WorldWideScience

Sample records for type biological functions

  1. Systems Biology-Derived Biomarkers to Predict Progression of Renal Function Decline in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Gert; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Aschauer, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    hormone 1, hepatocyte growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP7, MMP8, MMP13, tyrosine kinase, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1. These biomarkers were measured in baseline serum samples from 1,765 patients recruited into two large clinical trials. eGFR decline was predicted based...... on molecular markers, clinical risk factors (including baseline eGFR and albuminuria), and both combined, and these predictions were evaluated using mixed linear regression models for longitudinal data. RESULTS: The variability of annual eGFR loss explained by the biomarkers, indicated by the adjusted R2 value......, combined with clinical variables, enhances the prediction of renal function loss over a wide range of baseline eGFR values in patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD....

  2. Systems Biology-Derived Biomarkers to Predict Progression of Renal Function Decline in Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, Gert; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Aschauer, Constantin; Heinzel, Andreas; Heinze, Georg; Kainz, Alexander; Sunzenauer, Judith; Perco, Paul; de Zeeuw, Dick; Rossing, Peter; Pena, Michelle; Oberbauer, Rainer

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes has a complex molecular and likely multifaceted pathophysiology. We aimed to validate a panel of biomarkers identified using a systems biology approach to predict the individual decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large

  3. The dimer interface of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase hemopexin domain: crystal structure and biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochowicz, Anna; Goettig, Peter; Evans, Richard; Visse, Robert; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Palmisano, Ralf; Ito, Noriko; Richter, Klaus; Maskos, Klaus; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; Nagase, Hideaki; Bode, Wolfram; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2011-03-04

    Homodimerization is an essential step for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to activate proMMP-2 and to degrade collagen on the cell surface. To uncover the molecular basis of the hemopexin (Hpx) domain-driven dimerization of MT1-MMP, a crystal structure of the Hpx domain was solved at 1.7 Å resolution. Two interactions were identified as potential biological dimer interfaces in the crystal structure, and mutagenesis studies revealed that the biological dimer possesses a symmetrical interaction where blades II and III of molecule A interact with blades III and II of molecule B. The mutations of amino acids involved in the interaction weakened the dimer interaction of Hpx domains in solution, and incorporation of these mutations into the full-length enzyme significantly inhibited dimer-dependent functions on the cell surface, including proMMP-2 activation, collagen degradation, and invasion into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas dimer-independent functions, including gelatin film degradation and two-dimensional cell migration, were not affected. These results shed light on the structural basis of MT1-MMP dimerization that is crucial to promote cellular invasion.

  4. Biological data assimilation for parameter estimation of a phytoplankton functional type model for the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Takafumi; Shigemitsu, Masahito; Nakano, Hideyuki; Hashioka, Taketo; Masuda, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Ecosystem models are used to understand ecosystem dynamics and ocean biogeochemical cycles and require optimum physiological parameters to best represent biological behaviours. These physiological parameters are often tuned up empirically, while ecosystem models have evolved to increase the number of physiological parameters. We developed a three-dimensional (3-D) lower-trophic-level marine ecosystem model known as the Nitrogen, Silicon and Iron regulated Marine Ecosystem Model (NSI-MEM) and employed biological data assimilation using a micro-genetic algorithm to estimate 23 physiological parameters for two phytoplankton functional types in the western North Pacific. The estimation of the parameters was based on a one-dimensional simulation that referenced satellite data for constraining the physiological parameters. The 3-D NSI-MEM optimized by the data assimilation improved the timing of a modelled plankton bloom in the subarctic and subtropical regions compared to the model without data assimilation. Furthermore, the model was able to improve not only surface concentrations of phytoplankton but also their subsurface maximum concentrations. Our results showed that surface data assimilation of physiological parameters from two contrasting observatory stations benefits the representation of vertical plankton distribution in the western North Pacific.

  5. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  6. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  7. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2016-06-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus ( Cistus salviifolius) and ulex ( Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence ( ΔF/ Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  8. Functional model of biological neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, James Ting-Ho

    2010-12-01

    A functional model of biological neural networks, called temporal hierarchical probabilistic associative memory (THPAM), is proposed in this paper. THPAM comprises functional models of dendritic trees for encoding inputs to neurons, a first type of neuron for generating spike trains, a second type of neuron for generating graded signals to modulate neurons of the first type, supervised and unsupervised Hebbian learning mechanisms for easy learning and retrieving, an arrangement of dendritic trees for maximizing generalization, hardwiring for rotation-translation-scaling invariance, and feedback connections with different delay durations for neurons to make full use of present and past informations generated by neurons in the same and higher layers. These functional models and their processing operations have many functions of biological neural networks that have not been achieved by other models in the open literature and provide logically coherent answers to many long-standing neuroscientific questions. However, biological justifications of these functional models and their processing operations are required for THPAM to qualify as a macroscopic model (or low-order approximate) of biological neural networks.

  9. IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2: biological function and putative role in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J.; Kolte, A.M.; Hansen, T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) have implicated IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IMP2/IGF2BP2) as one of the several factors in the etiology of late onset diabetes. IMP2 belongs to a family of oncofetal mRNA-binding proteins implicated in RNA localization...... and T2D Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11......, stability, and translation that are essential for normal embryonic growth and development. This review provides a background to the IMP protein family with an emphasis on human IMP2, followed by a closer look at the GWA studies to evaluate the significance, if any, of the proposed correlation between IMP2...

  10. The biological function of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eEarl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one’s ongoing experience—influences one’s behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1 contrary to one’s intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2 consciousness does have a biological function; and (3 consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc., is incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness.

  11. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  12. Structure and function in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, C.H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the history of the developments of structural chemistry in biology beginning with the work of the bacteriologist Ehrlich leading to a comprehensive examination of the influence of size and configuration on the interaction between specific antibodies and side-chain determinants. Recent developments include the recognition of a higher order of specificity in the interaction of proteins with one another

  13. A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2017-01-01

    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity of functions exist in this strict sense as well. The theory depends on an internal physiological or neural process that mimics an organism's fitness, and modulates the organism's variability accordingly. The structure of the internal process can be subdivided into subprocesses that monitor specific functions in an organism. The theory matches well with each intuition on a previously published list of intuited ideas about biological functions, including intuitions that have posed difficulties for other theories.

  14. A functional overview of conservation biological control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Graham S; Cook, Samantha M; Dye, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is a sustainable approach to pest management that can contribute to a reduction in pesticide use as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. CBC is based on the premise that countering habitat loss and environmental disturbance associated...... CBC prescriptions have proved elusive. To tackle this, we consolidate existing knowledge of CBC using a simple conceptual model that organises the functional elements of CBC into a common, unifying framework. We identify and integrate the key biological processes affecting natural enemies...... and their biological control function across local and regional scales, and consider the interactions, interdependencies and constraints that determine the outcome of CBC strategies. Conservation measures are often effective in supporting natural enemy populations but their success cannot be guaranteed; the greatest...

  15. Functional biology of sympatric krill species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2016-01-01

    Here we compare the functional biology of the sympatric krill species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa inermis. For M. norvegica, we investigated functional responses on diatoms and copepods, together with prey size spectra on plankton ,400 mm and copepods in the size range 500–3220 mm....... For T. inermis, only prey size spectrum on plankton ,400 mm were investigated. The prey size ranges of both species include organisms ,400 mm, and they consequently graze on several trophic levels. However, T. inermis feed on cells ,10 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), whereas M. norvegica only...

  16. Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Nottale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.

  17. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  18. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  19. Neurotrophin Propeptides: Biological Functions and Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieva, Lola M; Gasanov, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins constitute a family of growth factors that play a key role in the regulation of the development and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A common feature of all the neurotrophins is their synthesis in cells as long precursors (pre-pro-neurotrophins) that contain an N-terminal signal peptide, a following propeptide and the mature neurotrophin. Although the signal peptide functions have been well studied, the role of neurotrophin propeptides is not so clear. Here, we briefly summarize the biochemistry of neurotrophin propeptides, including their role as folding-assistants for the mature factor and their role in processing and in secretion of neurotrophins. In the main part of the review we summarize our current state of knowledge of the biological activity of neurotrophin propeptides, their possible mechanisms of action, and their potential influence on the activity of the mature neurotrophins.

  20. FUNCTION IN BIOLOGY: ETIOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. In this paper, we argue for a taxonomy of approaches to function based on different epistemological perspectives assumed with regard to the treatment of this central concept in the life sciences. We distinguish between etiological and organizational perspectives on function, analyzing two distinct theories related to each perspective: Wright’s selectionist etiological approach and Godfrey-Smith’s modern history theory of functions, in the case of the etiological perspective; and Cummins’ functional analysis and Collier’s interactivist approach to function, among organizational accounts. We explain differences and similarities between these theories and the broader perspectives on function, arguing for a particular way of understanding the consensus without unity in debates about function. While explaining the accounts of function, we also deal with the relationship between this concept and other important biological concepts, such as adaptation, selection, complexity, and autonomy. We also advance an argument for the limits and prospects of the explanatory role of function in evolution. By arguing that changes in functionality are always grounded on changes in systems’ organization, we show that function can never explain the origins of traits. Nevertheless, it can explain the spread of traits in populations, but only when we are dealing with functionally novel traits. Finally, we stress that organizational accounts of function are needed to understand how new functions appear by means of changes in systems’ organization. KEYWORDS: Function; Teleology; Explanation; Etiology; Organization.   RESUMEN. En este artículo, argumentamos a favor de una taxonomía de abordajes sobre función basada en diferentes perspectivas epistemológicas a cerca del tratamiento de este concepto central en las ciencias de la vida. Distinguimos entre perspectivas etiológicas y organizacionales sobre función, analizando dos teorías distintas

  1. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  2. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex sugars that are highly abundant in human milk, but currently not present in infant formula. More than a hundred different HMOs have been identified so far. The amount and composition of HMOs are highly variable between women, and each structurally defined HMO might have a distinct functionality. HMOs are not digested by the infant and serve as metabolic substrates for select microbes, contributing to shape the infant gut microbiome. HMOs act as soluble decoy receptors that block the attachment of viral, bacterial or protozoan parasite pathogens to epithelial cell surface sugars, which may help prevent infectious diseases in the gut and also the respiratory and urinary tracts. HMOs are also antimicrobials that act as bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal agents. In addition, HMOs alter host epithelial and immune cell responses with potential benefits for the neonate. The article reviews current knowledge as well as future challenges and opportunities related to the functional biology of HMOs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Structure and Function of Biological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daniel Duanqing

    2010-01-01

    Biology has been revolutionized in recent years by an explosion in the availability of data. Transforming this new wealth of data into meaningful biological insights and clinical breakthroughs requires a complete overhaul both in the questions being asked and the methodologies used to answer them. A major challenge in organizing and understanding…

  4. MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Wang J and Sen S 2011 MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to biomarkers of disease. ... growth factor type I receptor; INSR, insulin receptor; IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; IPMN, ..... Prostate cancer signalling.

  5. Feedback dynamics and cell function: Why systems biology is called Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Mesarovic, Mihajlo

    2005-05-01

    A new paradigm, like Systems Biology, should challenge the way research has been conducted previously. This Opinion article aims to present Systems Biology, not as the application of engineering principles to biology but as a merger of systems- and control theory with molecular- and cell biology. In our view, the central dogma of Systems Biology is that it is system dynamics that gives rise to the functioning and function of cells. The concepts of feedback regulation and control of pathways and the coordination of cell function are emphasized as an important area of Systems Biology research. The hurdles and risks for this area are discussed from the perspective of dynamic pathway modelling. Most of all, the aim of this article is to promote mathematical modelling and simulation as a part of molecular- and cell biology. Systems Biology is a success if it is widely accepted that there is nothing more practical than a good theory.

  6. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological

  7. IMRT optimization with pseudo-biologic objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    The pseudo-biologic objective function has been proposed for the IMRT optimization. It is similar to the biological objective function in mathematical shape, but uses physical parameters. The pseudo-biologic objective function concept is consisted of the target coverage index (TCI) and the organ score index (OSI), was introduced. The TCI was expressed as the sum of all of the weighted bins of target dose volume histogram (DVH). The weights were given as the normal distribution of which the average is 100 % and the standard deviation is ±. The OSI was expressed as similar way. The average of the normal distribution was 0% of the dose and that of standard deviation was selected as a function of limiting dose and its importance. The objective function could be calculated as the product of the TCI and OSI's. The RTP Tool Box (RTB) was used for this study. The constraints applied in the optimization was intuitively clinical experience based numbers, while the physical objective function asks just numbers which are not necessarily based on the clinic, and the parameters for the biologic objective functions are uncertain. The OSI's from the pseudo-biological function showed better results than from the physical functions, while TCI's showed similar tendency. We could show that the pseudo-biologic function can be used for an IMRT objective function on behalf of the biological objective function

  8. Hand functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpinar Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hand functions have an enormous impact on activities of daily living in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, such as self-care, administering insulin injections, and preparing and eating meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Methods. This was an observational case-control study investigating the hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. The study comprised 41 patients with type 1 DM aged 25–50 years sex- and age-matched, 40 non-diabetic controls, and 91 patients with type 2 DM aged 40–65 years sex- and age-matched 60 non-diabetic controls. Patients with documented history of diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy and adhesive capsulitis were excluded. The Duruoz Hand Index was used to assess the functional hand disability. Grip strength was tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer. Results. The Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in persons in the control group (p 0.05. Grip strength values of patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with type 2 DM and their control group. There was a negatively significant correlation between grip strength and the Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with both type 1 and type 2 DM (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2 DM have different degrees of hand disability as compared to healthy control groups.

  9. Function-Based Algorithms for Biological Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pragyan Sheela P.

    2015-01-01

    Two problems at two different abstraction levels of computational biology are studied. At the molecular level, efficient pattern matching algorithms in DNA sequences are presented. For gene order data, an efficient data structure is presented capable of storing all gene re-orderings in a systematic manner. A common characteristic of presented…

  10. Biological response to purification and acid functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Acid functionalization has been considered as an easy way to enhance the dispersion and biodegradation of carbon nanotubes (CNT). However, inconsistencies between toxicity studies of acid functionalized CNT remain unexplained. This could be due to a joint effect of the main physicochemical modifications resulting from an acid functionalization: addition of surface acid groups and purification from catalytic metallic impurities. In this study, the impact on CNT biotoxicity of these two physiochemical features was assessed separately. The in vitro biological response of RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated after exposure to 15-240 µg mL-1 of two types of multi-walled CNT. For each type of CNT (small: 20 nm diameter, and big: 90 nm diameter), three different surface chemical properties were studied (total of six CNT samples): pristine, acid functionalized and desorbed. Desorbed CNT were purified by the acid functionalization but presented a very low amount of surface acid groups due to a thermal treatment under vacuum. A Janus effect of acid functionalization with two opposite impacts is highlighted. The CNT purification decreased the overall toxicity, while the surface acid groups intensified it when present at a specific threshold. These acid groups especially amplified the pro-inflammatory response. The threshold mechanism which seemed to regulate the impact of acid groups should be further studied to determine its value and potential link to the other physicochemical state of the CNT. The results suggest that, for a safer-design approach, the benefit-risk balance of an acid functionalization has to be considered, depending on the CNT primary state of purification. Further research should be conducted in this direction.

  11. The five functions of psychological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Event-based text mining for biology and functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Nawaz, Raheel; McNaught, John; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of genome function requires a mapping between genome-derived entities and biochemical reactions, and the biomedical literature represents a rich source of information about reactions between biological components. However, the increasingly rapid growth in the volume of literature provides both a challenge and an opportunity for researchers to isolate information about reactions of interest in a timely and efficient manner. In response, recent text mining research in the biology domain has been largely focused on the identification and extraction of ‘events’, i.e. categorised, structured representations of relationships between biochemical entities, from the literature. Functional genomics analyses necessarily encompass events as so defined. Automatic event extraction systems facilitate the development of sophisticated semantic search applications, allowing researchers to formulate structured queries over extracted events, so as to specify the exact types of reactions to be retrieved. This article provides an overview of recent research into event extraction. We cover annotated corpora on which systems are trained, systems that achieve state-of-the-art performance and details of the community shared tasks that have been instrumental in increasing the quality, coverage and scalability of recent systems. Finally, several concrete applications of event extraction are covered, together with emerging directions of research. PMID:24907365

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Rang Yun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain optimal outcomes in vivo, it is important to enhance the half-life of FGFs and their biological stability. Future applications of FGFs are expected when the biological functions of FGFs are potentiated through the appropriate use of delivery systems and scaffolds. This review will introduce the biology and cellular functions of FGFs and deal with the biomaterials based delivery systems and their current applications for the regeneration of tissues, including skin, blood vessel, muscle, adipose, tendon/ligament, cartilage, bone, tooth, and nerve tissues.

  14. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2017-07-18

    Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR) cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure-activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  15. Distinguishing between "function" and "effect" in genome biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P; Linquist, Stefan; Gregory, T Ryan

    2014-05-09

    Much confusion in genome biology results from conflation of possible meanings of the word "function." We suggest that, in this connection, attention should be paid to evolutionary biologists and philosophers who have previously dealt with this problem. We need only decide that although all genomic structures have effects, only some of them should be said to have functions. Although it will very often be difficult or impossible to establish function (strictly defined), it should not automatically be assumed. We enjoin genomicists in particular to pay greater attention to parsing biological effects. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. A Unifying Theory of Biological Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms

  17. Explaining Biological Functionality: Is Control Theory Enough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I argue that the etiological approach, as understood in terms of control theory, suffers from a problem of symmetry, by which function can equally well be placed in the environment as in the organism. Focusing on the autonomy view, I note that it can be understood to some degree in terms of control theory in its version called ...

  18. Functional mapping in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachron, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Two Views of Functional Mapping and Autoradiography; Quantitative Analysis of Autoradiographs; Hardware and Software Design Considerations in Engineering an Image Processing Workstation: Autoradiographic Analysis with DUMAS and the BRAIN Autoradiograph Analysis Software Package (with 1 color plate); and Quantitative Autoradiography and in vitro Radioligand Binding

  19. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  20. Genomic Functionalization: The Next Revolution In Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schoeniger, Joseph S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Imbro, Paula M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We have implemented a ligand-alignment algorithm into our developed computational pipeline for identifying specificity-determining features (SDFs) in protein-ligand complexes. Given a set of protein-ligand complex structures, the algorithm aligns the complexes by ligand rather than by the C -RMSD or standard approach, providing a single reference frame for extracting SDFs. We anticipate that this ligand-alignment capability will be highly useful for protein function prediction. We already have a database containing > 20 K ligand-protein complex crystal structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. By aligning these proteins to single reference frames using ligand alignment, we can submit the complexes to our pipeline for SDF extraction. The SDFs derived from this training procedure can be used as thumbprints that are hallmarks of individual enzyme classes. These SDF thumbprints may then serve as guides to the prediction of function of new unknown proteins.

  1. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and development achievement report for fiscal 1998 on accelerated type biological function construction technologies. Development of new-type advanced-function enzyme creating technologies; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An artificial mutation/selection system was constructed in a laboratory based on molecular-level findings collected about the biological evolution mechanism, and biotechnology was studied for creating excellent biological functions. In the study of novel mutation generating technologies, selection is performed after the formation of numerous chimera enzymes by a family shuffling process using resistance to heat as the index. Then, a hybrid enzyme with its resistance to heat more than 10 times higher than that of the parent enzyme was obtained. In the study of establishing coordination between genotype and phenotype, a highly sensitive bacterial coordination technology was developed, and a highly sensitive detection method was constructed using a flow cytometer. As for technologies of highly efficient selection, a research was conducted about the selection of catalytic antibodies equipped with protease and esterase activity. In the study of technologies for enhancing adaptive walk in an evolution experimenting system, the usefulness is studied of a terrain survey based on the adaptive walk theory and a high-efficiency adaptive walk method using the mutation scrambling method. (NEDO)

  3. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  4. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  5. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  6. Dynamic Biological Functioning Important for Simulating and Stabilizing Ocean Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, P. J.; Matear, R. J.; Chase, Z.; Phipps, S. J.; Bindoff, N. L.

    2018-04-01

    The biogeochemistry of the ocean exerts a strong influence on the climate by modulating atmospheric greenhouse gases. In turn, ocean biogeochemistry depends on numerous physical and biological processes that change over space and time. Accurately simulating these processes is fundamental for accurately simulating the ocean's role within the climate. However, our simulation of these processes is often simplistic, despite a growing understanding of underlying biological dynamics. Here we explore how new parameterizations of biological processes affect simulated biogeochemical properties in a global ocean model. We combine 6 different physical realizations with 6 different biogeochemical parameterizations (36 unique ocean states). The biogeochemical parameterizations, all previously published, aim to more accurately represent the response of ocean biology to changing physical conditions. We make three major findings. First, oxygen, carbon, alkalinity, and phosphate fields are more sensitive to changes in the ocean's physical state. Only nitrate is more sensitive to changes in biological processes, and we suggest that assessment protocols for ocean biogeochemical models formally include the marine nitrogen cycle to assess their performance. Second, we show that dynamic variations in the production, remineralization, and stoichiometry of organic matter in response to changing environmental conditions benefit the simulation of ocean biogeochemistry. Third, dynamic biological functioning reduces the sensitivity of biogeochemical properties to physical change. Carbon and nitrogen inventories were 50% and 20% less sensitive to physical changes, respectively, in simulations that incorporated dynamic biological functioning. These results highlight the importance of a dynamic biology for ocean properties and climate.

  7. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  8. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiobolins (Ophs are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A–W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs. Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure–activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  9. Green functions in Bianci-type spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhbinder, I.L.; Kirillova, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of free scalar field with conformal connection in distorted space - time with Bianci 1 type metrics is considered. The presentation of the Green functions G-tilde approximately in in in the form of integral from the Schwinger - De Witt kernel over the contour in the plane of complex values of eigentime is obtained. The way, in which the transfer from the Green function in space with Euclidean signature to the Green functions in space with Minkowski signature and vice versa is realized, has been shown

  10. A Typed Functional Calculus With State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Müllhäuser, M.

    1997-01-01

    We extend the simple typed \\lambda-calculus with statements. A statement (which can also be thought of as a method or transition) is an abstraction similar to function abstraction: it can be instantiated by providing it with a source state, whereafter it yields a pair of values consisting of an

  11. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic

  12. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    OpenAIRE

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combinatio...

  13. Biological pathways and genetic mechanisms involved in social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cella, David; Mosing, Miriam; Oliveira, Joao R; Patrick, Donald L; Veenhoven, Ruut; Wagner, Gert G; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-08-01

    To describe the major findings in the literature regarding associations between biological and genetic factors and social functioning, paying special attention to: (1) heritability studies on social functioning and related concepts; (2) hypothesized biological pathways and genetic variants that could be involved in social functioning, and (3) the implications of these results for quality-of-life research. A search of Web of Science and PubMed databases was conducted using combinations of the following keywords: genetics, twins, heritability, social functioning, social adjustment, social interaction, and social dysfunction. Variability in the definitions and measures of social functioning was extensive. Moderate to high heritability was reported for social functioning and related concepts, including prosocial behavior, loneliness, and extraversion. Disorders characterized by impairments in social functioning also show substantial heritability. Genetic variants hypothesized to be involved in social functioning are related to the network of brain structures and processes that are known to affect social cognition and behavior. Better knowledge and understanding about the impact of genetic factors on social functioning is needed to help us to attain a more comprehensive view of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and will ultimately enhance our ability to identify those patients who are vulnerable to poor social functioning.

  14. H+-type and OH−-type biological protonic semiconductors and complementary devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yingxin; Josberger, Erik; Jin, Jungho; Rousdari, Anita Fadavi; Helms, Brett A.; Zhong, Chao; Anantram, M. P.; Rolandi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Proton conduction is essential in biological systems. Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and uncoupling membrane potentials by the antibiotic Gramicidin are examples. In these systems, H+ hop along chains of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and hydrophilic residues – proton wires. These wires also support the transport of OH− as proton holes. Discriminating between H+ and OH− transport has been elusive. Here, H+ and OH− transport is achieved in polysaccharide- based proton wires and devices. A H+- OH− junction with rectifying behaviour and H+-type and OH−-type complementary field effect transistors are demonstrated. We describe these devices with a model that relates H+ and OH− to electron and hole transport in semiconductors. In turn, the model developed for these devices may provide additional insights into proton conduction in biological systems. PMID:24089083

  15. H+-type and OH- -type biological protonic semiconductors and complementary devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yingxin; Josberger, Erik; Jin, Jungho; Roudsari, Anita Fadavi; Rousdari, Anita Fadavi; Helms, Brett A; Zhong, Chao; Anantram, M P; Rolandi, Marco

    2013-10-03

    Proton conduction is essential in biological systems. Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and uncoupling membrane potentials by the antibiotic Gramicidin are examples. In these systems, H(+) hop along chains of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and hydrophilic residues - proton wires. These wires also support the transport of OH(-) as proton holes. Discriminating between H(+) and OH(-) transport has been elusive. Here, H(+) and OH(-) transport is achieved in polysaccharide- based proton wires and devices. A H(+)- OH(-) junction with rectifying behaviour and H(+)-type and OH(-)-type complementary field effect transistors are demonstrated. We describe these devices with a model that relates H(+) and OH(-) to electron and hole transport in semiconductors. In turn, the model developed for these devices may provide additional insights into proton conduction in biological systems.

  16. Uncovering Biological Network Function via Graphlet Degree Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pržulj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Proteins are essential macromolecules of life and thus understanding their function is of great importance. The number of functionally unclassified proteins is large even for simple and well studied organisms such as baker’s yeast. Methods for determining protein function have shifted their focus from targeting specific proteins based solely on sequence homology to analyses of the entire proteome based on protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. Since proteins interact to perform a certain function, analyzing structural properties of PPI networks may provide useful clues about the biological function of individual proteins, protein complexes they participate in, and even larger subcellular machines.Results: We design a sensitive graph theoretic method for comparing local structures of node neighborhoods that demonstrates that in PPI networks, biological function of a node and its local network structure are closely related. The method summarizes a protein’s local topology in a PPI network into the vector of graphlet degrees called the signature of the protein and computes the signature similarities between all protein pairs. We group topologically similar proteins under this measure in a PPI network and show that these protein groups belong to the same protein complexes, perform the same biological functions, are localized in the same subcellular compartments, and have the same tissue expressions. Moreover, we apply our technique on a proteome-scale network data and infer biological function of yet unclassified proteins demonstrating that our method can provide valuable guidelines for future experimental research such as disease protein prediction.Availability: Data is available upon request.

  17. The functioning and behaviour of biological parents of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1) ...

  18. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. © 2015 Richardson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2015-09-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure-function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  20. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  1. Toward functional classification of neuronal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2014-09-17

    How many types of neurons are there in the brain? This basic neuroscience question remains unsettled despite many decades of research. Classification schemes have been proposed based on anatomical, electrophysiological, or molecular properties. However, different schemes do not always agree with each other. This raises the question of whether one can classify neurons based on their function directly. For example, among sensory neurons, can a classification scheme be devised that is based on their role in encoding sensory stimuli? Here, theoretical arguments are outlined for how this can be achieved using information theory by looking at optimal numbers of cell types and paying attention to two key properties: correlations between inputs and noise in neural responses. This theoretical framework could help to map the hierarchical tree relating different neuronal classes within and across species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unknown. The major part of insulin-mediated glucose disposal takes place in the skeletal muscle, and increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid has been associated with insulin resistance and linked to decreased activity of mitochondrial...... oxidative phosphorylation. This review will cover the present knowledge and literature on the topics of the activity of oxidative enzymes and the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Different methods of studying mitochondrial function are described, including...... biochemical measurements of oxidative enzyme and electron transport activity, isolation of mitochondria for measurements of respiration, and ATP production and indirect measurements of ATP production using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - spectroscopy. Biochemical markers of mitochondrial content are also...

  3. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  4. Knowledge base and functionality of concepts of some Filipino biology teachers in five biology topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla, Manuel B.

    2018-01-01

    This mixed research, is a snapshot of some Filipino Biology teachers' knowledge structure and how their concepts of the five topics in Biology (Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics) functions and develops inside a biology classroom. The study focuses on the six biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and the other three (3) are under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilized classroom discourses, concept maps, interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part; the quantitative part uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's tau Coefficient for determining relationship and congruency while measures of central tendencies and dispersion (mean, and standard deviation) for concept maps scores interpretation. Knowledge Base of Biology teachers were evaluated by experts in field of specialization having a doctorate program (e.g. PhD in Genetics) and PhD Biology candidates. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. The evaluation of teachers' knowledge base by experts indicated that teachers' knowledge of (65%) is lower than the minimum (75%) recommended by ABD-el-Khalick and Boujaoude (1997). Thus, the experts believe that content knowledge of the teachers is hardly adequate for their teaching assignment. Moreover, the teachers in this study do not systematically use reallife situation to apply the concepts they teach. They can identify concepts too abstract for their student; however, they seldom use innovative ways to bring the discussion to their students' level of readiness and

  5. Progress in the biological function of alpha-enolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-enolase (ENO1, also known as 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase, is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phosphoglyceric acid to phosphoenolpyruvic acid in the glycolytic pathway. It is a multifunctional glycolytic enzyme involved in cellular stress, bacterial and fungal infections, autoantigen activities, the occurrence and metastasis of cancer, parasitic infections, and the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. This article mainly reviews the basic characteristics and biological functions of ENO1.

  6. SU-E-T-54: Benefits of Biological Cost Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirag, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the benefits of the biological cost functions. Methods: TG166 patients were used for the test case scenarios. Patients were planned using Monaco V5.0 (CMS/Elekta, St.Louis, MO) Monaco has 3 biological and 8 physical CFs. In this study the plans were optimized using 3 different scenarios. 1- Biological CFs only 2-Physical CFs only 3- Combination of Physical and Biological CFsMonaco has 3 biological CFs. Target EUD used for the targets, derived from the poisson cell kill model, has an α value that controls the cold spots inside the target. α values used in the optimization were 0.5 and 0.8. if cold spots needs to be penalized α value increased. Serial CF: it's called serial to mimic the behaviour of the serial organs, if a high k value like 12 or 14 is used it controls the maximum dose. Serial CF has a k parameter that is used to shape the whole dvh curve. K value ranges between 1–20. k:1 is used to control the mean dose, lower k value controls the mean dose, higher k value controls the higher dose, using 2 serial CFs with different k values controls the whole DVH. Paralel CF controls the percentage of the volume that tolerates higher doses than the reference dose to mimic the behaviour of the paralel organs. Results: It was possible to achive clinically accepted plans in all 3 scenarios. The benefit of the biological cost functions were to control the mean dose for target and OAR, to shape the DVH curve using one EUD value and one k value simplifies the optimization process. Using the biological CFs alone, it was hard to control the dose at a point. Conclusion: Biological CFs in Monaco doesn't require the ntcp/tcp values from the labs and useful to shape the whole dvh curve. I work as an applications support specialist for Elekta and I am a Ph.D. Student in Istanbul University for radiation therapy physics

  7. Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stanley N.; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Boyer, Herbert W.; Helling, Robert B.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of new plasmid DNA species by in vitro joining of restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of separate plasmids is described. Newly constructed plasmids that are inserted into Escherichia coli by transformation are shown to be biologically functional replicons that possess genetic properties and nucleotide base sequences from both of the parent DNA molecules. Functional plasmids can be obtained by reassociation of endonuclease-generated fragments of larger replicons, as well as by joining of plasmid DNA molecules of entirely different origins. Images PMID:4594039

  8. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N H J; de Baat, C

    2009-11-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combination of interrupted as well as free-ending tooth arches can be restored using these dentures. Well-known disadvantages of removable partial dentures are problematic oral hygiene, negative influence on the remaining dentition and limited oral comfort. Due to the advanced possibilities of fixed tooth- or implant-supported partial dentures, whether or not free-ending, or tooth- as well as implant-supported partial dentures, the indication of removable partial dentures is restricted. Nevertheless, for the time being the demand for removable partial dentures is expected to continue.

  9. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R.-M.; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E.; Buzas, Edit I.; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Silva, Anabela Cordeiro-da; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Hoen, Esther N.M. Nolte-‘t; Nyman, Tuula A.; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N.; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Wauben, Marca H. M.; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system. PMID:25979354

  10. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yáñez-Mó

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system.

  11. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products.

  12. On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generalized Hankel type transformation; Parserval relation; generalized ... The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | News.

  13. Wetlands - different types, their properties and functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Erik [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences/Hydrology

    2003-08-01

    In this report, different Swedish wetland types are presented with emphasis on their occurrence, vegetation cover, soil physical and chemical properties and functions. Three different main groups of wetlands are identified: bogs, fens and marshes. The former two are peat forming environments while the term 'marshes' covers all non-peat forming wetlands. Poor fens are the most common type in Sweden but (tree-covered) marshes would probably be dominating large areas in Southern Sweden if not affected by human activity such as drainage for farming. Fens and bogs are often coexisting next to each other and bogs are often seen to be the next step after fens in the natural succession. However, the development of wetlands and processes of succession between different wetland types are resulting from complicated interactions between climate, vegetation, geology and topography. For description of the development at individual sites, the hydrological settings which determine the water flow paths seem to be most crucial, emphasizing the importance of geology and topography. For modelling the growth of peat, simple models have so far dominated, but these are often restricted in general use. Therefore, more physical-based models have been developed, but the natural heterogeneity and climate shifts bring uncertainty of how they should be parameterised. The use of coupled groundwater-substance transport models have shown to help understand how water flows and soil chemistry are developing in response to different peat forms. The peat is characterised by a high porosity (80-95%) which is decreasing with decomposition and depth. The most important change is then that the actively conducting pores are getting clogged and closed. The storage coefficient of the peat is then decreasing with decomposition as well as the hydraulic conductivity. The variation of hydraulic conductivity (k) can be large and current understanding of the connections between hydraulic conductivity

  14. Wetlands - different types, their properties and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, Erik

    2003-08-01

    In this report, different Swedish wetland types are presented with emphasis on their occurrence, vegetation cover, soil physical and chemical properties and functions. Three different main groups of wetlands are identified: bogs, fens and marshes. The former two are peat forming environments while the term 'marshes' covers all non-peat forming wetlands. Poor fens are the most common type in Sweden but (tree-covered) marshes would probably be dominating large areas in Southern Sweden if not affected by human activity such as drainage for farming. Fens and bogs are often coexisting next to each other and bogs are often seen to be the next step after fens in the natural succession. However, the development of wetlands and processes of succession between different wetland types are resulting from complicated interactions between climate, vegetation, geology and topography. For description of the development at individual sites, the hydrological settings which determine the water flow paths seem to be most crucial, emphasizing the importance of geology and topography. For modelling the growth of peat, simple models have so far dominated, but these are often restricted in general use. Therefore, more physical-based models have been developed, but the natural heterogeneity and climate shifts bring uncertainty of how they should be parameterised. The use of coupled groundwater-substance transport models have shown to help understand how water flows and soil chemistry are developing in response to different peat forms. The peat is characterised by a high porosity (80-95%) which is decreasing with decomposition and depth. The most important change is then that the actively conducting pores are getting clogged and closed. The storage coefficient of the peat is then decreasing with decomposition as well as the hydraulic conductivity. The variation of hydraulic conductivity (k) can be large and current understanding of the connections between hydraulic conductivity and other

  15. Metabolomics for functional genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki; Matsuda, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics now plays a significant role in fundamental plant biology and applied biotechnology. Plants collectively produce a huge array of chemicals, far more than are produced by most other organisms; hence, metabolomics is of great importance in plant biology. Although substantial improvements have been made in the field of metabolomics, the uniform annotation of metabolite signals in databases and informatics through international standardization efforts remains a challenge, as does the development of new fields such as fluxome analysis and single cell analysis. The principle of transcript and metabolite cooccurrence, particularly transcriptome coexpression network analysis, is a powerful tool for decoding the function of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This strategy can now be used for the identification of genes involved in specific pathways in crops and medicinal plants. Metabolomics has gained importance in biotechnology applications, as exemplified by quantitative loci analysis, prediction of food quality, and evaluation of genetically modified crops. Systems biology driven by metabolome data will aid in deciphering the secrets of plant cell systems and their application to biotechnology.

  16. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  17. Structure, function, and behaviour of computational models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Christian; Beckstein, Clemens; Dittrich, Peter; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-05-31

    Systems Biology develops computational models in order to understand biological phenomena. The increasing number and complexity of such "bio-models" necessitate computer support for the overall modelling task. Computer-aided modelling has to be based on a formal semantic description of bio-models. But, even if computational bio-models themselves are represented precisely in terms of mathematical expressions their full meaning is not yet formally specified and only described in natural language. We present a conceptual framework - the meaning facets - which can be used to rigorously specify the semantics of bio-models. A bio-model has a dual interpretation: On the one hand it is a mathematical expression which can be used in computational simulations (intrinsic meaning). On the other hand the model is related to the biological reality (extrinsic meaning). We show that in both cases this interpretation should be performed from three perspectives: the meaning of the model's components (structure), the meaning of the model's intended use (function), and the meaning of the model's dynamics (behaviour). In order to demonstrate the strengths of the meaning facets framework we apply it to two semantically related models of the cell cycle. Thereby, we make use of existing approaches for computer representation of bio-models as much as possible and sketch the missing pieces. The meaning facets framework provides a systematic in-depth approach to the semantics of bio-models. It can serve two important purposes: First, it specifies and structures the information which biologists have to take into account if they build, use and exchange models. Secondly, because it can be formalised, the framework is a solid foundation for any sort of computer support in bio-modelling. The proposed conceptual framework establishes a new methodology for modelling in Systems Biology and constitutes a basis for computer-aided collaborative research.

  18. Scavenger Receptor CD163 and Its Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CD163 is a member of scavenger receptor super family class B of the first subgroup. It is mapped to the region p13 on chromosome 12. Five different isoforms of CD163 have been described, which differ in the structure of their cytoplasmic domains and putative phosporylation sites. This scavenger receptor is selectively expressed on cells of monocytes and macrophages lineage exclusively. CD163 immunological function is essentially homeostatic. It also has other functions because participates in adhesion to endothelial cells, in tolerance induction and tissues regeneration. Other very important function of CD163 is the clearance of hemoglobin in its cell-free form and participation in anti-inflammation in its soluble form, exhibiting cytokine-like functions. We review the biological functions of CD163 which have been discovered until now. It seems apparent from this review that CD163 scavenger receptor can be used as biomarker in different diseases and as a valuable diagnostic parameter for prognosis of many diseases especially inflammatory disorders and sepsis.

  19. STAT6: its role in interleukin 4-mediated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1997-05-01

    Interleukin (IL) 4 is known to be a cytokine which plays a central role in the regulation of immune response. Studies on cytokine signal transduction have clarified the mechanism by which IL4 exerts its functions. Two cytoplasmic proteins, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 and IL4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate/insulin receptor substrate 2 (4PS/IRS2), are activated in IL4 signal transduction. Recent studies from STAT6-deficient mice have revealed the essential role of STAT6 in IL4-mediated biological actions. In addition, STAT6 has also been demonstrated to be important for the functions mediated by IL13, which is related to IL4. IL4 and IL13 have been shown to induce the production of IgE, which is a major mediator in an allergic response. These findings indicate that STAT6 activation is involved in IL4- and IL13-mediated disorders such as allergy.

  20. Effect of biological factors during functional scintigraphy of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuel, H P; Emrich, D; Luig, H [Goettingen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1976-07-01

    The parameters relating to functional scintigraphy of the heart (average circulation time, peak time) depend not only on the method (injection technique, radiopharmaceutical), but also on biological factors. Failure to take these into consideration may result in an erroneous interpretation of the findings. Circulation time in normal children aged 6 to 14 years, as determined by isotope methods is significantly shorter than in normal adults. Patients with compensated heart disease, as well trained athletes, show significant increase in all portions of the circulation time, when compared with normals of similar ages. This indicates that deviation in the haemodynamics of the circulation as shown by functional scintigraphy, can only be interpreted in the light of clinical findings.

  1. Functions of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557

  2. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  3. AFM imaging of functionalized carbon nanotubes on biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, C; Danzberger, J; Rangl, M; Gruber, H J; Hinterdorfer, P; Kienberger, F; Ebner, A; Liashkovich, I; Neves, V; Heister, E; Coley, H M; McFadden, J; Flahaut, E

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional carbon nanotubes are promising for biomedical applications as their nano-size, together with their physical stability, gives access into the cell and various cellular compartments including the nucleus. However, the direct and label-free detection of carbon nanotube uptake into cells is a challenging task. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of resolving details of cellular surfaces at the nanometer scale and thus allows following of the docking of carbon nanotubes to biological membranes. Here we present topographical AFM images of non-covalently functionalized single walled (SWNT) and double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) immobilized on different biological membranes, such as plasma membranes and nuclear envelopes, as well as on a monolayer of avidin molecules. We were able to visualize DWNT on the nuclear membrane while at the same time resolving individual nuclear pore complexes. Furthermore, we succeeded in localizing individual SWNT at the border of incubated cells and in identifying bundles of DWNT on cell surfaces by AFM imaging.

  4. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  5. Click Chemistry Mediated Functionalization of Vertical Nanowires for Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica; Buch-Månson, Nina; Bovet, Nicolas; Nygård, Jesper; Martinez, Karen L; Meldal, Morten

    2016-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are gaining significant importance in various biological applications, such as biosensing and drug delivery. Efficient and controlled immobilization of biomolecules on the NW surface is crucial for many of these applications. Here, we present for the first time the use of the Cu(I) -catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition and its strain-promoted variant for the covalent functionalization of vertical NWs with peptides and proteins. The potential of the approach was demonstrated in two complementary applications of measuring enzyme activity and protein binding, which is of general interest for biological studies. The attachment of a peptide substrate provided NW arrays for the detection of protease activity. In addition, green fluorescent protein was immobilized in a site-specific manner and recognized by antibody binding to demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the use of covalently modified NWs for diagnostic purposes using minute amounts of material. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  7. A Synthetic Biology Framework for Programming Eukaryotic Transcription Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad S.; Lu, Timothy K.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Ramirez, Cherie L.; Pyenson, Nora C.; Joung, J. Keith; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. Utilizing this platform, we construct a library of orthogonal synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) and use these to wire synthetic transcriptional circuits in yeast. We engineer complex functions, such as tunable output strength and transcriptional cooperativity, by rationally adjusting a decomposed set of key component properties, e.g., DNA specificity, affinity, promoter design, protein-protein interactions. We show that subtle perturbations to these properties can transform an individual sTF between distinct roles (activator, cooperative factor, inhibitory factor) within a transcriptional complex, thus drastically altering the signal processing behavior of multi-input systems. This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. PMID:22863014

  8. Biological effects of simple changes in functionality on rhodium metalloinsertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Alyson G.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is crucial to ensuring the fidelity of the genome. The inability to correct single base mismatches leads to elevated mutation rates and carcinogenesis. Using metalloinsertors–bulky metal complexes that bind with high specificity to mismatched sites in the DNA duplex–our laboratory has adopted a new chemotherapeutic strategy through the selective targeting of MMR-deficient cells, that is, those that have a propensity for cancerous transformation. Rhodium metalloinsertors display inhibitory effects selectively in cells that are deficient in the MMR machinery, consistent with this strategy. However, a highly sensitive structure–function relationship is emerging with the development of new complexes that highlights the importance of subcellular localization. We have found that small structural modifications, for example a hydroxyl versus a methyl functional group, can yield profound differences in biological function. Despite similar binding affinities and selectivities for DNA mismatches, only one metalloinsertor shows selective inhibition of cellular proliferation in MMR-deficient versus -proficient cells. Studies of whole-cell, nuclear and mitochondrial uptake reveal that this selectivity depends upon targeting DNA mismatches in the cell nucleus. PMID:23776288

  9. The functional biology and trophic role of krill (Thysanoessa raschii) in a Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite being a key zooplankton group, knowledge on krill biology from the Arctic is inadequate. The present study examine the functional biology and evaluate the trophic role of krill in the GodthAyenbsfjord (64 degrees N, 51 degrees W) SW Greenland, through a combination of fieldwork...... and laboratory experiments. Krill biomass was highest in the middle fjord and inner fjord, whereas no krill was found offshore. The dominating species Thysanoessa raschii revealed a type III functional response when fed with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. At food saturation, T. raschii exhibited a daily...... ration of 1% body C d(-1). Furthermore, T. raschii was capable of exploiting plankton cells from 5 to 400 mu m, covering several trophic levels of the pelagic food web. The calculated grazing impact by T. raschii on the fjord plankton community was negligible. However, the schooling and migratory...

  10. Pectin: cell biology and prospects for functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willats, W G; McCartney, L; Mackie, W; Knox, J P

    2001-09-01

    Pectin is a major component of primary cell walls of all land plants and encompasses a range of galacturonic acid-rich polysaccharides. Three major pectic polysaccharides (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II) are thought to occur in all primary cell walls. This review surveys what is known about the structure and function of these pectin domains. The high degree of structural complexity and heterogeneity of the pectic matrix is produced both during biosynthesis in the endomembrane system and as a result of the action of an array of wall-based pectin-modifying enzymes. Recent developments in analytical techniques and in the generation of anti-pectin probes have begun to place the structural complexity of pectin in cell biological and developmental contexts. The in muro de-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan by pectin methyl esterases is emerging as a key process for the local modulation of matrix properties. Rhamnogalacturonan-I comprises a highly diverse population of spatially and developmentally regulated polymers, whereas rhamnogalacturonan-II appears to be a highly conserved and stable pectic domain. Current knowledge of biosynthetic enzymes, plant and microbial pectinases and the interactions of pectin with other cell wall components and the impact of molecular genetic approaches are reviewed in terms of the functional analysis of pectic polysaccharides in plant growth and development.

  11. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study, we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins, and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our

  12. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. I. Biological Processes and Functions of Proteins with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our statistical

  13. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen K. Atkin; Keith J. Bloomfield; Peter B. Reich; Mark G. Tjoelker; Gregory P. Asner; Damien Bonal; Gerhard Bonisch; Matt G. Bradford; Lucas A. Cernusak; Eric G. Cosio; Danielle Creek; Kristine Y. Crous; Tomas F. Domingues; Jeffrey S. Dukes; John J. G. Egerton; John R. Evans; Graham D. Farquhar; Nikolaos M. Fyllas; Paul P. G. Gauthier; Emanuel Gloor; Teresa E. Gimeno; Kevin L. Griffin; Rossella Guerrieri; Mary A. Heskel; Chris Huntingford; Franc_oise Yoko Ishida; Jens Kattge; Hans Lambers; Michael J. Liddell; Jon Lloyd; Christopher H. Lusk; Roberta E. Martin; Ayal P. Maksimov; Trofim C. Maximov; Yadvinder Malhi; Belinda E. Medlyn; Patrick Meir; Lina M. Mercado; Nicholas Mirotchnick; Desmond Ng; Ulo Niinemets; Odhran S. O’Sullivan; Oliver L. Phillips; Lourens Poorter; Pieter Poot; I. Colin Prentice; Norma Salinas; Lucy M. Rowland; Michael G. Ryan; Stephen Sitch; Martijn Slot; Nicholas G. Smith; Matthew H. Turnbull; Mark C. VanderWel; Fernando Valladares; Erik J. Veneklaas; Lasantha K. Weerasinghe; Christian Wirth; Ian J. Wright; Kirk R. Wythers; Jen Xiang; Shuang Xiang; Joana Zaragoza-Castells

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the development of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) and associated land surface components of Earth system models (ESMs) is improving representation of carbon (C) exchange between terrestrial plants and the atmosphere, and incorporating biological variation arising from diversity in plant functional types (PFTs) and climate (Sitch et al.,...

  14. Type-specific human papillomavirus biological features: validated model-based estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Baussano

    Full Text Available Infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV16 and 18 types, which are responsible of about 75% of cervical cancer worldwide, is expected to have a major global impact on cervical cancer occurrence. Valid estimates of the parameters that regulate the natural history of hrHPV infections are crucial to draw reliable projections of the impact of vaccination. We devised a mathematical model to estimate the probability of infection transmission, the rate of clearance, and the patterns of immune response following the clearance of infection of 13 hrHPV types. To test the validity of our estimates, we fitted the same transmission model to two large independent datasets from Italy and Sweden and assessed finding consistency. The two populations, both unvaccinated, differed substantially by sexual behaviour, age distribution, and study setting (screening for cervical cancer or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Estimated transmission probability of hrHPV types (80% for HPV16, 73%-82% for HPV18, and above 50% for most other types; clearance rates decreasing as a function of time since infection; and partial protection against re-infection with the same hrHPV type (approximately 20% for HPV16 and 50% for the other types were similar in the two countries. The model could accurately predict the HPV16 prevalence observed in Italy among women who were not infected three years before. In conclusion, our models inform on biological parameters that cannot at the moment be measured directly from any empirical data but are essential to forecast the impact of HPV vaccination programmes.

  15. Paul Langerhans: a prilgrim "traveling" from functional histology to marine biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, Marius; Cimpean, Anca Maria

    2017-06-01

    The nineteenth century was the time of a real revolution in science and medicine. A lot of seminal discoveries in medicine and biology were done in this time, and many of them were coincident with the introduction of the compound microscope by Hermann van Deijl and the standard histological technique by Paul Ehrlich. The main tissue types and individual cells were characterized and originally classified more than hundred years ago, although less attention was paid to their basic functions. This was mainly due to the modality of tissue specimen processing that allowed particularly detailed descriptive studies. Even so, we can notice some attempts to correlate the structure with the function. The German scientist Paul Langerhans, well-known for the discovery of Langerhans islets of the pancreas and Langerhans cells from the epidermis, tried to change the conventional fate of morphological studies introducing in his works functional hypothesis based on traditional microscopic observations even from the beginning of his scientific career. Paul Langerhans was a complex personality of the second half of the nineteenth century, not only in medicine, but also in other fields of biology. In the present review, presented is the life and research activity of Paul Langerhans, not only because of the importance of his discoveries, but also for perspectives that were opened by these findings in unexpected fields of medicine and biology.

  16. Tur\\'an type inequalities for regular Coulomb wave functions

    OpenAIRE

    Baricz, Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Tur\\'an, Mitrinovi\\'c-Adamovi\\'c and Wilker type inequalities are deduced for regular Coulomb wave functions. The proofs are based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion for the regular Coulomb wave function, which may be of independent interest. Moreover, some complete monotonicity results concerning the Coulomb zeta functions and some interlacing properties of the zeros of Coulomb wave functions are given.

  17. Redox Biology in Neurological Function, Dysfunction, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rodrigo; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2018-04-23

    Reduction oxidation (redox) reactions are central to life and when altered, they can promote disease progression. In the brain, redox homeostasis is recognized to be involved in all aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development, function, aging, and disease. Recent studies have uncovered the diverse nature by which redox reactions and homeostasis contribute to brain physiology, and when dysregulated to pathological consequences. Redox reactions go beyond what is commonly described as oxidative stress and involve redox mechanisms linked to signaling and metabolism. In contrast to the nonspecific nature of oxidative damage, redox signaling involves specific oxidation/reduction reactions that regulate a myriad of neurological processes such as neurotransmission, homeostasis, and degeneration. This Forum is focused on the role of redox metabolism and signaling in the brain. Six review articles from leading scientists in the field that appraise the role of redox metabolism and signaling in different aspects of brain biology including neurodevelopment, neurotransmission, aging, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurotoxicity are included. An original research article exemplifying these concepts uncovers a novel link between oxidative modifications, redox signaling, and neurodegeneration. This Forum highlights the recent advances in the field and we hope it encourages future research aimed to understand the mechanisms by which redox metabolism and signaling regulate CNS physiology and pathophysiology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  18. Function and regulation of lipid biology in Caenorhabditis elegans aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Shangming Hou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding aging populations and a concomitant increase in the prevalence of age-related diseases are global health problems today. Over the past three decades, a large body of work has led to the identification of genes and regulatory networks that affect longevity and health span, often benefitting from the tremendous power of genetics in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Interestingly, many of these factors appear linked to lipids, important molecules that participate in cellular signaling, energy metabolism, and structural compartmentalization. Despite the putative link between lipids and longevity, the role of lipids in aging remains poorly understood. Emerging data from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that lipid composition may change during aging, as several pathways that influence aging also regulate lipid metabolism enzymes; moreover, some of these enzymes apparently play key roles in the pathways that affect the rate of aging. By understanding how lipid biology is regulated during C. elegans aging, and how it impacts molecular, cellular and organismal function, we may gain insight into novel ways to delay aging using genetic or pharmacological interventions. In the present review we discuss recent insights into the roles of lipids in C. elegans aging, including regulatory roles played by lipids themselves, the regulation of lipid metabolic enzymes, and the roles of lipid metabolism genes in the pathways that affect aging.

  19. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  20. Biological factors of natural and artificial ecosystems stable (unstable) functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    The problem of sustainable development of humanity on Earth and the problem of supporting human life in space have the same scientific and methodological bases. The key to solve both problems is a long term maintenance of balanced material cycle. As a whole, natural or artificial ecosystems are to be more closed than open, but their elements (links of systems) are to be substantially open in interactions with each other. Prolonged stable interactions of different links have to have unique joint results - closed material cycling or biotic turnover. It is necessary to include, at least, three types of main links into any system to support real material cycling: producers, consumers, reducers. Producer links are now under studies in many laboratories. It is evident that the higher productivity of link, the lower link stability. Especially, it concerns with parasite impact to plants. As usual, artificial ecosystems are more simple (incomplete) than natural ecosystems, sometimes, they have not enough links for prolonged stable functioning. For example, life support system for space flight can be incomplete in consumer link, having only some crew persons, instead of interacting populations of consumers. As for reducer link, it is necessary to "organize" a special coordinated work of microbial biocenoses to fulfill proper cycling. Possible evolution of links, their self development is a matter of special attention for the maintenance of prolonged stable functioning. It's the most danger for systems with populations of quickly reproducing, so-called, R - strategists, according to symbols of logistic equation. From another side, quick reproduction of R - strategists is able to increase artificial ecosystems and their links functioning. After some damages of system, R - strategist's link can be quickly "self repaired" up to level of normal functioning. Some experimental data of this kind and mathematical models are to be discussed in the paper. This work is supported by

  1. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Pfr conformer reverses this activity upon initial light exposure, inducing the switch to photomorphogenic development. This reversal involves light-triggered translocation of the photoactivated phy molecule into the nucleus where it interacts with PIF-family members, inducing rapid phosphorylation and degradation of the PIFs via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This degradation in turn elicits rapid alterations in gene expression that drive the deetiolation transition. This project has made considerable progress in defining phy-PIF signaling activity in controlling the SAR. The biological functions of the multiple PIF-family members in controlling the SAR, including dissection of the relative contributions of the individual PIFs to this process, as well as to diurnal growth-control oscillations, have been investigated using higher-order pif-mutant combinations. Using microarray analysis of a quadruple pif mutant we have defined the shade-induced, PIF-regulated transcriptional network genome-wide. This has revealed that a dynamic antagonism between the phys and PIFs generates selective reciprocal responses during deetiolation and the SAR in a rapidly light-responsive transcriptional network. Using integrated RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis of higher order pif-mutant combinations, we have defined the direct gene-targets of PIF transcriptional regulation, and have obtained evidence that this regulation involves differential direct targeting of rapidly light-responsive genes by the individual PIF-family members. This project has provided significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the phy-PIF photosensory signaling pathway regulates an important bioenergy-related plant response to the light environment. The identification of molecular targets in the primary transcriptional-regulatory circuitry of this pathway has the potential to enable genetic or reverse-genetic manipulation of the partitioning of carbon between reproductive and

  2. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Microbial Degradation of Forensic Samples of Biological Origin: Potential Threat to Human DNA Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

    2018-02-01

    Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials. Degradation of these biological materials carriages a huge challenge in the downstream processes of forensic DNA typing technique, such as short tandem repeats (STR) DNA typing. Microbial degradation yields improper or no PCR amplification, heterozygous peak imbalance, DNA contamination from non-human sources, degradation of DNA by microbial by-products, etc. Consequently, the most precise STR DNA typing technique is nullified and definite opinion can be hardly given with degraded forensic exhibits. Thus, suitable precautionary measures should be taken for proper storage and processing of the biological exhibits to minimize their decaying process by micro-organisms.

  4. Membrane Binding of Recoverin: From Mechanistic Understanding to Biological Functionality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Timr, S.; Pleskot, Roman; Kadlec, J.; Kohagen, M.; Magarkar, A.; Jungwirth, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2017), s. 868-874 ISSN 2374-7943 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : recoverin * membrane * myristoyl Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 7.481, year: 2016

  5. Biological Functions of the Secretome of Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tommassen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that normally resides as a commensal in the human nasopharynx but occasionally causes disease with high mortality and morbidity. To interact with its environment, it transports many proteins across the outer membrane to the bacterial cell surface and into the extracellular medium for which it deploys the common and well-characterized autotransporter, two-partner and type I secretion mechanisms, as well as a recently discovered pathway for the surface exposure of lipoproteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteins serve roles in host-pathogen interactions, including adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins, evasion of nutritional immunity imposed by iron-binding proteins of the host, prevention of complement activation, neutralization of antimicrobial peptides, degradation of immunoglobulins, and permeabilization of epithelial layers. Furthermore, they have roles in interbacterial interactions, including the formation and dispersal of biofilms and the suppression of the growth of bacteria competing for the same niche. Here, we will review the protein secretion systems of N. meningitidis and focus on the functions of the secreted proteins.

  6. The functional and biological properties of whey proteins: prospects for the development of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. T. KORHONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in processing technologies and the accumulation of scientific data on the functional and biological properties of whey components have contributed to the growing commercial valuation of cheese whey over the last decade. New membrane separation and chromatographic techniques have made it possible to fractionate and enrich various components of whey more efficiently than before. The specific properties of these components can now be examined in greater detail and new applications developed accordingly. The utilisation of cheese whey is evolving into a new industry producing a multitude of purified ingredients for numerous purposes. The most significant areas of R&D related to whey proteins include functional foods, the rheological properties of foodstuffs, and biopharmaceuticals.

  7. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.

  8. Lipid polymorphism and the functional roles of lipids in biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullis, P.R.; Kruijff, B. de

    1979-01-01

    The reasons for the great variety of lipids found in biological membranes, and the relations between lipid composition and membrane function pose major unsolved problems in membrane biology. Perhaps the only major functional role of lipids which may be regarded as firmly established involves the

  9. Exploring candidate biological functions by Boolean Function Networks for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simak

    Full Text Available The great amount of gene expression data has brought a big challenge for the discovery of Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. For network reconstruction and the investigation of regulatory relations, it is desirable to ensure directness of links between genes on a map, infer their directionality and explore candidate biological functions from high-throughput transcriptomic data. To address these problems, we introduce a Boolean Function Network (BFN model based on techniques of hidden Markov model (HMM, likelihood ratio test and Boolean logic functions. BFN consists of two consecutive tests to establish links between pairs of genes and check their directness. We evaluate the performance of BFN through the application to S. cerevisiae time course data. BFN produces regulatory relations which show consistency with succession of cell cycle phases. Furthermore, it also improves sensitivity and specificity when compared with alternative methods of genetic network reverse engineering. Moreover, we demonstrate that BFN can provide proper resolution for GO enrichment of gene sets. Finally, the Boolean functions discovered by BFN can provide useful insights for the identification of control mechanisms of regulatory processes, which is the special advantage of the proposed approach. In combination with low computational complexity, BFN can serve as an efficient screening tool to reconstruct genes relations on the whole genome level. In addition, the BFN approach is also feasible to a wide range of time course datasets.

  10. Design of Functional Polyesters for Electronic and Biological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Ashley Marie

    2015-01-01

    Melt polymerization and novel monomers enabled the synthesis of polyesters for electronic and biological applications. Inspiration from nature and a passion for environmental preservation instigated an emphasis on the incorporation of renewable resources into polymeric materials. Critical analysis of current research surrounding bisphenol-A replacements and ioncontaining segmented polyurethanes aided in identifying benchmark polymers, including limitations, challenges, and future needs. Struc...

  11. Oxidative metabolites of lycopene and their biological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain a better understanding of the beneficial biological activities of lycopene on cancer prevention, a greater knowledge of the metabolism of lycopene is needed. In particular, the identification of lycopene metabolites and oxidation products in vivo; the importance of tissue specific lycopene c...

  12. Click chemistry mediated functionalization of vertical nanowires for biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    is of general interest for biological studies. The attachment of a peptide substrate provided NW arrays for the detection of protease activity. In addition, green fluorescent protein was immobilized in a site-specific manner and recognized by antibody binding to demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the use...

  13. Function of dynamic models in systems biology: linking structure to behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Christian; Beckstein, Clemens

    2013-10-08

    Dynamic models in Systems Biology are used in computational simulation experiments for addressing biological questions. The complexity of the modelled biological systems and the growing number and size of the models calls for computer support for modelling and simulation in Systems Biology. This computer support has to be based on formal representations of relevant knowledge fragments. In this paper we describe different functional aspects of dynamic models. This description is conceptually embedded in our "meaning facets" framework which systematises the interpretation of dynamic models in structural, functional and behavioural facets. Here we focus on how function links the structure and the behaviour of a model. Models play a specific role (teleological function) in the scientific process of finding explanations for dynamic phenomena. In order to fulfil this role a model has to be used in simulation experiments (pragmatical function). A simulation experiment always refers to a specific situation and a state of the model and the modelled system (conditional function). We claim that the function of dynamic models refers to both the simulation experiment executed by software (intrinsic function) and the biological experiment which produces the phenomena under investigation (extrinsic function). We use the presented conceptual framework for the function of dynamic models to review formal accounts for functional aspects of models in Systems Biology, such as checklists, ontologies, and formal languages. Furthermore, we identify missing formal accounts for some of the functional aspects. In order to fill one of these gaps we propose an ontology for the teleological function of models. We have thoroughly analysed the role and use of models in Systems Biology. The resulting conceptual framework for the function of models is an important first step towards a comprehensive formal representation of the functional knowledge involved in the modelling and simulation process

  14. On a family of Bessel type functions: Estimations, series, overconvergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2017-12-01

    A family of the Bessel-Maitland functions are considered in this paper and some useful estimations are obtained for them. Series defined by means of these functions are considered and their behaviour on the boundaries of the convergence domains is discussed. Using the obtained estimations, necessary and sufficient conditions for the series overconvergence, as well as Hadamard type theorem are proposed.

  15. Longitudinal characterization of course types of functional limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeg, D.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal data have provided evidence on factors that increase the risk of incidence of functional limitations. However, little insight exists in course types of functional limitations other than simple incidence or recovery. Methods: This contribution examines the variety of course

  16. Prioritisation of Marketing Investments in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the company's results, but there is considerable variation in the composition of the roles within each type of marketing function, their use and impact on the company's results. The findings of this study indicate that marketing functions are heterogeneous, and the effect achieved from investing in any given...

  17. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e. uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes, the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000 mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach.

  18. Skeletal types: key to unraveling the mystery of facial beauty and its biologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Y

    1996-06-01

    In random studies, some faces will deviate toward Type II skeletal and some toward Type III. Some will deviate toward a skeletally short vertical while some toward long. In their study, Langlois and Roggman digitized individual faces through a computer. As more and more faces were entered, the composite of these faces became more and more attractive. From this, they concluded that attractive faces are only average. The "average" face may very well conform to the divine proportion. However, some faces are strikingly beautiful, and Alley and Cunningham in their study attempted to explain these attributes. Individuals who are blessed with attractive features are treated differently in our society. Ackerman states, "Attractive people do better: in school, where they receive more help, better grades and less punishment; at work, where they are rewarded with higher pay, more prestigious jobs and faster promotions; in finding mates, where they tend to be in control of the relationship and make most of the decisions; and among strangers, who assume them to be more interesting, honest, virtuous and successful." Many would find this special treatment objectionable and unfair. The irony is that beautiful individuals make up a very small percentage of the population; they have very little power to dictate how society should act and behave. Various disciplines have studied the nature of facial beauty. Individually, they provide partial answers; however, when viewed together, they begin to weave provocative insights as to its biologic significance. It is intricately related to divine proportion, and all living creatures have the genetic potential to develop toward it. The appreciation for this proportion is primitive and inborn; it is a biologic mechanism by which all living creatures are attracted to potential mates who conform to this strict proportion because they are biologically strong, healthy, and fertile. To date, there is no other profession other than ours that has the

  19. Does “quorum sensing” imply a new type of biological information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with biological communication and information, unifying concepts are necessary in order to couple the different “codes” that are being inductively “cracked” and defined at different emergent and “de-emergent” levels of the biological hierarchy. In this paper I compare the type...... of biological information implied by genetic information with that implied in the concept of “quorum sensing” (which refers to a prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication system) in order to explore if such integration is being achieved. I use the Lux operon paradigm and the Vibrio fischeri – Euprymna scolopes...... symbiotic partnership to exemplify the emergence of informational contexts along the biological hierarchy (from molecules to ecologies). I suggest that the biosemiotic epistemological framework can play an integra¬tive role to overcome the limits of dyadic mechanistic descriptions when relating...

  20. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  1. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  2. Significant Deregulated Pathways in Diabetes Type II Complications Identified through Expression Based Network Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukil, Sanchaita; Sinha, Meenakshee; Varshney, Lavneesh; Agrawal, Shipra

    Type 2 Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disease, which alters several signaling cascades giving rise to serious complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The present research work describes an integrated functional network biology approach to identify pathways that get transcriptionally altered and lead to complex complications thereby amplifying the phenotypic effect of the impaired disease state. We have identified two sub-network modules, which could be activated under abnormal circumstances in diabetes. Present work describes key proteins such as P85A and SRC serving as important nodes to mediate alternate signaling routes during diseased condition. P85A has been shown to be an important link between stress responsive MAPK and CVD markers involved in fibrosis. MAPK8 has been shown to interact with P85A and further activate CTGF through VEGF signaling. We have traced a novel and unique route correlating inflammation and fibrosis by considering P85A as a key mediator of signals. The next sub-network module shows SRC as a junction for various signaling processes, which results in interaction between NF-kB and beta catenin to cause cell death. The powerful interaction between these important genes in response to transcriptionally altered lipid metabolism and impaired inflammatory response via SRC causes apoptosis of cells. The crosstalk between inflammation, lipid homeostasis and stress, and their serious effects downstream have been explained in the present analyses.

  3. Embryonic stem cell interactomics: the beginning of a long road to biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Maram; Hajihoseini, Vahid; Jung, Woojin; Hosseinpour, Batol; Rassouli, Hassan; Lee, Bonghee; Baharvand, Hossein; Lee, KiYoung; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of unlimited self-renewal while maintaining pluripotency. They are of great interest in regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into all cell types of the three embryonic germ layers. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown similarities to ESCs and thus promise great therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Despite progress in stem cell biology, our understanding of the exact mechanisms by which pluripotency and self-renewal are established and maintained is largely unknown. A better understanding of these processes may lead to discovery of alternative ways for reprogramming, differentiation and more reliable applications of stem cells in therapies. It has become evident that proteins generally function as members of large complexes that are part of a more complex network. Therefore, the identification of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is an efficient strategy for understanding protein function and regulation. Systematic genome-wide and pathway-specific PPI analysis of ESCs has generated a network of ESC proteins, including major transcription factors. These PPI networks of ESCs may contribute to a mechanistic understanding of self-renewal and pluripotency. In this review we describe different experimental approaches for the identification of PPIs along with various databases. We discuss biological findings and technical challenges encountered with interactome studies of pluripotent stem cells, and provide insight into how interactomics is likely to develop.

  4. Role of biologics targeting type 2 airway inflammation in asthma : What have we learned so far?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    Purpose of reviewSevere asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome that can be classified into distinct phenotypes and endotypes. In the type 2 (T2)-high endotype, multiple cytokines are produced that lead to eosinophilic inflammation. These cytokines and their receptors are targets for biologic therapies

  5. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Naji, Raid Kamel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  6. Heavy water effects on the structure, functions and behavior of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Caloianu, Maria; Moldovan, Lucia; Titescu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The H 2 O substitution for D 2 O either in environment or in the culture medium of the living systems generates changes in their main functions and composition. In this paper some of the heavy water effects in biological systems such as structural and functional changes were reviewed: normal cell architecture alterations, cell division and membrane functions disturbance, muscular contractility and the perturbations of biological oscillators such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, respiratory cycle, tidal and ultradian rhythm. (authors)

  7. Inferring biological functions of guanylyl cyclases with computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed; Meier, Stuart Kurt

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that functionally related genes are often co-expressed and that computational based co-expression analysis can be used to accurately identify functional relationships between genes and by inference, their encoded proteins. Here we describe how a computational based co-expression analysis can be used to link the function of a specific gene of interest to a defined cellular response. Using a worked example we demonstrate how this methodology is used to link the function of the Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase-Like 10 gene, which encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase, to host responses to pathogens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  8. Inferring biological functions of guanylyl cyclases with computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2013-09-03

    A number of studies have shown that functionally related genes are often co-expressed and that computational based co-expression analysis can be used to accurately identify functional relationships between genes and by inference, their encoded proteins. Here we describe how a computational based co-expression analysis can be used to link the function of a specific gene of interest to a defined cellular response. Using a worked example we demonstrate how this methodology is used to link the function of the Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase-Like 10 gene, which encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase, to host responses to pathogens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  9. Mining Functional Modules in Heterogeneous Biological Networks Using Multiplex PageRank Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    Identification of functional modules/sub-networks in large-scale biological networks is one of the important research challenges in current bioinformatics and systems biology. Approaches have been developed to identify functional modules in single-class biological networks; however, methods for systematically and interactively mining multiple classes of heterogeneous biological networks are lacking. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm (called mPageRank) that utilizes the Multiplex PageRank approach to mine functional modules from two classes of biological networks. We demonstrate the capabilities of our approach by successfully mining functional biological modules through integrating expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks. We first compared the performance of our method with that of other methods using simulated data. We then applied our method to identify the cell division cycle related functional module and plant signaling defense-related functional module in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that the mPageRank method is effective for mining sub-networks in both expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks, and has the potential to be adapted for the discovery of functional modules/sub-networks in other heterogeneous biological networks. The mPageRank executable program, source code, the datasets and results of the presented two case studies are publicly and freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/MPageRank/.

  10. The lectins: properties, functions, and applications in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liener, Irvin E; Sharon, Nathan; Goldstein, Irwin J

    1986-01-01

    ... (Editors). The Enzymology of Post-Translational Modification of Proteins, Volume 1, 1980. Volume 2, 1985 W A I YIU CHEUNG (Editor). Calcium and Cell Function, Volume I: Calmodulin, 1980. Volume II, ...

  11. Prioritising Marketing Activities in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    performance (BP) and top management's respect. An empirical survey identifies four types of MFs: (1) the broad spectrum; (2) the hesitant; (3) the traditional and (4) the market-creating. Findings show that for each of the four types, the effect of investing in a particular role varies: all roles......Marketing functions (MFs) differ in how they practise marketing roles. The purpose of this article is to differentiate between MFs that practice marketing roles in a particular manner and then study how these different types of MFs differ with regard to the marketing roles’ effect on business...... are not equally important to practise. Moreover, all roles are not equally important to all marketing functions, but depend on the marketing function's unique starting point. Since MFs differ, relevant investments in marketing roles also differ, making it beneficial to prioritise them. However, management...

  12. Unexpected functional similarities between gatekeeper tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes revealed by systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Epstein, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Familial tumor suppressor genes comprise two subgroups: caretaker genes (CTs) that repair DNA, and gatekeeper genes (GKs) that trigger cell death. Since GKs may also induce cell cycle delay and thus enhance cell survival by facilitating DNA repair, we hypothesized that the prosurvival phenotype of GKs could be selected during cancer progression, and we used a multivariable systems biology approach to test this. We performed multidimensional data analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and logistic regression to compare the features of GKs with those of their putative antagonists, the proto-oncogenes (POs), as well as with control groups of CTs and functionally unrelated congenital heart disease genes (HDs). GKs and POs closely resemble each other, but not CTs or HDs, in terms of gene structure (Pexpression level and breadth (Pimplied suggest a common functional attribute that is strongly negatively selected-that is, a shared phenotype that enhances cell survival. The counterintuitive finding of similar evolutionary pressures affecting GKs and POs raises an intriguing possibility: namely, that cancer microevolution is accelerated by an epistatic cascade in which upstream suppressor gene defects subvert the normal bifunctionality of wild-type GKs by constitutively shifting the phenotype away from apoptosis towards survival. If correct, this interpretation would explain the hitherto unexplained phenomenon of frequent wild-type GK (for example, p53) overexpression in tumors.

  13. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required imaging with multiple-laser-wavelength measurements to quantify oxygen saturation. Eliminating the need for multiwavelength measurements removes the influence of spectral properties on oxygenation calculations and improves the portability and cost-effectiveness of functional or molecular photoacoustic microscopy.

  14. Zeroes of functions of Fresnel complementary integral type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Villalobos Arias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as  the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization  intervals.  Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all  zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  15. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  16. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who

  17. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  18. The characterization of exosomes from biological fluids of patients with different types of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Grigor'eva, A. A.; Somov, A. K.; Tugutova, E. A.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Molchanov, S. V.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Kakurina, G. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to isolate, identify and analyze the total content of exosomes in biological fluids. The exosomes from the plasma and ascites samples of the patients with ovarian cancer, from the blood plasma of the patients with colorectal and head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as from the blood plasma of healthy donors were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The subpopulations of the exosomes in the biological fluids of the patients with different types of cancer were similar, but the protein concentrations of exosomes were different. In this paper we present the methodological approaches allowing us to obtain high quality exosome preparations from biological fluids.

  19. Exosome function: from tumor immunology to pathogen biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorey, Jeffrey S; Bhatnagar, Sanchita

    2008-06-01

    Exosomes are the newest family member of 'bioactive vesicles' that function to promote intercellular communication. Exosomes are derived from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane and extracellular release of the intraluminal vesicles. Recent studies have focused on the biogenesis and composition of exosomes as well as regulation of exosome release. Exosomes have been shown to be released by cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin, yet their function remains enigmatic. Much of the prior work has focused on exosomes as a source of tumor antigens and in presentation of tumor antigens to T cells. However, new studies have shown that exosomes might also promote cell-to-cell spread of infectious agents. Moreover, exosomes isolated from cells infected with various intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii, have been shown to contain microbial components and can promote antigen presentation and macrophage activation, suggesting that exosomes may function in immune surveillance. In this review, we summarize our understanding of exosome biogenesis but focus primarily on new insights into exosome function. We also discuss their possible use as disease biomarkers and vaccine candidates.

  20. Advancing Functional Metagenomics using Synthetic Biology from Soil to Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric

    as ‘functional metagenomics’, the DNA of these bacteria can be recovered from the environment and used by host-bacteria which can be grown in a lab. This allows us to make use of the capabilities of the billions of bacteria that a represent in the environment without actually growing them but by making use...

  1. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required ima...

  2. Preliminary biological evaluation of a urea-functionalized dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, H.; Syhre, R.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.; Zessin, J.; Steinbach, J.; Klein, L.; Werner, N.; Voegtle, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new third generation ethylurea-functionalized polypropyleneamine dendrimer was prepared. After labelling this dendrimer with 11-carbon the biodistribution in rats was studied. The highest level of radioactivity was found in the liver (30-35% ID). The 11 C-labelled dendrimer was well tolerated by the rats. (orig.)

  3. Type-2 fuzzy elliptic membership functions for modeling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayacan, Erdal; Sarabakha, Andriy; Coupland, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Whereas type-1 and type-2 membership functions (MFs) are the core of any fuzzy logic system, there are no performance criteria available to evaluate the goodness or correctness of the fuzzy MFs. In this paper, we make extensive analysis in terms of the capability of type-2 elliptic fuzzy MFs...... in modeling uncertainty. Having decoupled parameters for its support and width, elliptic MFs are unique amongst existing type-2 fuzzy MFs. In this investigation, the uncertainty distribution along the elliptic MF support is studied, and a detailed analysis is given to compare and contrast its performance...... advantages mentioned above, elliptic MFs have comparable prediction results when compared to Gaussian and triangular MFs. Finally, in order to test the performance of fuzzy logic controller with elliptic interval type-2 MFs, extensive real-time experiments are conducted for the 3D trajectory tracking problem...

  4. The functionality of biological knowledge in the workplace. Integrating school and workplace learning about reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazereeuw, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on a design research project about a learning, supervising and teaching strategy to enable students in agricultural preparatory vocational secondary education (VMBO) to recognize the functionality of biological knowledge of reproduction in work placement sites. Although

  5. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  6. 3D Printing Polymers with Supramolecular Functionality for Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Mondschein, Ryan J; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-09-11

    Supramolecular chemistry continues to experience widespread growth, as fine-tuned chemical structures lead to well-defined bulk materials. Previous literature described the roles of hydrogen bonding, ionic aggregation, guest/host interactions, and π-π stacking to tune mechanical, viscoelastic, and processing performance. The versatility of reversible interactions enables the more facile manufacturing of molded parts with tailored hierarchical structures such as tissue engineered scaffolds for biological applications. Recently, supramolecular polymers and additive manufacturing processes merged to provide parts with control of the molecular, macromolecular, and feature length scales. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, generates customizable constructs desirable for many applications, and the introduction of supramolecular interactions will potentially increase production speed, offer a tunable surface structure for controlling cell/scaffold interactions, and impart desired mechanical properties through reinforcing interlayer adhesion and introducing gradients or self-assembled structures. This review details the synthesis and characterization of supramolecular polymers suitable for additive manufacture and biomedical applications as well as the use of supramolecular polymers in additive manufacturing for drug delivery and complex tissue scaffold formation. The effect of supramolecular assembly and its dynamic behavior offers potential for controlling the anisotropy of the printed objects with exquisite geometrical control. The potential for supramolecular polymers to generate well-defined parts, hierarchical structures, and scaffolds with gradient properties/tuned surfaces provides an avenue for developing next-generation biomedical devices and tissue scaffolds.

  7. Functional nanostructured platforms for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  8. The biology and function of exosomes in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Humans circulate quadrillions of exosomes at all times. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles released by all cells, with a size range of 40?150 nm and a lipid bilayer membrane. Exosomes contain DNA, RNA, and proteins. Exosomes likely remove excess and/or unnecessary constituents from the cells, functioning like garbage bags, although their precise physiological role remains unknown. Additionally, exosomes may mediate specific cell-to-cell communication and activate signaling pathway...

  9. Biology and Function of Fetal and Pediatric Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Alice; Balaji, Swathi; Keswani, Sundeep G

    2013-01-01

    The development of the integumentary system is a series of events, which start in utero and continue throughout life. Although at birth, skin in full-term infants is anatomically mature, functional maturity develops during the first year of life. Pediatric skin transitions again with the onset of puberty. At each stage, there are changes in transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, and skin acidity that define the specific period of development.

  10. Integrals involving functions of the type (WS)sup(q)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.K.

    1981-10-01

    Analytical expressions for integrals involving functions of the Woods-Saxon type raised to the power of q are given. These are expected to be of immediate application in optical model studies and for obtaining various moments of the potential having such shapes. (author)

  11. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  12. Impact of stroke type on survival and functional health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, A.; Reitsma, J. B.; Limburg, M.; van den Bos, G. A.; de Haan, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In a cohort 760 consecutive stroke patients (23 hospitals in the Netherlands), we studied prognosis in relation to stroke type and focused on (a) short-term and long-term mortality, and (b) long-term functional health. Based on clinical and CT data, we distinguished infratentorial strokes from

  13. Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; D'Ayala, D.

    2011-01-01

    Building collapse is the dominant cause of casualties during earthquakes. In order to better predict human fatalities, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program requires collapse fragility functions for global building types. The collapse fragility is expressed as the probability of collapse at discrete levels of the input hazard defined in terms of macroseismic intensity. This article provides a simple procedure for quantifying collapse fragility using vulnerability criteria based on the European Macroseismic Scale (1998) for selected European building types. In addition, the collapse fragility functions are developed for global building types by fitting the beta distribution to the multiple experts’ estimates for the same building type (obtained from EERI’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE)-PAGER survey). Finally, using the collapse probability distributions at each shaking intensity level as a prior and field-based collapse-rate observations as likelihood, it is possible to update the collapse fragility functions for global building types using the Bayesian procedure.

  14. Role of soil biology and soil functions in relation to land use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Giulia; Wall, David; Bacher, Matthias; Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Graça, Jessica; Marongiu, Irene; Creamer, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The delivery of the ecosystem's functions is predominantly controlled by soil biology. The biology found in a gram of soil contains more than ten thousand individual species of bacteria and fungi (Torsvik et al., 1990). Understanding the role and the requirements of these organisms is essential for the protection and the sustainable use of soils. Soil biology represents the engine of all the processes occurring in the soil and it supports the ecosystem services such as: 1) nutrient mineralisation 2) plant production 3) water purification and regulation and 4) carbon cycling and storage. During the last years land management type and intensity have been identified as major drivers for microbial performance in soil. For this reason land management needs to be appropriately studied to understand the role of soil biology within this complex interplay of functions. We aimed to study whether and how land management drives soil biological processes and related functions. To reach this objective we built a land use intensity index (LUI) able to quantify the impact of the common farming practices carried out in Irish grassland soils. The LUI is derived from a detailed farmer questionnaire on grassland management practices at 38 farms distributed in the five major agro-climatic regions of Ireland defined by Holden and Brereton (2004). Soils were classified based on their drainage status according to the Irish Soil Information System by Creamer et al. (2014). This detailed questionnaire is then summarised into 3 management intensity components: (i) intensity of Fertilisation (Fi), (ii) frequency of Mowing (Mi) and (iii) intensity of Livestock Grazing (Gi). Sites were sampled to assess the impact of land management intensity on microbial community structure and enzyme behaviour in relation to nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycling. Preliminary results for enzymes linked to C and N cycles showed higher activity in relation to low grazing pressure (low Gi). Enzymes linked to P

  15. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-01

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient

  16. The biology and function of exosomes in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Humans circulate quadrillions of exosomes at all times. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles released by all cells, with a size range of 40-150 nm and a lipid bilayer membrane. Exosomes contain DNA, RNA, and proteins. Exosomes likely remove excess and/or unnecessary constituents from the cells, functioning like garbage bags, although their precise physiological role remains unknown. Additionally, exosomes may mediate specific cell-to-cell communication and activate signaling pathways in cells they fuse or interact with. Exosomes are detected in the tumor microenvironment, and emerging evidence suggests that they play a role in facilitating tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis, immunity, and metastasis. Circulating exosomes can be used as liquid biopsies and noninvasive biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer patients.

  17. The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Duffy, J Emmett; Zavaleta, Erika

    2012-06-15

    Ecosystems worldwide are rapidly losing taxonomic, phylogenetic, genetic, and functional diversity as a result of human appropriation of natural resources, modification of habitats and climate, and the spread of pathogenic, exotic, and domestic plants and animals. Twenty years of intense theoretical and empirical research have shown that such biotic impoverishment can markedly alter the biogeochemical and dynamic properties of ecosystems, but frontiers remain in linking this research to the complexity of wild nature, and in applying it to pressing environmental issues such as food, water, energy, and biosecurity. The question before us is whether these advances can take us beyond merely invoking the precautionary principle of conserving biodiversity to a predictive science that informs practical and specific solutions to mitigate and adapt to its loss.

  18. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-15

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

  19. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  20. Selenium and arsenic in biology: their chemical forms and biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Morita, M; Fuwa, K

    1992-01-01

    Based on the recent development of analytical methods, sensitive systems for the analysis and speciation of selenium and arsenic have been established. A palladium addition technique was developed for the accurate determination of selenium in biological samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis. For the speciation of the elements, combined methods of HPLC either with ICP-AES or with ICP-MS were found to work well. These systems were applied to the elucidation of the chemical form of the elements in natural samples. Some chemical properties of the selenium-mercury complex in dolphin liver were elucidated: i.e., it was a cationic, water-soluble, low molecular weight compound containing selenium and mercury in a 1:1 molar ratio, and was shown to be different from a known selenium-mercury complex, bis(methylmercuric)selenide. The major selenium compound excreted in human urine was revealed to be other than any of those previously identified (TMSe, selenate, and selenite). TMSe, a suspected major metabolite in urine, was found, if at all, in low levels. The major water-soluble, and lipid-soluble arsenic compounds in a brown seaweed, U. pinnatifida (WAKAME), were rigorously identified, and the results were compared with other data on marine algae and animals. The major organic arsenic compounds (termed "arseno-sugars") in marine algae commonly contain 5-deoxy-5-dimethylarsinyl-ribofuranoside moiety. There are various kinds of arseno-sugar derivatives containing different side-chains attached to the anomeric position of the sugar, and the distribution of each arsenic species seems to be related to algal species. The arseno-sugar (A-XI) is present in every alga so far examined, is metabolized to lipids, and possibly may play some specific role in the algal cells. On the other hand, the major arsenic compound in fish, crustacea and molluscs has been identified as arsenobetaine, which is an arseno-analog of glycinebetaine, a very common osmo-regulator in

  1. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Dilshad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad, E-mail: najamulhaq@bzu.edu.pk [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N.; Athar, Muhammad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W.; Bonn, Guenther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Derivatization of diamond nanopowder as IMAC and RP. •Characterization with SEM, EDX and FT-IR. •Phosphopeptide enrichment from standard as well as real samples. •Desalting and human serum profiling with reproducible results. •MALDI-MS analysis with database identification. -- Abstract: Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program ( (www.matrixscience.com)) for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  2. Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere on the surface of the Earth of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  3. Towards understanding the biological function of hopanoids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, D. M.; Hunter, R.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 expresses bacterial hopanoid lipids that are structurally similar and evolutionarily related to eukaryotic sterols. The genome of R. palustris TIE-1 contains two copies of the hpnN gene (hpnN1 and hpnN2) that are orthologs of genes encoding eukaryotic sterol and lipid transporters. Hopanoid localization to the outer membrane was found to be dependent upon hpnN1. Since the cell cycle of R. palustris TIE-1 is obligately bimodal with each cell division resulting in the generation of one mother and one swarmer cell, evidence was obtained that hopanoids where specifically localized to the outer membrane of mother cells. The sequestration of hopanoids to the mother cells was also disrupted by the deletion of the hpnN1 gene. Mutants lacking the hopanoid transporters were able to grow normally at 30 °C but showed decreased growth at 38 °C. The hopanoid transporter mutant formed cellular filaments when grown at elevated temperature. Because sedimentary steranes and hopanes comprise some of the earliest evidence for the emergence of distinct bacteria and eukaryotic phyla, a better appreciation of the function of hopanoids will improve our ability to interpret the evolution of life on Earth.

  4. Melanocyte biology and function with reference to oral melanin hyperpigmentation in HIV-seropositive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Chandran, Rakesh; Kramer, Beverley; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-09-01

    The color of normal skin and of oral mucosa is not determined by the number of melanocytes in the epithelium but rather by their melanogenic activity. Pigmented biopolymers or melanins are synthesized in melanosomes. Tyrosinase is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of both brown/black eumelanin and yellow/red pheomelanin. The number of the melanosomes within the melanocytes, the type of melanin within the melanosomes, and the efficacy of the transfer of melanosomes from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes all play an important role in tissue pigmentation. Melanin production is regulated by locally produced factors including proopiomelanocortin and its derivative peptides, particularly alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adrenergic and cholinergic agents, growth factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin can be produced by the same melanocytes, and the proportion of the two melanin types is influenced by the degree of functional activity of the α-MSH/MC1R intracellular pathway. The cause of HIV oral melanosis is not fully understood but may be associated with HIV-induced cytokine dysregulation, with the medications commonly prescribed to HIV-seropositive persons, and with adrenocortical dysfunction, which is not uncommon in HIV-seropositive subjects with AIDS. The purpose of this article is to discuss some aspects of melanocyte biology and HIV-associated oral melanin hyperpigmentation.

  5. The reflection of life functional entailment and imminence in relational biology

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, A H

    2013-01-01

    A. H. Louie’s The Reflection of Life: Functional Entailment and Imminence in Relational Biology is a continuation of the exploratory journey in relational biology which began with his 2009 monograph More Than Life Itself: A Synthetic Continuation in Relational Biology. The theme of his first book was ‘What is life?’; the theme of this sequel is “How do two life forms interact?” Biology is a subject concerned with organization of relations. Relational biology is the approach that advocates ‘function dictates structure”, rather than ‘structure implies function’. It is mathematics decoded into biological realizations. The book demonstrates some of the powers of the approach of relational biology, and illustrates how pertinent problems in biology can be better addressed this way. In the first volume the theory was developed by using partially ordered sets, lattices, simulations, models, Aristotle’s four causes, graphs, categories, simple and complex systems, anticipatory systems, and metabolis...

  6. Biological effects of functionalizing copolymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhe; Pedersen, Torbjorn O; Wu, Xujun; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Kloss, Frank R; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Mustafa, Kamal

    2013-08-01

    Significant evidence has indicated that poly(L-lactide)-co-(ɛ-caprolactone) [(poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds could be one of the suitable candidates for bone tissue engineering. Oxygen-terminated nanodiamond particles (n-DP) were combined with poly(LLA-co-CL) and revealed to be positive for cell growth. In this study, we evaluated the influence of poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds modified by n-DP on attachment, proliferation, differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro, and on bone formation using a sheep calvarial defect model. BMSCs were seeded on either poly(LLA-co-CL)- or n-DP-coated scaffolds and incubated for 1 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy were used in addition to protein and DNA measurements to evaluate cellular attachment on the scaffolds. To determine the effect of n-DP on proliferation of BMSCs, cell/scaffold constructs were harvested after 3 days and evaluated by Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay and SEM. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of cells grown for 2 weeks on the various scaffolds and in a dynamic culture condition was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Unmodified and modified scaffolds were implanted into the calvaria of six-year-old sheep. The expression of collagen type I (COL I) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) after 4 weeks as well as the formation of new bone after 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Scaffolds modified with n-DP supported increased cell attachment and the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and BMP-2 were significantly increased after 2 weeks of culture. The BMSCs had spread well on the various scaffolds investigated after 3 days in the study with no significant difference in cell proliferation. Furthermore, the in vivo data revealed more positive staining of COL I and BMP-2 in relation to the n-DP-coated scaffolds after 4 weeks and presented more bone formation after 12 and 24 weeks. n

  7. Using greenhouse gas fluxes to define soil functional types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, Sandra; Barba, Josep; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2017-12-04

    Soils provide key ecosystem services and directly control ecosystem functions; thus, there is a need to define the reference state of soil functionality. Most common functional classifications of ecosystems are vegetation-centered and neglect soil characteristics and processes. We propose Soil Functional Types (SFTs) as a conceptual approach to represent and describe the functionality of soils based on characteristics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) flux dynamics. We used automated measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forested area to define SFTs following a simple statistical framework. This study supports the hypothesis that SFTs provide additional insights on the spatial variability of soil functionality beyond information represented by commonly measured soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature, litter biomass). We discuss the implications of this framework at the plot-scale and the potential of this approach at larger scales. This approach is a first step to provide a framework to define SFTs, but a community effort is necessary to harmonize any global classification for soil functionality. A global application of the proposed SFT framework will only be possible if there is a community-wide effort to share data and create a global database of GHG emissions from soils.

  8. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayoya, J.B.

    2003-10-01

    Using the Jordan algebras method, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of Type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of V M (n, R) studied by Gelbart and Godement-Jacquet, and the case of V Herm(3, O s ) studied by Muro. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one to one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of Type H. (author)

  9. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  10. From transcriptome to biological function: environmental stress in an ectothermic vertebrate, the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Alister C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the importance of transcriptional regulation for biological function is continuously improving. We still know, however, comparatively little about how environmentally induced stress affects gene expression in vertebrates, and the consistency of transcriptional stress responses to different types of environmental stress. In this study, we used a multi-stressor approach to identify components of a common stress response as well as components unique to different types of environmental stress. We exposed individuals of the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis to hypoxic, hyposmotic, cold and heat shock and measured the responses of approximately 16,000 genes in liver. We also compared winter and summer responses to heat shock to examine the capacity for such responses to vary with acclimation to different ambient temperatures. Results We identified a series of gene functions that were involved in all stress responses examined here, suggesting some common effects of stress on biological function. These common responses were achieved by the regulation of largely independent sets of genes; the responses of individual genes varied greatly across different stress types. In response to heat exposure over five days, a total of 324 gene loci were differentially expressed. Many heat-responsive genes had functions associated with protein turnover, metabolism, and the response to oxidative stress. We were also able to identify groups of co-regulated genes, the genes within which shared similar functions. Conclusion This is the first environmental genomic study to measure gene regulation in response to different environmental stressors in a natural population of a warm-adapted ectothermic vertebrate. We have shown that different types of environmental stress induce expression changes in genes with similar gene functions, but that the responses of individual genes vary between stress types. The functions of heat

  11. Type T reference function suitability for low temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, D.

    2013-09-01

    Type T thermocouples are commonly used in industrial measurement applications due to their accuracy relative to other thermocouple types, low cost, and the ready availability of measurement equipment. Type T thermocouples are very effective when used in differential measurements, as there is no cold junction compensation necessary for the connections to the measurement equipment. Type T's published accuracy specifications result in its frequent use in low temperature applications. An examination of over 328 samples from a number of manufacturers has been completed for this investigation. Samples were compared to a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) at the LN2 boiling point along with four other standardized measurement points using a characterized ice point reference, low-thermal EMF scanner and an 8.5 digit multimeter, and the data compiled and analyzed. The test points were approximately -196 °C, -75 °C, 0 °C, +100 °C, and +200 °C. These data show an anomaly in the conformance to the reference functions where the reference functions meet at 0 °C. Additionally, in the temperature region between -100 °C to -200 °C, a positive offset of up to 5.4 °C exists between the reference function equations published in the ASTM E230-06 for the nitrogen point and the measured response of the actual wire. This paper will examine the historical and technological reasons for this anomaly in the both the ASTM and IEC reference functions. At the request of the author and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained several figures with missing information/characters—caused by processes used to generate the PDF file. All figures were affected by this error. The article has been replaced and these figures now display correctly. The corrected article was published on 7 November 2013.

  12. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level.

  13. Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m−2 s−1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m−2 s−1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m−3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  14. Sharing Structure and Function in Biological Design with SBOL 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Beal, Jacob; Clancy, Kevin; Bartley, Bryan; Misirli, Goksel; Grünberg, Raik; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Bissell, Michael; Madsen, Curtis; Nguyen, Tramy; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Zhen; Zundel, Zach; Densmore, Douglas; Gennari, John H; Wipat, Anil; Sauro, Herbert M; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a standard that enables collaborative engineering of biological systems across different institutions and tools. SBOL is developed through careful consideration of recent synthetic biology trends, real use cases, and consensus among leading researchers in the field and members of commercial biotechnology enterprises. We demonstrate and discuss how a set of SBOL-enabled software tools can form an integrated, cross-organizational workflow to recapitulate the design of one of the largest published genetic circuits to date, a 4-input AND sensor. This design encompasses the structural components of the system, such as its DNA, RNA, small molecules, and proteins, as well as the interactions between these components that determine the system's behavior/function. The demonstrated workflow and resulting circuit design illustrate the utility of SBOL 2.0 in automating the exchange of structural and functional specifications for genetic parts, devices, and the biological systems in which they operate.

  15. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  16. N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine and its biological functions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellner, Niels; Diep, Thi Ai; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) and N-acylplasmenylethanolamine (pNAPE) are widely found phospholipids, and they are precursors for N-acylethanolamines, a group of compounds that has a variety of biological effects and encompasses the endocannabinoid anandamide. NAPE and pNAPE are synthesiz...... reviews the metabolism, occurrence and assay of NAPE and pNAPE, and discusses the putative biological functions in mammals of these phospholipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism....

  17. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  18. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  19. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time.

  20. Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were

  1. Composite Structural Motifs of Binding Sites for Delineating Biological Functions of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes are described as a series of interactions between proteins and other molecules, and interactions are in turn described in terms of atomic structures. To annotate protein functions as sets of interaction states at atomic resolution, and thereby to better understand the relation between protein interactions and biological functions, we conducted exhaustive all-against-all atomic structure comparisons of all known binding sites for ligands including small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids, and identified recurring elementary motifs. By integrating the elementary motifs associated with each subunit, we defined composite motifs that represent context-dependent combinations of elementary motifs. It is demonstrated that function similarity can be better inferred from composite motif similarity compared to the similarity of protein sequences or of individual binding sites. By integrating the composite motifs associated with each protein function, we define meta-composite motifs each of which is regarded as a time-independent diagrammatic representation of a biological process. It is shown that meta-composite motifs provide richer annotations of biological processes than sequence clusters. The present results serve as a basis for bridging atomic structures to higher-order biological phenomena by classification and integration of binding site structures. PMID:22347478

  2. Biologic variability and correlation of platelet function testing in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Lang, Sean T; Wood, R Darren; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    Platelet function tests are influenced by biologic variability, including inter-individual (CVG ) and intra-individual (CVI ), as well as analytic (CVA ) variability. Variability in canine platelet function testing is unknown, but if excessive, would make it difficult to interpret serial results. Additionally, the correlation between platelet function tests is poor in people, but not well described in dogs. The aims were to: (1) identify the effect of variation in preanalytic factors (venipuncture, elapsed time until analysis) on platelet function tests; (2) calculate analytic and biologic variability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced thromboelastograph platelet mapping (TEG-PM), ADP-, AA-, and collagen-induced whole blood platelet aggregometry (WBA), and collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine platelet function analysis (PFA-CADP, PFA-CEPI); and (3) determine the correlation between these variables. In this prospective observational trial, platelet function was measured once every 7 days, for 4 consecutive weeks, in 9 healthy dogs. In addition, CBC, TEG-PM, WBA, and PFA were performed. Overall coefficients of variability ranged from 13.3% to 87.8% for the platelet function tests. Biologic variability was highest for AA-induced maximum amplitude generated during TEG-PM (MAAA; CVG = 95.3%, CVI = 60.8%). Use of population-based reference intervals (RI) was determined appropriate only for PFA-CADP (index of individuality = 10.7). There was poor correlation between most platelet function tests. Use of population-based RI appears inappropriate for most platelet function tests, and tests poorly correlate with one another. Future studies on biologic variability and correlation of platelet function tests should be performed in dogs with platelet dysfunction and those treated with antiplatelet therapy. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Elucidating Functional Aspects of P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    and helped enlighten how thapsigargin, a potent inhibitor of SERCA1a, depends on a water mediated hydrogen bond network when bound to SERCA1a. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the same P-type ATPase were used to assess a long-standing question whether cholesterol affects SERCA1a through...... similar to that of the wild type (WT) protein. The discrepancy between the newly determined crystal structure of LpCopA and the functional manifestations of the missense mutation in human CopA, could indicate that LpCopA is insufficient in structurally elucidating the effect of disease-causing mutations...... in the human CopA proteins. MD simulations, which combine coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic procedures, were set up in order to elucidate mechanistic implications exerted by the lipid bilayer on LpCopA. The MD simulations of LpCopA corroborated previous and new in vivo activity data and showed...

  4. Evaluation of biological attributes of soil type latossol under agroecological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil attributes have shown to be good indicators of soil changes as a result of the management function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using cover crops, as well as planting and tillage systems on the biological attributes of a yellowish red latosol soil. Soil samples were taken at 0 to 0.10 m depth, seven days before the bean harvest. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, basal soil respiration, metabolic ratio and total enzyme activity were evaluated in this study. The best agroecological management was achieved under the association of the ground cover with millet and in direct seeding because they showed higher soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content and lower metabolic quotient, being pork bean the best plant coverage. All biological soil attributes were sensitive to the tillage system, which showed the best results of the total enzyme activity and of the soil metabolic quotient which resulted to be the most efficient.

  5. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter eKlivényi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2 is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic- memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate and speech tempo. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech and sequence learning.

  6. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  7. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  8. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

  9. Type of prey influences biology and consumption rate of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M. Mendes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalist predators are capable of consuming different types of prey, and as each prey may have distinct nutritional values, each may have a distinct impact on the biology of the predator. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how the consumption of different prey influences certain biological characteristics and the predatory capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say. The investigation was performed in climatic chamber at 25 ±1 ºC, RH 70 ± 10% and fotophase 12. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, adults of Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood and nymphs of Aphis gossypii Glover were used as prey and were provided daily ad libitum for all the mobile stages of the predator. The results showed that biological parameters of O. insidiosus are affected differently depending on the type of prey ingested. The development time of the nymphal stage was 13.1, 11.23 and 10.25 days for O. insidiosus feeding on eggs of A. kuehniella, nymphs of A. gossypii and adults of C. phaseoli, respectively. Longevity was five times larger for adults fed on eggs of A. kuehniella (56.25 days compared to that of adults that preyed on nymphs of A. gossypii (11.44 days, and four times larger when the prey were adults of C. phaseoli (13.58 days. The consumption of eggs of A. kuehniella by predator females resulted in a shorter pre-oviposition period (3.2 days and a longer oviposition period (44.4 days when compared to the consumption of other types of prey. In addition, fecundity was increased with the consumption of eggs of A. kuehniella (195.25 eggs laid / female when compared to feeding on the other prey, C. phaseoli (70.00 eggs laid / female or A. gossypii (22.50 eggs laid / female. However, the consumption of aphids was larger (148.28 nymphs/ nymphal stage than that of thrips (74.10 thrips / nymphal stage or eggs of A. kuehniella (37.03 eggs /nymphal stage for all of the nymphal stages of the predator. The results indicate that the eggs of A. kuehniella are the type of

  10. The relationship between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function in the bedridden elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, N; Tada, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine what item of biological and psychosocial function is related to oral health status in the bedridden elderly. The subjects were 94 elderly individuals (30 males, 64 females) who had been admitted to a nursing home in Chiba city, Japan. We assessed the number of remaining teeth and the number of functional teeth as oral health status variables. Biological and psychosocial function levels were determined using the functional independence measure method developed by the State University of New York at Buffalo. More than 70% of subjects had less than ten remaining teeth. Almost all subjects needed prosthesis treatment. More than 50% of subjects had 27 or less functional teeth. Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression models showed that 'expression' was concerned with the number of remaining teeth and 'bladder management', 'locomotion', 'transfers' were related to the number of functional teeth. These data suggest close relation between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function levels in the bedridden elderly.

  11. Structural Biology Insight for the Design of Sub-type Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvagalla, Sailu; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase A, B and C, are key regulators of mitosis and are over expressed in many of the human cancers, making them an ideal drug target for cancer chemotherapy. Currently, over a dozen of Aurora kinase inhibitors are in various phases of clinical development. The majority of the inhibitors (VX-680/MK-0457, PHA-739358, CYC116, SNS-314, AMG 900, AT-9283, SCH- 1473759, ABT-348, PF-03814735, R-763/AS-703569, KW-2449 and TAK-901) are pan-selective (isoform non-selective) and few are Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, VX-689/MK5108 and ENMD 2076) and Aurora B (AZD1152 and GSK1070916) sub-type selective. Despite the intensive research efforts in the past decade, no Aurora kinase inhibitor has reached the market. Recent evidence suggests that the sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor could possess advantages over pan-selective Aurora inhibitors, by avoiding Aurora B mediated neutropenia. However, sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor design is very challenging due to the similarity in the active site among the isoforms. Structural biology and computational aspects pertaining to the design of Aurora kinase inhibitors were analyzed and found that a possible means to develop sub-type selective inhibitor is by targeting Aurora A specific residues (Leu215, Thr217 and Arg220) or Aurora B specific residues (Arg159, Glu161 and Lys164), near the solvent exposed region of the protein. Particularly, a useful strategy for the design of sub-type selective Aurora A inhibitor could be by targeting Thr217 residue as in the case of MLN8054. Further preclinical and clinical studies with the sub-type selective Aurora inhibitors could help bring them to the market for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Impact of type 2 diabetes and duration of type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has improved patient outcome and may also have affected myocardial structure and function. We aimed to describe the effect of T2D and T2D duration on cardiac structure and function in a large outpatient population. METHODS: We performed...... comprehensive echocardiography on a representative sample of 1004 persons including a representative sample of 770 patients with T2D without known heart disease and 234 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: T2D was associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses and decreased LV internal...... dysfunction persisted after multivariable adjustment (P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D, LV structural and functional alterations persist and are accentuated with increasing diabetes duration despite reductions in overall risk of cardiovascular disease in this patient population....

  13. [Recent advances of synthetic biology for production of functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin-Yao; Xue, Jian-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia

    2016-11-01

    The functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica are the main active substance for traditional Chinese medicine and most of them are secondary metabolites derivatives. Until now,the main method to obtain those functional ingredients is through direct extraction from the Chinese materia medica. However, the income is very low because of the high extraction costs and the decreased medicinal plants. Synthetic biology technology, as a new and microbial approach, can be able to carry out large-scale production of functional ingredients and greatly ease the shortage of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients. This review mainly focused on the recent advances in synthetic biology for the functional ingredients production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Invited review: Caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, C; Carver, J A; Ecroyd, H; Thorn, D C

    2013-10-01

    A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional

  15. PANTHER version 6: protein sequence and function evolution data with expanded representation of biological pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Huaiyu; Guo, Nan; Kejariwal, Anish; Thomas, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    PANTHER is a freely available, comprehensive software system for relating protein sequence evolution to the evolution of specific protein functions and biological roles. Since 2005, there have been three main improvements to PANTHER. First, the sequences used to create evolutionary trees are carefully selected to provide coverage of phylogenetic as well as functional information. Second, PANTHER is now a member of the InterPro Consortium, and the PANTHER hidden markov Models (HMMs) are distri...

  16. Late-stage diversification of biologically active pyridazinones via a direct C-H functionalization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Zhoulong; Geng, Kaijun; Xu, Youjun; Zhang, Ao

    2015-01-14

    Divergent C-H functionalization reactions (arylation, carboxylation, olefination, thiolation, acetoxylation, halogenation, naphthylation) using a pyridazinone moiety as an internal directing group were successfully established. This approach offers a late-stage, ortho-selective diversification of a biologically active pyridazinone scaffold. Seven series of novel pyridazinone analogues were synthesized conveniently as the synthetic precursors of potential sortase A (SrtA) inhibitors.

  17. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  18. Functioning and disability in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Tollbäck, Anna

    2011-01-01

     To provide a comprehensive description of functioning and disability with regard to stages of disease progression in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Further to explore associations of measures of manual dexterity and of walking capacity with measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and participation in social and lifestyle activities. Seventy persons with DM1 underwent examinations, tests and answered questionnaires. Stages of disease progression were based on the muscular impairment rating scale.  Overweight, cardiac dysfunctions, respiratory restrictions, fatigue and/or low physical activity levels were found in approximately 40% of those with DM1. Over 75% had muscle impairments, and activity limitations in manual dexterity and walking. Dependence in personal and instrumental ADL was found in 16% and 39%, respectively, and participation restrictions in social and lifestyle activities in 52%. The presence of concurrent body-function impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions was high. Significant differences were found in muscle impairment, manual dexterity, mobility, ADL and social and lifestyle activities with regard to disease progression. Cut-off values in measures of manual dexterity and walking capacity associated to functioning are proposed.  This information can be used for developing clinical practise and for health promotion for persons with DM1.

  19. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    , all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...

  1. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  2. Response function of a p type - HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Cabral, Fatima Padilla; D'Alessandro, Katia; Maidana, Nora Lia; Vanin, Vito Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The response function of a HPGe detector depends on Ge crystal dimensions and dead layers thicknesses; most of them are not given by the manufacturers or change with detector damage from neutrons or contact with the atmosphere and therefore must be experimentally determined. The response function is obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure based on the Ge crystal characteristics. In this work, a p-type coaxial HPGe detector with 30% efficiency, manufactured in 1989, was investigated. The crystal radius and length and the inner hole dimensions were obtained scanning the capsule both in the radial and axial directions using 4 mm collimated beams from 137 Cs, 207 Bi point sources placed on a x-y table in steps of 2,00 mm. These dimensions were estimated comparing the experimental peak areas with those obtained by simulation using several hole configurations. In a similar procedure, the frontal dead layer thickness was determined using 2 mm collimated beams of the 59 keV gamma-rays from 241 Am and 81 keV from 133 Ba sources hitting the detector at 90 deg and 45 deg with respect to the capsule surface. The Monte Carlo detector model included, besides the crystal, hole and capsules sizes, the Ge dead-layers. The obtained spectra were folded with a gaussian resolution function to account for electronic noise. The comparison of simulated and experimental response functions for 4 mm collimated beams of 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 207 Bi points sources placed at distances of 7, 11 and 17 cm from the detector end cap showed relative deviations of about 10% in general and below 10% in the peak. The frontal dead layer thickness determined by our procedure was different from that specified by the detector manufacturer. (author)

  3. Modelling effective dielectric properties of materials containing diverse types of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclova, Sonja; Froehlich, Juerg; Erni, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and versatile numerical method for the generation of different realistically shaped biological cells is developed. This framework is used to calculate the dielectric spectra of materials containing specific types of biological cells. For the generation of the numerical models of the cells a flexible parametrization method based on the so-called superformula is applied including the option of obtaining non-axisymmetric shapes such as box-shaped cells and even shapes corresponding to echinocytes. The dielectric spectra of effective media containing various cell morphologies are calculated focusing on the dependence of the spectral features on the cell shape. The numerical method is validated by comparing a model of spherical inclusions at a low volume fraction with the analytical solution obtained by the Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula, resulting in good agreement. Our simulation data for different cell shapes suggest that around 1MHz the effective dielectric properties of different cell shapes at different volume fractions significantly deviate from the spherical case. The most pronounced change exhibits ε eff between 0.1 and 1 MHz with a deviation of up to 35% for a box-shaped cell and 15% for an echinocyte compared with the sphere at a volume fraction of 0.4. This hampers the unique interpretation of changes in cellular features measured by dielectric spectroscopy when simplified material models are used.

  4. A Biology Laboratory Exercise Using Macromolecule Assays to Distinguish Four Types of Milk

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    Charlotte W. Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawbacks of cookbook-style laboratory exercises for General Biology courses is that students are not challenged to develop skills in scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and designing and carrying out experiments. Several traditional laboratory curricula include exercises involving semi-quantitative colorimetric assays to detect proteins (biuret test, reducing sugars (Benedict’s test, starch (Lugol’s test, and lipids (Sudan red test in a variety of easily prepared solutions (glucose, albumin, glycine, etc. and familiar food items (lemon juice, cornstarch, egg white, etc.. An extension of this lab exercise was developed to allow students to use their knowledge of the macromolecule assays to design an experiment to distinguish four types of “milk”: whole milk, skim milk, cream, and soy milk (rice milk or almond milk could also be included.

  5. Role of C-type natriuretic peptide in the function of normal human sperm

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    Hui Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP is a newly discovered type of local regulatory factor that mediates its biological effects through the specific, membrane-bound natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B. Recent studies have established that CNP is closely related to male reproductive function. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of CNP/NPR-B in human ejaculated spermatozoa through different methods (such as immunolocalization, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, and then to evaluate the influence of CNP on sperm function i n vitro, such as motility and acrosome reaction. Human semen samples were collected from consenting donors who met the criteria of the World Health Organization for normozoospermia. Our results show that the specific receptor NPR-B of CNP is localized in the acrosomal region of the head and the membrane of the front-end tail of the sperm, and there is no signal of CNP in human sperm. Compared with the control, CNP can induce a significant dose-dependent increase in spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction. In summary, CNP/NPR-B can affect sperm motility and acrosome reaction, thus regulating the reproductive function of males. CNP may be a new key factor in regulating sperm function.

  6. Single amino acid substitution in important hemoglobinopathies does not disturb molecular function and biological process

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    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemoglobin is an important protein found in the red cells of many animals. In humans, the hemoglobin is mainly distributed in the red blood cell. Single amino acid substitution is the main pathogenesis of most hemoglobin disorders. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict the molecular function and biological process of four important hemoglobin disorders with single substitution. The four studied important abnormal hemoglobins (Hb with single substitution included Hb S, Hb E, Hb C, and Hb J-Baltimore. Using the GoFigure server, the molecular function and biological process in normal and abnormal hemoglobins was predicted. Compared with normal hemoglobin, all studied abnormal hemoglobins had the same function and biological process. This indicated that the overall function of oxygen transportation is not disturbed in the studied hemoglobin disorders. Clinical findings of oxygen depletion in abnormal hemoglobin should therefore be due to the other processes rather than genomics, proteomics, and expression levels.Keywords: hemoglobin, amino acid, substitution, function

  7. Construction and Analysis of Functional Networks in the Gut Microbiome of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianshuo; Wang, Zicheng; He, Peng; Ma, Shining; Du, Jie; Jiang, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Although networks of microbial species have been widely used in the analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing data of a microbiome, the construction and analysis of a complete microbial gene network are in general problematic because of the large number of microbial genes in metagenomics studies. To overcome this limitation, we propose to map microbial genes to functional units, including KEGG orthologous groups and the evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups (eggNOG) orthologous groups, to enable the construction and analysis of a microbial functional network. We devised two statistical methods to infer pairwise relationships between microbial functional units based on a deep sequencing dataset of gut microbiome from type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients as well as healthy controls. Networks containing such functional units and their significant interactions were constructed subsequently. We conducted a variety of analyses of global properties, local properties, and functional modules in the resulting functional networks. Our data indicate that besides the observations consistent with the current knowledge, this study provides novel biological insights into the gut microbiome associated with T2D. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  9. Functional assessment of feet of patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Saura Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of functional changes and risk of developing ulcers in type II diabetic patients seen in Primary Healthcare Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde- UBS. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study comprising 80patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM aged between 41 to 85 years and attended inthe UBS in the city of Parnaíba-PI. Volunteers responded to the identification form and theMichigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI, followed by an evaluation of the lowerlimbs, as follows: achilles and patellar reflex, palpation of arterial pulses (dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial, tactile sensitivity (Monofilament 10g and vibration sensitivity (128Hz tuning fork; identification of the presence of changes such as ingrown toenails, calluses,claw toes and hair loss. Finally, using the information acquired from the assessment, subjects were classified according to the risk of developing wounds. Results: The sample consisted of 76 diabetic patients, with average age of 63.8 ± 10.4 years, 63 (82.8% were female, mean diagnostic time 8.8 ± 7.2 years, average body mass index (BMI 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2, with 15.7% of the sample being smokers. The myotatic reflexes and arterial pulses were reduced. Tactile sensitivity was identified in 81.5% and 13.1% did not feel the vibration of the tuning fork. The most dominant changes identified were calluses, 76.3% (n = 58. Risk level 2 of developing ulcers stood out, 52.6% (n = 40. Conclusion: Functional changes were detected in the sample and a classification of risk 2 for developing wounds was found in more than 50% of the assessed patients. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p563

  10. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  11. Green's function of compressible Petschek-type magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penz, Thomas; Semenov, V.S.; Ivanova, V.V.; Heyn, M.F.; Ivanov, I.B.; Biernat, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to analyze the wave and shock structures arising from Petschek-type magnetic reconnection. Based on a time-dependent analytical approach developed by Heyn and Semenov [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2725 (1996)] and Semenov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 62 (2004)], we calculate the perturbations caused by a delta function-shaped reconnection electric field, which allows us to achieve a representation of the plasma variables in the form of Green's functions. Different configurations for the initial conditions are considered. In the case of symmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields and symmetric plasma density, the well-known structure of an Alfven discontinuity, a fast body wave, a slow shock, a slow wave, and a tube wave occurs. In the case of asymmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields, additionally surface waves are found. We also discuss the case of symmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields and asymmetric densities, which leads to a faster propagation in the lower half plane, causing side waves forming a Mach cone in the upper half plane. Complex effects like anisotropic propagation characteristics, intrinsic wave coupling, and the generation of different nonlinear and linear wave modes in a finite β plasma are retained. The temporal evolution of these wave and shock structures is shown

  12. The bottom-up approach to defining life : deciphering the functional organization of biological cells via multi-objective representation of biological complexity from molecules to cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish ePeriyasamy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In silico representation of cellular systems needs to represent the adaptive dynamics of biological cells, recognizing a cell’s multi-objective topology formed by spatially and temporally cohesive intracellular structures. The design of these models needs to address the hierarchical and concurrent nature of cellular functions and incorporate the ability to self-organise in response to transitions between healthy and pathological phases, and adapt accordingly. The functions of biological systems are constantly evolving, due to the ever changing demands of their environment. Biological systems meet these demands by pursuing objectives, aided by their constituents, giving rise to biological functions. A biological cell is organised into an objective/task hierarchy. These objective hierarchy corresponds to the nested nature of temporally cohesive structures and representing them will facilitate in studying pleiotropy and polygeny by modeling causalities propagating across multiple interconnected intracellular processes. Although biological adaptations occur in physiological, developmental and reproductive timescales, the paper is focused on adaptations that occur within physiological timescales, where the biomolecular activities contributing to functional organisation, play a key role in cellular physiology. The paper proposes a multi-scale and multi-objective modelling approach from the bottom-up by representing temporally cohesive structures for multi-tasking of intracellular processes. Further the paper characterises the properties and constraints that are consequential to the organisational and adaptive dynamics in biological cells.

  13. Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications.

  14. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

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    Carmel McDougall

    Full Text Available In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the

  15. Intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori is an ATPase involved in multifunctional biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-yi; Chen, Cheng; Shao, Chen; Wang, Shao-bo; Wang, Ai-chu; Yang, Ya-chao; Yuan, Xiao-yan; Shao, Shi-he

    2015-04-01

    The function of intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori was analyzed using immunoblotting and molecular biology techniques in the study. After cloning, expression and purification, ATPase activity of DupA protein was detected. Antibody was produced for localization and interaction proteins analysis. The dupA-deleted mutant was generated for adhesion and CagA protein translocation assay, susceptibility to different pH, IL-8 secretion assay, cytotoxicity to MKN-45 cells and proteins-involved apoptosis analysis. DupA protein exhibited an ATPase activity (129.5±17.8 U/mgprot) and located in bacterial membrane, while it did not involve the adhesion and CagA protein delivery of H. pylori. DupA protein involved the urease secretion as the interaction proteins. The wild type strain had a stronger growth in low pH than the dupA-deleted mutant (p DupA protein located in membrane as ATPase is a true virulence factor associated with duodenal ulcer development involving the IL-8 induction and urease secretion, while it inhibits gastric cancer cell growth in vitro by activating the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multilevel functional genomics data integration as a tool for understanding physiology: a network biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Turan, Nil; Egginton, Stuart; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The overall aim of physiological research is to understand how living systems function in an integrative manner. Consequently, the discipline of physiology has since its infancy attempted to link multiple levels of biological organization. Increasingly this has involved mathematical and computational approaches, typically to model a small number of components spanning several levels of biological organization. With the advent of "omics" technologies, which can characterize the molecular state of a cell or tissue (intended as the level of expression and/or activity of its molecular components), the number of molecular components we can quantify has increased exponentially. Paradoxically, the unprecedented amount of experimental data has made it more difficult to derive conceptual models underlying essential mechanisms regulating mammalian physiology. We present an overview of state-of-the-art methods currently used to identifying biological networks underlying genomewide responses. These are based on a data-driven approach that relies on advanced computational methods designed to "learn" biology from observational data. In this review, we illustrate an application of these computational methodologies using a case study integrating an in vivo model representing the transcriptional state of hypoxic skeletal muscle with a clinical study representing muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The broader application of these approaches to modeling multiple levels of biological data in the context of modern physiology is discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Teleology then and now: the question of Kant's relevance for contemporary controversies over function in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammito, John

    2006-12-01

    'Naturalism' is the aspiration of contemporary philosophy of biology, and Kant simply cannot be refashioned into a naturalist. Instead, epistemological 'deflation' was the decisive feature of Kant's treatment of the 'biomedical' science in his day, so it is not surprising that this might attract some philosophers of science to him today. A certain sense of impasse in the contemporary 'function talk' seems to motivate renewed interest in Kant. Kant--drawing on his eighteenth-century predecessors-provided a discerning and powerful characterization of what biologists had to explain in organic form. His difference from the rest is that he opined that it was impossible to explain it. Its 'inscrutability' was intrinsic. The third Critique essentially proposed the reduction of biology to a kind of pre-scientific descriptivism, doomed never to attain authentic scientificity, to have its 'Newton of the blade of grass'. By contrast, for Locke, and a fortiori for Buffon and his followers, 'intrinsic purposiveness' was a fact of the matter about concrete biological phenomena; the features of internal self-regulation were hypotheses arising out of actual research practice. The difference comes most vividly to light once we recognize Kant's distinction of the concept of organism from the concept of life. If biology must conceptualize self-organization as actual in the world, Kant's regulative/constitutive distinction is pointless in practice and the (naturalist) philosophy of biology has urgent work to undertake for which Kant turns out not to be very helpful.

  18. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  19. TCA Cycle and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Are Necessary for Diverse Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Diebold, Lauren P; Kong, Hyewon; Schieber, Michael; Huang, He; Hensley, Christopher T; Mehta, Manan M; Wang, Tianyuan; Santos, Janine H; Woychik, Richard; Dufour, Eric; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Weinberg, Samuel E; Zhao, Yingming; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2016-01-21

    Mitochondrial metabolism is necessary for the maintenance of oxidative TCA cycle function and mitochondrial membrane potential. Previous attempts to decipher whether mitochondria are necessary for biological outcomes have been hampered by genetic and pharmacologic methods that simultaneously disrupt multiple functions linked to mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we report that inducible depletion of mitochondrial DNA (ρ(ο) cells) diminished respiration, oxidative TCA cycle function, and the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in diminished cell proliferation, hypoxic activation of HIF-1, and specific histone acetylation marks. Genetic reconstitution only of the oxidative TCA cycle function specifically in these inducible ρ(ο) cells restored metabolites, resulting in re-establishment of histone acetylation. In contrast, genetic reconstitution of the mitochondrial membrane potential restored ROS, which were necessary for hypoxic activation of HIF-1 and cell proliferation. These results indicate that distinct mitochondrial functions associated with respiration are necessary for cell proliferation, epigenetics, and HIF-1 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Acute tension type headache, cognitive function and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Research has shown that migraine is often associated with memory problems. There have, however, been few studies of tension type headache (TTH and cognition. People who report frequent headaches often report high levels of negative affect. However, less is known about the acute effects of tension type headache on mood. To address these gaps in our knowledge, two studies examined the effects of acute TTH on cognitive performance and mood. Methods: Both studies involved one group of participants completing a battery of tasks when they had a TTH and when they had no headache. Another group (the control was headache free on both occasions. Duration of the headache was greater than 30 minutes and less than 4 hours. In the no headache condition the participants were headache free for at least 24 hours. In the first study 12 participants (6 with TTH, 6 controls completed a computerised battery measuring mood and aspects of cognition. In the second study 22 participants (7 TTH, 5 after TTH and10 controls completed paper and pencil mood and cognitive tasks.Results: In the first study having a headache was associated with an increase in negative affect both before and after the tasks. Three performance tasks showed impairments when the participants had headaches: logical reasoning was slower and less accurate; retrieval from semantic memory was slower; and reaction times in the categoric search task were slower. Results from the second study confirmed the global increase in negative affect when the person has a TTH. The results confirmed the impairments in the logical reasoning and semantic processing tasks and also showed that those with a TTH had greater psychomotor slowing and were more easily distracted. Effects did not continue after the headache had gone.Conclusions: Two small-scale studies have shown that TTH is associated with negative affect and impaired cognitive function. It is now of interest to determine whether OTC treatment

  2. Form and function: Perspectives on structural biology and resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study is largely to explore and expand on the thesis that biological structures and their functions are suited to. Form indeed follows function and if we are to understand the workings of a living system, with all that such an understanding promises, we must first seek to describe the structure of its parts. Descriptions of a few achievements of structural biology lay the groundwork, but the substance of this booklet is a discussion of important questions yet unanswered and opportunities just beyond our grasp. The concluding pages then outline a course of action in which the Department of Energy would exercise its responsibility to develop the major resources needed to extend our reach and to answer some of those unanswered questions. 22 figs

  3. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  4. PMS2 endonuclease activity has distinct biological functions and is essential for genome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Johanna M M; Roa, Sergio; Werling, Uwe; Liu, Yiyong; Genschel, Jochen; Hou, Harry; Sellers, Rani S; Modrich, Paul; Scharff, Matthew D; Edelmann, Winfried

    2010-07-27

    The DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2 was recently found to encode a novel endonuclease activity. To determine the biological functions of this activity in mammals, we generated endonuclease-deficient Pms2E702K knock-in mice. Pms2EK/EK mice displayed increased genomic mutation rates and a strong cancer predisposition. In addition, class switch recombination, but not somatic hypermutation, was impaired in Pms2EK/EK B cells, indicating a specific role in Ig diversity. In contrast to Pms2-/- mice, Pms2EK/EK male mice were fertile, indicating that this activity is dispensable in spermatogenesis. Therefore, the PMS2 endonuclease activity has distinct biological functions and is essential for genome maintenance and tumor suppression.

  5. Automated quantitative assessment of proteins' biological function in protein knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gabriele; Lepperdinger, Günter; Lackner, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Primary protein sequence data are archived in databases together with information regarding corresponding biological functions. In this respect, UniProt/Swiss-Prot is currently the most comprehensive collection and it is routinely cross-examined when trying to unravel the biological role of hypothetical proteins. Bioscientists frequently extract single entries and further evaluate those on a subjective basis. In lieu of a standardized procedure for scoring the existing knowledge regarding individual proteins, we here report about a computer-assisted method, which we applied to score the present knowledge about any given Swiss-Prot entry. Applying this quantitative score allows the comparison of proteins with respect to their sequence yet highlights the comprehension of functional data. pfs analysis may be also applied for quality control of individual entries or for database management in order to rank entry listings.

  6. Automated Quantitative Assessment of Proteins' Biological Function in Protein Knowledge Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mayr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary protein sequence data are archived in databases together with information regarding corresponding biological functions. In this respect, UniProt/Swiss-Prot is currently the most comprehensive collection and it is routinely cross-examined when trying to unravel the biological role of hypothetical proteins. Bioscientists frequently extract single entries and further evaluate those on a subjective basis. In lieu of a standardized procedure for scoring the existing knowledge regarding individual proteins, we here report about a computer-assisted method, which we applied to score the present knowledge about any given Swiss-Prot entry. Applying this quantitative score allows the comparison of proteins with respect to their sequence yet highlights the comprehension of functional data. pfs analysis may be also applied for quality control of individual entries or for database management in order to rank entry listings.

  7. PreproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract: expression and biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredkjoer, H E; Palle, C; Ekblad, E

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination with immunohistoc......The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination...... with immunohistochemistry were used. The effect of preproVIP 22-79, preproVIP 111-122 and preproVIP 156-170 on genital smooth muscle activity in the Fallopian tube was investigated in vitro and compared to that of VIP. All the preproVIP-derived peptides were expressed throughout the genital tract in neuronal elements...

  8. Form and function: Perspectives on structural biology and resources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study is largely to explore and expand on the thesis that biological structures and their functions are suited to. Form indeed follows function and if we are to understand the workings of a living system, with all that such an understanding promises, we must first seek to describe the structure of its parts. Descriptions of a few achievements of structural biology lay the groundwork, but the substance of this booklet is a discussion of important questions yet unanswered and opportunities just beyond our grasp. The concluding pages then outline a course of action in which the Department of Energy would exercise its responsibility to develop the major resources needed to extend our reach and to answer some of those unanswered questions. 22 figs.

  9. Tongue and Taste Organ Biology and Function: Homeostasis Maintained by Hedgehog Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Charlotte M; Kumari, Archana

    2017-02-10

    The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function. Activating or suppressing Hh signaling, with genetic models or pharmacological agents used in cancer treatments, disrupts taste papilla and taste bud integrity and can eliminate responses from taste nerves to chemical stimuli but not to touch or temperature. Understanding Hh regulation of taste organ homeostasis contributes knowledge about the basic biology underlying taste disruptions in patients treated with Hh pathway inhibitors.

  10. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mandolesi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction.

  11. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  12. Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

    2013-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement

    characteristics, have allowed us to better understand the interactions between the benthic fauna and their environment at a functional level. We present the initial findings of work conducted under the auspices of the EU-funded project ‘BENTHIS’ which aims to improve our understanding of the impacts of trawling...... on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal...

  14. Type 1 Does The Two-Step: Type 1 Secretion Substrates With A Functional Periplasmic Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy J; Sondermann, Holger; O'Toole, George A

    2018-06-04

    Bacteria have evolved several secretion strategies for polling and responding to environmental flux and insult. Of these, the type 1 secretion system (T1SS) is known to secrete an array of biologically diverse proteins - from small < 10 kDa bacteriocins to gigantic adhesins with a mass over 1 MDa. For the last several decades T1SS have been characterized as a one-step translocation strategy whereby the secreted substrate is transported directly into the extracellular environment from the cytoplasm with no periplasmic intermediate. Recent phylogenetic, biochemical, and genetic evidence point to a distinct sub-group of T1SS machinery linked with a bacterial transglutaminase-like cysteine proteinase (BTLCP), which uses a two-step secretion mechanism. BTLCP-linked T1SS transport a class of repeats-in-toxin (RTX) adhesins that are critical for biofilm formation. The prototype of this RTX adhesin group, LapA of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, uses a novel N-terminal retention module to anchor the adhesin at the cell surface as a secretion intermediate threaded through the outer membrane-localized, TolC-like protein LapE. This secretion intermediate is post-translationally cleaved by the BTLCP family LapG protein to release LapA from its cognate T1SS pore. Thus, secretion of LapA and related RTX adhesins into the extracellular environment appears to be a T1SS-mediated, two-step process that involves a periplasmic intermediate. In this review, we contrast the T1SS machinery and substrates of the BLTCP-linked two-step secretion process with those of the classical one-step T1SS to better understand the newly recognized and expanded role of this secretion machinery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joachimiak, Marcin Pawel

    2008-08-12

    The area of transcriptomics analysis is among the more established in computational biology, having evolved in both technology and experimental design. Transcriptomics has a strong impetus to develop sophisticated computational methods due to the large amounts of available whole-genome datasets for many species and because of powerful applications in regulatory network reconstruction as well as elucidation and modeling of cellular transcriptional responses. While gene expression microarray data can be noisy and comparisons across experiments challenging, there are a number of sophisticated methods that aid in arriving at statistically and biologically significant conclusions. As such, computational transcriptomics analysis can provide guidance for analysis of results from newer experimental technologies. More recently, search methods have been developed to identify modules of genes, which exhibit coherent expression patterns in only a subset of experimental conditions. The latest advances in these methods allow to integrate multiple data types anddatasets, both experimental and computational, within a single statistical framework accounting for data confidence and relevance to specific biological questions. Such frameworks provide a unified environment for the exploration of specific biological hypothesis and for the discovery of coherent data patterns along with the evidence supporting them.

  16. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  17. Biological, serological and molecular typing of potato virus Y (PVY) isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayahi, M; Gharsallah, C; Khamassy, N; Fakhfakh, H; Djilani-Khouadja, F

    2016-10-17

    In Tunisia, potato virus Y (PVY) currently presents a significant threat to potato production, reducing tuber yield and quality. Three hundred and eighty-five potato samples (six different cultivars) collected in autumn 2007 from nine regions in Tunisia were tested for PVY infection by DAS-ELISA. The virus was detected in all regions surveyed, with an average incidence of 80.26%. Subsequently, a panel of 82 Tunisian PVY isolates (PVY-TN) was subjected to systematic biological, serological and molecular typing using immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a series of PVY OC - and PVY N -specific monoclonal antibodies. Combined analyses revealed ~67% of PVY NTN variants of which 17 were sequenced in the 5'NTR-P1 region to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of PVY-TN against other worldwide PVY isolates. To investigate whether selective constraints could act on viral genomic RNA, synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. Averages of all pairwise comparisons obtained in the 5'NTR-P1 region allowed more synonymous changes, suggesting selective constraint acting in this region. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a rapid expansion of PVY isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to an eventually early evolution characterizing these sequences. Genetic haplotype network topology provided evidence of the existence of a distinct geographical structure. This is the first report of such genetic analyses conducted on PVY isolates from Tunisia.

  18. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  19. Silk-based biomaterials functionalized with fibronectin type II promotes cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Margarida; Machado, Raul; da Costa, André; Ribeiro, Artur; Collins, Tony; Gomes, Andreia C; Leonor, Isabel B; Kaplan, David L; Reis, Rui L; Casal, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to exploit the fibronectin type II (FNII) module from human matrix metalloproteinase-2 as a functional domain for the development of silk-based biopolymer blends that display enhanced cell adhesion properties. The DNA sequence of spider dragline silk protein (6mer) was genetically fused with the FNII coding sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli. The chimeric protein 6mer+FNII was purified by non-chromatographic methods. Films prepared from 6mer+FNII by solvent casting promoted only limited cell adhesion of human skin fibroblasts. However, the performance of the material in terms of cell adhesion was significantly improved when 6mer+FNII was combined with a silk-elastin-like protein in a concentration-dependent behavior. With this work we describe a novel class of biopolymer that promote cell adhesion and potentially useful as biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This work reports the development of biocompatible silk-based composites with enhanced cell adhesion properties suitable for biomedical applications in regenerative medicine. The biocomposites were produced by combining a genetically engineered silk-elastin-like protein with a genetically engineered spider-silk-based polypeptide carrying the three domains of the fibronectin type II module from human metalloproteinase-2. These composites were processed into free-standing films by solvent casting and characterized for their biological behavior. To our knowledge this is the first report of the exploitation of all three FNII domains as a functional domain for the development of bioinspired materials with improved biological performance. The present study highlights the potential of using genetically engineered protein-based composites as a platform for the development of new bioinspired biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Function Is Associated With the Coronary Microcirculatory Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and cardiac microvascular dysfunction are diabetic complications associated with increased mortality, but the association between these has been difficult to assess. We applied new and sensitive methods to assess this in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM......). In a cross-sectional design, coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by cardiac (82)Rb-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, cardiac autonomic reflex tests, and heart rate variability indices were performed in 55 patients with T2DM, without cardiovascular disease, and in 28 control subjects. Cardiac....... A heart rate variability index, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic function (low-frequency power), and the late heart-to-mediastinum ratio, reflecting the function of adrenergic receptors and sympathetic activity, were positively correlated with CFR after adjustment for age and heart rate...

  1. New Bessel-type function associated with SU(3) representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, N.; Tanimura, O.

    1990-01-01

    A new set of functions that are given by the coefficients of the character expansion of the single-link action in the SU(3) lattice-gauge theory is studied. The function is specified by the indices λ and μ of the SU(3) representation of the Young tableau. From the Schwinger-Dyson variational method the recursion relations among the functions are derived. By combining the recursion relation and the relation of the differentiation, the linear differential equation of the sixth order for the function is derived. The properties of the function are discussed in detail in comparison with the functions in the SU(2) group

  2. When Is an Alveolar Type 2 Cell an Alveolar Type 2 Cell? A Conundrum for Lung Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Michael F; Moodley, Yuben

    2017-07-01

    Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, offers the hope of both generating disease-specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung-regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols using defined media, coculture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors. However, there remains significant controversy about the degree of differentiation of these cells compared with their primary counterparts, coupled with a lack of consistency or uniformity in assessing the resultant phenotypes. Given the inevitable, exponential expansion of these approaches and the probable, but yet-to-emerge second and higher generation techniques to create such assets, we were prompted to pose the question, what makes a lung epithelial cell a lung epithelial cell? More specifically for this Perspective, we also posed the question, what are the minimum features that constitute an alveolar type (AT) 2 epithelial cell? In addressing this, we summarize a body of work spanning nearly five decades, amassed by a series of "lung epithelial cell biology pioneers," which carefully describes well characterized molecular, functional, and morphological features critical for discriminately assessing an AT2 phenotype. Armed with this, we propose a series of core criteria to assist the field in confirming that cells obtained following a differentiation protocol are indeed mature and functional AT2 epithelial cells.

  3. Clinical history and biologic age predicted falls better than objective functional tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdhem, Paul; Ringsberg, Karin A M; Akesson, Kristina; Obrant, Karl J

    2005-03-01

    Fall risk assessment is important because the consequences, such as a fracture, may be devastating. The objective of this study was to find the test or tests that best predicted falls in a population-based sample of elderly women. The fall-predictive ability of a questionnaire, a subjective estimate of biologic age and objective functional tests (gait, balance [Romberg and sway test], thigh muscle strength, and visual acuity) were compared in 984 randomly selected women, all 75 years of age. A recalled fall was the most important predictor for future falls. Only recalled falls and intake of psycho-active drugs independently predicted future falls. Women with at least five of the most important fall predictors (previous falls, conditions affecting the balance, tendency to fall, intake of psychoactive medication, inability to stand on one leg, high biologic age) had an odds ratio of 11.27 (95% confidence interval 4.61-27.60) for a fall (sensitivity 70%, specificity 79%). The more time-consuming objective functional tests were of limited importance for fall prediction. A simple clinical history, the inability to stand on one leg, and a subjective estimate of biologic age were more important as part of the fall risk assessment.

  4. Renal functional reserve and tubular function in patents with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Makhmutrievna Khakimova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study renal functional reserve and partial functions in patents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the absence of renal lesionsMaterials and methods. We examined 42 patients (17 men and 24 women aged 38-69 (mean 49.8?8.3 years with DM2 4.6?2.6 yr in duration.Control group comprised 32 practically healthy subjects. Intrarenal hemodynamics was estimated from RFR values. Ethanolamine, uric acid, Ca,and P levels were measured in sera and 24-hr urine; daily excretion of ammonia and aminonitrogen in the urine was determined. Results. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of RFR measurement. FRF remained unaltered in 21 patients (mean 60.7?27.6%and decreased in the absence of filtration reserve in 20 (-25.8?23.4%. Correlation analysis revealed the relationship of lipid metabolism and abdominalobesity with the renal tubular function and intraglomerular hemodynamics. Conclusion. Examination of DM2 patients without clinical and laboratory signs of renal lesions revealed compromised function of all nephron compartments,viz. intraglomerular hypertension, impaired stability of renal cell membranes, and tubular dysfunction. The latter is related to hemodynamic disturbances.

  5. Beyond designed functional margins in CANDU type NPP. Radioactive nuclei assessment in an LOCA type accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budu Andrei Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union's energy roadmap up to year 2050 states that in order to have an efficient and sustainable economy, with minimum or decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, along with use of renewable resources, each constituent state has the option for nuclear energy production as one desirable option. Every scenario considered for tackling climate change issues, along with security of supply positions the nuclear energy as a recommended option, an option that is highly competitive with respect to others. Nuclear energy, along with other renewable power sources are considered to be the main pillars in the energy sector for greenhouse gas emission mitigation at European level. European Union considers that nuclear energy must be treated as a highly recommended option since it can contribute to security of energy supply. Romania showed excellent track-records in operating in a safe and economically sound manner of Cernavoda NPP Units 1&2. Both Units are in top 10 worldwide in terms of capacity factor. Due to Romania's need to ensure the security of electricity supply, to meet the environmental targets and to move to low carbon generation technologies, Cernavoda Units 3&4 Project appears as a must. This Project was started in 2010 and it is expected to have the Units running by 2025. Cost effective and safety operation of a Nuclear Power Plant is made taking into consideration functional limits of its equipment. As common practice, every nuclear reactor type (technology used is tested according to the worse credible accident or equipment failure that can occur. For CANDU type reactor, this is a Loss of Cooling Accident (LOCA. In a LOCA type accident in a CANDU NPP, using RELAP/SCDAP code for fuel bundle damage assessment the radioactive nuclei are to be quantified. Recently, CANDU type NPP accidents are studied using the RELAP/SCDAP code only. The code formerly developed for PWR type reactors was adapted for the CANDU geometry and can assess the

  6. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  7. Functional soil microbial diversity across Europe estimated by EEA, MicroResp and BIOLOG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rutgers, Michiel; Creamer, Rachel

    consisting of 81 soil samples covering five Biogeograhical Zones and three land-uses in order to test the sensitivity, ease and cost of performance and biological significance of the data output. The techniques vary in how close they are to in situ functions; dependency on growth during incubation......Soil microorganisms are abundant and essential for the bio-geochemical processes of soil, soil quality and soil ecosystem services. All this is dependent on the actual functions the microbial communities are performing in the soil. Measuring soil respiration has for many years been the basis...... of estimating soil microbial activity. However, today several techniques are in use for determining microbial functional diversity and assessing soil biodiversity: Methods based on CO2 development by the microbes such as substrate induced respiration (SIR) on specific substrates have lead to the development...

  8. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  9. Overlapping, Additive and Counterregulatory Effects of Type II and I Interferons on Myeloid Dendritic Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Frasca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are central player in immunity by bridging the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system (IS. Interferons (IFNs are one of the most important factors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity too. Thus, the understanding of how type II and I IFNs modulate the immune-regulatory properties of DCs is a central issue in immunology. In this paper, we will address this point in the light of the most recent literature, also highlighting the controversial data reported in the field. According to the wide literature available, type II as well as type I IFNs appear, at the same time, to collaborate, to induce additive effects or overlapping functions, as well as to counterregulate each one's effects on DC biology and, in general, the immune response. The knowledge of these effects has important therapeutic implications in the treatment of infectious/autoimmune diseases and cancer and indicates strategies for using IFNs as vaccine adjuvants and in DC-based immune therapeutic approaches.

  10. Conformal field theory and functions of hypergeometric type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    Conformal field theory provides a universal description of various phenomena in natural sciences. Its development, swift and successful, belongs to the major highlights of theoretical physics of the late XX century. In contrast, advances of the theory of hypergeometric functions always assumed a slower pace throughout the centuries of its existence. Functional identities studied by this mathematical discipline are fascinating both in their complexity and beauty. This thesis investigates the interrelation of two subjects through a direct analysis of three CFT problems: two-point functions of the 2d strange metal CFT, three-point functions of primaries of the non-rational Toda CFT and kinematical parts of Mellin amplitudes for scalar four-point functions in general dimensions. We flash out various generalizations of hypergeometric functions as a natural mathematical language for two of these problems. Several new methods inspired by extensions of classical results on hypergeometric functions, are presented.

  11. Conformal field theory and functions of hypergeometric type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-15

    Conformal field theory provides a universal description of various phenomena in natural sciences. Its development, swift and successful, belongs to the major highlights of theoretical physics of the late XX century. In contrast, advances of the theory of hypergeometric functions always assumed a slower pace throughout the centuries of its existence. Functional identities studied by this mathematical discipline are fascinating both in their complexity and beauty. This thesis investigates the interrelation of two subjects through a direct analysis of three CFT problems: two-point functions of the 2d strange metal CFT, three-point functions of primaries of the non-rational Toda CFT and kinematical parts of Mellin amplitudes for scalar four-point functions in general dimensions. We flash out various generalizations of hypergeometric functions as a natural mathematical language for two of these problems. Several new methods inspired by extensions of classical results on hypergeometric functions, are presented.

  12. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and

  13. Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma: a biologically distinct lymphoma with frequent MAPK pathway mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Abner; Schafernak, Kristian T; Geyer, Julia T; Kovach, Alexandra E; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Gratzinger, Dita; Roth, Christine G; Paxton, Christian N; Kim, Sunhee; Namgyal, Chungdak; Morin, Ryan; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Neuberg, Donna S; South, Sarah T; Harris, Marian H; Hasserjian, Robert P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Garraway, Levi A; Harris, Nancy Lee; Weinstock, David M

    2016-08-25

    Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma (PTNFL) is a variant of follicular lymphoma (FL) characterized by limited-stage presentation and invariably benign behavior despite often high-grade histological appearance. It is important to distinguish PTNFL from typical FL in order to avoid unnecessary treatment; however, this distinction relies solely on clinical and pathological criteria, which may be variably applied. To define the genetic landscape of PTNFL, we performed copy number analysis and exome and/or targeted sequencing of 26 PTNFLs (16 pediatric and 10 adult). The most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was MAP2K1, encoding MEK1, with a mutation frequency of 43%. All MAP2K1 mutations were activating missense mutations localized to exons 2 and 3, which encode negative regulatory and catalytic domains, respectively. Missense mutations in MAPK1 (2/22) and RRAS (1/22) were identified in cases that lacked MAP2K1 mutations. The second most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was TNFRSF14, with a mutation frequency of 29%, similar to that seen in limited-stage typical FL (P = .35). PTNFL was otherwise genomically bland and specifically lacked recurrent mutations in epigenetic modifiers (eg, CREBBP, KMT2D). Copy number aberrations affected a mean of only 0.5% of PTNFL genomes, compared with 10% of limited-stage typical FL genomes (P < .02). Importantly, the mutational profiles of PTNFLs in children and adults were highly similar. Together, these findings define PTNFL as a biologically and clinically distinct indolent lymphoma of children and adults characterized by a high prevalence of MAPK pathway mutations and a near absence of mutations in epigenetic modifiers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Gene therapy restores auditory and vestibular function in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bifeng; Askew, Charles; Galvin, Alice; Heman-Ackah, Selena; Asai, Yukako; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Jodelka, Francine M; Hastings, Michelle L; Lentz, Jennifer J; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Holt, Jeffrey R; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S

    2017-03-01

    Because there are currently no biological treatments for hearing loss, we sought to advance gene therapy approaches to treat genetic deafness. We focused on Usher syndrome, a devastating genetic disorder that causes blindness, balance disorders and profound deafness, and studied a knock-in mouse model, Ush1c c.216G>A, for Usher syndrome type IC (USH1C). As restoration of complex auditory and balance function is likely to require gene delivery systems that target auditory and vestibular sensory cells with high efficiency, we delivered wild-type Ush1c into the inner ear of Ush1c c.216G>A mice using a synthetic adeno-associated viral vector, Anc80L65, shown to transduce 80-90% of sensory hair cells. We demonstrate recovery of gene and protein expression, restoration of sensory cell function, rescue of complex auditory function and recovery of hearing and balance behavior to near wild-type levels. The data represent unprecedented recovery of inner ear function and suggest that biological therapies to treat deafness may be suitable for translation to humans with genetic inner ear disorders.

  15. Role of T-type channels in vasomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Howitt, Lauren; Sandow, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels play an important role in regulating cellular excitability and are implicated in conditions, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. T-type channels, especially Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are also expressed in the vasculature, although patch clamp studies of i...

  16. Histochemical and functional fibre typing of the rabbit masseter muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Moorman, A. F.; Brugman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fibre-type distribution of the masseter muscle of the rabbit was studied by means of the myosin-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase reactions. Six different fibre types were found and these were unequally distributed between and within the anatomical compartments of the muscle. Most of the

  17. A Gaussian mixture model based cost function for parameter estimation of chaotic biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekofteh, Yasser; Jafari, Sajad; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Hashemi Golpayegani, S. Mohammad Reza; Almasganj, Farshad

    2015-02-01

    As we know, many biological systems such as neurons or the heart can exhibit chaotic behavior. Conventional methods for parameter estimation in models of these systems have some limitations caused by sensitivity to initial conditions. In this paper, a novel cost function is proposed to overcome those limitations by building a statistical model on the distribution of the real system attractor in state space. This cost function is defined by the use of a likelihood score in a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) which is fitted to the observed attractor generated by the real system. Using that learned GMM, a similarity score can be defined by the computed likelihood score of the model time series. We have applied the proposed method to the parameter estimation of two important biological systems, a neuron and a cardiac pacemaker, which show chaotic behavior. Some simulated experiments are given to verify the usefulness of the proposed approach in clean and noisy conditions. The results show the adequacy of the proposed cost function.

  18. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  19. Integration of multiscale dendritic spine structure and function data into systems biology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Mancuso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprising 1011 neurons with 1014 synaptic connections the human brain is the ultimate systems biology puzzle. An increasing body of evidence highlights the observation that changes in brain function, both normal and pathological, consistently correlate with dynamic changes in neuronal anatomy. Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume. The major sites of contact for synapsing neurons are dendritic spines, which provide an excellent metric for the number and strength of signaling connections between elements of functional neuronal circuits. A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon. Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the massive big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function. While a full accounting of techniques and progress toward a comprehensive model of brain anatomy and function is beyond the scope of this or any other single paper, this review serves to highlight the opportunities for analysis of neuronal spine anatomy and function provided by new imaging technologies and the high-throughput application of older technologies while surveying the strengths and weaknesses of currently available computational analytical tools and room for future improvement.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K.; Banerjee, Indranil; Das, Manasmita; Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T 2 contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T 2 relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  1. Discretization of four types of Weyl group orbit functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrivnák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The discrete Fourier calculus of the four families of special functions, called C–, S–, S s – and S l -functions, is summarized. Functions from each of the four families of special functions are discretely orthogonal over a certain finite set of points. The generalizations of discrete cosine and sine transforms of one variable — the discrete S s – and S l -transforms of the group F 4 — are considered in detail required for their exploitation in discrete Fourier spectral methods. The continuous interpolations, induced by the discrete expansions, are presented

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan Acid as Potential Biological Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Wang, W. X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, W. B.; Gong, H. M.; Liu, M. X.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize fluorescent polymers, rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan acid (RhB-EA-HA). RhB-EA-HA was successfully synthesized by ester ammonolysis reaction and amidation reaction. Moreover, the structural properties of RhB-EA-HA were characterized by 1H-NMR spectra, UV-vis spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). RhB-EA-HA can be grafted on the surface of silica nanomaterials, which may be potential biological functional materials for drug delivery system.

  3. Analysis of A-Type and B-Type Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins and Their Biological Activities as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+-catechin/(−-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

  4. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  5. Carcinogenesis: alterations in reciprocal interactions of normal functional structure of biologic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydyan, Garri

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of biologic systems (BS) includes functional mechanisms that in some conditions may lead to the development of cancer. Using mathematical group theory and matrix analysis, previously, it was shown that normally functioning BS are steady functional structures regulated by three basis regulatory components: reciprocal links (RL), negative feedback (NFB) and positive feedback (PFB). Together, they form an integrative unit maintaining system's autonomy and functional stability. It is proposed that phylogenetic development of different species is implemented by the splitting of "rudimentary" characters into two relatively independent functional parts that become encoded in chromosomes. The functional correlate of splitting mechanisms is RL. Inversion of phylogenetic mechanisms during ontogenetic development leads cell differentiation until cells reach mature states. Deterioration of reciprocal structure in the genome during ontogenesis gives rise of pathological conditions characterized by unsteadiness of the system. Uncontrollable cell proliferation and invasive cell growth are the leading features of the functional outcomes of malfunctioning systems. The regulatory element responsible for these changes is RL. In matrix language, pathological regulation is represented by matrices having positive values of diagonal elements ( TrA  > 0) and also positive values of matrix determinant ( detA  > 0). Regulatory structures of that kind can be obtained if the negative entry of the matrix corresponding to RL is replaced with the positive one. To describe not only normal but also pathological states of BS, a unit matrix should be added to the basis matrices representing RL, NFB and PFB. A mathematical structure corresponding to the set of these four basis functional patterns (matrices) is a split quaternion (coquaternion). The structure and specific role of basis elements comprising four-dimensional linear space of split quaternions help to understand what

  6. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Huang, Wan; Ma, Li-Tian; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation. PMID:24739808

  7. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.

  8. The RNAi Universe in Fungi: A Varied Landscape of Small RNAs and Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2017-09-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.

  9. Structural and Conformational Chemistry from Electrochemical Molecular Machines. Replicating Biological Functions. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Toribio F

    2017-12-14

    Each constitutive chain of a conducting polymer electrode acts as a reversible multi-step electrochemical molecular motor: reversible reactions drive reversible conformational movements of the chain. The reaction-driven cooperative actuation of those molecular machines generates, or destroys, inside the film the free volume required to lodge/expel balancing counterions and solvent: reactions drive reversible film volume variations, which basic structural components are here identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The content of the reactive dense gel (chemical molecular machines, ions and water) mimics that of the intracellular matrix in living functional cells. Reaction-driven properties (composition-dependent properties) and devices replicate biological functions and organs. An emerging technological world of soft, wet, reaction-driven, multifunctional and biomimetic devices and the concomitant zoomorphic or anthropomorphic robots is presented. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh; Blalock, Travis; Thomas, Brent; Cuomo, Jerry; Yang, Y.; Ong, Joo

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] is the primary mineral content, representing 43% by weight, of bone. Applying a thin layer of HA, to the surface of a metal implant, can promote osseointegration and increase the mechanical stability of the implant. In this study, a biocompatible coating comprising an HA film with functionally graded crystallinity is being deposited on a heated substrate in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system. The microstructure of the film was studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. Finally, initial cell adhesion and cell differentiation on the coating was evaluated using ATCC CRL 1486 human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell, an osteoblast precursor cell line. The results have shown superior mechanical properties and biological response to the functionally graded HA film

  11. Enzymes for ecdysteroid biosynthesis: their biological functions in insects and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ryusuke; Niwa, Yuko S

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones are responsible for the coordinated regulation of many aspects of biological processes in multicellular organisms. Since the last century, many studies have identified and characterized steroidogenic enzymes in vertebrates, including mammals. However, much less is known about invertebrate steroidogenic enzymes. In the last 15 years, a number of steroidogenic enzymes and their functions have been characterized in ecdysozoan animals, especially in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this review, we summarize the latest knowledge of enzymes crucial for synthesizing ecdysteroids, the principal insect steroid hormones. We also discuss the functional conservation and diversity of ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in other insects and even non-insect species, such as nematodes, vertebrates, and lower eukaryotes.

  12. Plant responses to precipitation in desert ecosystems: integrating functional types, pulses, thresholds, and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Kiona; Reynolds, James F

    2004-10-01

    The 'two-layer' and 'pulse-reserve' hypotheses were developed 30 years ago and continue to serve as the standard for many experiments and modeling studies that examine relationships between primary productivity and rainfall variability in aridlands. The two-layer hypothesis considers two important plant functional types (FTs) and predicts that woody and herbaceous plants are able to co-exist in savannas because they utilize water from different soil layers (or depths). The pulse-reserve model addresses the response of individual plants to precipitation and predicts that there are 'biologically important' rain events that stimulate plant growth and reproduction. These pulses of precipitation may play a key role in long-term plant function and survival (as compared to seasonal or annual rainfall totals as per the two-layer model). In this paper, we re-evaluate these paradigms in terms of their generality, strengths, and limitations. We suggest that while seasonality and resource partitioning (key to the two-layer model) and biologically important precipitation events (key to the pulse-reserve model) are critical to understanding plant responses to precipitation in aridlands, both paradigms have significant limitations. Neither account for plasticity in rooting habits of woody plants, potential delayed responses of plants to rainfall, explicit precipitation thresholds, or vagaries in plant phenology. To address these limitations, we integrate the ideas of precipitation thresholds and plant delays, resource partitioning, and plant FT strategies into a simple 'threshold-delay' model. The model contains six basic parameters that capture the nonlinear nature of plant responses to pulse precipitation. We review the literature within the context of our threshold-delay model to: (i) develop testable hypotheses about how different plant FTs respond to pulses; (ii) identify weaknesses in the current state-of-knowledge; and (iii) suggest future research directions that will

  13. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-06

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed.

  14. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  15. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  16. Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lazarus, Ross; Sparrow, David; Demolles, Debbie; Weiss, Scott T

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have noted that subjects with diabetes have lower lung function than non-diabetic subjects. We conducted this analysis to determine whether diabetic subjects have different rates of lung function change compared with non-diabetic subjects. We conducted a nested case-control analysis in 352 men who developed diabetes and 352 non-diabetic subjects in a longitudinal observational study of aging in men. We assessed lung function among cases and controls at three time points: Time0, prior to meeting the definition of diabetes; Time1, the point when the definition of diabetes was met; and Time2, the most recent follow-up exam. Cases had lower forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at all time points, even with adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking. In multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant covariates, there were no differences in rates of FEV1 or FVC change over time between cases and controls. Men who are predisposed to develop diabetes have decreased lung function many years prior to the diagnosis, compared with men who do not develop diabetes. This decrement in lung function remains after the development of diabetes. We postulate that mechanisms involved in the insulin resistant state contribute to the diminished lung function observed in our subjects.

  17. Intertextuality in Indonesian Newspaper Opinion Articles on Education: Its Types, Functions, and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, Anni Holila; Subroto, Edi D.; Tarjana, Sri Samiati; Sumarlam

    2010-01-01

    This research deals with intertextuality in opinion articles on education. Its objectives are to discover types and functions of intertextuality in the articles and to reveal its social practice. The results of the research reveal there are three major types and two major functions of intertextuality in the articles. The type dominantly applied is…

  18. Enhanced Biological Response of AVS-Functionalized Ti-6Al-4V Alloy through Covalent Immobilization of Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, Parsa; Daza, Rafael; López, Patricia A; Ramos, Milagros; González-Nieto, Daniel; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2018-02-20

    This study presents the development of an efficient procedure for covalently immobilizing collagen molecules on AVS-functionalized Ti-6Al-4V samples, and the assessment of the survival and proliferation of cells cultured on these substrates. Activated Vapor Silanization (AVS) is a versatile functionalization technique that allows obtaining a high density of active amine groups on the surface. A procedure is presented to covalently bind collagen to the functional layer using EDC/NHS as cross-linker. The covalently bound collagen proteins are characterized by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy and their stability is tested. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the process is assessed. The concentration of the cross-linker is optimized and a reliable cleaning protocol is developed for the removal of the excess of carbodiimide from the samples. The results demonstrate that the covalent immobilization of collagen type I on Ti-6Al-4V substrates, using the optimized protocol, increases the number of viable cells present on the material. Consequently, AVS in combination with the carbodiimide chemistry appears as a robust method for the immobilization of proteins and, for the first time, it is shown that it can be used to enhance the biological response to the material.

  19. Hyperbolic white noise functional solutions of Wick-type stochastic compound KdV-Burgers equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiu; Xie Yingchao

    2009-01-01

    Variable coefficient and Wick-type stochastic compound KdV-Burgers equations are investigated. By using white noise analysis, Hermite transform and the hyperbolic function method, we obtain a number of Wick versions of hyperbolic white noise functional solutions and hyperbolic function solutions for Wick-type stochastic and variable coefficient compound KdV-Burgers equations, respectively.

  20. The Evolution of the Type Ia Supernova Luminosity Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.J.; Toonen, S.; Graur, O.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) exhibit a wide diversity of peak luminosities and light curve shapes: the faintest SNe Ia are 10 times less luminous and evolve more rapidly than the brightest SNe Ia. Their differing characteristics also extend to their stellar age distributions, with fainter SNe Ia

  1. Muscle fibre types of fishes : structural and functional specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akster, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Muscles of fishes are active in a variety of movements that differ in velocity, duration and excursion length. To investigate how muscles meet the, often conflicting, demands imposed upon them by these movements, the fibre type composition of several muscles was determined. The ultrastructural and

  2. Wartime Construction Project Outcomes as a Function of Contract Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    contract types has been well established. The theory of contractual incentives promulgated by Sherer (1964) established expected contractor...behaviors using a max- imization problem. The theory focuses on expected contractor behaviors in incentive contracts (cf. Federal Acquisition Regulation...Scherer, F. M. (1964). The theory of contractual incentives for cost reduction. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 78, 257–280. Tawazuh Commercial and

  3. Series of Bessel and Kummer-type functions

    CERN Document Server

    Baricz, Arpad; Pogány, Tibor K

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of certain integral representations for Neumann, Kapteyn, Schlömilch, Dini and Fourier series of Bessel and other special functions, such as Struve and von Lommel functions. The aim is also to find the coefficients of the Neumann and Kapteyn series, as well as closed-form expressions and summation formulas for the series of Bessel functions considered. Some integral representations are deduced using techniques from the theory of differential equations. The text is aimed at a mathematical audience, including graduate students and those in the scientific community who are interested in a new perspective on Fourier–Bessel series, and their manifold and polyvalent applications, mainly in general classical analysis, applied mathematics and mathematical physics.

  4. Brazilian Green Propolis Improves Antioxidant Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains a variety of bioactive components and possesses many biological properties. This study was designed to evaluate potential effects of Brazilian green propolis on glucose metabolism and antioxidant function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In the 18-week randomized controlled study, enrolled patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to Brazilian green propolis group (900 mg/day (n = 32 and control group (n = 33. At the end of the study, no significant difference was found in serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, aldose reductase or adiponectin between the two groups. However, serum GSH and total polyphenols were significantly increased, and serum carbonyls and lactate dehydrogenase activity were significantly reduced in the Brazilian green propolis group. Serum TNF-α was significantly decreased, whereas serum IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in the Brazilian green propolis group. It is concluded that Brazilian green propolis is effective in improving antioxidant function in T2DM patients.

  5. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  6. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  7. Evaluation of functionality and biological response of the multilayer flow modulator in porcine animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sherif; Kavanagh, Edel P; Hynes, Niamh; Diethrich, Edward B

    2016-02-01

    This study outlines the use of non-aneurysmal porcine animal models to study device functionality and biological response of the Multilayer Flow Modulator (MFM) (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium), with an emphasis on preclinical device functionality and biological response characteristics in an otherwise healthy aorta. Twelve animals were implanted with the study device in the abdominal aorta, in 6 animals for 1 month and 6 animals for 6 months. Upon completion of the study period, each animal underwent a necropsy to examine how the implanted device had affected the artery and surrounding tissue. Neointima and stenosis formation were recorded via morphometry, and endothelialization via histopathological analysis. The MFM devices were delivered to their respective implantation sites without difficulty. Six of the implanted stents were oversized with percentages ranging from 2.6% to 18.8%. Statistical analysis was carried out and showed no significance between the regular sized stent group and oversized stent group for neointimal area (P=0.17), neointimal thickness (P=0.17), and percentage area stenosis (P=0.65). Histopathological findings showed in most areas flattened endothelium like cells lined the luminal surface of the neointima. Scanning electron microscopy also showed the devices were well tolerated, inciting only a minimal neointimal covering and little fibrin or platelet deposition. Neointimal thickness of 239.7±55.6 μm and 318.3±130.4 μm, and percentage area stenosis of 9.6±2.6% and 12.6±5% were recorded at 1 and 6 months respectively. No statistical differences were found between these results. The MFM devices were delivered to their respective implantation sites without difficulty and incited little neointimal and stenosis formation in the aorta, affirming its functionality and biocompatibility.

  8. Computation of load functions for different types of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Alexander; Henkel, Fritz-Otto

    2013-01-01

    In the presentation the influence of different parameters on the Ft-function were shown. The increase of the impact velocity shows for all aircraft a higher maximal load value and a reduced impact time. Due to the structural setup of the aircraft's the intensity is of these effects different. Comparing the Ft-function of A320, A340 and A380 for an impact velocity of 100 and 175 m/s no constant relation between them can be determined. • The variation of the flight direction with respect to the vertical axis shows a great influence on the Ft-function. A approximation by the cosine is especially for bigger rotations not correct. The influence of the rotation about the horizontal axis can be neglected. Finally the SPH-method was applied for the modelling of the fuel. The comparison to the discrete modelling approach was carried out for the Phantom F4. Thereby no big influence on the Ft-function is observed. For the evaluation of this modelling approach on the local damage the loaded area must be determined in further investigations

  9. Attenuated purinergic receptor function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaning, Pia; Bune, Laurids T.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Extra cellular nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Diabetes induces cardiovascular dysregulation but the extent to which the vasodilatatory capacity of nucleotides and nucleosides are affected in type 2 diabetes is unknown. The present...... study investigated: 1) the vasodilatatory effect of ATP, UTP, and adenosine (ADO) and 2) the expression and distribution of P2Y(2) and P2X(1) receptors in skeletal muscles of diabetic subjects. Research Design and Methods: In 10 diabetic patients and 10 age-matched controls, leg blood flow (LBF......-DM (1.5). The distribution and mRNA-expression of receptors were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: The vasodilatatory effect of the purinergic system is severely reduced in type 2 diabetic patients. The potency of nucleotides varies with the following rank order: UTP>ATP>>>ADO. This is not due...

  10. The biology, function and clinical implications of exosomes in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lv, Tangfeng; Zhang, Qun; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhan, Ping; Zhu, Suhua; Zhang, Jianya; Song, Yong

    2017-10-28

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by all types of cells, and can also be found in various body fluids. Increasing evidence implicates that exosomes confer stability and can deliver their cargos such as proteins and nucleic acids to specific cell types, which subsequently serve as important messengers and carriers in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the biogenesis and components of exosomes mainly in lung cancer, we summarize their function in lung carcinogenesis (epithelial mesenchymal transition, oncogenic cell transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response in tumor microenvironment), and importantly we focus on the clinical potential of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics in lung cancer. In addition, we also discuss current challenges that might impede the clinical use of exosomes. Further studies on the functional roles of exosomes in lung cancer requires thorough research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Mosquera-Lloreda, Nezly; Salom, Lucas; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa; Peydró, Amando

    2006-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common metabolic disorder and it causes an important morbimortality. The structural modifications in the parotid gland (sialosis) had already been described in these patients and could result in variations in the salivary composition, as well as an increase in periodontal and dental pathology. To compare the biochemical findings in the saliva and to correlate these biochemical disturbances with the morphologic findings previously described. Clinical information were gathered about 33 patients, 17 had type 2 diabetes. Samples of whole saliva were obtained for biochemical analysis and serum samples to determine metabolic control. In the diabetics saliva we found urea and total proteins increased and reduced levels of microalbumina. Salivary glucose was only augmented in patients with poor metabolic control. Clinical symptoms of xerostomia were present in 76,4% and dental and periodontal disease in 100%. The parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, lipid intracytoplasmic droplets, as well as adipose stroma infiltration. The acinar cytoqueratins expression was heterogeneous and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts. These biochemical disorders in the saliva of the type 2 diabetic patients would be related with the structural changes previously observed in parotid glands.

  12. Virtual Agonist-antagonist Mechanisms Produce Biological Muscle-like Functions: An Application for Robot Joint Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Biological muscles of animals have a surprising variety of functions, i.e., struts, springs, and brakes. According to this, the purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist-antagonist mechanisms to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint......, variably compliant joint motions can be produced without mechanically bulky and complex mechanisms or complex force/toque sensing at each joint. Moreover, through tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM, the functions of the VAAM are comparable to biological muscles. Originality/value – The model (i.......e., VAAM) provides a way forward to emulate muscle-like functions that are comparable to those found in physiological experiments of biological muscles. Based on these muscle-like functions, the robotic joints can easily achieve variable compliance that does not require complex physical components...

  13. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  14. synthesis and characterization of some poly functionalized heterocyclic derivatives of expected biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sayed, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The present work was aimed and designed to fulfil The following objectives : 1- Continuation of the effort done by our research group in the field of chemistry of pyridinethione derivatives and their biological activities. 2- Synthesis of several new heterocyclic derivatives containing N and/or S using the laboratory available reagents. 3- Establishment of the structures of the newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds by the data of IR, 1 H-NMR, mass spectra in addition to the elemental analysis. 4- Synthesis of some of these heterocyclic derivatives via alternative routs and this used as a tool to confirm the structures of the newly synthesized heterocyclic derivatives. 5- study of the most probable mechanisms leading to the formation of the new heterocyclic derivatives. 6- The antimicrobial activity of some of the newly synthesized heterocyclic derivatives was tested against several types of organisms

  15. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio Rν=Iν+1/Iν by functions of the form Gα,β(t)=t/(α+t2+β2) in case Rν is positive for all t>0, or equivalently, where ν≥−1 or ν is a negative integer. For ν≥−1, we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If ν≥−1/2, the minimal elements are tangent to Rν in exactly one point 0≤t≤∞, and have Rν as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if ν is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively. PMID:24926105

  16. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio [Formula: see text] by functions of the form [Formula: see text] in case [Formula: see text] is positive for all [Formula: see text], or equivalently, where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is a negative integer. For [Formula: see text], we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If [Formula: see text], the minimal elements are tangent to [Formula: see text] in exactly one point [Formula: see text], and have [Formula: see text] as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if [Formula: see text] is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively.

  17. Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Palmer

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.

  18. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Murat, Altynbek; Rungger, Ivan; Jin, Chengjun; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p

  19. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…

  20. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-04-10

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  1. Green leaf volatiles: biosynthesis, biological functions and their applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Hassan, Muhammad Naeem; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2015-08-01

    Plants have evolved numerous constitutive and inducible defence mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals. One of these defence mechanisms is the oxylipin pathway, which produces jasmonates, divinylethers and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) through the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GLVs have recently emerged as key players in plant defence, plant-plant interactions and plant-insect interactions. Some GLVs inhibit the growth and propagation of plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. In certain cases, GLVs released from plants under herbivore attack can serve as aerial messengers to neighbouring plants and to attract parasitic or parasitoid enemies of the herbivores. The plants that perceive these volatile signals are primed and can then adapt in preparation for the upcoming challenges. Due to their 'green note' odour, GLVs impart aromas and flavours to many natural foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and therefore, they can be exploited in industrial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to review the progress and recent developments in research on the oxylipin pathway, with a specific focus on the biosynthesis and biological functions of GLVs and their applications in industrial biotechnology. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, P. N.; Gkoutos, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  3. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  4. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  5. FUSE: a profit maximization approach for functional summarization of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seah Boon-Siew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein interaction network (PPI using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of PPIS remains a daunting task as it is challenging to make sense out of the deluge of high-dimensional interaction data. Specifically, techniques that automatically abstract and summarize PPIS at multiple resolutions to provide high level views of its functional landscape are still lacking. We present a novel data-driven and generic algorithm called FUSE (Functional Summary Generator that generates functional maps of a PPI at different levels of organization, from broad process-process level interactions to in-depth complex-complex level interactions, through a pro t maximization approach that exploits Minimum Description Length (MDL principle to maximize information gain of the summary graph while satisfying the level of detail constraint. Results We evaluate the performance of FUSE on several real-world PPIS. We also compare FUSE to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment by constructing the biological process landscape of the PPIS. Using AD network as our case study, we further demonstrate the ability of FUSE to quickly summarize the network and identify many different processes and complexes that regulate it. Finally, we study the higher-order connectivity of the human PPI. Conclusion By simultaneously evaluating interaction and annotation data, FUSE abstracts higher-order interaction maps by reducing the details of the underlying PPI to form a functional summary graph of interconnected functional clusters. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment.

  6. FUSE: a profit maximization approach for functional summarization of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes; Yu, Hanry

    2012-03-21

    The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein interaction network (PPI) using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of PPIS remains a daunting task as it is challenging to make sense out of the deluge of high-dimensional interaction data. Specifically, techniques that automatically abstract and summarize PPIS at multiple resolutions to provide high level views of its functional landscape are still lacking. We present a novel data-driven and generic algorithm called FUSE (Functional Summary Generator) that generates functional maps of a PPI at different levels of organization, from broad process-process level interactions to in-depth complex-complex level interactions, through a pro t maximization approach that exploits Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to maximize information gain of the summary graph while satisfying the level of detail constraint. We evaluate the performance of FUSE on several real-world PPIS. We also compare FUSE to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment by constructing the biological process landscape of the PPIS. Using AD network as our case study, we further demonstrate the ability of FUSE to quickly summarize the network and identify many different processes and complexes that regulate it. Finally, we study the higher-order connectivity of the human PPI. By simultaneously evaluating interaction and annotation data, FUSE abstracts higher-order interaction maps by reducing the details of the underlying PPI to form a functional summary graph of interconnected functional clusters. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment.

  7. Ab Initio Calculations of the Electronic Structures and Biological Functions of Protein Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2003-04-01

    The self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) calculation method reduces the computational effort from M3 to about M1 (M is the number of atoms in the system) with unchanged calculation precision. So the ab initio, all-electron calculation of the electronic structure and biological function of protein molecule becomes a reality, which will promote new proteomics considerably. The calculated results of two real protein molecules, the trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I, 436 atoms) and the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor (912 atoms, two three-dimensional structures), are presented. The reactive sites of the inhibitors are determined and explained. The precision of structure determination of inhibitors are tested theoretically.

  8. Functional biology and ecological role of krill in Northern marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard

    Krill is an understudied key group of zooplankton, which transfers energy through the food web by linking lower and higher trophic levels. Furthermore, krill play an important role in the biological pump by transporting carbon out of the euphotic zone to depth by diel vertical migration (DVM...... to be the key factor determining the trophic position of a species, where the largest species had the highest trophic position. The species were feeding on the same food items, which could lead to competition for food. However, there is a difference between the two functional groups, represented by M. norvegica...... for the two dominating species within the fjord, T. inermis and T. raschii. The krill grazed community at this time of year. Yet, the grazing impact was similar to the copepods’, which are normally...

  9. Influence of Type of Frequency Weighting Function On VDV Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Stypuła, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Transport vibrations are the subject of many research, mostly their influence on structural elements of the building is investigated. However, nowadays, especially in the centres of large cities were apartments, residential buildings are closer to the transport vibration sources, an increasing attention is given to providing vibrational comfort to humans in buildings. Currently, in most countries, two main methods of evaluation are used: root mean squared method (RMS) and vibration dose value (VDV). In this article, VDV method is presented and the analysis of the weighting functions selection on value of VDV is made. Measurements required for the analysis were made in Krakow, on masonry, residential, two storey building located in the city centre. The building is subjected into two transport vibration sources: tram passages and vehicle passages on very close located road. Measurement points were located on the basement wall at ground level to control the excitation and in the middle of the floor on the highest storey (in the place where people percept vibration). The room chosen for measurements is located closest to the transport excitation sources. During the measurements, 25 vibration events were recorded and analysed. VDV values were calculated for three different weighting functions according to standard: ISO 2631-1, ISO 2631-2 and BS-6841. Differences in VDV values are shown, but also influence of the weighting function selection on result of evaluation is also presented. VDV analysis was performed not only for the individual vibration event but also all day and night vibration exposure were calculated using formulas contained in the annex to the standard BS-6841. It is demonstrated that, although there are differences in the values of VDV, an influence on all day and night exposure is no longer so significant.

  10. Detection of Metabolism Function of Microbial Community of Corpses by Biolog-Eco Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X Y; Wang, J F; Zhu, G H; Ma, M Y; Lai, Y; Zhou, H

    2016-06-01

    To detect the changes of microbial community functional diversity of corpses with different postmortem interval (PMI) and to evaluate forensic application value for estimating PMI. The cultivation of microbial community from the anal swabs of a Sus scrofa and a human corpse placed in field environment from 0 to 240 h after death was performed using the Biolog-Eco Microplate and the variations of the absorbance values were also monitored. Combined with the technology of forensic pathology and flies succession, the metabolic characteristics and changes of microbial community on the decomposed corpse under natural environment were also observed. The diversity of microbial metabolism function was found to be negatively correlated with the number of maggots in the corpses. The freezing processing had the greatest impact on average well color development value at 0 h and the impact almost disappeared after 48 h. The diversity of microbial metabolism of the samples became relatively unstable after 192 h. The principal component analysis showed that 31 carbon sources could be consolidated for 5 principal components (accumulative contribution ratio >90%).The carbon source tsquare-analysis showed that N -acetyl- D -glucosamine and L -serine were the dominant carbon sources for estimating the PMI (0=240 h) of the Sus scrofa and human corpse. The Biolog-Eco method can be used to reveal the metabolic differences of the carbon resources utilization of the microbial community on the corpses during 0-240 h after death, which could provide a new basis for estimating the PMI. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  11. [Historic and functional biology: the inadequacy of a system theory of evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelmann, J P

    1982-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century neo-Kantianism in a broad sense proved itself the main conceptual and methodological background of the central European biology. As such it contributed much to the victory on the typological, idealistic-morphological and psycho-vitalistic interpretations of life. On the other hand it could not give tools to the biologists for working out a strictly darwinian evolution theory. Kant's theory of organism was conceived without evolution as a theory of the internal functionality of the organism. There was only some 'play' with the evolutionary differentiation of the species. Since then the disputes around the work of August Weismann, a synthetical evolution theory which is now behind time, arose. This theory developed from coinciding claims, elaborated by geneticists, mathematicians, and by biologists studying development, natural history and systematics. This was done under a strong influence of marxist ideas. Through the interweaving of such different approaches it was possible for this evolutionary synthesis to influence successfully the development of evolution research during more than 40 years. Philosophically speaking modern evolution theory means therefore an aversion, even a positive abolition of Kantian positions. A number of biologists however--as L. von Bertalanffy--refused to adhere to a misinterpreted Kantian methodology and oriented themselves to an approach via system theory, which obtained a place in evolution research. In fact this is a Kantian approach as well. They only repeated the Kantian dilemma of the evolution which can also be found in Lamarck and Hegel. The system theory of the functionality of the organism never reaches to the level of the evolving species, but remains always on the level of epigenetic thinking, because of its philosophical origin. This paper points out the consequences of this still current dilemma. At the same time an all-enclosing reflection on the methodological, epistemological and

  12. Production of Active Nonglycosylated Recombinant B-Chain of Type-2 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Viscum articulatum and Its Biological Effects on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Li Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins, composed of a toxic A-chain and lectin-like B-chain, display various biological functions, including cytotoxicity and immunomodulation. We here cloned the lectin-like B-chain encoding fragment of a newly identified type-2 RIP gene, articulatin gene, from Viscum articulatum, into a bacterial expression vector to obtain nonglycosylated recombinant protein expressed in inclusion bodies. After purification and protein refolding, soluble refolded recombinant articulatin B-chain (rATB showed lectin activity specific toward galactoside moiety and was stably maintained while stored in low ionic strength solution. Despite lacking glycosylation, rATB actively bound leukocytes with preferential binding to monocytes and in vitro stimulated PBMCs to release cytokines without obvious cytotoxicity. These results implicated such a B-chain fragment as a potential immunomodulator.

  13. Bibliometry of the Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation: document types, languages, countries, institutions, citations and article lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2016-09-01

    The Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, founded in 1953, publishes feature articles about tropical nature and is considered one of the leading journals in Latin America. This article analyzes document type, language, countries, institutions, citations and for the first time article lifespan, from 1976 through 2014. We analyzed 3 978 documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded. Articles comprised 88 % of the total production and had 3.7 citations on average, lower than reviews. Spanish and English articles were nearly equal in numbers and citation for English articles was only slightly higher. Costa Rica, Mexico, and the USA are the countries with more articles, and the leading institutions were Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico and Universidad de Oriente (Venezuela). The citation lifespan of articles is long, around 37 years. It is not surprising that Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela lead in productivity and cooperation, because they are mostly covered by tropical ecosystems and share a common culture and a tradition of scientific cooperation. The same applies to the leading institutions, which are among the largest Spanish language universities in the neotropical region. American output can be explained by the regional presence of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Organization for Tropical Studies. Tropical research does not have the rapid change typical of medical research, and for this reason, the impact factor misses most of citations for the Revista, which are made after the two-year window used by the Web of Science. This issue is especially damaging for the Revista because most journals that deal with tropical biology are never checked when citations are counted for by the Science Citation Index.

  14. Microbial mat ecosystems: Structure types, functional diversity, and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Prieto-Barajas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mats are horizontally stratified microbial communities, exhibiting a structure defined by physiochemical gradients, which models microbial diversity, physiological activities, and their dynamics as a whole system. These ecosystems are commonly associated with aquatic habitats, including hot springs, hypersaline ponds, and intertidal coastal zones and oligotrophic environments, all of them harbour phototrophic mats and other environments such as acidic hot springs or acid mine drainage harbour non-photosynthetic mats. This review analyses the complex structure, diversity, and interactions between the microorganisms that form the framework of different types of microbial mats located around the globe. Furthermore, the many tools that allow studying microbial mats in depth and their potential biotechnological applications are discussed.

  15. Immune Function of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a well-known fat-soluble vitamin which is essential in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D deficiency causes skeletal disorders, including rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies revealing the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have opened up a new understanding and possibility in this field. It has been proved that vitamin D is related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, being generally accepted as autoimmune mediated, is also proposed to be associated with the vitamin D status of the human body. Here, we reviewed briefly the epidemiological correlation between the vitamin D status and prevalence of T1DM, the possible mechanisms underlying this correlation, and clinical trials focusing on the therapeutic prospects of vitamin D in the treatment of T1DM.

  16. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  17. Impaired Theory of Mind and psychosocial functioning among pediatric patients with Type I versus Type II bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S; Chamberlain, Todd F; Towne, Terra L

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) have been documented among pediatric patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, fewer studies have directly examined differences between type I and type II patients and whether or not ToM deficits are related to psychosocial difficulties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare type I versus type II pediatric bipolar patients and matched Healthy Controls (HC) on ToM and interpersonal functioning tasks. All participants completed the Revised Mind in the Eyes Task (MET), the Cognitive and Emotional Perspective Taking Task (CEPTT), and the Index of Peer Relations (IPR). Type I BD patients reported greater peer difficulties on the IPR compared to HC, and also performed more poorly on the MET and the cognitive condition of the CEPTT, but did not differ significantly on the emotional condition. There were no significant group differences between type II BD patients and HC. More impaired ToM performance was associated with poorer interpersonal functioning. Type I BD patients show deficits in the ability to understand another's mental state, irrespective of emotional valence. Deficits in understanding others' mental states could be an important treatment target for type I pediatric patients with BD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the influence of biodiversity on their functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George W.; Richardson, David M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Mooney, H.A.; Cushman, J.H.; Medina, E.; Sala, O.E.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Mediterranean-climate regions of the world have served as a unit for comparative ecological studies for over two decades. The cohesiveness of research in this set of widely distributed regions rests on the similarity of the climates where they occur, and the identifiable convergence in elements of their vegetation structure (Di Castri and Mooney 1973). In this chapter we review functional aspects of what have come to be known as Mediterranean-type ecosystems (METs) in the context of a concerned global interest in the sustainability of the human environment and its dependence on biological diversity. The approach we adopt here is to look for evidence that this biodiversity, for which some MTEs are renowned (Cowling, 1992; Hobbs, 1992), has an influence on processes which are important both for the maintenance of natural systems, and for providing "ecosystem services" with human utility. Almost a century ago, Schimper (1903) recognized the biological similarities between five widely separated regions characterized by Mediterranean-type climates, and much comparative work has been done on that basis since. These regions comprise the Mediterranean basin itself, a major portion of California, central Chile, the southwestern and southern extremities of South Africa, and parts of southwestern and southern Australia (Figure 7.1). The first attention paid to MTEs in terms of quantitative ecological research arose out of the International Biological Programme (IBP) of the 1960s and 1970s. Those efforts focused on comparisons between the Chilean and Californian systems (Mooney 1977), and dealt with parallel models of ecosystem processes, especially water flux (Fuentes et al 1995). Because of the already perceived similarities between vegetation in these and the other three regions, the project was soon extended to include all five regions. The first broad comparative overview was published as an anthology which considered the origins and the convergent

  19. Pharmaceutical, biological, and clinical properties of botulinum neurotoxin type A products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin injections are a valuable treatment modality for many therapeutic indications and have revolutionized the field of aesthetic medicine so that they are the leading cosmetic procedure performed worldwide. Studies show that onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA are comparable in terms of clinical efficacy. Differences between the products relate to the botulinum neurotoxin complexes, specific biological potency, and their immunogenicity. Protein complex size and molecular weight have no effect on biological activity, stability, distribution, or side effect profile. Complexing proteins and inactive toxin (toxoid) content increase the risk of neutralizing antibody formation, which can cause secondary treatment failure, particularly in chronic disorders that require frequent injections and long-term treatment. These attributes could lead to differences in therapeutic outcomes, and, given the widespread aesthetic use of these three neurotoxin products, physicians should be aware of how they differ to ensure their safe and effective use.

  20. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P.; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    . Correlation with CTG(n) expansion size was investigated with the Pearson correlation test. Eighteen percent of the DM1 patients had hyperparathyroidism with increased PTH compared with 0.5% in the background population. Of these, 16% had normocalcemia and 2% had hypercalcemia. An additional 3% had...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  1. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  2. Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey; Curtis H. Flather; Kevin McGarigal

    2008-01-01

    Forest communities, defined by the size and configuration of cover types and stand ages, have commonly been used as proxies for the abundance or viability of wildlife populations. However, for community types to succeed as proxies for species abundance, several assumptions must be met. We tested these assumptions for birds in an Oregon forest environment. Measured...

  3. [The hyperiricosuria as an indicator of derangement of biologic functions of endoecology and adaptation, biologic reactions of excretion, inflammation and arterial tension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Oshchepkova, E V; Dmitriev, V A; Gushchina, O V; Shiriaeva, Iu K; Iashin, A Ia

    2012-04-01

    During millions years in all animals allantoine (oxidized by uricase uric acid) was catabolite of purines and ascorbic acid was an acceptor of active forms of oxygen. The proximal tubules of nephron reabsorbed the trace amounts of uric acid Then during phylogenesis the primates had a mutation of ascorbic acid gen minus. Later on occurred a second spontaneous mutation and uricase gen minus and uric acid became catabolites of purines. In absence of ascorbic acid synthesis ions of urates became a major capturers of active forms of oxygen and all uric acid as before underwent the reabsorption. Later the carriers were formed which began in epithelium of proximal tubules to secrete all uric acid into urine. At every incident of "littering" of intercellular medium with endogenic flogogens (impairment of biologic function of endoecology) under compensatory development of biologic reaction of inflammation the need in inactivation of active forms of oxygen increases. Hence later on in phylogenesis one more stage was formed--post secretory reabsorption of uric acid In the biologic reaction of inflammation epithelium of proximal tubules initiates retentional hyperiricosuria. The general antioxidant activity of human blood plasma in 60% is presented by urates' ions. The excretion of uric acid includes 4 stages: filtration, full reabsorption, secretion and post secretory reabsorption. In phylogenesis these stages formed in sequence. The mild hyperiricosuria is most frequently considered as a non-specific indicator of activation of biologic reaction of inflammation. The productive hyperiricosuria develops more infrequently under surplus of meat food and cytolysis syndrome (intensification of cell loss in vivo). Under concentration of uric acid more than 400 mkmol/l part of urates circulates in intercellular medium in the form of crystals. The microcrystals of uric acid (biologic "litter") initiate the syndrome of systemic inflammatory response as an endogenic flogogen

  4. Endoribonuclease type II toxin-antitoxin systems: functional or selfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2017-07-01

    Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids. However, the programmed cell death and persistence hypotheses have been challenged because of conceptual, methodological and/or strain issues. In an alternative view, chromosomal TAs seem to be retained by virtue of addiction at two levels: via a poison-antidote combination (TA proteins) and via transcriptional reprogramming of the downstream core gene (due to integration). Any perturbation in the chromosomal TA operons could cause fitness loss due to polar effects on the downstream genes and hence be detrimental under natural conditions. The endoribonucleases encoding chromosomal TAs are most likely selfish DNA as they are retained by bacterial genomes, even though TAs do not confer a direct advantage via the TA proteins. TAs are likely used by various replicons as 'genetic arms' that allow the maintenance of themselves and associated genetic elements. TAs seem to be the 'selfish arms' that make the best use of the 'arms race' between bacterial genomes and plasmids.

  5. Two functionally different muscle fibre types in some salps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Bone

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure and operation of the fibres in the locomotor muscle bands of several salp species. In many species, for example Thalia democratica or Pegea confoederata, all the muscle fibres of the locomotor muscle bands are similar in width and structure. In others, for example Salpa fusiformis and S. maxima, although fibre structure is similar, the marginal fibres edging the bands may be some 3-4 times the width of those in the centre of the band. In Ihlea punctata, not only is there a more striking difference in width between the marginal and central fibres of the bands, but also the two differ in structure. The marginal fibres are up to 10 times the width of the central fibres and the two differ in myofibrillar and mitochondrial content. Intracellular recordings from the fibres show that the normally compound spike potentials do not overshoot resting potentials (up to -70 mV, and are decremental. The two types of fibre may be separately activated. It is suggested that in Ihlea punctata, the wide marginal fibres may be involved in slow swimming, the central narrow fibres in `escape´ swimming.

  6. Chief Executive Officer Power Message Types as a Function of Organizational Target Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Kevin L.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    To explore the specific types of power that emerge in the communication messages chief executive officers (CEOs) use when interacting with others--particularly superiors, peers, and subordinates--15 CEOs were asked to respond to three hypothetical situations. During 60-minute tape-recorded interviews, they were asked what they would say to…

  7. Serum adipokines as biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Kolb, Hubert; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes.......We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  8. Impaired Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Tyrosinemia Type I Receiving Nitisinone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendadi, Fatiha; de Koning, Tom J.; Visser, Gepke; Prinsen, Hubertus C. M. T.; de Sain, Monique G. M.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Sinnema, Gerben; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    Objective To examine cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study to establish cognitive functioning in children with tyrosinemia type I compared with their unaffected siblings.

  9. Pancreatic Function, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolism in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Of the reported 25.8 million Americans estimated to have diabetes, 26.9% are over the age of 65. In certain ethnic groups, the proportion is even higher; almost 1 in 3 older Hispanics and African Americans and 3 out of 4 Pima Indian elders have diabetes. As per the NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey, the percentage of physician-diagnosed diabetes increased from 3.9% in middle-aged adults (40–49 years to 13.2% in elderly adults (≥75 years. The higher incidence of diabetes is especially alarming considering that diabetes in itself increases the risk for multiple other age-related diseases such as cancer, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on how aging affects pancreatic β cell function, β cell mass, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We also review the effects of aging on the relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to impaired glucose homeostasis and T2D in the elderly will lead to development of novel treatments that will prevent or delay diabetes, substantially improve quality of life and ultimately increase overall life span.

  10. Re-evaluating concepts of biological function in clinical medicine: towards a new naturalistic theory of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Upshur, Ross E G

    2017-08-01

    Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches. Although this work has enhanced our understanding of disease and illness, we need not necessarily abandon naturalistic concepts of function and dysfunction in the disease debate. This article attempts to move towards a new naturalistic theory of disease that overcomes the limitations of previous definitions and offers advantages in the clinical setting. Our approach involves a re-evaluation of concepts of biological function employed by naturalistic theories. Drawing on recent insights from the philosophy of biology, we develop a contextual and evaluative account of function that is better suited to clinical medicine and remains consistent with contemporary naturalism. We also show how an updated naturalistic view shares important affinities with normativist and phenomenological positions, suggesting a possibility for consilience in the disease debate.

  11. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Molka Ben; Haddar, Anissa; Ghazala, Imen; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A postprocessing method in the HMC framework for predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shou; Fu, Ping; Zheng, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) problem. When using local approach methods to solve this problem, a preliminary results processing method is usually needed. This paper proposed a novel preliminary results processing method called the nodes interaction method. The nodes interaction method revises the preliminary results and guarantees that the predictions are consistent with the hierarchy constraint. This method exploits the label dependency and considers the hierarchical interaction between nodes when making decisions based on the Bayesian network in its first phase. In the second phase, this method further adjusts the results according to the hierarchy constraint. Implementing the nodes interaction method in the HMC framework also enhances the HMC performance for solving the gene function prediction problem based on the Gene Ontology (GO), the hierarchy of which is a directed acyclic graph that is more difficult to tackle. The experimental results validate the promising performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art methods on eight benchmark yeast data sets annotated by the GO.

  13. Functionalized polypyrrole film: synthesis, characterization, and potential applications in chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Li, Chang Ming

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a carboxyl-functionalized polypyrrole derivative, a poly(pyrrole-N-propanoic acid) (PPPA) film, by electrochemical polymerization, and the investigation of its basic properties via traditional characterization techniques such as confocal-Raman, FTIR, SEM, AFM, UV-vis, fluorescence microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The experimental data show that the as-prepared PPPA film exhibits a hydrophilic nanoporous structure, abundant -COOH functional groups in the polymer backbone, and high fluorescent emission under laser excitation. On the basis of these unique properties, further experiments were conducted to demonstrate three potential applications of the PPPA film in chemical and biological sensors: a permeable and permselective membrane, a membrane with specific recognition sites for biomolecule immobilization, and a fluorescent conjugated polymer for amplification of fluorescence quenching. Specifically, the permeability and permselectivity of ion species through the PPPA film are detected by means of rotating-disk-electrode voltammetry; the specific recognition sites on the film surface are confirmed with protein immobilization, and the amplification of fluorescence quenching is measured by the addition of a quenching agent with fluorescence microscopy. The results are in good agreement with our expectations.

  14. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Florencio-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  15. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  16. Role of epidermis-type lipoxygenases for skin barrier function and adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Epp, Nikolas; Eckl, Katja-Martina

    2007-01-01

    12R-lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) and epidermis-type LOX-3 (eLOX-3) are novel members of the multigene family of mammalian LOX. A considerable gap exists between the identification of these enzymes and their biologic function. Here, we present evidence that 12R-LOX and eLOX-3, acting in sequence, and eL...... evidence indicates that this ligand is an eLOX-3-derived product. In accordance with this data is the observation that forced expression of eLOX-3 enhances adipocyte differentiation.......LOX-3 in combination with another, not yet identified LOX are critically involved in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and adipocytes, respectively. Mutational inactivation of 12R-LOX and/or eLOX-3 has been found to be associated with development of an inherited ichthyosiform skin disorder...... in humans and genetic ablation of 12R-LOX causes a severe impairment of the epidermal lipid barrier in mice leading to post-natal death of the animals. In preadipocytes, a LOX-dependent PPARgamma activating ligand is released into the cell supernatant early upon induction of differentiation and available...

  17. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  18. The dynamics of a harvested predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Huang, Qingdao

    2018-05-31

    The paper aims to investigate the dynamical behavior of a predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response in which both the species are subject to capturing. We mainly consider how the harvesting affects equilibria, stability, limit cycles and bifurcations in this system. We adopt the method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, which is based on the dynamical theory, bifurcation theory and numerical simulation. The boundedness of solutions, the existence and stability of equilibrium points of the system are further studied. Based on the Sotomayor's theorem, the existence of transcritical bifurcation and saddle-node bifurcation are derived. We use the normal form theorem to analyze the Hopf bifurcation. Simulation results show that the first Lyapunov coefficient is negative and a stable limit cycle may bifurcate. Numerical simulations are performed to make analytical studies more complete. This work illustrates that using the harvesting effort as control parameter can change the behaviors of the system, which may be useful for the biological management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Functions of Type I and Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Min; Zimmer, Michael I.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2013-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that rapidly produce an array of cytokines upon activation and play a critical role in regulating various immune responses. NKT cells are classified into two groups based on differences in T cell receptor (TCR) usage. Type I NKT cells have an invariant TCRα-chain and are readily detectable by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-loaded CD1d tetramers. Type II NKT cells have a more diverse TCR repertoire and cannot be directly identified. Both types of NKT cells as well as multiple CD1d-expressing cell types are present in the intestine and their interactions are likely to be modulated by pathogenic and commensal microbes, which in turn contribute to the intestinal immune responses in health and disease. Indeed, in several animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Type I NKT cells have been shown to make both protective and pathogenic contributions to disease. In contrast, in human patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), and a mouse model in which both CD1d expression and the frequency of Type II NKT cells are increased, Type II NKT cells appear to promote intestinal inflammation. In this review, we summarize present knowledge on the antigen recognition, activation and function of NKT cells with a particular focus on their role in IBD, and discuss factors that may influence the functional outcome of NKT cell responses in intestinal inflammation. PMID:23518808

  20. Effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Skaaby, Stinna; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    intensity training) improves insulin sensitivity in healthy humans and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether patients with type 2 diabetes have the same beneficial effects (same improvement) as control subjects, when it comes to regular physical activity in regard to mitochondrial function......, is not established in the literature. This review will focus only on the effect of physical activity on skeletal muscle (mitochondrial function) in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  1. Multi-functional photonic crystal sensors enabled by biological silica (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan X.

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are microalgae found in every habitat where water is present. They produce 40% of the ocean's yearly production of organic carbon and 20% of the oxygen that we breathe. Their abundance and wide distribution make them ideal materials for a wide range of applications as living organisms. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that diatom biosilica with self-assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can be used as ultra-sensitive, low-cost substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. The enhancement comes from the photonic crystal enhancement of diatom frustules that could improve the hot-spots of Ag NPs. In this work, we report the unique micro-fluidic flow, analyte concentration effect, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) on diatom biosilica, which enables selection, separation, detection, and analysis of complex chemical and biological samples. Particularly, we show that the microscopic fluidic flow induced by the evaporation of liquid droplet can concentrate the analyte and achieve label-free sensing of single molecule detection of R6G and label-free sensing of 4.5×10-17g trinitrotoluene (TNT) from only 200 nano-liter solution. We also demonstrated a facile method for instant on-site separation and detection of analytes by TLC in tandem with SERS spectroscopy using high density diatom thin film. This lab-on-chip technology has been successfully applied for label-free detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from human plasma and histamine from salmon fish. Our research suggests that such cost-effective, multi-functional photonic crystal sensors enabled by diatom biosilica opens a new route for lab-on-chip systems and possess significant engineering potentials for chemical and biological sensing.

  2. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  3. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  4. Functional characterization of the Thr946Ala SNP at the type 1 diabetes IFIH1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, Hana; Marchand, Luc; Li, Quan; Polychronakos, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The Thr allele at the Thr946Ala non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) in the IFIH1 gene confers risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). IFIH1 binds viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), inducing a type I interferon (IFN) response. Reports of this nsSNP's role in IFIH1 expression regulation have produced conflicting results and a study evaluating transfected Thr946Ala protein alleles in an artificial system overexpressing IFIH1 shows that the SNP does not affect IFH1 function. In this study, we examine the effects of the Thr946Ala polymorphism on IFN-α response in a cell line that endogenously expresses physiological levels of IFIH1. Eleven lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) homozygous for the major predisposing allele (Thr/Thr) and 6 LCLs homozygous for the minor protective allele (Ala/Ala) were electroporated with the viral dsRNA mimic, poly I:C, in three independent experiments. Media were collected 24 hours later and measured for IFN-α production by ELISA. Basal IFN response is minimal in mock-transfected cells from both genotypes and increases by about 8-fold in cells treated with poly I:C. LCLs with the Ala/Ala genotype have slightly higher IFN-α levels than their Thr/Thr counterparts but this did not reach statistical significance because of the large variability of the IFN response, due mostly to two high outliers (biological, not technical). A larger sample size would be needed to determine whether the Thr946Ala SNP affects the poly I:C-driven IFN-α response. Additionally, the possibility that this nsSNP recognizes viral dsRNA specificities cannot be ruled out. Thus, the mechanism of the observed association of this SNP with T1D remains to be determined.

  5. [Development of a new type of biological organic fertilizer and its effect on the growth promotion of tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu Mei; Chen, Xing; Meng, Xiao Hui; Ye, Qi; Li, Tuo; Liu, Dong Yang; Shen, Qi Rong

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the ability of sporulation production of Trichoderma guizhouense NJAU4742 under solid state fermentation by using rice straw and amino acids as resources, and the fermentation products were used as inoculants of the organic fertilizers adding with different ratios of amino acids solution to develop a new type of biological organic fertilizer. The results indicated that the optimal condition for sporulation by T. guizhouense NJAU4742 was soaking in 30 times diluted amino acid solution for one whole night, with initial pH 3.5, 75% of moisture content and 30% of corn powder, under which the sporulation reached to 2.40×10 10 CFU·g -1 . The fermentation products were inoculated at 2% into the mature organic fertilizer containing 20% of amino acids solution, and the sporulation and IAA content were 6.40×10 9 CFU·g -1 and 38.66 mg·kg -1 , which were 1142.30 and 1.42 times higher than that of CK after 7 days, respectively. Pot experiment showed that biological organic fertilizer could significantly promote the growth of tomato, and the height of the tomato increased by 98.8% and 23.8%, respectively, compared with CK. The stem diameters of AT (amino acids + mature organic fertilizer + T. guizhouense NJAU4742) and AA (amino acids + mature organic fertilizer) were increased by 58.9% and 10.3%, respectively, compared with CK. As for the chlorophyll, leaf length and leaf width, the values also increased significantly. The highest spore content was obtained by using amino acids and rice straw as substrates under solid state fermentation (SSF), which overcame the difficulties of producing new type of biological organic fertilizer during the large scale industrial production. Biological organic fertilizer and amino acids organic fertilizer could significantly promote the growth of tomato compared with the chemical fertilizer, and had a good application prospect in intensive agriculture.

  6. Supernatant from bifidobacterium differentially modulates transduction signaling pathways for biological functions of human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Hoarau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, the signaling pathways engaged by probiotics are poorly understood. We have previously reported that a fermentation product from Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50sn could induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of DCs via a TLR2 pathway. We therefore studied the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathways on biological functions of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with BbC50sn. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DCs were differentiated from human monocytes with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5 days and cultured with BbC50sn, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Zymosan, with or without specific inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580, ERK (PD98059, PI3K (LY294002 and GSK3 (SB216763. We found that 1 the PI3K pathway was positively involved in the prolonged DC survival induced by BbC50sn, LPS and Zymosan in contrast to p38MAPK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC survival; 2 p38MAPK and PI3K were positively involved in DC maturation, in contrast to ERK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC maturation; 3 ERK and PI3K were positively involved in DC-IL-10 production, in contrast to GSK3 that was positively involved in DC-IL-12 production whereas p38MAPK was positively involved in both; 4 BbC50sn induced a PI3K/Akt phosphorylation similar to Zymosan and a p38MAPK phosphorylation similar to LPS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time that a fermentation product of a bifidobacteria can differentially activate MAPK, GSK3 and PI3K in order to modulate DC biological functions. These results give new insights on the fine-tuned balance between the maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis to commensal and probiotic bacteria and the specific inflammatory immune responses to pathogen bacteria.

  7. Biological function evaluation and effects of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youlai; Zeng, Yuanlin; Xin, Guohua; Zou, Lijin; Ding, Yuewei; Duyin, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In the field of burns repairs, many problems exist in the shortage of donor skin, the expense of allograft or xenograft skin, temporary substitution and unsatisfactory extremity function after wound healing. Previous studies showed that burn-denatured skin could return to normal dermis formation and function. This study investigates the application of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermis matrix (DADM) from an escharotomy in the repair of burn wounds and evaluates the biological properties and wound repair effects of DADM in implantation experiments in Kunming mice. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice were used in this study. A deep II° burn wound was created on the dorsum of the mice by an electric heated water bath. The full-thickness wound tissue was harvested. The necrotic tissue and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The denatured dermis was preserved and treated with 0.25% trypsin, 0.5% Triton X-100. The DADM was drilled by laser micro-pore. The biological properties and grafting effects of laser micro-pore burn-DADM were evaluated by morphology, cytokine expression levels and subcutaneous implantation experiments in Kunming mice. We found statistical significance (Ppore burn-DADM (experimental group) compared to the control group (no laser micro-pore burn-DADM). Cytokine expression level was different in the dermal matrixes harvested at various time points after burn (24h, 48h, 72h and infected wound group). Comparing the dermal matrix from 24h burn tissue to infected wound tissue, the expression level of IL-6, MMP-24, VE-cadherin and VEGF were decreased. We found no inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermal matrix were observed in both experimental and control groups (24h burn group), while the obviously vascular infiltration and fiber fusion were observed in the experimental group after subcutaneous implantation experiments. There was better bio-performance, low immunogenicity and better dermal incorporation after treated by laser

  8. Impact of Base Functional Component Types on Software Functional Size based Effort Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Gencel, Cigdem; Buglione, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Software effort estimation is still a significant challenge for software management. Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have been standardized and have become widely used by the software organizations, the relationship between functional size and development effort still needs further investigation. Most of the studies focus on the project cost drivers and consider total software functional size as the primary input to estimation models. In this study, we investigate whether u...

  9. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  10. The EBI Search engine: providing search and retrieval functionality for biological data from EMBL-EBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Silvano; Park, Young Mi; Buso, Nicola; Gur, Tamer; Cowley, Andrew; Li, Weizhong; Uludag, Mahmut; Pundir, Sangya; Cham, Jennifer A; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI-https://www.ebi.ac.uk) provides free and unrestricted access to data across all major areas of biology and biomedicine. Searching and extracting knowledge across these domains requires a fast and scalable solution that addresses the requirements of domain experts as well as casual users. We present the EBI Search engine, referred to here as 'EBI Search', an easy-to-use fast text search and indexing system with powerful data navigation and retrieval capabilities. API integration provides access to analytical tools, allowing users to further investigate the results of their search. The interconnectivity that exists between data resources at EMBL-EBI provides easy, quick and precise navigation and a better understanding of the relationship between different data types including sequences, genes, gene products, proteins, protein domains, protein families, enzymes and macromolecular structures, together with relevant life science literature. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Deterioration of endothelial function of micro- and macrocirculation in patients with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besic, Hana; Jeraj, Luka; Spirkoska, Ana; Jezovnik, Mateja K; Poredoš, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    Vascular complications are an important cause of morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Endothelial dysfunction is an early marker of atherosclerosis and has already been shown in macrocirculation of diabetic patients; however, data on endothelial function of microcirculation is scarce. Our aim was to evaluate endothelial function in macro- and microcirculation and their interrelationship in patients with type 1 and 2 DM. The study included 30 patients with type 1 DM, 30 patients with type 2 DM and 25 healthy controls. The endothelial function of large arteries was studied measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Peripheral arterial tonometry was used for investigation of the endothelial function of microcirculation, measuring Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) and Augmentation Index (AI). In comparison to controls, both DM groups had decreased FMD: type 1 (4.0±5.0% vs. 10.0±7.8%, P=0.005) and type 2 (5.0±0.6% vs. 10.0±7.8%, P=0.007). However, only type 2 DM group had a lower RHI (1.71±0.44 vs. 2.05±0.54, P=0.017) in comparison to controls. Patients with type 1 and 2 DM had deteriorated functional capability of macrocirculation. However, endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation was present only in type 2 DM patients. Type 2 DM patients were also at higher risk for atherosclerosis because of the more frequent presence of risk factors.

  12. Carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity of legume lectins in respect to their proposed biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectins, proteins which specifically recognize carbohydrate moieties, have been extensively studied in many biochemical and structural aspects in order to establish the molecular basis of this non-catalytic event. On the other hand, their clinical and agricultural potentials have been growing fast. Although lectins, mainly those from legume plants, had been investigated for biological properties, studies about the physiological functions of lectins are scarce in literature. Therefore, despite the accumulated data on lectins (as proteins, the role played by these signalizing molecules is poorly discussed. In the light of our accumulated results on legume lectins, specially those obtained from plants belonging to the Diocleinae sub-tribe and available data in literature, we discuss here the main hypothesis of their functions according to their carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity.As lectinas, proteinas que especificamente reconhecem estruturas que contém carboidratos, têm sido extensivamente estudadas em muitos aspectos bioquímicos e estruturais, objetivando estabelecer as bases moleculares deste evento não-catalítico. Por outro lado, os potenciais clínicos e agriculturais destas proteínas têm crescido rapidamente. Embora as lectinas, principalmente aquelas de legumes tenham sido bastante investigadas em suas propriedades biológicas, estudos sobre as funcões fisiológicas de lectinas são escassos na literatura. Além disto, a despeito da quantidade de dados acumulados sobre lectinas (como proteínas, o papel desempenhado por estas moléculas de sinalização é pobremente discutido. Valendo-se de nossos estudos sobre lectinas de leguminosas, principalmente da sub-tribo Diocleinae, e outros dados presentes na literatura, discutimos aqui, as principais hipóteses de suas funções com base na especificidade por carboidratos e glicanos complexos.

  13. Ants: Major Functional Elements in Fruit Agro-Ecosystems and Biological Control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamine Diamé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ants are a very diverse taxonomic group. They display remarkable social organization that has enabled them to be ubiquitous throughout the world. They make up approximately 10% of the world’s animal biomass. Ants provide ecosystem services in agrosystems by playing a major role in plant pollination, soil bioturbation, bioindication, and the regulation of crop-damaging insects. Over recent decades, there have been numerous studies in ant ecology and the focus on tree cropping systems has given added importance to ant ecology knowledge. The only missing point in this knowledge is the reasons underlying difference between the positive and negative effects of ants in tree cropping systems. This review article provides an overview of knowledge of the roles played by ants in orchards as functional elements, and on the potential of Oecophylla weaver ants as biological control agents. It also shows the potential and relevance of using ants as an agro-ecological diagnosis tool in orchards. Lastly, it demonstrates the potential elements which may determine the divergent negative and positive of their effects on cropping systems.

  14. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-01-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s −1 and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s) −1 . Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm. (paper)

  15. Structural changes in PVDF fibers due to electrospinning and its effect on biological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaraju, Sita M; Wu, Siliang; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) is being investigated as a potential scaffold for bone tissue engineering because of its proven biocompatibility and piezoelectric property, wherein it can generate electrical activity when mechanically deformed. In this study, PVDF scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning using different voltages (12–30 kV), evaluated for the presence of the piezoelectric β-crystal phase and its effect on biological function. Electrospun PVDF was compared with unprocessed/raw PVDF, films and melt-spun fibers for the presence of the piezoelectric β-phase using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on scaffolds electrospun at 12 and 25 kV (PVDF-12 kV and PVDF-25 kV, respectively) and compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Electrospinning PVDF resulted in the formation of the piezoelectric β-phase with the highest β-phase fraction of 72% for electrospun PVDF at 25 kV. MSCs cultured on both the scaffolds were well attached as indicated by a spread morphology. Cells on PVDF-25 kV scaffolds had the greatest alkaline phosphatase activity and early mineralization by day 10 as compared to TCP and PVDF-12 kV. The results demonstrate the potential for the use of PVDF scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  16. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-06-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s(-1) and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s)(-1). Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.

  17. A novel biological function of soluble biglycan: Induction of erythropoietin production and polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Helena; Moreth, Kristin; Hsieh, Louise Tzung-Harn; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Rathkolb, Birgit; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Iozzo, Renato V; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia, a disease characterized by a selective increase in circulating mature erythrocytes, is caused by enhanced erythropoietin (Epo) concentrations triggered by hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α). While mechanisms of hypoxia-dependent stabilization of HIF-2α protein are well established, data regarding oxygen-independent regulation of HIF-2α are sparse. In this study, we generated a novel transgenic mouse model, in which biglycan was constitutively overexpressed and secreted by hepatocytes (BGN Tg ), thereby providing a constant source of biglycan released into the blood stream. We discovered that although the mice were apparently normal, they harbored an increase in mature circulating erythrocytes. In addition to erythrocytosis, the BGN Tg mice showed elevated hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit values and enhanced total iron binding capacity, revealing a clinical picture of polycythemia. In BGN Tg mice markedly enhanced Epo mRNA expression was observed in the liver and kidney, while elevated Epo protein levels were found in liver, kidney and blood. Mechanistically, we showed that the transgenic animals had an abundance of HIF-2α protein in the liver and kidney. Finally, by transiently overexpressing circulating biglycan in mice deficient in various Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we determined that this novel function of biglycan to promote Epo synthesis was specifically mediated by a selective interaction with TLR2. Thus, we discovered a novel biological pathway of soluble biglycan inducing HIF-2α protein stabilization and Epo production presumably in an oxygen-independent manner, ultimately giving rise to secondary polycythemia.

  18. Improved normal tissue sparing in head and neck radiotherapy using biological cost function based-IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N; Lawford, C; Khoo, V; Rolfo, M; Joon, D L; Wada, M

    2011-12-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has reduced the impact of acute and late toxicities associated with head and neck radiotherapy. Treatment planning system (TPS) advances in biological cost function based optimization (BBO) and improved segmentation techniques have increased organ at risk (OAR) sparing compared to conventional dose-based optimization (DBO). A planning study was undertaken to compare OAR avoidance in DBO and BBO treatment planning. Simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were produced for 10 head and neck patients using both planning systems. Plans were compared for tar get coverage and OAR avoidance. Comparisons were made using the BBO TPS Monte Carlo dose engine to eliminate differences due to inherent algorithms. Target coverage (V95%) was maintained for both solutions. BBO produced lower OAR doses, with statistically significant improvement to left (12.3%, p = 0.005) and right parotid mean dose (16.9%, p = 0.004), larynx V50_Gy (71.0%, p = 0.005), spinal cord (21.9%, p < 0.001) and brain stem dose maximums (31.5%, p = 0.002). This study observed improved OAR avoidance with BBO planning. Further investigations will be undertaken to review any clinical benefit of this improved planned dosimetry.

  19. A Limit Relation for Dunkl-Bessel Functions of Type A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Rösler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We prove a limit relation for the Dunkl-Bessel function of type BN with multiplicity parameters k_1 on the roots ±ei and k_2 on ±e_i±e_j where k_1 tends to infinity and the arguments are suitably scaled. It gives a good approximation in terms of the Dunkl-type Bessel function of type A_{N−1} with multiplicity k_2. For certain values of k_2 an improved estimate is obtained from a corresponding limit relation for Bessel functions on matrix cones.

  20. Expression Profiling of Genes Related to Endothelial Cells Biology in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Patients with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moradipoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an early sign indicating vascular damage and predicts the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Extensive clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction occurs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and prediabetes patients. This study was carried out with an aim to appraise the expression levels in the peripheral blood of 84 genes related to endothelial cells biology in patients with diagnosed T2DM or prediabetes, trying to identify new genes whose expression might be changed under these pathological conditions. The study covered a total of 45 participants. The participants were divided into three groups: group 1, patients with T2DM; group 2, patients with prediabetes; group 3, control group. The gene expression analysis was performed using the Endothelial Cell Biology RT2 Profiler PCR Array. In the case of T2DM, 59 genes were found to be upregulated, and four genes were observed to be downregulated. In prediabetes patients, increased expression was observed for 49 genes, with two downregulated genes observed. Our results indicate that diabetic and prediabetic conditions change the expression levels of genes related to endothelial cells biology and, consequently, may increase the risk for occurrence of endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Minh Giang; Phan, Tong Son; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2006-04-01

    From the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) grown in Vietnam, four scopadulane-type diterpenoids (4-7), of which 7 is new and was given the trivial name scopadulcic acid C, together with nine known compounds were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 4-7 were ascertained by applying the modified Mosher's method to iso-dulcinol (6). The isolation of the lignans nirtetralin and niranthin for the first time from S. dulcis is also of chemotaxonomic interest. The cytotoxic activity in KB cells, inhibitory effect on LPS/IFNgamma-induced NO production, inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR), and antibacterial and antifungal activities of the scopadulane-type diterpenoids 4-7 were examined in this study.

  2. Library construction and biological evaluation of enmein-type diterpenoid analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahong; Xu, Shengtao; Cai, Hao; Pei, Lingling; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming; Yao, Hequan; Jiang, Jieyun; Sun, Yijun; Xu, Jinyi

    2013-05-01

    A library of promising enmein-type 14-O-diterpenoid derivatives was constructed from a commercially available kaurene-type oridonin by practical and efficient synthetic methods. These synthetic derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a set of four human cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are similar to or improved over those of the parent molecule and paclitaxel, the latter of which was used as a positive control. Compound 29 was further investigated for its apoptotic properties against human hepatocarcinoma Bel-7402 cells to better understand its mode of action. Moreover, compound 29 was shown to have potent antitumor activity in vivo in studies with a murine model of gastric cancer (MGC-803 mice). These results warrant further preclinical investigations of these diterpenoid-based analogues as potential novel anticancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S; van der Schouw, YT; Bots, Michael L; Grobbee, Diederick E; Moret, N. Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication

  4. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin and air assemblies inside the scales as domains of a single-network diamond (Fd3m) photonic crystal. We visualized the topology of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ) by imaging scatterometry, and we reconstructed the complete photonic band structure diagram (PBSD) of the chitinous photonic crystal from reflectance spectra. Comparison with calculated PBSDs indeed showed a perfect overlap. The unique method of non-invasive hemispherical imaging of the FBZ provides key insights for the investigation of photonic crystals in the visible wavelength range. The characterized extremely large biophotonic nanostructures of E. imperialis are structurally optimized for high reflectance and may thus be well suited for use as a template for producing novel photonic devices, e.g. through biomimicry or direct infiltration from dielectric material. PMID:22188768

  5. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-10-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.

  6. Single Fluorescent Molecules as Nano-Illuminators for Biological Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerner, W. E.

    2011-03-01

    Since the first optical detection and spectroscopy of a single molecule in a solid (Phys. Rev. Lett. {62}, 2535 (1989)), much has been learned about the ability of single molecules to probe local nanoenvironments and individual behavior in biological and nonbiological materials in the absence of ensemble averaging that can obscure heterogeneity. Because each single fluorophore acts a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic imaging of individual fluorophores leads naturally to superlocalization, or determination of the position of the molecule with precision beyond the optical diffraction limit, simply by digitization of the point-spread function from the single emitter. For example, the shape of single filaments in a living cell can be extracted simply by allowing a single molecule to move through the filament (PNAS {103}, 10929 (2006)). The addition of photoinduced control of single-molecule emission allows imaging beyond the diffraction limit (super-resolution) and a new array of acronyms (PALM, STORM, F-PALM etc.) and advances have appeared. We have used the native blinking and switching of a common yellow-emitting variant of green fluorescent protein (EYFP) reported more than a decade ago (Nature {388}, 355 (1997)) to achieve sub-40 nm super-resolution imaging of several protein structures in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus: the quasi-helix of the actin-like protein MreB (Nat. Meth. {5}, 947 (2008)), the cellular distribution of the DNA binding protein HU (submitted), and the recently discovered division spindle composed of ParA filaments (Nat. Cell Biol. {12}, 791 (2010)). Even with these advances, better emitters would provide more photons and improved resolution, and a new photoactivatable small-molecule emitter has recently been synthesized and targeted to specific structures in living cells to provide super-resolution images (JACS {132}, 15099 (2010)). Finally, a new optical method for extracting three-dimensional position information based on

  7. Development of Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for MC-DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, Taro [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecuar Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Tsuneda, Takao [Fuel Cell Nanomaterials Center, University of Yamanashi, Miyamae-cho 6-43, Kofu 400-0021 (Japan); Tachikawa, Masanori [Quqnatum Chemistry Division, Graduate School of Science, Yokohama City University, Seto 22-2, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    A Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for multicomponent density-functional theory is proposed. We demonstrate that our correlation functional quantitatively reproduces the quantum nuclear effects of protons; the mean absolute deviation value is 2.8 millihartrees for the optimized structure of hydrogen-containing molecules. We also show other practical calculations with our new electron-deuteron and electron-triton correlation functionals. Since this functional is derived without any unphysical assumption, the strategy taken in this development will be a promising recipe to make new functionals for the potentials of other particles’ interactions.

  8. Culture medium type affects endocytosis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B cells and subsequent biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniu, Hisao; Saito, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Maruyama, Kayo; Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Nomura, Hiroki; Okamoto, Masanori; Shimizu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    We examined the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the resulting cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in two types of culture media (Ham's F12 containing 10% FBS [Ham's F12] and serum-free growth medium [SFGM]). Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed by fluorescent microscopy and analyzed using flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated whether MWCNT uptake was suppressed by 2 types of endocytosis inhibitors. We found that BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM showed similar biological responses, but BEAS-2B cells cultured in SFGM did not internalize MWCNTs, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value, i.e., the cytotoxicity, was increased by more than 10-fold. MWCNT uptake was suppressed by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor and a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor in BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM. In conclusion, we suggest that BEAS-2B cells cultured in a medium containing serum should be used for the safety evaluation of nanomaterials as a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, the culture medium composition may affect the proteins that are expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane, which may influence the biological response to MWCNTs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ligand-independent interaction of the type I interferon receptor complex is necessary to observe its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Digioia, Gina; Izotova, Lara S; Xie, Junxia; Kim, Youngsun; Schwartz, Barbara J; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Ectopic coexpression of the two chains of the Type I and Type III interferon (IFN) receptor complexes (IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c, or IFN-λR1 and IL-10R2) yielded sensitivity to IFN-alpha or IFN-lambda in only some cells. We found that IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibit FRET only when expressed at equivalent and low levels. Expanded clonal cell lines expressing both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c were sensitive to IFN-alpha only when IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET in the absence of human IFN-alpha. Coexpression of RACK-1 or Jak1 enhanced the affinity of the interaction between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c. Both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET with Jak1 and Tyk2. Together with data showing that disruption of the preassociation between the IFN-gamma receptor chains inhibited its biological activity, we propose that biologically active IFN receptors require ligand-independent juxtaposition of IFN receptor chains assisted by their associated cytosolic proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Connecting Structure-Property and Structure-Function Relationships across the Disciplines of Chemistry and Biology: Exploring Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Kathryn P.; Underwood, Sonia M.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2018-01-01

    While many university students take science courses in multiple disciplines, little is known about how they perceive common concepts from different disciplinary perspectives. Structure-property and structure-function relationships have long been considered important explanatory concepts in the disciplines of chemistry and biology, respectively.…

  11. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  12. Poisson-type inequalities for growth properties of positive superharmonic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Kuan; Vieira, John

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present new Poisson-type inequalities for Poisson integrals with continuous data on the boundary. The obtained inequalities are used to obtain growth properties at infinity of positive superharmonic functions in a smooth cone.

  13. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Murat, Altynbek

    2014-02-13

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs is due to the Cl atoms adsorbed on the CNTs. We test this hypothesis and show that adsorbed Cl atoms only lead to a p-type character for very specific concentrations and arrangements of the Cl atoms, which furthermore are not the lowest energy configurations. We therefore investigate alternative mechanisms and conclude that the p-type character is due to the adsorption of AuCl4 molecules. The unraveling of the exact nature of the p-doping adsorbates is a key step for further development of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs in water sensor applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Floristic composition and diversity of three forest types at Caparu, Vaupus Biological Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Angela; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2009-01-01

    The Amazon forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the planet. Although some countries of the Amazon Basin have a fairly complete record of their plants, in Colombia much effort is still needed to have a good idea of the plant diversity patterns and floristic composition. Three one-hectare vegetation-land plots (DBH? 10 cm) were established in Vaupes, Colombia, regarding three types of forest: Colina, Terraza (Terra Firme forests) and Igapo (periodically flooded). Plant diversity was estimated and floristic composition was described classifying the most important families and species. The highest diversity was found in Colina (Fisher's ? = 160.3), followed by Terraza (? = 78.4) and Igapo (? = 44.7). Fabaceae s.l. was the most important family of all plots, but in Terraza forest the importance of Arecaceae was similar to that of Fabaceae. Floristic composition was also remarkably different amongst the three forest types, especially Igapo, which was the most dissimilar. However, both Terra Firme forests showed strong floristic differences, which may be caused by differences in abiotic factors (i.e. soils). High plant diversity reported in this study agrees with the hypothesis that central and western Amazon forests are the most diverse of the Amazon Basin.

  15. Proteome-wide Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots Reveals Regulatory Elements Predicted to Impact Biological Function and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Matthew P; Dewhurst, Henry; Sundararaman, Niveda

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function - a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) - a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al., 2015). Here, we apply SAPH-ire to the set of eukaryotic protein families containing experimental PTM and 3D structure data - capturing 1,325 protein families with 50,839 unique PTM sites organized into 31,747 modified alignment positions (MAPs), of which 2010 (∼6%) possess known biological function. Here, we show that using an artificial neural network model (SAPH-ire NN) trained to identify MAP hotspots with biological function results in prediction outcomes that far surpass the use of single hotspot features, including nearest neighbor PTM clustering methods. We find the greatest enhancement in prediction for positions with PTM counts of five or less, which represent 98% of all MAPs in the eukaryotic proteome and 90% of all MAPs found to have biological function. Analysis of the top 1092 MAP hotspots revealed 267 of truly unknown function (containing 5443 distinct PTMs). Of these, 165 hotspots could be mapped to human KEGG pathways for normal and/or disease physiology. Many high-ranking hotspots were also found to be disease-associated pathogenic sites of amino acid substitution despite the lack of observable PTM in the human protein family member. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that the functional relevance of a PTM can be predicted very effectively by neural network models, revealing a large but testable

  16. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Maréchal, Eric

    2008-08-07

    Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2) following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory) is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure). Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1) having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2) which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a constant rate, corresponding to the

  17. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2 following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. Results We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure. Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1 having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2 which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the microsomal mixed function oxidases and biological and pathological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur I. Cederbaum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of important endogenous substrates as well as in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. The liver P450 system is the most active in metabolism of exogenous substrates. This review briefly describes the liver P450 (CYP mixed function oxidase system with respect to its enzymatic components and functions. Electron transfer by the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase is required for reduction of the heme of P450, necessary for binding of molecular oxygen. Binding of substrates to P450 produce substrate binding spectra. The P450 catalytic cycle is complex and rate-limiting steps are not clear. Many types of chemical reactions can be catalyzed by P450 enzymes, making this family among the most diverse catalysts known. There are multiple forms of P450s arranged into families based on structural homology. The major drug metabolizing CYPs are discussed with respect to typical substrates, inducers and inhibitors and their polymorphic forms. The composition of CYPs in humans varies considerably among individuals because of sex and age differences, the influence of diet, liver disease, presence of potential inducers and/or inhibitors. Because of such factors and CYP polymorphisms, and overlapping drug specificity, there is a large variability in the content and composition of P450 enzymes among individuals. This can result in large variations in drug metabolism by humans and often can contribute to drug–drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Because of many of the above factors, especially CYP polymorphisms, there has been much interest in personalized medicine especially with respect to which CYPs and which of their polymorphic forms are present in order to attempt to determine what drug therapy and what dosage would reflect the best therapeutic strategy in treating individual patients.

  19. Structures and Corresponding Functions of Five Types of Picornaviral 2A Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyao Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the few non-structural proteins encoded by the picornaviral genome, the 2A protein is particularly special, irrespective of structure or function. During the evolution of the Picornaviridae family, the 2A protein has been highly non-conserved. We believe that the 2A protein in this family can be classified into at least five distinct types according to previous studies. These five types are (A chymotrypsin-like 2A, (B Parechovirus-like 2A, (C hepatitis-A-virus-like 2A, (D Aphthovirus-like 2A, and (E 2A sequence of the genus Cardiovirus. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis and found that there was almost no homology between each type. Subsequently, we aligned the sequences within each type and found that the functional motifs in each type are highly conserved. These different motifs perform different functions. Therefore, in this review, we introduce the structures and functions of these five types of 2As separately. Based on the structures and functions, we provide suggestions to combat picornaviruses. The complexity and diversity of the 2A protein has caused great difficulties in functional and antiviral research. In this review, researchers can find useful information on the 2A protein and thus conduct improved antiviral research.

  20. Identification and Biological Activity of Synthetic Macrophage Inducible C-Type Lectin Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriselle D. Braganza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle is a pattern recognition receptor able to recognize both damage-associated and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and in this respect, there has been much interest in determining the scope of ligands that bind Mincle and how structural modifications to these ligands influence ensuing immune responses. In this review, we will present Mincle ligands of known chemical structure, with a focus on ligands that have been synthetically prepared, such as trehalose glycolipids, glycerol-based ligands, and 6-acylated glucose and mannose derivatives. The ability of the different classes of ligands to influence the innate, and consequently, the adaptive, immune response will be described, and where appropriate, structure–activity relationships within each class of Mincle ligands will be presented.

  1. Perspectives of different type biological life support systems (BLSS) usage in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Gitelson, J. I.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Mezhevikin, V. V.; Okhonin, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    In the paper an attempt is made to combine three important criteria of LSS comparison: minimum mass, maximum safety and maximum quality of life. Well-known types of BLSS were considered: with higher plant, higher plants and mushrooms, microalgae, and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. These BLSSs were compared in terms of "integrated" mass for the case of a vegetarian diet and a "normal" one (with animal proteins and fats). It was shown that the BLSS with higher plants and incineration of wastes becomes the best when the exploitation period is more than 1 yr. The dependence of higher plants' LSS structure on operation time was found. Comparison of BLSSs in terms of integral reliability (this criterion includes mass and quality of life criteria) for a lunar base scenario showed that BLSSs with higher plants are advantageous in reliability and comfort. This comparison was made for achieved level of technology of closing and for perspective one.

  2. Revealing the functions of the transketolase enzyme isoforms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris using a systems biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris is a purple non-sulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that belongs to the class of proteobacteria. It is capable of absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass via the process of photosynthesis and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle. Transketolase is a key enzyme involved in the CBB cycle. Here, we reveal the functions of transketolase isoforms I and II in R. palustris using a systems biology approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring growth ability, we found that transketolase could enhance the autotrophic growth and biomass production of R. palustris. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that transketolase isoforms I and II were involved in different carbon metabolic pathways. In addition, immunogold staining demonstrated that the two transketolase isoforms had different spatial localizations: transketolase I was primarily associated with the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM but transketolase II was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm. Comparative proteomic analysis and network construction of transketolase over-expression and negative control (NC strains revealed that protein folding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid transport and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase I over-expressed strain. In contrast, ATP synthesis, carbohydrate transport, glycolysis-associated carbon metabolism and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. Furthermore, ATP synthesis assays showed a significant increase in ATP synthesis in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. A PEPCK activity assay showed that PEPCK activity was higher in transketolase over-expressed strains than in the negative control strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that the two isoforms of transketolase in R. palustris could affect photoautotrophic growth

  3. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Abella, Scott R; Bowker, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed soils, including increasing lichen and moss cover and cyanobacteria colonization. Compared to undisturbed controls, inoculated plots had similar lichen and moss composition, recovered 43% of total cyanobacteria density, had similar soil chlorophyll content, and exhibited recovery of soil fertility and soil stability. Inoculation was the only treatment that generated lichen and moss cover. Topsoil application resulted in partial recovery of the cyanobacteria community and soil properties. Compared to untreated disturbed plots, topsoil application without inoculum increased cyanobacteria density by 186% and moderately improved soil chlorophyll and ammonium content and soil stability. Topsoil application produced 22% and 51% of the cyanobacteria density g⁻¹ soil compared to undisturbed and inoculated plots, respectively. Plots not treated with either topsoil or inoculum had significantly lower cyanobacteria density, soil chlorophyll and ammonium concentrations, and significantly higher soil nitrate concentration. Wood shavings and Ambrosia had no influence on biocrust lichen and moss species recovery but did affect cyanobacteria composition and soil fertility. Inoculation of severely disturbed soil with native

  4. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  5. Organizational Culture as a Function of Institutional Type in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether organizational culture varies as a function of institutional type in higher education, and to identify whether there exists congruence between organizational culture type and leader behavior. Utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by Cameron and Quinn…

  6. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V.R.; Mathiassen, E.R.; Clausen, P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of short-term poor glycaemic control on vascular function in Type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten Type 1 diabetic patients, with diabetes duration of less than 10 years and normal urinary albumin excretion and ophthalmoscopy, were studied. All patients were examined af...

  7. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  8. The Effect of Maltreatment Type on Adolescent Executive Functioning and Inner Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke-Smith, Mimi; Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David

    2016-01-01

    There are indications that different types of maltreatment can lead to different cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This study investigated whether maltreatment type was related to executive functioning (EF) abilities and the use of inner speech. Forty maltreated adolescents and a comparison group of 40 non-maltreated typically developing…

  9. Path integral solutions of the master equation. [Lagrangian function, Ehrenfest-type theorem, Cauchy method, inverse functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etim, E; Basili, C [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1978-08-21

    The lagrangian in the path integral solution of the master equation of a stationary Markov process is derived by application of the Ehrenfest-type theorem of quantum mechanics and the Cauchy method of finding inverse functions. Applied to the non-linear Fokker-Planck equation the authors reproduce the result obtained by integrating over Fourier series coefficients and by other methods.

  10. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a

  11. Synthesis of Lycodine-Type Lycopodium Alkaloids Using C-H Functionalization Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes our syntheses of several lycodine-type Lycopodium alkaloids by the late-stage C-H functionalization of lycodine derivatives. Lycodine-type alkaloids are well-known for their neurological activity. For example, huperzine A is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and the complanadine family of molecules has been shown to induce the secretion of Nerve Growth Factor. Due to these properties, lycodine-type alkaloids serve as interesting lead compounds for the deve...

  12. The development of peptide-based interfacial biomaterials for generating biological functionality on the surface of bioinert materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Steven R; Khoo, Xiaojuan; Huang, Xin; Walsh, Elisabeth B; Grinstaff, Mark W; Kenan, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials used in implants have traditionally been selected based on their mechanical properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, the durability and clinical efficacy of implantable biomedical devices remain limited in part due to the absence of appropriate biological interactions at the implant interface and the lack of integration into adjacent tissues. Herein, we describe a robust peptide-based coating technology capable of modifying the surface of existing biomaterials and medical devices through the non-covalent binding of modular biofunctional peptides. These peptides contain at least one material binding sequence and at least one biologically active sequence and thus are termed, "Interfacial Biomaterials" (IFBMs). IFBMs can simultaneously bind the biomaterial surface while endowing it with desired biological functionalities at the interface between the material and biological realms. We demonstrate the capabilities of model IFBMs to convert native polystyrene, a bioinert surface, into a bioactive surface that can support a range of cell activities. We further distinguish between simple cell attachment with insufficient integrin interactions, which in some cases can adversely impact downstream biology, versus biologically appropriate adhesion, cell spreading, and cell survival mediated by IFBMs. Moreover, we show that we can use the coating technology to create spatially resolved patterns of fluorophores and cells on substrates and that these patterns retain their borders in culture.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Thiophene-Based Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Radiotracers for PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Haider

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, our understanding of the endocannabinoid system has greatly improved due to the wealth of results obtained from exploratory studies. Currently, two cannabinoid receptor subtypes have been well characterized. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 is widely expressed in the central nervous system, while the levels of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2 in the brain and spinal cord of healthy individuals are relatively low. However, recent studies demonstrated a CB2 upregulation on activated microglia upon neuroinflammation, an indicator of neurodegeneration. Our research group aims to develop a suitable positron emission tomography (PET tracer to visualize the CB2 receptor in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we report two novel thiophene-based 11C-labeled PET ligands designated [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778. The reference compounds were synthesized using Gewald reaction conditions to obtain the aminothiophene intermediates, followed by amide formation. Saponification of the esters provided their corresponding precursors. Binding affinity studies revealed Ki values of 3.3 ± 0.5 nM (CB2 and 1.0 ± 0.2 µM (CB1 for AAT-015. AAT-778 showed similar Ki values of 4.3 ± 0.7 nM (CB2 and 1.1 ± 0.1 µM (CB1. Radiosynthesis was carried out under basic conditions using [11C]iodomethane as methylating agent. After semi-preparative HPLC purification both radiolabeled compounds were obtained in 99% radiochemical purity and the radiochemical yields ranged from 12 to 37%. Specific activity was between 96 - 449 GBq/µmol for both tracers. In order to demonstrate CB2 specificity of [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778, we carried out autoradiography studies using CB2-positive mouse/rat spleen tissues. The obtained results revealed unspecific binding in spleen tissue that was not blocked by an excess of CB2-specific ligand GW402833. For in vivo analysis, [11C]AAT-015 was administered to healthy rats via tail

  14. Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for GA-s-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmdat İşcan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, The author introduces the concepts of the GA-s-convex functions in the first sense and second sense and establishes some integral inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type related to the GA-s-convex functions. Some applications to special means of real numbers are also given.

  15. Pairs of dual Gabor frames generated by functions of Hilbert-Schmidt type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler

    2015-01-01

    where each member may be written as a linear combination of integer translates of any B-spline. We introduce functions of Hilbert-Schmidt type along with a new method which allows us to associate to certain such functions finite families of recursively defined dual windows of arbitrary smoothness...

  16. A more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality with the logarithmic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aizhen; Yang, Bicheng

    2017-01-01

    By means of the weight functions, the technique of real analysis and Hermite-Hadamard's inequality, a more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality related to the kernel of logarithmic function and a best possible constant factor is given. Moreover, the equivalent forms, the operator expressions, the reverses and some particular cases are also considered.

  17. A more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality with the logarithmic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizhen Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the weight functions, the technique of real analysis and Hermite-Hadamard’s inequality, a more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality related to the kernel of logarithmic function and a best possible constant factor is given. Moreover, the equivalent forms, the operator expressions, the reverses and some particular cases are also considered.

  18. Further Refinements of Jensen’s Type Inequalities for the Function Defined on the Rectangle

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    M. Adil Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We give refinement of Jensen’s type inequalities given by Bakula and Pečarić (2006 for the co-ordinate convex function. Also we establish improvement of Jensen’s inequality for the convex function of two variables.

  19. Biological interaction between sleep quality and depression in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Li, X-L; Han, K; Tao, Z-Q; Wu, Z-M

    2016-07-01

    To explore the interaction of sleep quality and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With multistage cluster sampling, the living quality of all participants was investigated. The indicator of interaction was calculated according to the delta method and non-conditional logistic regression model. There were 944 residents involved in the final analysis including 365 males and 579 females. The average age was (64 ± 10.2) years. The rate of poor sleep quality and poor sleep quality combined depression were 33.6% and 40.1%, respectively. Due to poor sleep quality and depression in patients with T2DM, the combined interaction index was 2.48 (95% CI 1.44-4.29), the relative excess risk was 3.42 (95% CI 2.16-4.67), and the attributable proportion was 0.51 (95% CI 0.32-0.70). An additive interaction rather than a multiplicative interaction of poor sleep quality and depression in affecting the quality of life was found in T2DM patients. When both factors existed at the same time, the interaction effect of these 2 factors was greater than the sum of the two factors.

  20. Comparative study of biological activity of four botulinum toxin type A preparations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung Eun; Song, Dae Heon; Park, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Units of available botulinum toxin preparations are not interchangeable, and the dose-conversion ratios between such preparations remain controversial. To compare the efficacy and safety of four botulinum toxin type A preparations. Murine gastrocnemius compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded before and after injecting the four botulinum toxin preparations (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, new botulinum toxin, and incobotulinumtoxinA). In all preparations, CMAP amplitudes decreased until 4 days after receiving the injection and then gradually recovered. On postinjection day 84, the amplitudes returned to baseline in all groups except the high-dose groups. CMAP amplitude in the contralateral limb also decreased up to postinjection days 4 to 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by postinjection day 28. The dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA was determined to be 1:2.6; previous reports of 1:3 were considered too high. A dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and new botulinum toxin of 1:1 was deemed appropriate. OnabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA demonstrated a dose-conversion ratio of 1:1.07. The efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA was slightly lower than that of onabotulinumtoxinA. These dose-conversion ratios are applicable solely from an efficacy standpoint and not for safety. This study was conducted in mice, so it may not translate perfectly to human applications. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  2. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  3. Evaluation of Cognitive Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Overt Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Previous studies report the presence of cognitive impairment in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The thyroid hormones are essential for neurological and intellectual functions. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects are exposed to higher risk of cognitive function alteration compared to nondiabetic subjects. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function of T2DM subjects with overt hypothyroidism.

  4. Proteome-wide Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots Reveals Regulatory Elements Predicted to Impact Biological Function and Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Henry; Sundararaman, Niveda

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function - a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) - a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al., 2015). Here, we apply SAPH-ire to the set of eukaryotic protein families containing experimental PTM and 3D structure data - capturing 1,325 protein families with 50,839 unique PTM sites organized into 31,747 modified alignment positions (MAPs), of which 2010 (∼6%) possess known biological function. Here, we show that using an artificial neural network model (SAPH-ire NN) trained to identify MAP hotspots with biological function results in prediction outcomes that far surpass the use of single hotspot features, including nearest neighbor PTM clustering methods. We find the greatest enhancement in prediction for positions with PTM counts of five or less, which represent 98% of all MAPs in the eukaryotic proteome and 90% of all MAPs found to have biological function. Analysis of the top 1092 MAP hotspots revealed 267 of truly unknown function (containing 5443 distinct PTMs). Of these, 165 hotspots could be mapped to human KEGG pathways for normal and/or disease physiology. Many high-ranking hotspots were also found to be disease-associated pathogenic sites of amino acid substitution despite the lack of observable PTM in the human protein family member. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that the functional relevance of a PTM can be predicted very effectively by neural network models, revealing a large but testable

  5. Functional type 2 photosynthetic reaction centers found in the rare bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yonghui; Feng, Fuying; Medová, Hana; Dean, Jason; Koblížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes on Earth. To date, species capable of performing (bacterio)chlorophyll-based phototrophy have been reported in six bacterial phyla. Here we report a phototrophic bacterium belonging to the rare and understudied phylum Gemmatimonadetes. This strain, isolated from a freshwater lake in the Gobi Desert, contains fully functional photosynthetic reaction centers. Its photosynthesis genes appear to originate from an ancient horizonta...

  6. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  7. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  8. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  9. Advanced image processing methods as a tool to map and quantify different types of biological soil crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Cantón, Yolanda

    2014-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) modify numerous soil surface properties and affect many key ecosystem processes. As BSCs are considered one of the most important components of semiarid ecosystems, accurate characterisation of their spatial distribution is increasingly in demand. This paper describes a novel methodology for identifying the areas dominated by different types of BSCs and quantifying their relative cover at subpixel scale in a semiarid ecosystem of SE Spain. The approach consists of two consecutive steps: (i) First, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification to identify the main ground units, dominated by homogenous surface cover (bare soil, cyanobacteria BSC, lichen BSC, green and dry vegetation), which are of strong ecological relevance. (ii) Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of the ground units to quantify the proportion of each type of surface cover within each pixel, to correctly characterize the complex spatial heterogeneity inherent to semiarid ecosystems. SVM classification showed very good results with a Kappa coefficient of 0.93%, discriminating among areas dominated by bare soil, cyanobacteria BSC, lichen BSC, green and dry vegetation. Subpixel relative abundance images achieved relatively high accuracy for both types of BSCs (about 80%), whereas general overestimation of vegetation was observed. Our results open the possibility of introducing the effect of presence and of relative cover of BSCs in spatially distributed hydrological and ecological models, and assessment and monitoring aimed at reducing degradation in these areas.

  10. INK4 proteins, a family of mammalian CDK inhibitors with novel biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánepa, Eduardo T; Scassa, María E; Ceruti, Julieta M; Marazita, Mariela C; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ogara, María F

    2007-07-01

    The cyclin D-Cdk4-6/INK4/Rb/E2F pathway plays a key role in controlling cell growth by integrating multiple mitogenic and antimitogenic stimuli. The members of INK4 family, comprising p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b), p18(INK4c), and p19(INK4d), block the progression of the cell cycle by binding to either Cdk4 or Cdk6 and inhibiting the action of cyclin D. These INK4 proteins share a similar structure dominated by several ankyrin repeats. Although they appear to be structurally redundant and equally potent as inhibitors, the INK4 family members are differentially expressed during mouse development. The striking diversity in the pattern of expression of INK4 genes suggested that this family of cell cycle inhibitors might have cell lineage-specific or tissue-specific functions. The INK4 proteins are commonly lost or inactivated by mutations in diverse types of cancer, and they represent established or candidate tumor suppressors. Apart from their capacity to arrest cells in the G1-phase of the cell cycle they have been shown to participate in an increasing number of cellular processes. Given their emerging roles in fundamental physiological as well as pathological processes, it is interesting to explore the diverse roles for the individual INK4 family members in different functions other than cell cycle regulation. Extensive studies, over the past few years, uncover the involvement of INK4 proteins in senescence, apoptosis, DNA repair, and multistep oncogenesis. We will focus the discussion here on these unexpected issues.

  11. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Permeating disciplines: Overcoming barriers between molecular simulations and classical structure-function approaches in biological ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Delemotte, Lucie; Hellmich, Ute A; Rothberg, Brad S

    2018-04-01

    Ion translocation across biological barriers is a fundamental requirement for life. In many cases, controlling this process-for example with neuroactive drugs-demands an understanding of rapid and reversible structural changes in membrane-embedded proteins, including ion channels and transporters. Classical approaches to electrophysiology and structural biology have provided valuable insights into several such proteins over macroscopic, often discontinuous scales of space and time. Integrating these observations into meaningful mechanistic models now relies increasingly on computational methods, particularly molecular dynamics simulations, while surfacing important challenges in data management and conceptual alignment. Here, we seek to provide contemporary context, concrete examples, and a look to the future for bridging disciplinary gaps in biological ion transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functionalization of titanium with chitosan via silanation: evaluation of biological and mechanical performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Renoud

    Full Text Available Complications in dentistry and orthopaedic surgery are mainly induced by peri-implant bacterial infections and current implant devices do not prevent such infections. The coating of antibacterial molecules such as chitosan on its surface would give the implant bioactive properties. The major challenge of this type of coating is the attachment of chitosan to a metal substrate. In this study, we propose to investigate the functionalization of titanium with chitosan via a silanation. Firstly, the surface chemistry and mechanical properties of such coating were evaluated. We also verified if the coated chitosan retained its biocompatibility with the peri-implant cells, as well as its antibacterial properties. FTIR and Tof-SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of chitosan on the titanium surface. This coating showed great scratch resistance and was strongly adhesive to the substrate. These mechanical properties were consistent with an implantology application. The Chitosan-coated surfaces showed strong inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii growth; they nonetheless showed a non significant inhibition against Porphyromonas gingivalis after 32 hours in liquid media. The chitosan-coating also demonstrated good biocompatibility to NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Thus this method of covalent coating provides a biocompatible material with improved bioactive properties. These results proved that covalent coating of chitosan has significant potential in biomedical device implantation.

  14. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  15. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  16. Teacher-employed Communication Strategies: Investigating Function Type Occurrence in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi Notash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication strategies, as goal-oriented lines of action to obviate breakdowns in the flow of communication, have been the subject of extensive studies in SLA. While student-employed strategies have been duly investigated in the literature, those employed by teachers in the classroom context continue to be inadequately addressed. Moreover, characterizing functions of communication strategies (CSs rather than their types as a research interest can offer new insights for research. Accordingly, the present study concentrated on the function of CSs employed by 16 teachers across elementary (8 and advanced levels (8 teaching spoken English in private institutes in Tabriz, Iran. A modified version of Jamshidnejad’s (2011 functions of communication strategies was employed as the framework for defining functions. T-test results indicated a significant difference regarding ‘maintaining the flow of conversation’ between elementary and advanced level teachers. As with other function types, no significant differences could be revealed.

  17. Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for -1φ,φ> and rational Pade-type approximation for Markov-type functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnerman, L A

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for the calculation of the quantity -1 φ,φ> is studied, where A is a bounded operator in a Hilbert space and φ is a non-trivial vector in this space. A necessary and a sufficient conditions are found for the efficiency of the quadrature in the case of a normal operator. An example of a non-normal operator for which this quadrature is inefficient is presented. It is shown that Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature is related in certain cases to rational Pade-type approximation (with the poles at Ritz numbers) for functions of Markov type and, in particular, can be used for the localization of the poles of a rational perturbation. Error estimates are found, which can also be used when classical Pade approximation does not work or it may not be efficient. Theoretical results and conjectures are illustrated by numerical experiments. Bibliography: 44 titles

  18. Collagen Type III Degradation Is Associated with Deterioration of Kidney Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Hansen, Tine Wilum; Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen

    Background In diabetes one of the main features of the progression to diabetic kidney disease is a pathological deposition of extracellular matrix components triggering renal fibrosis. The main structural component of the fibrotic core is collagen. One of the most prominent collagens is collagen...... type III (COL III), which is excessively synthesized and incorporated into the fibrotic extracellular matrix. Multiple studies in both humans and mice have suggested that MMP-9 activity is increased in diabetic kidney disease. We investigated whether a neo-epitope fragment of COL III generated by MMP-9...... (C3M) was associated with deterioration of kidney function in a well-characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms of coronary artery disease. Methods The cohort included 200 participants, followed for 6.1 years. We measured C3M levels in serum (S-C3M) and urine...

  19. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  20. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds Functionalized with Either Type I or Type II Collagen for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Henrique V; Sathy, Binulal N; Dudurych, Ivan; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration. To this end, a scaffold was designed with architectural cues to guide cellular and neo-tissue alignment, which was additionally functionalized with a range of extracellular matrix cues to direct stem cell differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage. Shape-memory properties were introduced by covalent cross-linking alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, while the architecture of the scaffold was modified using a directional freezing technique. Introducing such an aligned pore structure was found to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold, and promoted higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen deposition compared to an isotropic (nonaligned) pore geometry when seeded with adult human stem cells. Functionalization with collagen improved stem cell recruitment into the scaffold and facilitated more homogenous cartilage tissue deposition throughout the construct. Incorporating type II collagen into the scaffolds led to greater cell proliferation, higher sGAG and collagen accumulation, and the development of a stiffer tissue compared to scaffolds functionalized with type I collagen. The results of this study demonstrate how both scaffold architecture and composition can be tailored in a shape-memory alginate scaffold to direct stem cell differentiation and support the development of complex cartilaginous tissues.

  1. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  2. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  3. Impaired cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I receiving nitisinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendadi, Fatiha; de Koning, Tom J; Visser, Gepke; Prinsen, Hubertus C M T; de Sain, Monique G M; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Sinnema, Gerben; van Spronsen, Francjan J; van Hasselt, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    To examine cognitive functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. We performed a cross-sectional study to establish cognitive functioning in children with tyrosinemia type I compared with their unaffected siblings. Intelligence was measured using age-appropriate Wechsler Scales. To assess cognitive development over time, we retrieved sequential IQ scores in a single-center subset of patients. We also evaluated whether plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine levels during treatment was correlated with cognitive development. Average total IQ score in 10 patients with tyrosinemia type I receiving nitisinone was significantly lower compared with their unaffected siblings (71 ± 13 vs 91 ± 13; P = .008). Both verbal and performance IQ subscores differed (77 ± 14 vs 95 ± 11; P cognitive function despite a protein-restricted diet. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  5. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  6. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  7. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (pfamily types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (pfamily with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.

  8. The Effect of Exercise Training on Pulmonary Function in Type 2 Diabetic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Afshonpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced lung function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training on indicators of lung function in type 2 diabetic men. Materials and Methods: The population of the research was all men with diabetes type II in District 2 of Ahwaz. Twenty four patients with diabetes type II, aged 40-55 years and fasting blood glucose lower than 200 mg /dl were selected by purposive sampling. First, the anthropometric variables and indices of lung function were measured, then subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental, n=12 and control, n=12. Combined exercise training was done for 8 weeks (5 days/week, 30 to 50 minutes for experimental group. To analyze the changes in the parameters, one-way ANOVA was applied. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: After eight-week combined exercise training, pulmonary indicators FVC FEV1, PEF, FEV/FVC and VO2max significantly increased. Blood glucose and HBA1c significantly reduced. Also, the inverse relationship between blood glucose and pulmonary indicators was observed (P≤ 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that regular combined exercise training can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, are effective therapeutic interventions for improving lung function and VO2max in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H G; Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain; Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Ayers, Paul W

    2016-07-21

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, Nα and Nβ, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, Nα + Nβ, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, Nα - Nβ, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare-we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested-but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  10. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H. G.; González-Espinoza, Cristina E.; Ayers, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Laboratory of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Havana (Cuba); Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LBS 4M1 (Canada); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Molecular Modeling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2016-07-21

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, N{sub α} and N{sub β}, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, N{sub α} + N{sub β}, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, N{sub α} – N{sub β}, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare—we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested—but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  11. Type I and type II interferons upregulate functional type I interleukin-1 receptor in a human fibroblast cell line TIG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, T; Niki, N; Yang, D; Kimura, H; Ito, A; Hayashi, H; Onozaki, K

    1995-12-01

    The regulation of type I interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression by type I, interferon (IFN)-alpha A/D, and type II IFN, IFN-gamma, in a human fibroblast cell line TIG-1 was investigated. After 2 h stimulation with human IFN-alpha A/D or IFN-gamma, the levels of type I IL-1R mRNA increased. We previously reported that IL-1 upregulates transcription and cell surface molecules of type I IL-1R in TIG-1 cells through induction of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and cAMP accumulation. However, indomethacin was unable to inhibit the effect of IFNs, indicating that IFNs augment IL-1R expression through a pathway distinct from that of IL-1. The augmentation was also observed in other fibroblast cell lines. Nuclear run-on assays and studies of the stability of mRNA suggested that the increase in IL-1R mRNA was a result of the enhanced transcription of IL-1R gene. Binding studies using 125I-IL-1 alpha revealed that the number of cell surface IL-1R increased with no change in binding affinity by treatment with these IFNs. Pretreatment of the cells with IFNs enhanced IL-1-induced IL-6 production, indicating that IFNs upregulate functional IL-1R. IL-1 and IFNs are produced by the same cell types, as well as by the adjacent different cell types, and are concomitantly present in lesions of immune and inflammatory reactions. These results therefore suggest that IFNs exhibit synergistic effects with IL-1 through upregulation of IL-1R. Augmented production of IL-6 may also contribute to the reactions.

  12. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  13. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  14. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for complex systems biology models: emulation, global parameter searches and evaluation of gene functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ian; Liu, Junli; Goldstein, Michael; Rowe, James; Topping, Jen; Lindsey, Keith

    2018-01-02

    Many mathematical models have now been employed across every area of systems biology. These models increasingly involve large numbers of unknown parameters, have complex structure which can result in substantial evaluation time relative to the needs of the analysis, and need to be compared to observed data of various forms. The correct analysis of such models usually requires a global parameter search, over a high dimensional parameter space, that incorporates and respects the most important sources of uncertainty. This can be an extremely difficult task, but it is essential for any meaningful inference or prediction to be made about any biological system. It hence represents a fundamental challenge for the whole of systems biology. Bayesian statistical methodology for the uncertainty analysis of complex models is introduced, which is designed to address the high dimensional global parameter search problem. Bayesian emulators that mimic the systems biology model but which are extremely fast to evaluate are embeded within an iterative history match: an efficient method to search high dimensional spaces within a more formal statistical setting, while incorporating major sources of uncertainty. The approach is demonstrated via application to a model of hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis root development, which has 32 rate parameters, for which we identify the sets of rate parameter values that lead to acceptable matches between model output and observed trend data. The multiple insights into the model's structure that this analysis provides are discussed. The methodology is applied to a second related model, and the biological consequences of the resulting comparison, including the evaluation of gene functions, are described. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for complex models using both emulators and history matching is shown to be a powerful technique that can greatly aid the study of a large class of systems biology models. It both provides insight into model behaviour

  15. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus 1H-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Crevisy-Girod, Elodie; Binquet, Christine; Duvillard, Laurence; Masson, David; Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick; Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T 1 H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace 1 H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  16. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 2 boulevard Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Crevisy-Girod, Elodie [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Binquet, Christine [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Duvillard, Laurence [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); Masson, David [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biochemistry, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-04-15

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bipartite structure and functional independence of adenovirus type 5 packaging elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, S I; Hearing, P

    1997-01-01

    Selectivity and polarity of adenovirus type 5 DNA packaging are believed to be directed by an interaction of putative packaging factors with the cis-acting adenovirus packaging domain located within the genomic left end (nucleotides 194 to 380). In previous studies, this packaging domain was mutationally dissected into at least seven functional elements called A repeats. These elements, albeit redundant in function, exhibit differences in the ability to support viral packaging, with elements ...

  19. Storage and Processing Working Memory Functions in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchi, T.; Saveriano, V.; Paciaroni, L.

    1999-01-01

    A selective deterioration of working memory functions has been suggested as an explanation of the cognitive decay occurring in normal ageing as well as in Alzheimer-type dementia. Recent studies have highlighted that elderly people’s limitations in working memory functions may be better interpreted when analysing the specific characteristics of the cognitive process (i.e., passive storage or active manipulation of information). In the present study, we have adapted a procedure used to investi...

  20. Efficacy of a novel, biologically active food supplement in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a patient-blinded, prospective, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podichetty VK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinod K Podichetty1, Mishel Weshler2, John Schlosser31Research Practice Partners Inc., Miramar, Florida, USA; 2Weshler and Weshler Clinic, Nazareth Illit, Israel; 3Rockland Endocrine and Diabetic Services, Suffern, New York, USAAbstract: Despite significant achievements in the prevention and management of diabetes, its prevalence has risen exponentially, creating a paramount need for alternative therapies. The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of two novel, biologically active supplements (fenugreek, fennel, sage, olive, and cinnamon and other ingredients in decreasing blood glucose levels (BGLs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Between June 2008 and July 2009, 154 patients were screened for T2DM and inadequate glycemic control. Fifty-one subjects meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective clinical study. All patients (n = 51 were studied for 24 weeks (6 months, the first 3 weeks being the placebo phase, followed by 14 weeks of active supplement use and observation for 3 weeks. Patients returned to active supplement use for an additional 3 weeks. All participants were tested for fasting BGL once every week during a 22-week period. The average age of the subjects was 52.6 years (23 male; 28 female, and average reference BGL (on day 1 was 265.7 mg/dL. During the first 3-week placebo period, patients showed no detectable change in BGL. At week 10 (after 7 weeks of supplement use, BGL was reduced by 47% compared with baseline (mean + standard deviation, day1 vs week 10, 265.7 + 86.2 vs 131.6 + 31.7; paired t-test = -11.8, P < 0.001, and at week 17, BGL decreased by 59% (P < 0.001. Between weeks 18 and 20, during which no participant received placebo or supplements, BGL did not decrease. The glucose-lowering effect of the supplement was stable and prolonged to maintain BGL at a constant level. Patients reported satisfaction on a Likert scale, and no side effects were reported during the course

  1. Thyroid Autoimmunity and Function after Treatment with Biological Antirheumatic Agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Borresen, Stina Willemoes; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    With the increased pro-inflammatory response in both rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid autoimmune diseases, treatment with biological antirheumatic agents (BAAs) of the former may affect the course of the latter. In hepatitis C and cancer patients, treatment with biological agents substantially...... increases the risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. As the use of BAAs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is increasing, this review aimed to investigate if such use affected thyroid status in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We conducted a systematic literature search and included six studies...... status: a reduction of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody concentrations, and a reduction of thyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients. Despite the small number of studies, they presented compliant data. The BAAs used in rheumatoid arthritis thus did not seem to negatively affect thyroid...

  2. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Functionalization of Multimodal Fluorescent-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Serrano García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in the development of new nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications in biology and medicine. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic based nanomaterials deserve particular attention as they can be used as diagnostic and drug delivery tools, which could facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. This review focuses on the recent developments of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites and their biomedical applications. The recent advances in synthetic strategies and approaches for the preparation of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites are presented. The main biomedical uses of multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanomaterials, including biological imaging, cancer therapy and drug delivery, are discussed, and prospects of this field are outlined.

  3. Associations between functional polymorphisms and response to biological treatment in Danish patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N D; Skov, L; Iversen, L.

    2018-01-01

    Biological agents including anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF; adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept) and anti-interleukin-12/13 (IL12/23; ustekinumab) are essential for treatment of patients with severe psoriasis. However, a significant proportion of the patients do not respond to a specific tre...... with ustekinumab.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.31....

  4. Spectral synthesis in certain spaces of entire functions of exponential type and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odinokov, O V

    2000-01-01

    We consider certain spaces P Ω of entire functions of exponential type in C n associated with a domain Ω element of R n that are in fact Laplace transforms of distributions in Ω. It is shown that any shift-invariant subspace of these functions admits spectral synthesis, that is, coincides with the closure of the linear span of the exponential polynomials contained in it. As an application of this result, we describe the solution space in P Ω of a system of homogeneous equations of infinite order for differential operators with characteristic functions infinitely differentiable in Ω

  5. Effects of physical training on endothelial function and limb blood flow in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mette Paulli; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Olsen, David Benee

    2007-01-01

    of physical training - or the opposite, inactivity - on endothelial function is not fully elucidated. Some studies have shown positive effects of physical training, whereas others have not. In general, physical training can improve endothelial function when this is impaired. However, physical training does...... not seem to have any effect on endothelial function when this is normal.......The term "endothelial dysfunction" refers to the inability or attenuated effect of the endothelial cells in participating in the relaxation of the adjacent smooth muscle, thus causing less vasodilation. Although endothelial dysfunction is often seen in patients with type 2 diabetes, it does...

  6. Green's functions in Bianchi type-I spaces. Relation between Minkowski and Euclidean approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhbinder, I.L.; Kirillova, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is considered for a free scalar field with a conformal connection in a curved space-time with a Bianchi type-I metric. A representation is obtained for the Green's function G∼ in in in the form of an integral of a Schwinger-DeWitt kernel along a contour in a plane of complex-valued proper time. It is shown how as transition may be accomplished from Green's functions in space with the Euclidean signature to Green's functions in space with Minkowski signature and vice versa

  7. Scalar Green's functions in an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Linet, B.

    1994-01-01

    In an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity, we determine the Green's function for a charged massive scalar field interacting with a magnetic flux running through the line singularity. We give an integral expression of the Green's function and a local form in the neighbourhood of the point source, where it is the sum of the usual Green's function in Euclidean space and a regular term. As an application, we derive the vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the massless case for an arbitrary magnetic flux. (orig.)

  8. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  9. Liver function tests and risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes : evaluation in two independent cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der A, Daphne L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Peelen, Linda M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking. Methods and Findings: We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379

  10. Stability of a Jensen Type Logarithmic Functional Equation on Restricted Domains and Its Asymptotic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be the set of positive real numbers, a Banach space, and , with . We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the Jensen type logarithmic functional inequality in restricted domains of the form for fixed with or and . As consequences of the results we obtain asymptotic behaviors of the inequality as .

  11. On Ostrowski Type Inequalities for Functions of Two Variables with Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Budak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish a new generalization of Ostrowski type inequalities for functions of two independent variables with bounded variation and apply it for qubature formulae. Some connections with the rectangle, the midpoint and Simpson's rule are also given.

  12. The Function of Repeating: The Relation between Word Class and Repetition Type in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Anthony P.; Jones, Robin M.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is already known that preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) tend to stutter on function words at the beginning of sentences. It is also known that phonological errors potentially resulting in part-word repetitions tend to occur on content words. However, the precise relation between word class and repetition type in preschool-age…

  13. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle...

  14. Functional analysis of mating type genes and transcriptome analysis during fruiting body development of botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Sander Y.A.; Terhem, Razak B.; Veloso, Javier; Stassen, Joost H.M.; Kan, van Jan A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus producing apothecia as sexual fruiting bodies. To study the function of mating type (MAT) genes, single-gene deletion mutants were generated in both genes of the MAT1-1 locus and both genes of the MAT1-2 locus. Deletion mutants in two MAT genes were

  15. Exercise training improves physical fitness and vascular function in children with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeger, J.P.H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Noordam, K.; Cranen, M.E.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) show endothelial dysfunction and mild artery wall thickening compared to their age-matched healthy peers. In this study, we examined the effect of 18-week exercise training on physical fitness and vascular function and structure in children with DM1. We

  16. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  17. Plant functional types define magnitude of drought response in peatland CO2 exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.J.; Mooij, W.M.; Bragazza, L.; Robroek, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands are important sinks for atmospheric carbon (C), yet the role of plant functional types (PFTs) for C sequestration under climatic perturbations is still unclear. A plant removal experiment was used to study the importance of vascular PFTs for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during

  18. Plant functional types define magnitude of drought response in peatland CO2 exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.J.; Mooij, W.M.; Bragazza, L.; Robroek, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands are important sinks for atmospheric carbon (C), yet the role of plant functional types (PFTs) for C sequestration under climatic perturbations is still unclear. A plant-removal experiment was used to study the importance of vascular PFTs for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during

  19. Global existence for Volterra-Fredholm type neutral impulsive functional integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, we study the global existence of solutions for the initial value problems for Volterra-Fredholm type neutral impulsive functional integrodifferential equations. Using the Leray-Schauder's Alternative theorem, we derive conditions under which a solution exists globally. An application is provided to illustrate the theory.

  20. Bio-templated CdSe quantum dots green synthesis in the functional protein, lysozyme, and biological activity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qisui; Li, Song; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    Bifunctional fluorescence (CdSe Quantum Dots) – protein (Lysozyme) nanocomposites were synthesized at room temperature by a protein-directed, solution-phase, green-synthetic method. Fluorescence (FL) and absorption spectra showed that CdSe QDs were prepared successfully with Lyz. The average particle size and crystalline structure of QDs were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. With attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, it was confirmed that there is interaction between QDs and amide I, amide II groups in Lyz. FL polarization was measured and FL imaging was done to monitor whether QDs could be responsible for possible changes in the conformation and activity of Lyz. Interestingly, the results showed Lyz still retain the biological activity after formation of QDs, but the secondary structure of the Lyz was changed. And the advantage of this synthesis method is producing excellent fluorescent QDs with specifically biological function. -- Highlights: ► Lysozyme-directed green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots. ► Lysozyme still retain the biological activity after formation of CdSe. ► The method is the production of fluorescent QDs with highly specific and functions.

  1. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  2. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Hernández, Mauricio A; Tandberg, Julia I; Valenzuela, Karla N; Lagos, Leidy X; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela A; Sanhueza-Oyarzún, Constanza; Cortés, Marcos A; Villar, María T; Artigues, Antonio; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  3. Observation on beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yu; Chen Xingwen; Jiang Feilong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: o study the pancreatic islets β-cell function in type 2 diabitic patients through the changes of parameters of β-cell function and the effects of plasma glucose levels on insulin secretion function in subjects with different blood glucos levels. ethods:A total of 172 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 controls were enrolled to take oral 75g glucose tolerance test and insulin releasing test (TRT). These patients were of four groups based upon their fasting insulin levels group A fasting low insulin ( 30 /ΔG 30 ). Basic insulin secretion index (HOMA β) and modified β-cell function index (MBCI) were calculated. Results:Insulin levels in group A, B, C, D were significantly different from those of controls (P 30 /ΔG 30 ) between group A and group B. There were significant difference in MBCI between group C and group D. There was significant difference in HOMA β between group A and group B as well as between group C and group D. The ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 was positively correlated with HOMA β in all groups however, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 was not correlated with BCI. Conclusion:ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 , MBCI and HOMA β may be used to evaluate β-cell function. Both the insulin release test and glucose tolerance test should be performed before treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  4. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  5. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  6. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  7. Cardiac Function in 7-8-Year-Old Offspring of Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Rijpert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers (ODMs are at risk of short-term and long-term complications, such as neonatal macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular morbidity in later life. However, no studies have been performed regarding cardiac outcome. In this study, we investigated cardiac dimensions and function in 30 ODMs at 7-8 years of age in relation to neonatal macrosomia and maternal glycemic control during pregnancy and compared these with those in a control group of 30 children of nondiabetic women. We found that cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function parameters in ODMs were comparable with those in controls. Neonatal macrosomia and poorer maternal glycemic control during pregnancy were not related to worse cardiac outcome in ODM. We conclude that cardiac function at 7-8 years of age in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes is reassuring and comparable with that in controls.

  8. A kinetic study of biological Cr(VI) reduction in trickling filters with different filter media types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermou, E.; Vayenas, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Two pilot-scale trickling filters were used in order to estimate Cr(VI) reduction through biological mechanisms in biofilm reactors operated in SBR mode with recirculation using different filter media types, i.e. plastic media and calcitic gravel. The feed concentrations of Cr(VI) examined were about 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 mg/l, while the concentration of the organic carbon was constant at 400 mg/l, in order to avoid carbon limitations in the bulk liquid. Maximum reduction rates of 4.8 and 4.7 g Cr(VI)/d were observed for feed Cr(VI) concentration of about 5 mg Cr(VI)/l, for the filters with the plastic support material and the gravel media, respectively. The reduction rates were significantly affected by the feed Cr(VI) concentration in both bioreactors. A dual-enzyme kinetic model was used in order to describe Cr(VI) reduction by aerobically grown mixed cultures. Model predictions were found to correspond very closely to experimental quantitative observations of Cr(VI) reduction at both pilot-scale trickling filters used

  9. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68

  10. Identification of genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions and analysis of biological functions for spliced sequences using Read-Split-Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongsheng; Kinne, Jeff; Ding, Lizhong; Rath, Ethan C; Cox, Aaron; Naidu, Siva Dharman

    2017-10-03

    It is generally thought that most canonical or non-canonical splicing events involving U2- and U12 spliceosomes occur within nuclear pre-mRNAs. However, the question of whether at least some U12-type splicing occurs in the cytoplasm is still unclear. In recent years next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field. The "Read-Split-Walk" (RSW) and "Read-Split-Run" (RSR) methods were developed to identify genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions including special events occurring in cytoplasm. As the significant amount of genome/transcriptome data such as, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, have been generated, we have advanced a newer more memory-efficient version of the algorithm, "Read-Split-Fly" (RSF), which can detect non-canonical spliced regions with higher sensitivity and improved speed. The RSF algorithm also outputs the spliced sequences for further downstream biological function analysis. We used open access ENCODE project RNA-Seq data to search spliced intron sequences against the U12-type spliced intron sequence database to examine whether some events could occur as potential signatures of U12-type splicing. The check was performed by searching spliced sequences against 5'ss and 3'ss sequences from the well-known orthologous U12-type spliceosomal intron database U12DB. Preliminary results of searching 70 ENCODE samples indicated that the presence of 5'ss with U12-type signature is more frequent than U2-type and prevalent in non-canonical junctions reported by RSF. The selected spliced sequences have also been further studied using miRBase to elucidate their functionality. Preliminary results from 70 samples of ENCODE datasets show that several miRNAs are prevalent in studied ENCODE samples. Two of these are associated with many diseases as suggested in the literature. Specifically, hsa-miR-1273 and hsa-miR-548 are associated with many diseases and cancers. Our RSF pipeline is able to detect many possible junctions

  11. Self-assembly and stability of double rosette nanostructures with biological functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, M.G.J.; Omerovic, Merdan; Oshovsky, G.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    The syntheses of calix[4]arene dimelamines that are functionalized with alkyl, aminoalkyl, ureido, pyridyl, carbohydrate, amino acid and peptide functionalities, and their self-assembly with barbituric acid or cyanuric acid derivatives into well-defined hydrogen-bonded nanostructures are described.

  12. Novel function of polyaniline for biological environments: Cultivation of paramecium in the presence of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    The reduced form of polyaniline (PANI, emeraldine base) functions as water purification to extend the lives of paramecia. The emeraldine base can absorb discharged waste from the planktons such as nitrogenous compounds and salts. This is a new function of π-conjugated polymers for micro-organisms.

  13. Novel function of polyaniline for biological environments: Cultivation of paramecium in the presence of polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-01-01

    The reduced form of polyaniline (PANI, emeraldine base) functions as water purification to extend the lives of paramecia. The emeraldine base can absorb discharged waste from the planktons such as nitrogenous compounds and salts. This is a new function of π-conjugated polymers for micro-organisms

  14. The relationship between the connecting peptide of recombined single chain insulin and its biological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Yiding; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Straus, D. S., Growth-stimulatory of insulin in vitro and in vivo, Endocr. Rev., 1984, 5(2): 356-369.[2]Svenningsen, A. F., Kanje, M., Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors I and II are mitogenic to cultured rat sciatic nerve segments and stimulate [3H] thuymidine incorporation through their respective receptors, Glia, 1996, 18(1): 68-72.[3]Ogihara, S., Yamada, M., Saito, T. et al., Insulin potentiates mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor on cultured guinea pig gastric mucous cells, Am. J. Physiol., 1996, 271(1 Pt 1): G104-121.[4]Steiner, D. F., Oyer, P. E., The biosynthesis of insulin and a probable precursor of insulin by a human islet cell adenoma, Proc. Nalt. Acad. Sci. USA, 1967, 57(2): 473-480.[5]King, G. L., Kahn, C. R., The growth-promoting effects of insulin, in Growth and Maturation Factors(ed. Guroff, G.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984, 223-265.[6]Peavy, D. E., Brunner, M. R., Duckworth, W. C. et al., Receptor binding and biological potency of several split forms (conversion intermediates) of human proinsulin, Studies in cultured IM-9 lymphocytes and in vivo and in vitro in rats, J. Biol. Chem., 1985, 260: 13989-13994.[7]Derewenda, U., Derewenda, Z., Dodson, E. J. et al., X-ray analysis of the single chain B29-A1 peptide-linked insulin molecule. A completely inactive analogue, J. Mol. Biol., 1991, 220: 425-433.[8]Hua, Q. X., Shoelson, S. E., Kochoyan, M. et al., Receptor binding redefined by a structural switch in a mutant human insulin, Nature, 1991, 354: 238-241.[9]Hua, Q. X., Gozani, S. N., Chance, R. E. et al., Structure of a protein in a kinetic trap, Nat. Struc. Boil, 1995, 2: 129-138.[10]Kristensen, C., Andersen, A. S., Hach, M., A single-chain insulin-like growth factor I/insulin hybrid binds with high affinity to the insulin receptor, Biochem. J., 1995, 305: 981-986.[11]Humbel, R. E., Insulin-like growth factors I and II, Euro. J. Biochem., 1990, 190: 445-462.[12]Cooke, R. M

  15. The Notch Signaling Pathway Is Balancing Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Immune Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Perchet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is one of the canonical signaling pathways implicated in the development of various solid tumors. During carcinogenesis, the Notch pathway dysregulation induces tumor expression of Notch receptor ligands participating to escape the immune surveillance. The Notch pathway conditions both the development and the functional regulation of lymphoid subsets. Its importance on T cell subset polarization has been documented contrary to its action on innate lymphoid cells (ILC. We aim to analyze the effect of the Notch pathway on type 1 ILC polarization and functions after disruption of the RBPJk-dependent Notch signaling cascade. Indeed, type 1 ILC comprises conventional NK (cNK cells and type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (ILC1 that share Notch-related functional characteristics such as the IFNg secretion downstream of T-bet expression. cNK cells have strong antitumor properties. However, data are controversial concerning ILC1 functions during carcinogenesis with models showing antitumoral capacities and others reporting ILC1 inability to control tumor growth. Using various mouse models of Notch signaling pathway depletion, we analyze the effects of its absence on type 1 ILC differentiation and cytotoxic functions. We also provide clues into its role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in tissues. We show that modulating the Notch pathway is not only acting on tumor-specific T cell activity but also on ILC immune subset functions. Hence, our study uncovers the intrinsic Notch signaling pathway in ILC1/cNK populations and their response in case of abnormal Notch ligand expression. This study help evaluating the possible side effects mediated by immune cells different from T cells, in case of multivalent forms of the Notch receptor ligand delta 1 treatments. In definitive, it should help determining the best novel combination of therapeutic strategies in case of solid tumors.

  16. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J

    2002-07-01

    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  17. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878) as a function of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Auad Alexander Machado; Moraes Jair Campos de

    2003-01-01

    The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas) developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at te...

  18. Associations between functional polymorphisms and response to biological treatment in Danish patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N D; Skov, L; Iversen, L

    2017-01-01

    Biological agents including anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF; adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept) and anti-interleukin-12/13 (IL12/23; ustekinumab) are essential for treatment of patients with severe psoriasis. However, a significant proportion of the patients do not respond to a specific...... of ustekinumab treatment. Associations between genetic variants and treatment outcomes (drug survival and Psoriasis Area Severity Index reduction) were assessed using logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted for gender, age, psoriatic arthritis and previous treatment). After correction for multiple...

  19. Associations between functional polymorphisms and response to biological treatment in Danish patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N D; Skov, L; Iversen, L

    2017-01-01

    Biological agents including anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF; adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept) and anti-interleukin-12/13 (IL12/23; ustekinumab) are essential for treatment of patients with severe psoriasis. However, a significant proportion of the patients do not respond to a specific tre...... with ustekinumab.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.31....... with response to ustekinumab treatment (qhigh interferon-γ levels may be favorable when treating psoriasis...

  20. Disruption of SLX4-MUS81 Function Increases the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Underwood, Tracy S.A.; Kung, Jong [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Meng [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Clinical proton beam therapy has been based on the use of a generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ∼1.1. However, emerging data have suggested that Fanconi anemia (FA) and homologous recombination pathway defects can lead to a variable RBE, at least in vitro. We investigated the role of SLX4 (FANCP), which acts as a docking platform for the assembly of multiple structure-specific endonucleases, in the response to proton irradiation. Methods and Materials: Isogenic cell pairs for the study of SLX4, XPF/ERCC1, MUS81, and SLX1 were irradiated at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer 2.5 keV/μm) or with 250 kVp x-rays, and the clonogenic survival fractions were determined. To estimate the RBE of the protons relative to cobalt-60 photons (Co60Eq), we assigned a RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to x-rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor the damage responses, and the cell cycle distributions were assessed by flow cytometry. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib was used for comparison. Results: Loss of SLX4 function resulted in an enhanced proton RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.42 compared with 1.11 for wild-type cells (at a survival fraction of 0.1; P<.05), which correlated with increased persistent DNA double-strand breaks in cells in the S/G{sub 2} phase. Genetic analysis identified the SLX4-binding partner MUS81 as a mediator of resistance to proton radiation. Both proton irradiation and olaparib treatment resulted in a similar prolonged accumulation of RAD51 foci in SLX4/MUS81-deficient cells, suggesting a common defect in the repair of DNA replication fork-associated damage. Conclusions: A defect in the FA pathway at the level of SLX4 results in hypersensitivity to proton radiation, which is, at least in part, due to impaired MUS81-mediated processing of replication forks that stall at clustered DNA damage. In vivo and clinical studies are needed to

  1. Measurement of the Functional Status of Patients with Different Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jing Lue

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophy (MD comprises a group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness that induces functional deterioration. Clinical management requires the use of a well-designed scale to measure patients' functional status. This study aimed to investigate the quality of the functional scales used to assess patients with different types of MD. The Brooke scale and the Vignos scale were used to grade arm and leg function, respectively. The Barthel Index was used to evaluate the function of daily living activity. We performed tests to assess the acceptability of these scales. The characteristics of the different types of MD are discussed. This was a multicenter study and included patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD (classified as severely progressive MD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. BMD, LGMD, and FSHD were classified as slowly progressive MD. The results demonstrated that the Brooke scale was acceptable for grading arm function in DMD, but was unable to discriminate between differing levels of severity in slowly progressive MD. The floor effect was large for all types of slowly progressive MD (range, 20.0–61.9, and was especially high for BMD. The floor effect was also large for BMD (23.8% and FSHD (50.0% using the Vignos scale. Grades 6–8 of the Vignos scale were inapplicable because they included items involving the use of long leg braces for walking or standing, and some patients did not use long leg braces. In the Barthel Index, a ceiling effect was prominent for slowly progressive MD (58.9%, while a floor effect existed for DMD (17.9%. Among the slowly progressive MDs, FSHD patients had the best level of functioning; they had better leg function and their daily living activities were less affected than patients with other forms of slowly progressive MD. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability of the

  2. The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, J S

    2010-10-01

    Odontoid fractures currently account for 9-15% of all adult cervical spine fractures, with type II fractures accounting for the majority of these injuries. Despite recent advances in internal fixation techniques, the management of type II fractures still remains controversial with advocates still supporting non-rigid immobilization as the definitive treatment of these injuries. At the NSIU, over an 11-year period between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 2006, 66 patients (n = 66) were treated by external immobilization for type II odontoid fractures. The medical records, radiographs and CT scans of all patients identified were reviewed. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed using the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term functional outcome of patients suffering isolated type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively and to correlate patient age and device type with clinical and functional outcome. Of the 66 patients, there were 42 males and 24 females (M:F = 1.75:1) managed non-operatively for type II odontoid fractures. The mean follow-up time was 66 months. Advancing age was highly correlated with poorer long-term functional outcomes when assessing neck pain (r = 0.19, P = 0.1219), shoulder and arm pain (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007), physical symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.472), functional disability (r = 0.24, P = 0.0476) and psychological distress (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007). Patients >65 years displayed a higher rate of pseudoarthrosis (21.43 vs. 1.92%) and established non-union (7.14 vs. 0%) than patients <65 years. The non-operative management of type II odontoid fractures is an effective and satisfactory method of treating type II odontoid fractures, particularly those of a stable nature. However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union.

  3. Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.

  4. Urinary Leukotriene E4 Is Associated with Renal Function but Not with Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnar Rafnsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes are inflammatory and vasoactive mediators implicated in endothelium-dependent relaxations and atherosclerosis. Urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4 is a validated disease marker of asthma and increases also in diabetes and acute coronary syndromes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of U-LTE4 and CRP with endothelial function. Urine samples were obtained from 30 subjects (80% males; median age 65 with type 2 diabetes of at least two years duration and a median glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 71 (14–129 mL/min. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI was used as a measure of microvascular endothelial function, whereas macrovascular endothelial function was determined be means of flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (FMD. Decreased renal function was associated with lower concentrations of U-LTE4. In addition, U-LTE4 was correlated with serum creatinine (R=−0.572; P=0.001 and eGFR (R=0.517; P=0.0036. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified eGFR as an independent predictor of U-LTE4 concentrations. In conclusion, the present results did not establish an association of U-LTE4 with endothelial dysfunction. However, eGFR was an independent predictor of U-LTE4, but not CRP, in this cohort, suggesting that GFR should be considered in biomarker studies of U-LTE4.

  5. Functional high-intensity training improves pancreatic β-cell function in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Stephan; Fealy, Ciarán E; Foucher, Julie A; Scelsi, Amanda R; Malin, Steven K; Pagadala, Mangesh; Rocco, Michael; Burguera, Bartolome; Kirwan, John P

    2017-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reductions in β-cell function and insulin secretion on the background of elevated insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve β-cell function, despite a subset of T2D patients displaying "exercise resistance." Further investigations into the effectiveness of alternate forms of exercise on β-cell function in the T2D patient population are needed. We examined the effect of a novel, 6-wk CrossFit functional high-intensity training (F-HIT) intervention on β-cell function in 12 sedentary adults with clinically diagnosed T2D (54 ± 2 yr, 166 ± 16 mg/dl fasting glucose). Supervised training was completed 3 days/wk, comprising functional movements performed at a high intensity in a variety of 10- to 20-min sessions. All subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measures at baseline and following the intervention. The mean disposition index, a validated measure of β-cell function, was significantly increased (PRE: 8.4 ± 3.1, POST: 11.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.02) after the intervention. Insulin processing inefficiency in the β-cell, expressed as the fasting proinsulin-to-insulin ratio, was also reduced (PRE: 2.40 ± 0.37, POST: 1.78 ± 0.30, P = 0.04). Increased β-cell function during the early-phase response to glucose correlated significantly with reductions in abdominal body fat ( R 2 = 0.56, P = 0.005) and fasting plasma alkaline phosphatase ( R 2 = 0.55, P = 0.006). Mean total body-fat percentage decreased significantly (Δ: -1.17 0.30%, P = 0.003), whereas lean body mass was preserved (Δ: +0.05 ± 0.68 kg, P = 0.94). We conclude that F-HIT is an effective exercise strategy for improving β-cell function in adults with T2D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. On the lability and functional significance of the type 1 copper pool in ceruloplasmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, G; Fraterrigo, T Z; Calabrese, L; McMillin, D R

    1999-08-01

    The possibility that ceruloplasmin (CP) functions as a copper transferase has fueled a continuing interest in studies of the copper release process. The principal goal of the current investigation has been to identify the most labile copper centers in sheep protein. In fact, subjecting the enzyme to a slow flux of cyanide at pH 5.2 under nitrogen in the presence of ascorbate and a phenanthroline ligand produces partially demetalated forms of the protein. By standard chromatographic techniques it is possible to isolate protein with a Cu/CP ratio of approximately 4 or approximately 5 as opposed to the native protein which has Cu/CP = 5.8. In contrast to other blue oxidases, analysis suggests that CP preferentially loses its type 1 coppers under these conditions. Thus, the spectroscopic signals from the type 1 centers exhibit a loss of intensity while the EPR signal of the type 2 copper becomes stronger. Furthermore, the Cu/CP approximately 4 and Cu/ CP approximately 5 components retain about 50% of the activity of the native protein, consistent with an intact type 2/type 3 cluster. All three type 1 copper sites appear to suffer copper loss. Reconstitution with a copper(I) reagent restores the spectroscopic properties of the native protein and 90% of the original activity. The results suggest a possible functional significance for the presence of three type 1 coppers in CP. By employing a pool of redox-active but relatively labile type 1 copper centers, the enzyme can serve as a copper donor, if necessary, without completely sacrificing its oxidase activity.

  7. Functional or constructive attitudes: Which type drives consumers' evaluation of meat products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards meat can be divided up into two types: Functional attitudes which are stable and exist over long periods of time, and constructive attitudes which are ephemeral and usually constructed at the point of sale. This research investigated the temporal and situational stability of meat consumers' attitudes by using the same established functional, multidimensional attitude instrument to generate attitude profiles for the four meat types: chicken/beef/lamb/poultry both as an abstracted construct and as a cue on a range of meat and meat-based products. The results showed that strong attitude profile was generated by the meat types as abstracted constructs, but that this profile broke down completely when the food products carrying the same meat types were evaluated. This result indicates that consumer attitudes may not be temporally or situationally stable, which in turn suggests that consumers' evaluation and choice of meat products may be driven to a greater or lesser extent by constructive rather than functional attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Cortet, Jérôme; Criquet, Stéven; Biaz, Asmaa; Calvert, Virgile; Caupert, Cécile; Pernin, Céline; Leyval, Corinne

    2011-11-01

    A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period of in situ monitoring. We investigated the influence of vegetation (spontaneous vegetation and Medicago sativa) and TD treatment on biological functioning. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the whole data set. A principal response curve (PRC) technique was used to evaluate the different treatments (various vegetation and contaminated vs. TD soil) contrasted with control (bare) soil over time. Our results indicated the value of using a number of complementary bioindicators, describing both diversity and functions, to assess the influence of vegetation on soil and discriminate polluted from thermal desorption (TD)-treated soil. Plants had an influence on the abundance and activity of all organisms examined in our study, favoring the whole trophic chain development. However, although TD-treated soil had a high abundance and diversity of microorganisms and fauna, enzymatic activities were weak because of the strong physical and chemical modifications of this soil. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. PMID:26977068

  10. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S A; Schmitz, L

    2016-04-05

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Minimal information: an urgent need to assess the functional reliability of recombinant proteins used in biological experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Marco Ario

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Structural characterization of proteins used in biological experiments is largely neglected. In most publications, the information available is totally insufficient to judge the functionality of the proteins used and, therefore, the significance of identified protein-protein interactions (was the interaction specific or due to unspecific binding of misfolded protein regions? or reliability of kinetic and thermodynamic data (how much protein was in its native form?. As a consequence, the results of single experiments might not only become questionable, but the whole reliability of systems biology, built on these fundaments, would be weakened. The introduction of Minimal Information concerning purified proteins to add as metadata to the main body of a manuscript would render straightforward the assessment of their functional and structural qualities and, consequently, of results obtained using these proteins. Furthermore, accepted standards for protein annotation would simplify data comparison and exchange. This article has been envisaged as a proposal for aggregating scientists who share the opinion that the scientific community needs a platform for Minimum Information for Protein Functionality Evaluation (MIPFE.

  12. Functionalization of Self-Organized Nanoparticles for Biological Targeting and Active Drug Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    Functional nanomaterials have attracted much attention due to the unique properties of these nanoconstructs. In recognition of the huge potential within this field, much research has been devoted to develop sophisticated nanoparticles for medical diagnostics, sensors, contrast agents, vaccines an...

  13. In silico determination of intracellular glycosylation and phosphorylation sites in human selectins: Implications for biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, I.; Hoessli, D.C.; Gupta, Ramneek

    2007-01-01

    Post-translational modifications provide the proteins with the possibility to perform functions in addition to those determined by their primary sequence. However, analysis of multifunctional protein structures in the environment of cells and body fluids is made especially difficult by the presence...... both modifications are likely to occur can also be predicted (YinYang sites), to suggest further functional versatility. Structural modifications of hydroxyl groups of P-, E-, and L-selectins have been predicted and possible functions resulting from such modifications are proposed. Functional changes...... of the three selectins are based on the assumption that transitory and reversible protein modifications by phosphate and O-GlcNAc cause specific conformational changes and generate binding sites for other proteins. The computer-assisted prediction of glycosylation and phosphorylation sites in selectins should...

  14. Complexity of cancer protease biology: Cathepsin K expression and function in cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbovšek, Urška; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Lah, Tamara T.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases, including lysosomal cathepsins, are functionally involved in many processes in cancer progression from its initiation to invasion and metastatic spread. Only recently, cathepsin K (CatK), the cysteine protease originally reported as a collagenolytic protease produced by osteoclasts,

  15. Unipolar n-Type Black Phosphorus Transistors with Low Work Function Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Hua; Incorvia, Jean Anne C; McClellan, Connor J; Yu, Andrew C; Mleczko, Michal J; Pop, Eric; Wong, H-S Philip

    2018-05-09

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for nanoscale transistors, due to its expected higher mobility than other 2D semiconductors. While most studies have reported ambipolar BP with a stronger p-type transport, it is important to fabricate both unipolar p- and n-type transistors for low-power digital circuits. Here, we report unipolar n-type BP transistors with low work function Sc and Er contacts, demonstrating a record high n-type current of 200 μA/μm in 6.5 nm thick BP. Intriguingly, the electrical transport of the as-fabricated, capped devices changes from ambipolar to n-type unipolar behavior after a month at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the contact cross-section reveals an intermixing layer consisting of partly oxidized metal at the interface. This intermixing layer results in a low n-type Schottky barrier between Sc and BP, leading to the unipolar behavior of the BP transistor. This unipolar transport with a suppressed p-type current is favorable for digital logic circuits to ensure a lower off-power consumption.

  16. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  17. Autoreactive T effector memory differentiation mirrors β-cell function in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lorraine; Woodwyk, Alyssa; Sood, Sanjana; Lorenc, Anna; Eichmann, Martin; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Melchiotti, Rossella; Skowera, Ania; Fidanis, Efthymios; Dolton, Garry M; Tungatt, Katie; Sewell, Andrew K; Heck, Susanne; Saxena, Alka; Beam, Craig A; Peakman, Mark

    2018-05-31

    In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8 T cells with specificity for β-cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β-cell-reactive CD8 T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β-cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β-cell-reactive CD8 T cell subsets and measured β-cell function longitudinally for two years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β-cell-specific effector memory CD8 T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer specific protein 37 and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57-negative counterparts, and network association modelling indicated that the dynamics of β-cell-reactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cell subsets were strongly linked. Thus, coordinated changes in circulating β-cell-specific CD8 T cells within the CD57+ effector memory subset calibrate to functional insulin reserve in type 1 diabetes, providing a tool for immune monitoring and a mechanism-based target for immunotherapy.

  18. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sebastian Sieh

    Full Text Available It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem. Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01 than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01 and externalizing problems (p<.05 than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001. Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05. Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined

  19. Integration of genome-wide association studies with biological knowledge identifies six novel genes related to kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Böger, Carsten A; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D; Gierman, Hinco J; Feitosa, Mary F; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Johansson, Asa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Coassin, Stefan; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S; Freedman, Barry I; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Gieger, Christian; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Siscovick, David S; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S; Köttgen, Anna

    2012-12-15

    In conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analytical approaches leveraging biological information may further understanding of the pathophysiology of clinical traits. To discover novel associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, we developed a strategy for integrating prior biological knowledge into the existing GWAS data for eGFR from the CKDGen Consortium. Our strategy focuses on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes that are connected by functional evidence, determined by literature mining and gene ontology (GO) hierarchies, to genes near previously validated eGFR associations. It then requires association thresholds consistent with multiple testing, and finally evaluates novel candidates by independent replication. Among the samples of European ancestry, we identified a genome-wide significant SNP in FBXL20 (P = 5.6 × 10(-9)) in meta-analysis of all available data, and additional SNPs at the INHBC, LRP2, PLEKHA1, SLC3A2 and SLC7A6 genes meeting multiple-testing corrected significance for replication and overall P-values of 4.5 × 10(-4)-2.2 × 10(-7). Neither the novel PLEKHA1 nor FBXL20 associations, both further supported by association with eGFR among African Americans and with transcript abundance, would have been implicated by eGFR candidate gene approaches. LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, was identified through connection with the previously known eGFR gene DAB2 and extends understanding of the megalin system in kidney function. These findings highlight integration of existing genome-wide association data with independent biological knowledge to uncover novel candidate eGFR associations, including candidates lacking known connections to kidney-specific pathways. The strategy may also be applicable to other clinical phenotypes, although more testing will be needed to assess its potential for discovery in general.

  20. Focusing on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization, function and dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Li

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian brain circuits consist of dynamically interconnected neurons with characteristic morphology, physiology, connectivity and genetics which are often called neuronal cell types. Neuronal cell types have been considered as building blocks of brain circuits, but knowledge of how neuron types or subtypes connect to and interact with each other to perform neural computation is still lacking. Such mechanistic insights are critical not only to our understanding of normal brain functions, such as perception, motion and cognition, but also to brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and epilepsy, to name a few. Thus it is necessary to carry out systematic and standardized studies on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization and function, which will provide good opportunities to bridge basic and clinical research. Here based on recent technology advancements, we discuss the strategy to target and manipulate specific populations of neuronsin vivo to provide unique insights on how neuron types or subtypes behave, interact, and generate emergent properties in a fully connected brain network. Our approach is highlighted by combining transgenic animal models, targeted electrophysiology and imaging with robotics, thus complete and standardized mapping ofin vivo properties of genetically defined neuron populations can be achieved in transgenic mouse models, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.