point in the positive octant of ℝ3. In order to do so, for the Hopf bifurcation we compute explicitly the first Lyapunov coefficient, the transversality Hopf condition, and for the Bautin bifurcation we also compute the second Lyapunov coefficient and verify the regularity conditions.

  17. PM10 emissions and PAHs: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tzimou-Tsitouridou, Roxani D; Nikolaki, Spyridoula; Zikopoulos, Dimitrios; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to conditions and fuel types on particle emissions (PM10) and their PAHs content. Special concern was on sampling, quantification and characterization of PM using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. For this purpose different lab-scale burning conditions, two pellets stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were tested by using eight fuel types of biomass. An analytical method is described for the quantitative determination of 16 PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction and subsequent measurement by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Average PM10 emissions ranged from about 65 to 170 mg/m(3) at lab-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas, 85-220 mg/m(3) at 20% O2, 47-83 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 10 kW, 34-69 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 8.5 kW and 106-194 mg/m(3) at the open fireplace. The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m(3). Pellets originated from olive trees and from nonmixture trees were found to emit the lowest particulate matter in relation to the others, so they are considered healthiest and suitable for domestic heating reasons. In general, the results show that biomass open burning is an important PM10 and PAHs emission source.

  18. A comprehensive approach to identify dominant controls of the behavior of a land surface-hydrology model across various hydroclimatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, Amin; Elshamy, Mohamed; Yassin, Fuad; Razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard; Pietroniro, Al

    2017-04-01

    Complex physically-based environmental models are being increasingly used as the primary tool for watershed planning and management due to advances in computation power and data acquisition. Model sensitivity analysis plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of these complex models and improving their performance. Due to the non-linearity and interactions within these complex models, Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) techniques should be adopted to provide a comprehensive understanding of model behavior and identify its dominant controls. In this study we adopt a multi-basin multi-criteria GSA approach to systematically assess the behavior of the Modélisation Environmentale-Surface et Hydrologie (MESH) across various hydroclimatic conditions in Canada including areas in the Great Lakes Basin, Mackenzie River Basin, and South Saskatchewan River Basin. MESH is a semi-distributed physically-based coupled land surface-hydrology modelling system developed by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for various water resources management purposes in Canada. We use a novel method, called Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces (VARS), to perform sensitivity analysis. VARS is a variogram-based GSA technique that can efficiently provide a spectrum of sensitivity information across a range of scales within the parameter space. We use multiple metrics to identify dominant controls of model response (e.g. streamflow) to model parameters under various conditions such as high flows, low flows, and flow volume. We also investigate the influence of initial conditions on model behavior as part of this study. Our preliminary results suggest that this type of GSA can significantly help with estimating model parameters, decreasing calibration computational burden, and reducing prediction uncertainty.

  19. Study of the Riemann problem and construction of multidimensional Godunov-type schemes for two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.

    1990-04-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the Riemann problem and the construction of Godunov type numerical schemes for one or two dimensional two-phase flow models. In the first part, we study the Riemann problem for the well-known Drift-Flux, model which has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulics transients. Then we use this study to construct approximate Riemann solvers and we describe the corresponding Godunov type schemes for simplified equation of state. For computation of complex two-phase flows, a weak formulation of Roe's approximate Riemann solver, which gives a method to construct a Roe-averaged jacobian matrix with a general equation of state, is proposed. For two-dimensional flows, the developed methods are based upon an approximate solver for a two-dimensional Riemann problem, according to Harten-Lax-Van Leer principles. The numerical results for standard test problems show the good behaviour of these numerical schemes for a wide range of flow conditions [fr

  20. Determination of a source term for a time fractional diffusion equation with an integral type over-determining condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timurkhan S. Aleroev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear heat equation involving a fractional derivative in time, with a nonlocal boundary condition. We determine a source term independent of the space variable, and the temperature distribution for a problem with an over-determining condition of integral type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution, and its continuous dependence on the data.

  1. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure

    1988-01-01

    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  2. On the role of model depth and hydraulic properties for groundwater flow modelling during glacial climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Rhen, Ingvar

    2011-03-01

    A common assumption in regional groundwater flow simulations of periods with glacial climate conditions is that the salinity at the bottom boundary of the model domain is stable (constant over time). This assumption is partly based on the general fact that water density increases with increasing salinity, but also supported by measurements, e.g. the mobile (fracture water) and immobile (porewater) salinity typically increase with depth, whereas the conductive fracture frequency and fracture transmissivity often decrease with depth. Plausibly, the depth to stable hydrogeological conditions varies between sites, and the question studied here is whether hydrogeological disturbances could occur at 2-4 km depth during glacial climate conditions. With regard to the results of SDM-Site and SR-Site, the hydrogeological conditions at repository depth indicate less groundwater flow during glacial climate conditions at Forsmark than at Laxemar. For this reason, this study uses the Laxemar site as a hypothetical site of potentially more permeable conditions, hence more readily affected during glacial climate conditions. A series of flow simulations conducted with DarcyTools in an approximately 5 km deep, super-regional model domain centred on the Laxemar site are reported. The studied cases (model variants) represent a variety of different property specifications along with variations in initial conditions concerning salinity. The model domain is subjected to a transient top boundary representing an advancing ice sheet margin. The behaviour of the grid cell pressure, Darcy flux and mobile salinity is monitored at four different elevations along a vertical scan line through the centre of the suggested location for a KBS-3 repository at Laxemar. The studied monitoring points are located at -0.5 km, -2.5 km, -3.0 km, and -3.5 km. These elevations are chosen with the objective to study the range of hydrogeological disturbance that could occur at 2-4 km depth. The flow model is run

  3. On the role of model depth and hydraulic properties for groundwater flow modelling during glacial climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    A common assumption in regional groundwater flow simulations of periods with glacial climate conditions is that the salinity at the bottom boundary of the model domain is stable (constant over time). This assumption is partly based on the general fact that water density increases with increasing salinity, but also supported by measurements, e.g. the mobile (fracture water) and immobile (porewater) salinity typically increase with depth, whereas the conductive fracture frequency and fracture transmissivity often decrease with depth. Plausibly, the depth to stable hydrogeological conditions varies between sites, and the question studied here is whether hydrogeological disturbances could occur at 2-4 km depth during glacial climate conditions. With regard to the results of SDM-Site and SR-Site, the hydrogeological conditions at repository depth indicate less groundwater flow during glacial climate conditions at Forsmark than at Laxemar. For this reason, this study uses the Laxemar site as a hypothetical site of potentially more permeable conditions, hence more readily affected during glacial climate conditions. A series of flow simulations conducted with DarcyTools in an approximately 5 km deep, super-regional model domain centred on the Laxemar site are reported. The studied cases (model variants) represent a variety of different property specifications along with variations in initial conditions concerning salinity. The model domain is subjected to a transient top boundary representing an advancing ice sheet margin. The behaviour of the grid cell pressure, Darcy flux and mobile salinity is monitored at four different elevations along a vertical scan line through the centre of the suggested location for a KBS-3 repository at Laxemar. The studied monitoring points are located at -0.5 km, -2.5 km, -3.0 km, and -3.5 km. These elevations are chosen with the objective to study the range of hydrogeological disturbance that could occur at 2-4 km depth. The flow model is run

  4. Development of a butterfly check valve model under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Yuxian; Yu, Lei; Fu, Shengwei; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bases on Lim’s swing check valve model, a butterfly check valve model was developed. • The method to quantify the friction torque T F in Li’s model was corrected. • The developed model was implemented into the RELAP5 code and verified. - Abstract: A butterfly check valve is widely used to prevent a reverse flow in the pipe lines of a marine nuclear power plant. Under some conditions, the natural circulation conditions in particular, the fluid velocity through the butterfly check valve might become too low to hold the valve disk fully open, thereby the flow resistance of the butterfly check valve varies with the location of the valve disk and as a result the fluid flow is significantly affected by the dynamic motion of the valve disk. Simulation of a pipe line that includes some butterfly check valves, especially under natural circulation conditions, is thus complicated. This paper focuses on the development of a butterfly check valve model to enhance the capability of the thermal–hydraulic system code and the developed model is implemented into the RELAP5 code. Both steady-state calculations and transient calculations were carried out for the primary loop system of a marine nuclear power plant and the calculation results are compared with the experimental data for verification purpose. The simulation results show an agreement with the experimental data

  5. Kernel-based adaptive learning improves accuracy of glucose predictive modelling in type 1 diabetes: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georga, Eleni I; Principe, Jose C; Rizos, Evangelos C; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2017-07-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the need for nonlinear recursive models to the identification and prediction of the dynamic glucose system in type 1 diabetes. Nonlinear regression is performed in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, by the Approximate Linear Dependency Kernel Recursive Least Squares (KRLS-ALD) algorithm, such that a sparse model structure is accomplished. The method is evaluated on seven people with type 1 diabetes in free-living conditions, where a change in glycaemic dynamics is forced by increasing the level of physical activity in the middle of the observational period. The univariate input allows for short-term (≤30 min) predictions with KRLS-ALD reaching an average root mean square error of 15.22±5.95 mgdL -1 and an average time lag of 17.14±2.67 min for an horizon of 30 min. Its performance is considerably better than that of time-invariant (regularized) linear regression models.

  6. Existence theory for sequential fractional differential equations with anti-periodic type boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqlan Mohammed H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the existence theory for sequential fractional differential equations involving Liouville-Caputo fractional derivative equipped with anti-periodic type (non-separated and nonlocal integral boundary conditions. Several existence criteria depending on the nonlinearity involved in the problems are presented by means of a variety of tools of the fixed point theory. The applicability of the results is shown with the aid of examples. Our results are not only new in the given configuration but also yield some new special cases for specific choices of parameters involved in the problems.

  7. Effect of sintering conditions on the magnetic disaccommodation in barium M-type hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo; Torres, Carlos; Francisco, Carlos de; Munoz, Jose Maria; Alejos, Oscar; Iniguez, Jose Ignacio; Raposo, Victor; Montero, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    The relaxation of the initial magnetic permeability has been measured in polycrystalline hexaferrites with nominal composition BaO.6Fe 2 O 3 (i.e. M-type). The samples have been sintered at different temperatures in CO 2 atmosphere and with different manufacturing conditions. In temperature range between 80 and 500 K, the magnetic disaccommodation shows presence of different relaxation processes, depending on both the sintering temperature and sintering time. The analogies and differences between the results obtained are discussed in terms of similar phase formation and different crystallite size

  8. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick T; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations.

  9. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick T Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations.

  10. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  11. Potential overestimation of HPV vaccine impact due to unmasking of non-vaccine types: quantification using a multi-type mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Hong; Chapman, Ruth; Gay, Nigel; Jit, Mark

    2012-05-14

    Estimates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact in clinical trials and modelling studies rely on DNA tests of cytology or biopsy specimens to determine the HPV type responsible for a cervical lesion. DNA of several oncogenic HPV types may be detectable in a specimen. However, only one type may be responsible for a particular cervical lesion. Misattribution of the causal HPV type for a particular abnormality may give rise to an apparent increase in disease due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination ("unmasking"). To investigate the existence and magnitude of unmasking, we analysed data from residual cytology and biopsy specimens in English women aged 20-64 years old using a stochastic type-specific individual-based model of HPV infection, progression and disease. The model parameters were calibrated to data on the prevalence of HPV DNA and cytological lesion of different grades, and used to assign causal HPV types to cervical lesions. The difference between the prevalence of all disease due to non-vaccine HPV types, and disease due to non-vaccine HPV types in the absence of vaccine HPV types, was then estimated. There could be an apparent maximum increase of 3-10% in long-term cervical cancer incidence due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination. Unmasking may be an important phenomenon in HPV post-vaccination epidemiology, in the same way that has been observed following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP, Betula alba (BA, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (CL. Air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed varied respectively as CL < PP < BA, PP < CL < BA, and CL < BA < PP. Differences between PP and the other types were greatest during the warmest and driest hours of the day in a sequence of 10 days with high fire danger. Estimates of daytime moisture content of fine dead fuels and fire behavior characteristics for this period, respectively, from Behave and BehavePlus, indicate a CL < BA < PP gradient in fire potential. High stand density in CL and BA ensured lower wind speed and higher fuel moisture content than in PP, limiting the likelihood of an extreme fire environment. However, regression tree analysis revealed that the fire behavior distinction between the three forest types was primarily a function of the surface fuel complex, and more so during extreme fire weather conditions.

  13. Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity to Land and Soil Conditions Representative of Karst Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Fan, Xingang; Mahmood, Rezaul; Groves, Chris; Polk, Jason S.; Yan, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Due to their particular physiographic, geomorphic, soil cover, and complex surface-subsurface hydrologic conditions, karst regions produce distinct land-atmosphere interactions. It has been found that floods and droughts over karst regions can be more pronounced than those in non-karst regions following a given rainfall event. Five convective weather events are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model to explore the potential impacts of land-surface conditions on weather simulations over karst regions. Since no existing weather or climate model has the ability to represent karst landscapes, simulation experiments in this exploratory study consist of a control (default land-cover/soil types) and three land-surface conditions, including barren ground, forest, and sandy soils over the karst areas, which mimic certain karst characteristics. Results from sensitivity experiments are compared with the control simulation, as well as with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction multi-sensor precipitation analysis Stage-IV data, and near-surface atmospheric observations. Mesoscale features of surface energy partition, surface water and energy exchange, the resulting surface-air temperature and humidity, and low-level instability and convective energy are analyzed to investigate the potential land-surface impact on weather over karst regions. We conclude that: (1) barren ground used over karst regions has a pronounced effect on the overall simulation of precipitation. Barren ground provides the overall lowest root-mean-square errors and bias scores in precipitation over the peak-rain periods. Contingency table-based equitable threat and frequency bias scores suggest that the barren and forest experiments are more successful in simulating light to moderate rainfall. Variables dependent on local surface conditions show stronger contrasts between karst and non-karst regions than variables dominated by large-scale synoptic systems; (2) significant

  14. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-13

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w{sub 1}(t),w{sub 2}(t),w{sub 3}(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a{sub 0},a{sub 2},a{sub 4} of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  15. Three-party quantum teleportation using thermal states in Heisenberg XX model with open boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, Jaemi; Kwon, Younghun

    2007-01-01

    Recently Yeo showed that thermal states in Heisenberg XX model with periodic boundary condition could be used for three-party quantum teleportation. However it is hard to implement the periodic boundary condition in spin chain. So instead of imposing the periodic boundary condition, we consider open boundary condition in Heisenberg XX model and investigate the possibility of using thermal states in Heisenberg XX model with open boundary condition. Using this way, we find the best fidelity conditions to three known protocols in three-party quantum teleportation. It turns out that the best fidelity in every protocol would be 23

  16. A review on condition-based maintenance optimization models for stochastically deteriorating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaswad, Suzan; Xiang, Yisha

    2017-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is a maintenance strategy that collects and assesses real-time information, and recommends maintenance decisions based on the current condition of the system. In recent decades, research on CBM has been rapidly growing due to the rapid development of computer-based monitoring technologies. Research studies have proven that CBM, if planned properly, can be effective in improving equipment reliability at reduced costs. This paper presents a review of CBM literature with emphasis on mathematical modeling and optimization approaches. We focus this review on important aspects of the CBM, such as optimization criteria, inspection frequency, maintenance degree, solution methodology, etc. Since the modeling choice for the stochastic deterioration process greatly influences CBM strategy decisions, this review classifies the literature on CBM models based on the underlying deterioration processes, namely discrete- and continuous-state deterioration, and proportional hazard model. CBM models for multi-unit systems are also reviewed in this paper. This paper provides useful references for CBM management professionals and researchers working on CBM modeling and optimization. - Highlights: • A review on Condition-based maintenance (CBM) optimization models is presented. • The CBM models are classified based on the underlying deterioration processes. • Existing CBM models for both single- and multi-unit systems are reviewed. • Future essential research directions on CBM are identified.

  17. Comparison of the WSA-ENLIL model with three CME cone types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2013-07-01

    We have made a comparison of the CME-associated shock propagation based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the asymmetric cone model is 10.6 hours, which is about 1 hour smaller than those of the other models. Their ensemble average of MAE is 9.5 hours. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of the empirical model of Kim et al. (2007). We will compare their IP shock velocities and densities with those from ACE in-situ measurements and discuss them in terms of the prediction of geomagnetic storms.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We have made a comparison of the CME-associated shock propagation based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the asymmetric cone model is 10.6 hours, which is about 1 hour smaller than those of the other models. Their ensemble average of MAE is 9.5 hours. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of the empirical model of Kim et al. (2007). We will compare their IP shock velocities and densities with those from ACE in-situ measurements and discuss them in terms of the

  18. Modeling Conditional Volatility of Indian Banking Sector’s Stock Market Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amanjot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to capture conditional variance of Indian banking sector’s stock market returns across the years 2005 to 2015 by employing different GARCH based symmetric and asymmetric models. The results report existence of persistency as well as leverage effects in the banking sector return volatility. On an expected note, the global financial crisis increased conditional volatility in the Indian banking sector during the years 2007 to 2009; further evidenced from Markov regime switches. The exponential GARCH (EGARCH model is found to be the best fit model capturing time-varying variance in the banking sector. The results support strong implications for the market participants at the time of devising portfolio management strategies.

  19. Breather type solutions of the vector nonlinear Schroedinger equation with quasi-constant boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhan'kov, V.G.; Slavov, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Vector nonlinear Schroedinger equations (VS3) is investigated under quasi-constant boundary conditions. New two-soliton solutions are obtained with such non-trivial dynamics that they may be called the breather solutions. A version of the basic Novikov-Dubrovin-Krichever algebro-geometrical approach is applied to obtain breather like solutions existing for all types of internal symmetry is specified are formulated in terms of the soliton velocity expressed via the parameters of the problem. 4 refs

  20. CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman

    model results. A method is developed how to simulate the time-dependant non-neutral ABL flow over complex terrain: a precursor simulation is used to specify unsteady inlet boundary conditions on complex terrain domains. The advantage of the developed RANS model framework is its general applicability...... characteristics of neutral and non-neutral ABL flow. The developed ABL model significantly improves the predicted flow fields over both flat and complex terrain, when compared against neutral models and measurements....... cost than e.g. using large-eddy simulations. The developed ABL model is successfully validated using a range of different test cases with increasing complexity. Data from several large scale field campaigns, wind tunnel experiments, and previous numerical simulations is presented and compared against...

  1. Why trace and delay conditioning are sometimes (but not always) hippocampal dependent: A computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Wufong, Ella; Servatius, Richard J.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Gluck, Mark A.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent-network model provides a unified account of the hippocampal region in mediating the representation of temporal information in classical eyeblink conditioning. Much empirical research is consistent with a general conclusion that delay conditioning (in which the conditioned stimulus CS and unconditioned stimulus US overlap and co-terminate) is independent of the hippocampal system, while trace conditioning (in which the CS terminates before US onset) depends on the hippocampus. However, recent studies show that, under some circumstances, delay conditioning can be hippocampal-dependent and trace conditioning can be spared following hippocampal lesion. Here, we present an extension of our prior trial-level models of hippocampal function and stimulus representation that can explain these findings within a unified framework. Specifically, the current model includes adaptive recurrent collateral connections that aid in the representation of intra-trial temporal information. With this model, as in our prior models, we argue that the hippocampus is not specialized for conditioned response timing, but rather is a general-purpose system that learns to predict the next state of all stimuli given the current state of variables encoded by activity in recurrent collaterals. As such, the model correctly predicts that hippocampal involvement in classical conditioning should be critical not only when there is an intervening trace interval, but also when there is a long delay between CS onset and US onset. Our model simulates empirical data from many variants of classical conditioning, including delay and trace paradigms in which the length of the CS, the inter-stimulus interval, or the trace interval is varied. Finally, we discuss model limitations, future directions, and several novel empirical predictions of this temporal processing model of hippocampal function and learning. PMID:23178699

  2. 77 FR 32006 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-423-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... pertaining to a high incidence protection system that replaces the stall warning system during normal... the condition existing in the test or performance standard in which V SR is being used. (3) The weight...

  3. Modeling of Cr(VI) Bioreduction Under Fermentative and Denitrifying Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, S.; Steefel, C.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanisms of bioreductive immobilization of Cr(VI) were investigated by reactive transport modeling of a set of flow-through column experiments performed using natural Hanford 100H aquifer sediment. The columns were continuously eluted with 5 μM Cr(VI), 5 mM lactate as the electron donor, and selected electron acceptors (tested individually). Here we focus on the two separate experimental conditions that showed the most removal of Cr(VI) from solution: fermentation and denitrification. In each case, a network of enzymatic and abiotic reaction pathways was considered to interpret the rate of chromate reduction. The model included biomass growth and decay, and thermodynamic limitations on reaction rates, and was constrained by effluent concentrations measured by IC and ICP-MS and additional information from bacterial isolates from column effluent. Under denitrifying conditions, Cr(VI) reduction was modeled as co-metabolic with nitrate reduction based on experimental observations and previous studies on a denitrifying bacterium derived from the Hanford 100H aquifer. The reactive transport model results supported this interpretation of the reaction mechanism and were used to quantify the efficiency of the process. The models results also suggest that biomass growth likely relied on a nitrogen source other than ammonium (e.g. nitrate). Under fermentative conditions and based on cell suspension studies performed on a bacterial isolate from the columns, the model assumes that Cr(VI) reduction is carried out directly by fermentative bacteria that convert lactate into acetate and propionate. The evolution to complete lactate fermentation and Cr(VI) reduction took place over a week's time and simulations were used to determine an estimate for a lower limit of the rate of chromate reduction by calibration with the flow-through column experimental results. In spite of sulfate being added to these columns, sulfate reduction proceeded at a slow rate and was not well

  4. Modeling Macrosegregation in Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloys under Gravitational and Microgravitational Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Mark A.; Poirier, David R.; Erdmann, Robert G.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Madison, Jonathan D

    2014-09-01

    This report covers the modeling of seven directionally solidified samples, five under normal gravitational conditions and two in microgravity. A model is presented to predict macrosegregation during the melting phases of samples solidified under microgravitational conditions. The results of this model are compared against two samples processed in microgravity and good agreement is found. A second model is presented that captures thermosolutal convection during directional solidification. Results for this model are compared across several experiments and quantitative comparisons are made between the model and the experimentally obtained radial macrosegregation profiles with good agreement being found. Changes in cross section were present in some samples and micrographs of these are qualitatively compared with the results of the simulations. It is found that macrosegregation patterns can be affected by changing the mold material.

  5. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  6. Asymmetries in conditional mean variance: modelling stock returns by asMA-asQGARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series model where both the conditional mean and the conditional variance are asymmetric functions of past information. The model is particularly useful for analysing financial time series where it has been noted that there is an asymmetric impact of good news and bad

  7. Mixed problem with nonlocal boundary conditions for a third-order partial differential equation of mixed type

    OpenAIRE

    Denche, M.; Marhoune, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a third-order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on two-sided a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  8. Numerical investigations of rib fracture failure models in different dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Jikuang; Miller, Karol; Li, Guibing; Joldes, Grand R; Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Rib fracture is one of the most common thoracic injuries in vehicle traffic accidents that can result in fatalities associated with seriously injured internal organs. A failure model is critical when modelling rib fracture to predict such injuries. Different rib failure models have been proposed in prediction of thorax injuries. However, the biofidelity of the fracture failure models when varying the loading conditions and the effects of a rib fracture failure model on prediction of thoracic injuries have been studied only to a limited extent. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of three rib failure models on prediction of thoracic injuries using a previously validated finite element model of the human thorax. The performance and biofidelity of each rib failure model were first evaluated by modelling rib responses to different loading conditions in two experimental configurations: (1) the three-point bending on the specimen taken from rib and (2) the anterior-posterior dynamic loading to an entire bony part of the rib. Furthermore, the simulation of the rib failure behaviour in the frontal impact to an entire thorax was conducted at varying velocities and the effects of the failure models were analysed with respect to the severity of rib cage damages. Simulation results demonstrated that the responses of the thorax model are similar to the general trends of the rib fracture responses reported in the experimental literature. However, they also indicated that the accuracy of the rib fracture prediction using a given failure model varies for different loading conditions.

  9. Identification of reverse logistics decision types from mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Cortés Pellicer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increase in social awareness, politics and environmental regulation, the scarcity of raw materials and the desired “green” image, are some of the reasons that lead companies to decide for implement processes of Reverse Logistics (RL. At the time when incorporate new RL processes as key business processes, new and important decisions need to be made. Identification and knowledge of these decisions, including the information available and the implications for the company or supply chain, will be fundamental for decision-makers to achieve the best results. In the present work, the main types of RL decisions are identified. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on the analysis of mathematical models designed as tools to aid decision making in the field of RL. Once the types of interest work to be analyzed are defined, those studies that really deal about the object of study are searched and analyzed. The decision variables that are taken at work are identified and grouped according to the type of decision and, finally, are showed the main types of decisions used in mathematical models developed in the field of RL.     Findings: The principal conclusion of the research is that the most commonly addressed decisions with mathematical models in the field of RL are those related to the network’s configuration, followed by tactical/operative decisions such as the selections of product’s treatments to realize and the policy of returns or prices, among other decisions. Originality/value: The identification of the main decisions types of the reverse logistics will allow the managers of these processes to know and understand them better, while offer an integrated vision of them, favoring the achievement of better results.

  10. nirS-type denitrifying bacterial assemblages respond to environmental conditions of a shallow estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa, Jessica A; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B; Song, Bongkeun

    2017-12-01

    Molecular analysis of dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes (nirS) was conducted using a customized microarray containing 165 nirS probes (archetypes) to identify members of sedimentary denitrifying communities. The goal of this study was to examine denitrifying community responses to changing environmental variables over spatial and temporal scales in the New River Estuary (NRE), NC, USA. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed three denitrifier assemblages and uncovered 'generalist' and 'specialist' archetypes based on the distribution of archetypes within these assemblages. Generalists, archetypes detected in all samples during at least one season, were commonly world-wide found in estuarine and marine ecosystems, comprised 8%-29% of the abundant NRE archetypes. Archetypes found in a particular site, 'specialists', were found to co-vary based on site specific conditions. Archetypes specific to the lower estuary in winter were designated Cluster I and significantly correlated by sediment Chl a and porewater Fe 2+ . A combination of specialist and more widely distributed archetypes formed Clusters II and III, which separated based on salinity and porewater H 2 S respectively. The co-occurrence of archetypes correlated with different environmental conditions highlights the importance of habitat type and niche differentiation among nirS-type denitrifying communities and supports the essential role of individual community members in overall ecosystem function. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Should tsunami models use a nonzero initial condition for horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, G.; Lotto, G. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require two initial conditions: one on sea surface height and another on depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). We run several full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor, using both idealized structures and a more realistic Tohoku structure. Substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean, but almost all momentum is carried away in the form of ocean acoustic waves. We compare tsunami propagation in each full-physics simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial conditions. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves (from ocean acoustic and seismic waves) at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami

  12. Flocking dynamics and mean-field limit in the Cucker-Smale-type model with topological interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Haskovec, Jan

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a Cucker-Smale-type model for flocking, where the strength of interaction between two agents depends on their relative separation (called "topological distance" in previous works), which is the number of intermediate individuals separating them. This makes the model scale-free and is motivated by recent extensive observations of starling flocks, suggesting that the interaction ruling animal collective behavior depends on topological rather than the metric distance. We study the conditions leading to asymptotic flocking in the topological model, defined as the convergence of the agents\\' velocities to a common vector. The shift from metric to topological interactions requires development of new analytical methods, taking into account the graph-theoretical nature of the problem. Moreover, we provide a rigorous derivation of the mean-field limit of large populations, recovering kinetic and hydrodynamic descriptions. In particular, we introduce the novel concept of relative separation in continuum descriptions, which is applicable to a broad variety of models of collective behavior. As an example, we shortly discuss a topological modification of the attraction-repulsion model and illustrate with numerical simulations that the modified model produces interesting new pattern dynamics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the identification of fractionally cointegrated VAR models with the F(d) condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santucci de Magistris, Paolo; Carlini, Federico

    for any choice of the lag-length when the true cointegration rank is known. The properties of these multiple non-identified models are studied and a necessary and sufficient condition for the identification of the fractional parameters of the system is provided. The condition is named F(d......). This is a generalization of the well-known I(1) condition to the fractional case. Imposing a proper restriction on the fractional integration parameter, d, is sufficient to guarantee identification of all model parameters and the validity of the F(d) condition. The paper also illustrates the indeterminacy between...

  14. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Yoshikazu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  15. Studies on hydrogeological conditions for mineralization of some sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Li Sen; Xiao Feng; Qi Daneng; Yin Jinshuang

    1996-11-01

    Based on the analysis for regional geology, structural and hydrogeological conditions of Erennaoer Depression, Erlian Basin, the hydrogeological hydraulic zoning was carried out for groundwater in the study area, structural-palaeo-hydrogeological stages and the feature of deep-seated groundwater were studied, and, two important U-mineralization periods were determined. The conditions of recharge, runoff and discharge of groundwater in ore bearing aquifers and the hydraulic mechanism were revealed by isotope hydrology and single-well tracing technique. By study of hydrogeochemistry, it is indicated that both Subeng and Nuheting U-deposit are located at the parts where groundwater characteristics intensely variate, and the ore indicators are determined. Oil and gas transportation and the relationships between groundwater and U-metallogenetic process were discussed by using of organic geochemistry method. It shows that the bleeding of oil and gas is very important for the forming of U-deposits. It is suggested that the interlayered oxidation zone type sandstone U-deposit which is suitable for in-situ leaching could be existed in the Tenggeer formation, Bayanhua group of Lower Cretaceous, accordingly, two prospecting areas are delimited. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  17. Stability analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis model with obesity as a trigger factor and metabolic syndrome as a risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, A. I.; Lestari, A. D.; Ratianingsih, R.; Puspitasari, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is found in 90% of the world's patients with a type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis. If it is not being treatment, the disease advances to a metabolic syndrome related to some atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed that represent the prognosis of type 2 DM. The prognosis is started from the transition of vulnerable people to overweight and obese. The advanced prognosis makes the type 2 DM sufferer become a metabolic syndrome. The model has no disease-free critical point, while the implicit endemic critical point is guaranteed for some requirements. The analysis of the critical point stability, by Jacobian matrix and Routh Hurwitz criteria, requires a parameter interval that identified from the characteristic polynomial. The requirements show that we have to pay attention to the transition rate of overweight to obese, more over the transition rate of obese to type 2 DM. The simulations show that the unstable condition of type 2 DM is easier to achieve because of the tightness of the parameter stability interval.

  18. Model of personal consumption under conditions of modern economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, D. K.; Akhmetshina, E. R.; Ignatjeva, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the conditions of the modern economy, in connection with the development of production, the expansion of the market for goods and services, its differentiation, active use of marketing tools in the sphere of sales, changes occur in the system of values and consumer needs. Motives that drive the consumer are transformed, stimulating it to activity. The article presents a model of personal consumption that takes into account modern trends in consumer behavior. The consumer, making a choice, seeks to maximize the overall utility from consumption, physiological and socio-psychological satisfaction, in accordance with his expectations, preferences and conditions of consumption. The system of his preferences is formed under the influence of factors of a different nature. It is also shown that the structure of consumer spending allows us to characterize and predict its further behavior in the market. Based on the proposed model and analysis of current trends in consumer behavior, conclusions and recommendations have been made that can be used by legislative and executive government bodies, business organizations, research centres and other structures to form a methodological and analytical tool for preparing a forecast model of consumption.

  19. Photovoltaic Array Condition Monitoring Based on Online Regression of Performance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    regression modeling, from PV array production, plane-of-array irradiance, and module temperature measurements, acquired during an initial learning phase of the system. After the model has been parameterized automatically, the condition monitoring system enters the normal operation phase, where...

  20. Asteroseismic modelling of the solar-type subgiant star β Hydri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandão, I.M.; Dogan, Gülnur; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Context. Comparing models and data of pulsating stars is a powerful way to understand the stellar structure better. Moreover, such comparisons are necessary to make improvements to the physics of the stellar models, since they do not yet perfectly represent either the interior or especially...... the surface layers of stars. Because β Hydri is an evolved solar-type pulsator with mixed modes in its frequency spectrum, it is very interesting for asteroseismic studies. Aims: The goal of the present work is to search for a representative model of the solar-type star β Hydri, based on up-to-date non...... frequencies of β Hydri: (i) we assume that the best model is the one that reproduces the star's interior based on the radial oscillation frequencies alone, to which we have applied the correction for the near-surface effects; (ii) we assume that the best model is the one that produces the lowest value...

  1. Improvement of the vibration of the test fuel(Type-B) with a guide tube under operational condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong Seung; Yim, Jeong Sik; Lim, I. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The Type-B test fuel for the Hanaro has a flexible guide tube on top of the fuel to lead and guide the instrumentation wires. Depending on the flow condition in the reactor, the fuel is susceptible to vibration. During the test operation of the fuel, a fairly large amplitude vibration was observed and the possibility of flow tube contact with adjacent flow tubes, due to the excessive vibration of the fuel, and consequent wear or defect of the flow tubes were raised. Thus, to know the vibration characteristics as well as whether the flow tube contact each other, analyses of the Type-B fuel the dummy fuel were performed by BEVIRA and ANSYS. Besides the analyses, vibration tests using the dummy fuel in air and with Type-B fuel in the core at zero power under operational flow condition were executed. The results from the analyses were compared with those from tests to validate the analyses. From the deflection test of the dummy fuel in air to get the maximum displacement of the flow tube at the top, the flow tube were found to contact each other. For the prevention of the contact of the flow tubes caused by the excessive vibration of the guide tube, an additional support to the guide tube was proposed. With the additional support, analysis and in core vibration test under operational flow condition were conducted and there found to be no excessive vibration any more. 6 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  2. GENERAL DECAY FOR A DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSION OF KIRCHHOFF TYPE WITH A MEMORY CONDITION AT THE BOUNDARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jum-Ran KANG

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consider a differential inclusion of Kirchhoff type with a memory condition at the boundary. We prove the asymptotic behavior of the corresponding solutions. For a wider class of relaxation functions, we establish a more general decay result, from which the usual exponential and polynomial decay rates are only special cases.

  3. Methodology for identifying parameters for the TRNSYS model Type 210 - wood pellet stoves and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Fiedler, Frank; Nordlander, Svante

    2006-05-15

    This report describes a method how to perform measurements on boilers and stoves and how to identify parameters from the measurements for the boiler/stove-model TRNSYS Type 210. The model can be used for detailed annual system simulations using TRNSYS. Experience from measurements on three different pellet stoves and four boilers were used to develop this methodology. Recommendations for the set up of measurements are given and the required combustion theory for the data evaluation and data preparation are given. The data evaluation showed that the uncertainties are quite large for the measured flue gas flow rate and for boilers and stoves with high fraction of energy going to the water jacket also the calculated heat rate to the room may have large uncertainties. A methodology for the parameter identification process and identified parameters for two different stoves and three boilers are given. Finally the identified models are compared with measured data showing that the model generally agreed well with measured data during both stationary and dynamic conditions.

  4. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  5. Type-2 fuzzy elliptic membership functions for modeling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayacan, Erdal; Sarabakha, Andriy; Coupland, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Whereas type-1 and type-2 membership functions (MFs) are the core of any fuzzy logic system, there are no performance criteria available to evaluate the goodness or correctness of the fuzzy MFs. In this paper, we make extensive analysis in terms of the capability of type-2 elliptic fuzzy MFs...... in modeling uncertainty. Having decoupled parameters for its support and width, elliptic MFs are unique amongst existing type-2 fuzzy MFs. In this investigation, the uncertainty distribution along the elliptic MF support is studied, and a detailed analysis is given to compare and contrast its performance...... advantages mentioned above, elliptic MFs have comparable prediction results when compared to Gaussian and triangular MFs. Finally, in order to test the performance of fuzzy logic controller with elliptic interval type-2 MFs, extensive real-time experiments are conducted for the 3D trajectory tracking problem...

  6. Wall conditioning for ITER: Current experimental and modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douai, D., E-mail: david.douai@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [FZJ, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52441 Jülich (Germany); Hagelaar, G.J.M. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, UMR5213, Toulouse (France); Hong, S.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lyssoivan, A. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pitts, R.A. [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P.C. de [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Wall conditioning will be required in ITER to control fuel and impurity recycling, as well as tritium (T) inventory. Analysis of conditioning cycle on the JET, with its ITER-Like Wall is presented, evidencing reduced need for wall cleaning in ITER compared to JET–CFC. Using a novel 2D multi-fluid model, current density during Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) on the in-vessel plasma-facing components (PFC) of ITER is predicted to approach the simple expectation of total anode current divided by wall surface area. Baking of the divertor to 350 °C should desorb the majority of the co-deposited T. ITER foresees the use of low temperature plasma based techniques compatible with the permanent toroidal magnetic field, such as Ion (ICWC) or Electron Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ECWC), for tritium removal between ITER plasma pulses. Extrapolation of JET ICWC results to ITER indicates removal comparable to estimated T-retention in nominal ITER D:T shots, whereas GDC may be unattractive for that purpose.

  7. New spin Calogero-Sutherland models related to BN-type Dunkl operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, F.; Gomez-Ullate, D.; Gonzalez-Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Zhdanov, R.

    2001-01-01

    We construct several new families of exactly and quasi-exactly solvable BC N -type Calogero-Sutherland models with internal degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on the introduction of a new family of Dunkl operators of B N type which, together with the original B N -type Dunkl operators, are shown to preserve certain polynomial subspaces of finite dimension. We prove that a wide class of quadratic combinations involving these three sets of Dunkl operators always yields a spin Calogero-Sutherland model, which is (quasi-)exactly solvable by construction. We show that all the spin Calogero-Sutherland models obtainable within this framework can be expressed in a unified way in terms of a Weierstrass ζ function with suitable half-periods. This provides a natural spin counterpart of the well-known general formula for a scalar completely integrable potential of BC N type due to Olshanetsky and Perelomov. As an illustration of our method, we exactly compute several energy levels and their corresponding wavefunctions of an elliptic quasi-exactly solvable potential for two and three particles of spin 1/2

  8. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakanauskienė Irena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been unified conditions, describing the case of controlled interventions thus providing preconditions to ensure the adequacy of the proposed decision-making process model.

  9. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  10. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  11. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  12. Using fuzzy rule-based knowledge model for optimum plating conditions search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovjev, D. S.; Solovjeva, I. A.; Litovka, Yu V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.; Glazkov, V. P.; L’vov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses existing approaches to plating process modeling in order to decrease the distribution thickness of plating surface cover. However, these approaches do not take into account the experience, knowledge, and intuition of the decision-makers when searching the optimal conditions of electroplating technological process. The original approach to optimal conditions search for applying the electroplating coatings, which uses the rule-based model of knowledge and allows one to reduce the uneven product thickness distribution, is proposed. The block diagrams of a conventional control system of a galvanic process as well as the system based on the production model of knowledge are considered. It is shown that the fuzzy production model of knowledge in the control system makes it possible to obtain galvanic coatings of a given thickness unevenness with a high degree of adequacy to the experimental data. The described experimental results confirm the theoretical conclusions.

  13. Conditional Monte Carlo randomization tests for regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhat, Parwen; Rosenberger, William F; Diao, Guoqing

    2014-08-15

    We discuss the computation of randomization tests for clinical trials of two treatments when the primary outcome is based on a regression model. We begin by revisiting the seminal paper of Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi (1988), and then describe a method based on Monte Carlo generation of randomization sequences. The tests based on this Monte Carlo procedure are design based, in that they incorporate the particular randomization procedure used. We discuss permuted block designs, complete randomization, and biased coin designs. We also use a new technique by Plamadeala and Rosenberger (2012) for simple computation of conditional randomization tests. Like Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi, we focus on residuals from generalized linear models and martingale residuals from survival models. Such techniques do not apply to longitudinal data analysis, and we introduce a method for computation of randomization tests based on the predicted rate of change from a generalized linear mixed model when outcomes are longitudinal. We show, by simulation, that these randomization tests preserve the size and power well under model misspecification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Su Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM, classification and regression tree (CART, and random forest (RF. We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  15. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB, Floda (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden)); Zugec, Nada (Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report is concerned with the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during periglacial and glacial climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Vidstrand et al. 2010/. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle at Laxemar. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 13,000 years. The simulation results comprise pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance and the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties

  16. Propagation of sech2-type solitary waves in higher-order KdV-type systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilison, O.; Salupere, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wave propagation in microstructured media is essentially influenced by nonlinear and dispersive effects. The simplest model governing these effects results in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In the present paper a KdV-type evolution equation, including the third- and fifth-order dispersive and the fourth-order nonlinear terms, is used for modelling the wave propagation in microstructured solids like martensitic-austenitic alloys. The model equation is solved numerically under localised initial conditions. Possible solution types are defined and discussed. The existence of a threshold is established. Below the threshold, the relatively small solitary waves decay in time. However, if the amplitude exceeds a certain threshold, i.e., the critical value, then such a solitary wave can propagate with nearly a constant speed and amplitude and consequently conserve the energy

  17. New boundary conditions for 3D RF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.; Nelson, E.; Fitze, H.

    1990-01-01

    The new capabilities are being implemented into the 3D particle-in-cell code, ARGUS, which will reduce substantially both problem size and computing time when modeling realistic geometries with high accuracies. In the time domain, a cylindrical radiative boundary condition will enable traveling wave propagation to be simulated in accelerator structures. An application of interest is the input coupler in the SLAC x-band high-gradient structure where local field gradients and impedance matching are important issues. In the frequency domain, a quasi-periodic boundary condition will facilitate the cold-test analysis of 3D periodic structures where many calculations are required to generate an ω β diagram. Present applications include the crossed-field amplifier cavity and the cluster klystron cavity

  18. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-07-28

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975–2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December–May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  19. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  20. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great distances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and timescales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes

  1. On the identification of fractionally cointegrated VAR models with the F(d) condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlini, Federico; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    for any choice of the lag length, also when the true cointegration rank is known. The properties of these multiple non-identified models are studied and a necessary and sufficient condition for the identification of the fractional parameters of the system is provided. The condition is named F(d......) and it is a generalization to the fractional case of the I(1) condition in the VECM model. The assessment of the F(d) condition in the empirical analysis is relevant for the determination of the fractional parameters as well as the number of lags. The paper also illustrates the indeterminacy between the cointegration rank...

  2. Effect of Hot Climatic Conditions With Different Types of Housing on Productive Efficiency and Physiological Changes in Buffalo Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the effect of housing types under both mild and hot periods of the year on twenty four buffalo calves aged 8-10 months with average body weight 156.8 kg. The study included two periods each was of 3 months. The first period was carried out during mild conditions while the second period was carried out during hot conditions. Averages of air temperature and relative humidity values at midday inside the farm building were 20.8 ± 1.0 degree C and 72.07 ± 2.1% under mild conditions and 35.93± 1.4 degree C and 58.23 ± 1.5 under the hot period, respectively. The estimated temperature-humidity index of values 20.23 and 33.17 during mild and hot conditions, respectively, indicated absence of heat stress during the first period and exposing the animals to very severe heat stress during the second period. The animals during the two experimental periods were fed the concentrate feed mixture according to body weight and daily gain with rice straw offered ad libitum. In each of the two studied periods, the animals were divided into two equal groups according to type of housing system. The animals in the first group (6 calves) were tied from their neck in stall barn in two rows tail to tail while the animals in the second group (6 calves) were left loose housing in the barn. The results showed that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant decreases in daily body weight gain, total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and GGT as well as T4 , T3 , parathormone hormonal levels. On the other hand, significant increase in respiration rate, temperatures of rectal and skin, urea, cortisol, GOT and GPT. Concerning the effect of housing type, there were significant differences in daily body gain of buffalo calves between free and tied through the first two months of experiment, so, daily body gain of buffalo

  3. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  4. A theoretical model for oxygen transport in skeletal muscle under conditions of high oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, B J; Secomb, T W

    2001-11-01

    Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content of blood flowing along capillaries, intravascular resistance to oxygen diffusion, and myoglobin-facilitated diffusion are included. Parameter values are based on human skeletal muscle. The dependence of oxygen consumption on oxygen demand, perfusion, and capillary density are examined. When demand is moderate, the tissue is well oxygenated and consumption is slightly less than demand. When demand is high, capillary oxygen content declines rapidly with axial distance and radial oxygen transport is limited by diffusion resistance within the capillary and the tissue. Under these conditions, much of the tissue is hypoxic, consumption is substantially less than demand, and consumption is strongly dependent on capillary density. Predicted consumption rates are comparable with experimentally observed maximal rates of oxygen consumption.

  5. Economic value added model upon conditions of banking company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is the application of the economic value added model (EVA upon the conditions of a banking company. Due to the character of banking business, which is in a different structure of financial sheet, it is not possible to use the standard model EVA for this banking company. The base of this article is the outlined of basic principles of the EVA mode in a non-banking company. Basic specified banking activity dissimilarities are analysed and a directed methodology adjustment of a model such as this, so that it is possible to use it for a banking company.

  6. A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.

  7. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mei, Zhigang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  8. Assessing uncertainties in global cropland futures using a conditional probabilistic modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engström, Kerstin; Olin, Stefan; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Brogaard, Sara; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Alexander, Peter; Murray-Rust, Dave; Arneth, Almut

    2016-01-01

    We present a modelling framework to simulate probabilistic futures of global cropland areas that are conditional on the SSP (shared socio-economic pathway) scenarios. Simulations are based on the Parsimonious Land Use Model (PLUM) linked with the global dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS

  9. A model of amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal interaction in fear conditioning and extinction in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Orr, Scott P.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Servatius, Richard. J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are involved in fear conditioning. However, the functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not clearly understood. Here, we extend existing neural network models of the functional roles of the hippocampus in classical conditioning to include interactions with the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. We apply the model to fear conditioning, in which animals learn physiological (e.g. heart rate) and behavioral (e.g. freezing) responses to stimuli that have been paired with a highly aversive event (e.g. electrical shock). The key feature of our model is that learning of these conditioned responses in the central nucleus of the amygdala is modulated by two separate processes, one from basolateral amygdala and signaling a positive prediction error, and one from the vmPFC, via the intercalated cells of the amygdala, and signaling a negative prediction error. In addition, we propose that hippocampal input to both vmPFC and basolateral amygdala is essential for contextual modulation of fear acquisition and extinction. The model is sufficient to account for a body of data from various animal fear conditioning paradigms, including acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, and context specificity effects. Consistent with studies on lesioned animals, our model shows that damage to the vmPFC impairs extinction, while damage to the hippocampus impairs extinction in a different context (e.g., a different conditioning chamber from that used in initial training in animal experiments). We also discuss model limitations and predictions, including the effects of number of training trials on fear conditioning. PMID:23164732

  10. Markov-switching model for nonstationary runoff conditioned on El Nino information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We define a Markov-modulated autoregressive model with exogenous input (MARX) to generate runoff scenarios using climatic information. Runoff parameterization is assumed to be conditioned on a hidden climate state following a Markov chain, where state transition probabilities are functions...... of the climatic input. MARX allows stochastic modeling of nonstationary runoff, as runoff anomalies are described by a mixture of autoregressive models with exogenous input, each one corresponding to a climate state. We apply MARX to inflow time series of the Daule Peripa reservoir (Ecuador). El Nino Southern...... Oscillation (ENSO) information is used to condition runoff parameterization. Among the investigated ENSO indexes, the NINO 1+2 sea surface temperature anomalies and the trans-Nino index perform best as predictors. In the perspective of reservoir optimization at various time scales, MARX produces realistic...

  11. Late-time behaviour of the tilted Bianchi type VIh models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervik, S.; van den Hoogen, R. J.; Lim, W. C.; Coley, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    We study tilted perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter in spatially homogeneous models of Bianchi type VIh using dynamical systems methods and numerical experimentation, with an emphasis on their future asymptotic evolution. We determine all of the equilibrium points of the type VIh state space (which correspond to exact self-similar solutions of the Einstein equations, some of which are new), and their stability is investigated. We find that there are vacuum plane-wave solutions that act as future attractors. In the parameter space, a 'loophole' is shown to exist in which there are no stable equilibrium points. We then show that a Hopf-bifurcation can occur resulting in a stable closed orbit (which we refer to as the Mussel attractor) corresponding to points both inside the loophole and points just outside the loophole; in the former case the closed curves act as late-time attractors while in the latter case these attracting curves will co-exist with attracting equilibrium points. In the special Bianchi type III case, centre manifold theory is required to determine the future attractors. Comprehensive numerical experiments are carried out to complement and confirm the analytical results presented. We note that the Bianchi type VIh case is of particular interest in that it contains many different subcases which exhibit many of the different possible future asymptotic behaviours of Bianchi cosmological models.

  12. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuloria, Pratibha [Kumaun University, Physics Dept., Almora (India); Pant, Neeraj [N.D.A., Maths Dept., Khadakwasla, Pune (India)

    2017-11-15

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)

  13. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)

  14. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-11-01

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9 . The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models.

  15. Model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Tamotsu; Miki, Takahito; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-02-01

    Deep underground is thought to be a potential place for high level radioactive waste repository. It is believed that the chemical condition of deep groundwater is generally anoxic and reducing. However, during construction and operation phase of repository, oxygen will diffuse some distance into the surrounding rock mass, and diffused oxygen may remain in the surrounding rock mass even after repository closure. In such a case, the transitional redox condition around the drift is not preferable in view point of safety assessment for HLW disposal. Hence, it is very important to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. This report describes the status of model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. We use the commercial solver to equate the mathematical equations which mean evolution of redox condition in the near field. The target area modeled in this report are near field rock mass and engineered barrier (buffer). In case of near field rock mass, we consider the following two geological media: (1) porous media for sedimentary rock, (2) fractured media for crystalline rock. In case of the engineered barrier, we regard the buffer as porous media. We simulate the behavior of dissolved oxygen and Fe 2+ in groundwater during evolution of redox condition in the near field rock mass and the buffer. In case of the porous media, we consider diffusion of chemical species as dominant transport mechanism. On the other hand, in case of the fractured media, we consider diffusion of chemical species in rock matrix and advection of that (only dissolved oxygen considered in this model) in fracture as transport mechanism. We also use the rate law of iron oxidation reaction and dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals in this model besides. (author)

  16. Dynamic of exact perturbations in Bianchi IX type cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Neto, J.R.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic of Bianchi IX type cosmological models is studied, after reducing Einstein equations to Hamiltonian system. Using the Melnikov method, the existence of chaos in the dynamic of these models is proved, and some numerical experiments are carried out. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-08-01

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lumped-parameter modeling of PWR downcomer and pressurizer for LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Dubow, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two lumped-parameter models, one for a PWR downcomer and the other for a pressurizer, are presented. The models are based on the transient, nonhomogeneous, drift-flux description of two-phase flow, and are suitable for simulating a hypothetical LOCA condition. Effects of thermal nonequilibrium are incorporated in the downcomer model, whereas the pressurizer model can track the interfaces among various flow regimes. Semiimplicit numerical schemes are used for solution. Encouraging results have been obtained for both the models. (author)

  19. A model for cell type localization in the migrating slug of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    . Localization of the three major cell types within the migrating slug stage is a dynamic process (Sternfeld 1992;. A model for cell type localization in the migrating slug of Dictyostelium discoideum based on differential chemotactic sensitivity to ...

  20. Analysis and synthesis for interval type-2 fuzzy-model-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongyi; Lam, Hak-Keung; Gao, Yabin

    2016-01-01

    This book develops a set of reference methods capable of modeling uncertainties existing in membership functions, and analyzing and synthesizing the interval type-2 fuzzy systems with desired performances. It also provides numerous simulation results for various examples, which fill certain gaps in this area of research and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. Interval type-2 T-S fuzzy models provide a convenient and flexible method for analysis and synthesis of complex nonlinear systems with uncertainties.

  1. Modeling and forecasting crude oil markets using ARCH-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the time-varying volatility of two major crude oil markets, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Europe Brent. A flexible autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) model is used to take into account the stylized volatility facts such as clustering volatility, asymmetric news impact and long memory volatility among others. The empirical results indicate that the intensity of long-persistence volatility in the WTI is greater than in the Brent. It is also found that for the WTI, the appreciation and depreciation shocks of the WTI have similar impact on the resulting volatility. However, a leverage effect is found in Brent. Although both the estimation and diagnostic evaluations are in favor of an asymmetric long memory ARCH model, only the WTI models provide superior in the out-of-sample forecasts. On the other hand, from the empirical out-of-sample forecasts, it appears that the simplest parsimonious generalized ARCH provides the best forecasted evaluations for the Brent crude oil data.

  2. Modeling and forecasting crude oil markets using ARCH-type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chin Wen [Research Centre of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This study investigates the time-varying volatility of two major crude oil markets, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Europe Brent. A flexible autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) model is used to take into account the stylized volatility facts such as clustering volatility, asymmetric news impact and long memory volatility among others. The empirical results indicate that the intensity of long-persistence volatility in the WTI is greater than in the Brent. It is also found that for the WTI, the appreciation and depreciation shocks of the WTI have similar impact on the resulting volatility. However, a leverage effect is found in Brent. Although both the estimation and diagnostic evaluations are in favor of an asymmetric long memory ARCH model, only the WTI models provide superior in the out-of-sample forecasts. On the other hand, from the empirical out-of-sample forecasts, it appears that the simplest parsimonious generalized ARCH provides the best forecasted evaluations for the Brent crude oil data. (author)

  3. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the de-Sitter universe, the Taub-NUT solutions etc. are of Bianchi Type-IX space- times. In these models, neutrino viscosity does not guarantee isotropy at the present ..... The model (2.11) starts with a big-bang at T = 0 where α > 0 and m < 2, and the expansion in the model decreases as time increases. The expansion in the ...

  4. Modeling and Investigation of Electromechanical Valve Train Actuator at simulated Pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2012-01-01

    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about investig...

  5. Determination of modeling parameters for power IGBTs under pulsed power conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Gordon, Jim A [U. OF MISSOURI; Kovaleski, Scott D [U. OF MISSOURI

    2010-01-01

    While the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGRT) is used in many applications, it is not well characterized under pulsed power conditions. This makes the IGBT difficult to model for solid state pulsed power applications. The Oziemkiewicz implementation of the Hefner model is utilized to simulate IGBTs in some circuit simulation software packages. However, the seventeen parameters necessary for the Oziemkiewicz implementation must be known for the conditions under which the device will be operating. Using both experimental and simulated data with a least squares curve fitting technique, the parameters necessary to model a given IGBT can be determined. This paper presents two sets of these seventeen parameters that correspond to two different models of power IGBTs. Specifically, these parameters correspond to voltages up to 3.5 kV, currents up to 750 A, and pulse widths up to 10 {micro}s. Additionally, comparisons of the experimental and simulated data will be presented.

  6. Hybrid-dimensional modelling of two-phase flow through fractured porous media with enhanced matrix fracture transmission conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Konstantin; Hennicker, Julian; Masson, Roland; Samier, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we extend, to two-phase flow, the single-phase Darcy flow model proposed in [26], [12] in which the (d - 1)-dimensional flow in the fractures is coupled with the d-dimensional flow in the matrix. Three types of so called hybrid-dimensional two-phase Darcy flow models are proposed. They all account for fractures acting either as drains or as barriers, since they allow pressure jumps at the matrix-fracture interfaces. The models also permit to treat gravity dominated flow as well as discontinuous capillary pressure at the material interfaces. The three models differ by their transmission conditions at matrix fracture interfaces: while the first model accounts for the nonlinear two-phase Darcy flux conservations, the second and third ones are based on the linear single phase Darcy flux conservations combined with different approximations of the mobilities. We adapt the Vertex Approximate Gradient (VAG) scheme to this problem, in order to account for anisotropy and heterogeneity aspects as well as for applicability on general meshes. Several test cases are presented to compare our hybrid-dimensional models to the generic equi-dimensional model, in which fractures have the same dimension as the matrix, leading to deep insight about the quality of the proposed reduced models.

  7. Improved simulation of two types of El Niño in CMIP5 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Lee, June-Yi; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Using the coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), simulations of the two types of El Niño event are evaluated. Previous studies using CMIP3 models pointed out that most of the models tend to simulate a single type of El Niño, and have serious problems in simulating the two types of El Niño independently. On the average, the CGCMs in CMIP5 have slightly better performance in simulating the two types of El Niño event independently with more distinct spatial patterns, compared to those in CMIP3. It is demonstrated that the precipitation response to Cold Tongue El Niño is one of the important factors in simulating the two types of El Niño independently in coupled models, and this precipitation response is closely related to the dry bias over the equatorial eastern Pacific. (letter)

  8. Explicit treatment for Dirichlet, Neumann and Cauchy boundary conditions in POD-based reduction of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Nowak, Wolfgang; Wöhling, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has become a popular model reduction method in the field of groundwater modeling. It is used to mitigate the problem of long run times that are often associated with physically-based modeling of natural systems, especially for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. POD-based techniques reproduce groundwater head fields sufficiently accurate for a variety of applications. However, no study has investigated how POD techniques affect the accuracy of different boundary conditions found in groundwater models. We show that the current treatment of boundary conditions in POD causes inaccuracies for these boundaries in the reduced models. We provide an improved method that splits the POD projection space into a subspace orthogonal to the boundary conditions and a separate subspace that enforces the boundary conditions. To test the method for Dirichlet, Neumann and Cauchy boundary conditions, four simple transient 1D-groundwater models, as well as a more complex 3D model, are set up and reduced both by standard POD and POD with the new extension. We show that, in contrast to standard POD, the new method satisfies both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. It can also be applied to Cauchy boundaries, where the flux error of standard POD is reduced by its head-independent contribution. The extension essentially shifts the focus of the projection towards the boundary conditions. Therefore, we see a slight trade-off between errors at model boundaries and overall accuracy of the reduced model. The proposed POD extension is recommended where exact treatment of boundary conditions is required.

  9. Developed Hybrid Model for Propylene Polymerisation at Optimum Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model combined with CFD (computational fluid dynamic method was used to explain the detailed phenomena of the process parameters, and a series of experiments were carried out for propylene polymerisation by varying the feed gas composition, reaction initiation temperature, and system pressure, in a fluidised bed catalytic reactor. The propylene polymerisation rate per pass was considered the response to the analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM, with a full factorial central composite experimental design, was applied to develop the model. In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated an acceptable value for the coefficient of determination and a suitable estimation of a second-order regression model. For better justification, results were also described through a three-dimensional (3D response surface and a related two-dimensional (2D contour plot. These 3D and 2D response analyses provided significant and easy to understand findings on the effect of all the considered process variables on expected findings. To diagnose the model adequacy, the mathematical relationship between the process variables and the extent of polymer conversion was established through the combination of CFD with statistical tools. All the tests showed that the model is an excellent fit with the experimental validation. The maximum extent of polymer conversion per pass was 5.98% at the set time period and with consistent catalyst and co-catalyst feed rates. The optimum conditions for maximum polymerisation was found at reaction temperature (RT 75 °C, system pressure (SP 25 bar, and 75% monomer concentration (MC. The hydrogen percentage was kept fixed at all times. The coefficient of correlation for reaction temperature, system pressure, and monomer concentration ratio, was found to be 0.932. Thus, the experimental results and model predicted values were a reliable fit at optimum process conditions. Detailed and adaptable CFD results were capable

  10. A comparison between the pressure-lag model and the rate-type model for the prediction of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, R.M.M.; De Waal, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out to investigate whether the nonlinear compaction behavior of sandstone reservoirs, which has been reported for most well-documented field cases, can be explained by pressure lags in interbedding and/or neighboring low-permeability (shale) layers. On the basis of the results obtained, it is concluded that pressure-lag effects in normally encountered production scenarios cannot account for these nonlinearities, even under worst-case conditions. Therefore, the nonlinear field-compaction behavior must be caused by rate effects in the sandstone reservoir rock itself. This is supported by the fact that a rate-type compaction model recently introduced does indeed give a good description of the observed field behavior.

  11. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  12. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  13. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  14. Modeling real conditions of 'Ukrytie' object in 3D measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podbereznyj, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The article covers a technology of creation on soft products basis for designing: AutoCad, and computer graphics and animation 3D Studio, 3DS MAX, of 3D model of geometrical parameters of current conditions of building structures, technological equipment, fuel-containing materials, concrete, water of ruined Unit 4, 'Ukryttia' object, of Chernobyl NPP. The model built using the above technology will be applied in the future as a basis when automating the design and computer modeling of processes at the 'Ukryttia' object

  15. Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopy, R.J.; Haniotakis, G.E.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different. (author)

  16. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Conditions No. 25-439-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This airplane...

  17. Effect of conditions of air-lift type reactor work on cadmium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula Szymczyk; Kuczajowska-Zadrozna, Malgorzata; Joezwiak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated cadmium sorption by activated sludge immobilized in 1.5% sodium alginate with 0.5% polyvinyl alcohol. Experiments were conducted in an air-lift type reactor at the constant concentration of biosorbent reaching 5 d.m./dm 3 , at three flow rates: 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 V/h, and at three concentrations of the inflowing cadmium solution: 10, 25 and 50mg/dm 3 . Analyses determined adsorption capacity of activated sludge immobilized in alginate as well as reactor's work time depending on flow rate and initial concentration of the solution. Results achieved were described with the use of Thomas model. The highest adsorption capacity of the sorbent (determined from the Thomas model), i.e., 200.2mg/g d.m. was obtained at inflowing solution concentration of 50mg/dm 3 and flow rate of 0.1V/h, whereas the lowest one reached 53.69mg/g d.m. at the respective values of 10mg/dm 3 and 0.1 V/h. Analyses were also carried out to determine the degree of biosorbent adsorption capacity utilization at the assumed effectiveness of cadmium removal - at the breakthrough point (C=0.05*C 0 ) and at adsorption capacity depletion point (C−0.9*C0). The study demonstrated that the effectiveness of adsorption capacity utilization was influenced by both the concentration and flow rate of the inflowing solution. The highest degree of sorbent capacity utilization was noted at inflowing solution concentration of 50mg/dm 3 and flow rate of 0.1 V/h, whereas the lowest one at the respective values of 10mg/dm 3 and 0.1 V/h. The course of the process under dynamic conditions was evaluated using coefficients of tangent inclination - a, at point C/C 0 =1/2. A distinct tendency was demonstrated in changes of tangent slope a as affected by the initial concentration of cadmium and flow rate of the solution. The highest values of a coefficient were achieved at the flow rate of 0.1 V/h and initial cadmium concentration of 50mg/dm 3 .

  18. Model for how type I restriction enzymes select cleavage sites in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studier, F.W.; Bandyopadhyay, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, digestion of phage T7 DNA by the type I restriction enzyme EcoK produces an orderly progression of discrete DNA fragments. All details of the fragmentation pattern can be explained on the basis of the known properties of type I enzymes, together with two further assumptions: (i) in the ATP-stimulated translocation reaction, the enzyme bound at the recognition sequence translocates DNA toward itself from both directions simultaneously; and (ii) when translocation causes neighboring enzymes to meet, they cut the DNA between them. The kinetics of digestion at 37 degree C indicates that the rate of translocation of DNA from each side of a bound enzyme is about 200 base pairs per second, and the cuts are completed within 15-25 sec of the time neighboring enzymes meet. The resulting DNA fragments each contain a single recognition site with an enzyme (or subunit) remaining bound to it. At high enzyme concentrations, such fragments can bu further degraded, apparently by cooperation between the specifically bound and excess enzymes. This model is consistent with a substantial body of previous work on the nuclease activity of EcoB and EcoK, and it explains in a simple way how cleavage sites are selected

  19. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  20. Image Restoration Based on the Hybrid Total-Variation-Type Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Baoli; Pang, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid total-variation-type model for the image restoration problem based on combining advantages of the ROF model with the LLT model. Since two ${L}^{1}$ -norm terms in the proposed model make it difficultly solved by using some classically numerical methods directly, we first employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve a general form of the proposed model. Then, based on the ADMM and the Moreau-Yosida decomposition theory, a more efficient method call...

  1. Analysis and modeling of unsteady aerodynamics with application to wind turbine blade vibration at standstill conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypinski, W.

    2012-02-15

    Wind turbine blade vibrations at standstill conditions were investigated in the present work. These included vortex-induced and stall-induced vibrations. Thus, it was investigated whether the stand still vibrations are vortex-induced, stall-induced or a combination of both types. The work comprised analyzes based on engineering models and Computational Fluid Dynamics. Two-dimensional, three-degree-of-freedom, elastically-mounted-airfoil engineering models were created. These models aimed at investigating the effect of temporal lag in the aerodynamic response of an airfoil on the aeroelastic stability limits. The motivation for it was that the standard aerodynamics existing in state-of-the-art aeroelastic codes is effectively quasi-steady in deep stall. If such an assumption was incorrect, these codes could predict stall-induced vibrations inaccurately. The main conclusion drawn from these analyses was that even a relatively low amount of temporal lag in the aerodynamic response may significantly increase the aerodynamic damping and therefore influence the aeroelastic stability limits, relative to quasisteady aerodynamic response. Two- and three-dimensional CFD computations included non-moving, prescribed-motion and elastically mounted airfoil suspensions. 2D and 3D prescribed-motion CFD computations performed on a DU96-W-180 airfoil predicted vortex-induced vibrations at 90 degrees angle of attack at the frequency close to the stationary vortex shedding frequency predicted by 2D CFD computations. Significant discrepancies were observed between 2D and 3D computations around 25 degrees angle of attack. 3D computations predicted occurrence of vortex-induced vibrations while the wind speed necessary for the occurrence of stall-induced vibrations was predicted too high to occur in normal conditions. Analysis of the dynamic lift and drag resulting from 2D and 3D CFD computations carried out around 25 degrees angle of attack showed loops with the slopes of opposite signs

  2. Extended Lipkin-type models with residual proton-neutron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, S.

    1999-01-01

    Extended Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) models for testing the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and proton-neutron Random Phase Approximation (pnRPA) methods are developed taking into account explicitly the proton and neutron degrees of freedom. First, an extended LMG model for testing RPA is developed. The proton and neutron Hamiltonians are taken to be of the LMG form and, in addition, a residual proton-neutron interaction is included. Exact solutions in a SU(2) x SU(2) basis as well as the RPA solutions for the energy spectrum of the model Hamiltonian are obtained. Then, the behaviour of the first collective excited state is studied as a function of the interaction parameters of the model using the exact and RPA methods. Secondly, an extended LMG model for testing pnRPA method is developed. Besides the proton and neutron single particle terms two types of residual proton-neutron interactions, one simulating a particle-particle and the other a particle-hole interaction, are included in the model Hamiltonian, so that the model is exactly solvable in an isospin SU(2) x SU(2) basis. The exact and pnRPA spectra of the model Hamiltonian are calculated as a function of the model parameters and compared to each other. Furthermore, charge-changing operators simulating a nuclear beta decay and their action on eigenfunctions of the model Hamiltonian are defined, and transition amplitude of them are calculated using exact and pnRPA wave functions. The best agreement between the exact RPA-type calculations for spectra and transitions, was obtained when the correlated RPA ground state, instead of the uncorrelated HF ground state was employed and when both kinds of residual interactions (i.e. like- and unlike-particle two-body interactions) are included in the model Hamiltonians. (author)

  3. Model predictions and control of conditions in a CA-reefer container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verdijck, G.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a concept for energy saving for refrigerated container transport is presented. The concept is based on model-predictive control of the set points of the cooling unit. These models predict energy consumption of the cooling unit, climatic conditions inside the cargo space, and the change

  4. Creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises condition to support the works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postil, S.D.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    A technology for creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' Object premises conditions was developed on the basis of geoinformation system AutoCad. DB Access and instrumental utility 3D MAX. Information models and database for conditions of 'Ukryttia' object's premises located between 0.000 and 67.000 marks in axes 41-52, row G-T, were created. Using integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises conditions, 3D surface distribution of radiation field in the object premises on level 0.000 has been received. It is revealed that maximum values of radiation field are concentrated over the clusters of fuel-containing materials

  5. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MODELING THE AMBIENT CONDITION EFFECTS OF AN AIR-COOLED NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius D.; Bucknor, Matthew; Kraus, Adam R.; Lv, Qiuping

    2017-07-02

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive safety concept under consideration for the overall safety strategy of advanced reactors such as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). One such variant, air-cooled RCCS, uses natural convection to drive the flow of air from outside the reactor building to remove decay heat during normal operation and accident scenarios. The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”) is a half-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The facility was constructed to carry out highly instrumented experiments to study the performance of the RCCS concept for reactor decay heat removal that relies on natural convection cooling. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts were performed to support the design, operation, and analysis of the natural convection system. Throughout the testing program, strong influences of ambient conditions were observed in the experimental data when baseline tests were repeated under the same test procedures. Thus, significant analysis efforts were devoted to gaining a better understanding of these influences and the subsequent response of the NSTF to ambient conditions. It was determined that air humidity had negligible impacts on NSTF system performance and therefore did not warrant consideration in the models. However, temperature differences between the building exterior and interior air, along with the outside wind speed, were shown to be dominant factors. Combining the stack and wind effects together, an empirical model was developed based on theoretical considerations and using experimental data to correlate zero-power system flow rates with ambient meteorological conditions. Some coefficients in the model were obtained based on best fitting the experimental data. The predictive capability of the empirical model was demonstrated by applying it to the new set of experimental data. The

  7. Simulating reservoir lithologies by an actively conditioned Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Runhai; Luthi, Stefan M.; Gisolf, Dries

    2018-06-01

    The coupled Markov chain model can be used to simulate reservoir lithologies between wells, by conditioning them on the observed data in the cored wells. However, with this method, only the state at the same depth as the current cell is going to be used for conditioning, which may be a problem if the geological layers are dipping. This will cause the simulated lithological layers to be broken or to become discontinuous across the reservoir. In order to address this problem, an actively conditioned process is proposed here, in which a tolerance angle is predefined. The states contained in the region constrained by the tolerance angle will be employed for conditioning in the horizontal chain first, after which a coupling concept with the vertical chain is implemented. In order to use the same horizontal transition matrix for different future states, the tolerance angle has to be small. This allows the method to work in reservoirs without complex structures caused by depositional processes or tectonic deformations. Directional artefacts in the modeling process are avoided through a careful choice of the simulation path. The tolerance angle and dipping direction of the strata can be obtained from a correlation between wells, or from seismic data, which are available in most hydrocarbon reservoirs, either by interpretation or by inversion that can also assist the construction of a horizontal probability matrix.

  8. Urban search mobile platform modeling in hindered access conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankova, I. I.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.; Barankov, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article explores the control system simulation and the design of the experimental model of the rescue robot mobile platform. The functional interface, a structural functional diagram of the mobile platform control unit, and a functional control scheme for the mobile platform of secure robot were modeled. The task of design a mobile platform for urban searching in hindered access conditions is realized through the use of a mechanical basis with a chassis and crawler drive, a warning device, human heat sensors and a microcontroller based on Arduino platforms.

  9. Dimethyl amiloride improves glucose homeostasis in mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2008-06-01

    Dimethyl amiloride (DMA) enhances insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell. DMA also enhances time-dependent potentiation (TDP) and enables TDP to occur in situations where it is normally absent. As we have demonstrated before, these effects are mediated in part through inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), resulting in increased availability of arginine. Thus both DMA and arginine have the potential to correct the secretory defect in diabetes by enabling or enhancing TDP. In the current study we have demonstrated the ability of these agents to improve blood glucose homeostasis in three mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The pattern of TDP under different conditions indicates that inhibition of NOS is not the only mechanism through which DMA exerts its positive effects. Thus we also have explored another possible mechanism through which DMA enables/enhances TDP, via the activation of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

  10. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions of people with type 2 diabetes: discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexo, M A; Cleal, B; Hagelund, Lise; Willaing, I; Olesen, K

    2017-12-15

    The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges workforce capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work-related consequences, such as early retirement. Laws of most high-income countries require workplaces to provide accommodations to enable people with chronic disabilities to manage their condition at work. A barrier to successful implementation of such accommodations can be lack of co-workers' willingness to support people with T2D. This study aimed to examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of people with and without T2D for five workplace initiatives that help individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work. Three samples with employed Danish participants were drawn from existing online panels: a general population sample (n = 600), a T2D sample (n = 693), and a matched sample of people without diabetes (n = 539). Participants completed discrete choice experiments eliciting their WTP (reduction in monthly salary, €/month) for five hypothetical workplace initiatives: part-time job, customized work, extra breaks with pay, and time off for medical consultations with and without pay. WTP was estimated by conditional logits models. Bootstrapping was used to estimate confidence intervals for WTP. There was an overall WTP for all initiatives. Average WTP for all attributes was 34 €/month (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27-43] in the general population sample, 32 €/month (95% CI: 26-38) in the T2D sample, and 55 €/month (95% CI: 43-71) in the matched sample. WTP for additional breaks with pay was considerably lower than for the other initiatives in all samples. People with T2D had significantly lower WTP than people without diabetes for part-time work, customized work, and time off without pay, but not for extra breaks or time off with pay. For people with and without T2D, WTP was present for initiatives that could improve management of diabetes at the workplace. WTP was lowest among people with T2D. Implementation of these

  11. PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. EXPLOSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Garcia-Senz, Domingo; Cabezon, Ruben M.; DomInguez, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). However, all attempts to find a convincing ignition mechanism based on a delayed detonation in a destabilized, expanding, white dwarf have been elusive so far. One of the possibilities that has been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock that confines a carbon-oxygen rich core, while transforming the kinetic energy of the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work, we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of PRD models from the time of detonation initiation up to homologous expansion. Different models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M defl , give explosions spanning a range of kinetic energies, K ∼ (1.0-1.2) x 10 51 erg, and 56 Ni masses, M( 56 Ni) ∼ 0.6-0.8 M sun , which are compatible with what is expected for typical Type Ia supernovae. Spectra and light curves of angle-averaged spherically symmetric versions of the PRD models are discussed. Type Ia supernova spectra pose the most stringent requirements on PRD models.

  12. Features of RAPTA-SFD code modelling of chemical interactions of basic materials of the WWER active zone in accident conditions with severe fuel damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Sokolov, N.B.; Salatov, A.V.; Nechaeva, O.A.; Andreyeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Vlasov, F.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A brief description of RAPTA-SFD code intended for computer simulations of WWER-type fuel elements (simulator or absorber element) in conditions of accident with severe damage of fuel. Presented are models of chemical interactions of basic materials of the active zone, emphasized are special feature of their application in carrying out of the CORA-W2 experiment within the framework of International Standard Problem ISP-36. Results obtained confirm expediency of phenomenological models application. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  13. The effects of overwintering and habitat type on body condition and locomotion of the wolf spider Pardosa alacris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Kapilkumar; Horváth, Ádám; Gallé-Szpisjak, Nikolett; Gellért, Levente; Csata, Enikő; Gallé, Róbert

    2018-05-01

    Overwintering in temperate regions is a prominent mortality risk for invertebrates and may affect their behaviour and body condition. Pardosa alacris is a common ground dwelling spider in central European native and plantation forests, and habitat type and prey availability may play important roles in their overwintering. The effect of overwintering on body condition and behaviour of spiders in semi natural and exotic habitats is relatively unknown. Here we assess the effects of winter on spiders from native poplar and exotic pine plantations. The locomotory behaviour of P. alacris (distance covered and speed) was assessed by tracking their movement in a white circular plastic arena. We assessed body condition, body size, and total fat content. Forest type and sex had significant effects on body length. Fat content was significantly higher in the spring than in autumn, and spiders covered larger distances and were faster in autumn than in spring. Fat content had a significant negative effect on average speed. Spiders in native forests were smaller but grew more during the winter than in exotic plantations, possibly due to higher prey availability in native forests. Visually-hunting predators may significantly affect spiders. Fat spiders with better body condition moved less, and were thus less detectable by predators. However the low movement rate may result in a low rate of encountering prey items, thus lowering feeding efficiency.

  14. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  15. Impaired peripheral nerve regeneration in type-2 diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vuong M; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Katano, Tayo; Matsumura, Shinji; Saito, Akira; Yamada, Akihiro; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain. To seek its effective treatment, here we prepared a type-2 diabetic mouse model by giving mice 2 injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide and examining the ability for nerve regeneration by using a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration model previously established by us. Seventeen weeks after the last injection, the mice exhibited symptoms of type-2 diabetes, that is, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin level, mechanical hyperalgesia, and impaired sensory nerve fibers in the plantar skin. These mice showed delayed functional recovery and nerve regeneration by 2 weeks compared with young healthy mice and by 1 week compared with age-matched non-diabetic mice after axotomy. Furthermore, type-2 diabetic mice displayed increased expression of PTEN in their DRG neurons. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor at the cutting site of the nerve for 4 weeks promoted the axonal transport and functional recovery remarkably. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve regeneration was impaired in type-2 diabetic model and that its combination with sciatic nerve transection is suitable for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of early diabetic neuropathy. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Model for Type 1 Diabetes: The Pittsburgh CHD in Type 1 Diabetes Risk Mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zgibor, J.C.; Ruppert, K.; Orchard, T.J.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Fuller, J.H.; Chaturvedi, N.; Roberts, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim - To create a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction model specific to type 1 diabetes. Methods - Development of the model used data from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC). EDC subjects had type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 1950 and 1980, received their

  17. [Discussion of Chinese syndrome typing in acute hepatic failure model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-liang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Xian-bo

    2011-05-01

    To study Chinese syndrome typing of acute hepatic failure (AHF) mice model by screening effective formulae. Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) was intraperitoneally injected to mice to establish the AHF mice model. Yinchenhao Decoction, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, and Xijiao Dihuang Decoction were administered to model mice respectively by gastrogavage. The behavior and the survival rate were monitored. The liver function and pathological changes of liver tissues were detected. In all the tested classic recipes, the survival rate was elevated from 10% to 60% by administration of Xijiao Dihuang Decoction. Five h after modeling, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was (183.95 +/- 52.00) U/L, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (235.70 +/- 34.03) U/L in Xijiao Di-huang Decoction Group, lower than those of the model control group, but with insignificant difference (ALT: 213.32 +/- 71.93 U/L; AST: 299.48 +/- 70.56 U/L, both P > 0.05). Xijiao Dihuang Decoction could obviously alleviate the liver injury. Xijiao Dihuang Decoction was an effective formula for LPS/D-GaIN induced AHF model. According to syndrome typing through formula effect, heat toxin and blood stasis syndrome dominated in the LPS/D-GalN induced AHF mice model.

  18. A theoretical critical heat flux model for low-pressure, low-mass-flux, and low-steam quality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihsiao Ho; Kuanchywan Tu; Baushei Pei; Chinjang Chang

    1993-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) is the maximum heat flux just before a boiling crisis; its importance as a measurement of nuclear reactor power capability design as well as in the safety of reactors has been recognized. With emphasis on CHF behavior under subcooled and low-quality (i.e., 2 ·s), an improved model that uses the sublayer dry out theory has been developed. Based on experimental observations of CHF, the model assumes that CHF under such conditions is of the departure from nucleate boiling type. Based on the postulation that CHF is triggered by Helmholtz instability in the sublayer steam-liquid system, the model was developed by a simple energy balance of liquid sublayer evaporation as the vapor blanket tends to disturb the balance between the buoyancy force and the drag force exerted upon it. The model is compared with the well-known Biasi et al. correlation as well as the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited lookup table against 102 uniformly heated round tube CHF data and 34 nonuniformly heated round tube CHF data. The comparison shows that the model provides better accuracy and a reasonable agreement between the predicted values and experimental CHF data

  19. In Vitro Disease Model of Microgravity Conditioning on Human Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Culbertson, C.; Zhang, Ye; Emami, K.; Wu, H.; Sun, Wei

    2010-01-01

    NASA and its partners are committed to introducing appropriate new technology to enable learning and living safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time in a sustainable and possibly indefinite manner. In the responsible acquisition of that goal, life sciences is tasked to tune and advance current medical technology to prepare for human health and wellness in the space environment. The space environment affects the condition and function of biological systems from organ level function to shape of individual organelles. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of microgravity on kinetics of drug metabolism. This fundamental characterization is meaningful to (1) scientific understanding of the response of biology to microgravity and (2) clinical dosing requirements and pharmacological thresholds during long term manned space exploration. Metabolism kinetics of the anti-nausea drug promethazine (PMZ) were determined by an in vitro ground model of 3-dimensional aggregates of human hepatocytes conditioned to weightlessness using a rotating wall bioreactor. The authors observed up-regulated PMZ conversion in model microgravity conditions and attribute this to effect to model microgravity conditioning acting on metabolic mechanisms of the cells. Further work is necessary to determine which particular cellular mechanisms are governing the experimental observations, but the authors conclude kinetics of drug metabolism are responsive to gravitational fields and further study of this sensitivity would improve dosing of pharmaceuticals to persons exposed to a microgravity environment.

  20. Influence of the Outer Boundary Condition on models of AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, G.; Weiss, A.

    2018-04-01

    Current implementations of the stellar atmosphere typically derive boundary conditions for the interior model from either grey plane-parallel atmospheres or scaled solar atmospheres, neither of which can be considered to have appropriate underlying assumptions for the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB). This paper discusses the treatment and influence of the outer boundary condition within stellar evolution codes, and the resulting effects on the AGB evolution. The complex interaction of processes, such as the third dredge up and mass loss, governing the TP-AGB can be affected by varying the treatment of this boundary condition. Presented here are the results from altering the geometry, opacities and the implementation of a grid of MARCS/COMARCS model atmospheres in order to improve this treatment. Although there are changes in the TP-AGB evolution, observable quantities, such as the final core mass, are not significantly altered as a result of the change of atmospheric treatment. During the course of the investigation, a previously unseen phenomena in the AGB models was observed and further investigated. This is believed to be physical, although arising from specific conditions which make its presence unlikely. If it were present in stars, this phenomenon would increase the carbon-star lifetime above 10Myr and increase the final core mass by ˜0.1M⊙ in the narrow initial-mass range where it was observed (˜2 - 2.3M⊙).